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Sample records for adjustment psychology

  1. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to College.

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between psychological separation and adjustment to college in freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found freshmen showed more psychological dependencies on parents than upperclassmen; separation appeared more strongly related to personal/emotional adjustment, particularly functional and emotional independence from…

  2. Positive psychological qualities and adjustment to arthritis

    Sirois, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Bisopsychosocial approaches to arthritis emphasize the importance of psychological and individual difference factors as predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating factor in arthritis through their interface with pain-related, inflammatory, and immunological responses. Rather than just focusing on understanding how loss is experienced, positive psychological approaches emphasize the importance of promoting and understanding how adjustment is experienced. In this narrative review, four positiv...

  3. [Psychological adjustment following lower limb amputation].

    Panyi, Lilla Krisztina; Lábadi, Beatrix

    2015-09-27

    Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees and the fitting of their prosthesis depend highly on the psychological adjustment process and motivational state of the patient. The loss of a limb is extremely challenging and can cause various physical and psychological problems. Depression, anxiety, decreased well-being and quality of life, body image dissatisfaction and changes in self-concept and identity are frequent after lower limb amputation. In the interest of adjustment patients have to cope with the emerging changes and difficulties in their lifes as well as the problems in psychological functioning. It is important for them to accept the alterations in their body and identity, and integrate them in a new self-concept in which process motivation is a fundamental issue. The aim of this article is to review the literature on psychological consequences of lower limb amputation, and to propose an integrative way of rehabilitation for lower limb amputees. PMID:26550913

  4. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  5. Psychological Adjustment and Academic Achievement among Adolescents

    Mahmood, Khalid; Iqbal, Muhammad Maqsood

    2015-01-01

    This study was studied that emotional and behavioural problems of young students who are directly related to their academic achievement and thus play a vital role in the development of young learners carrier. This study helped to fill a gap by conducting an exploration of psychological adjustment and academic achievement among adolescents. It also…

  6. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions. PMID:24910007

  7. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  8. Custodial Grandmothers' Psychological Distress, Dysfunctional Parenting, and Grandchildren's Adjustment

    Smith, Gregory C.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Richardson, Rhonda A.

    2008-01-01

    An adaptation of the Family Stress Model (FSM) with hypothesized linkages between family contextual factors, custodial grandmothers' psychological distress, parenting practices, and grandchildren's adjustment was tested with structural equation modeling. Interview data from 733 custodial grandmothers of grandchildren between ages 4-17 revealed…

  9. Social and Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Canadian Children

    Chen, Xinyin; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined social and psychological adjustment of immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese children in Canada. Participants included a sample of elementary school children (N = 356, M age = 11 years). Data on social functioning, peer relationships, school-related social competence, perceived self-worth, and loneliness were collected from peer…

  10. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  11. Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study.

    Brooks, N A; Matson, R R

    1982-01-01

    This study employs a longitudinal design to analyze the adjustment process of 103 people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in the middle and later stages of their illness careers. The mean age of the sample at Time 2 is 52 years, and mean duration since diagnosis is 17 years. A highly reliable self concept measure is the indicator of adjustment and changes in adjustment from T1 (1974) to T2 (1981). Four sets of variables are analyzed in their relationship to adjustment: (1) socio-demographic; (2) disease-related; (3) medical; and (4) social-psychological. Females are more likely than males to show positive adjustment (improving self concepts). Hours of employment and living arrangement are also related to the adjustment process. The vast majority of respondents show only slight decline in mobility, but among the disease related variables, number of episodes (exacerbations) in past seven years is the strongest predictor of changes in adjustment. Nearly half the respondents seek medical attention for their M.S. once a year or less, and the choice of health care professional is related to changes in the course of the disease. Subjects with an internal locus of control have more positive adjustment scores. Those who say they cope through acceptance of the disease show improvements in self concept while those reporting religion or family as major coping strategies have decreasing self concepts. Results indicate that the majority make satisfactory adjustment as indicated by maintenance of positive self concepts over the 7 year period, although the disease is chronic and progressive. For patients in the middle and later stages of illness careers, the data suggest comprehensive rehabilitation efforts that enhance autonomy and develop the social-psychological resources of the lifestyle. PMID:7157043

  12. African Psychology: The Psychological Adjustment of African Women Living in New Zealand

    Adelowo, Adesayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social representation theory is a social psychological framework of concepts and ideas relevant to studying psychosocial phenomena in modern societies. It suggests that social psychological phenomenon and processes can only be properly understood when they are anchored in history, culture and macro social conditions. Therefore, social representations are carriers of collective memories of social groups which are adequate for shaping the present through the past; while using the past to meet the demands of the present, which enables social groups to continue through time. Social groups are distinct in terms of their understanding of social phenomenon and other forms of action which in turn constitute their identity. In this article, I present an African psychological framework which represents African people’s worldview. Further to this, is my experience as a doctoral student, exploring the psychological adjustment of African women living in New Zealand. I reflect on why the framework that I had used in my research were deemed inadequate to be used as psychological principles, because they did not correspond with a Western lens of understanding behaviour, actions and social reality. I conclude that the outcome of my study shows the reification and legitimization of Western psychology over African psychology. This article provides a possibility for a critical account of unequal social relations between Western psychology and Indigenous psychology, and exposes the issue of power and resistance embedded in the heart of social representation theories as it relates to psychology.

  13. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  14. Psychological profiles and adolescent adjustment: a person-centered approach.

    Crockett, Lisa J; Moilanen, Kristin L; Raffaelli, Marcela; Randall, Brandy A

    2006-01-01

    The association between young adolescents' psychological profiles and their subsequent adjustment was examined in a sample of 606 adolescents (ages 12-13) drawn from the mother-child data set of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Cluster analysis was used to identify distinct groups of youth based on self-regulation, proneness to risk, self-worth, and perceived academic competence. Five replicable clusters were identified corresponding to optimal, average, behavioral risk, low self-regulation, and emotional risk groups. These clusters were associated with distinct patterns of adjustment 4 years later. At ages 16-17, youth in the optimal group tended to report better academic performance, less problem behavior, and less depression than youth in the three risk groups; however, their functioning did not differ significantly from youth in the average group. The three risk groups differed in self-reported depression symptoms and academic performance but not in levels of problem behavior. Differences among the five groups persisted when demographic and contextual variables were controlled. These results support the existence of different groups of youth who follow distinct developmental trajectories and may experience different patterns of adjustment. PMID:16478559

  15. Women and men’s psychological adjustment after abortion: a six months prospective pilot study

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...

  16. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  17. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  18. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Psychological Adjustment Among Transsexuals in Spain.

    Guzmán-Parra, José; Sánchez-Álvarez, Nicolás; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Navais-Barranco, Miriam; Castro-Zamudio, Serafina; Bergero-Miguel, Trinidad

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the sociodemographic characteristics and the psychological adjustment of transsexuals in Andalusia (Spain), and also analyzed the differences between female-to-male (FtM) and male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals. The sample included 197 transsexuals (101 MtF and 96 FtM) selected from those who visited the Transsexual and Gender Identity Unit at the Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga between 2011 and 2012. Our analyses indicated that MtF transsexuals were more likely to have lower educational levels, live alone, have worked less frequently throughout their lifetime, and have engaged in prostitution. For FtM transsexuals, there were more frequent references to the mother's psychiatric history and more social avoidance and distress. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of personality dysfunctional traits and unemployment status were associated with depression in the entire sample. The following three conclusions can be made: there are significant differences between MtF and FtM transsexuals (mainly related to sociodemographic variables), depression was high in both groups, and a remarkable percentage of transsexuals have attempted suicide (22.8 %) or have had suicidal thoughts (52.3 %). PMID:25994499

  19. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one yea...

  20. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  1. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  2. Perceived discrimination, schooling arrangements and psychological adjustments of rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China

    Chen, Lihua; Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Lin, Danhua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The global literature has revealed potential negative impacts of migration and discrimination on individual's psychological adjustments. However, the psychological adjustments among internal migrant children in developing countries are rarely assessed. This study simultaneously examines perceived discrimination and schooling arrangements in relation to psychological adjustments among rural-to-urban migrant children in China. Methods: A sample of 657 migrant children was recruited ...

  3. The interplay between psychological well-being, university adjustment and previous experience of traumatic events

    L.V. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that traumatic event that happened long ago does not have univocal connection with the current condition (intensity of post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression, adjustment (as personality trait in general and university adaptation. Psychological well-being is not only a result of good adjustment, but at first contributes to socio-psychological adaptation of a person being connected with the way of perception and appraisal of life events. Psychological well-being is a part of adjustment potential and also reflects the level of adaptation. The most stressful events are death and/or serious illness of close others, or abuse. Special characteristics of students are described in the paper depending on the intensity of their suicidal thoughts. It is shown that the intensity of suicidal thoughts is connected with characteristics of psychological well-being showing itself in current condition, adjustment (as personality trait, university adaptation and choice of defense strategies

  4. Psychological adjustment in adolescents conceived by assisted reproduction techniques: A systematic review

    Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching ...

  5. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…

  6. Examining Differences in Psychological Adjustment Problems among Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…

  7. Doing Well vs. Feeling Well: Understanding Family Dynamics and the Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Immigrant Adolescents

    Qin, Desiree Baolian

    2008-01-01

    Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and social adjustment, suggesting an achievement/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two groups…

  8. Uncertainty Orientation in Chinese Children: Relations with School and Psychological Adjustment

    Wang, Zhengyan; Chen, Xinyin; Sorrentino, Richard; Szeto, Andrew C. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine uncertainty orientation and its relations with school and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of elementary school children in P.R. China, aged 10 to 12 years, participated in the study. Data concerning uncertainty orientation, academic performance and socio-emotional adjustment were…

  9. Brief-Term Psychological Adjustment of Sexually Abused Children.

    Wagner, William G.

    1991-01-01

    In this study of brief-term concomitant of child sexual abuse, children's reports of self-concept and depression, and parents' ratings of their children's depressive symptomology, were examined for child victims of molestation or sexual abuse outside the family, and for nonabused children whose parents sought psychological services for them. (BB)

  10. The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature

    Solberg, C.; Rossetto, T.; Joffe, H.

    2010-08-01

    The majority of people at risk from earthquakes do little or nothing to reduce their vulnerability. Over the past 40 years social scientists have tried to predict and explain levels of seismic hazard adjustment using models from behavioural sciences such as psychology. The present paper is the first to synthesise the major findings from the international literature on psychological correlates and causes of seismic adjustment at the level of the individual and the household. It starts by reviewing research on seismic risk perception. Next, it looks at norms and normative beliefs, focusing particularly on issues of earthquake protection responsibility and trust between risk stakeholders. It then considers research on attitudes towards seismic adjustment attributes, specifically beliefs about efficacy, control and fate. It concludes that an updated model of seismic adjustment must give the issues of norms, trust, power and identity a more prominent role. These have been only sparsely represented in the social psychological literature to date.

  11. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  12. Psychological Adjustment and Neuropsychological Performance in Diabetic Patients.

    Skenazy, Judy A.; Bigler, Erin D.

    1985-01-01

    Compared diabetic (N=39) with nondiabetic chronic illness patients (N=20) and healthy controls (N=24). The chronic illness and the diabetic groups had significant elevations on the Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria scales of the Feschingbauer Abbreviated MMPI. For diabetics, results demonstrated a negligible effect of poor adjustment on…

  13. The Journey Home: Psychological Adjustment Symptoms following Wilderness Expedition Programs

    Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical research on outdoor education programs describes adjustment symptoms that instructors suffer from after the programs have come to an end. Post-course effects are also documented for students, but those are normally scientifically coded in measured changes in "skills" or "learning effects." In this paper, the author compares the…

  14. Emotional Regulation and Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: Role of the Biological, Psychological and Social Regulators on Pediatric Oncology Adjustment

    Firoozi, Manijeh; BESHARAT, Mohammad Ali; Rahimian Boogar, Eshagh

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with cancer should deal with difficult situations such asundergoing multimodal treatment. Emotion Regulation Mechanisms (ERM) could be more effective for childhood cancer adaptation. The main purpose of this study was examination a number of the biological, psychological and social emotion regulators on adjustment to pediatric oncology. Method In this study, 98 children (39 girls and 59 boys) have participated that diagnosed as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) cases alon...

  15. Ethnic differences in the links between benefit finding and psychological adjustment in people living with HIV.

    Fekete, Erin M; Chatterton, Michael; Skinta, Matthew D; Williams, Stacey L

    2016-06-01

    Experiencing growth after the diagnosis of a life threatening illness is commonly reported among people living with HIV (PLWH). The links between benefit finding and better adjustment in PLWH have been identified, but it is less clear whether these links vary by ethnicity. Minority stress theory suggests that individuals from minority populations may have unique stress experiences, which can have negative health implications but may also provide opportunity for growth. We hypothesized that the association between benefit finding and psychological adjustment would be stronger for Black (n = 80) than White (n = 87) PLWH. Contrary to predictions, the relationship between benefit finding and better adjustment was significant for White but not Black PLWH. Post-hoc analyses suggested that sexual orientation played role in this relationship. The relationship between benefit finding and psychological adjustment may be complex for Black PLWH, or they may achieve adjustment using other resources. PMID:26782813

  16. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. PMID:25961754

  17. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression. PMID:27038973

  18. Culture, Cross-Role Consistency, and Adjustment: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    Church, A. Timothy; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A.; del Prado, Alicia M.; Curtis, Guy J.; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Valdez Medina, José L.; Mastor, Khairul A.; White, Fiona A.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment were examined in two individualistic cultures, the United States (N = 231) and Australia (N = 195), and four collectivistic cultures, Mexico (N = 199), Philippines (N = 195), Malaysia (N = 217), and Japan (N = 180). Cross-role consistency in trait ratings was evident in all cultures, supporting trait perspectives. Cultural comparisons of mean consistency provided support for cultural psychology...

  19. Children Conceived by Gamete Donation: Psychological Adjustment and Mother-child Relationships at Age 7

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Mellish, Laura; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of babies are being born using donated sperm, where the child lacks a genetic link to the father, or donated eggs, where the child lacks a genetic link to the mother. This study examined the impact of telling children about their donor conception on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 egg donation, 36 donor insemina...

  20. African Psychology: The Psychological Adjustment of African Women Living in New Zealand

    Adelowo, Adesayo

    2015-01-01

    Social representation theory is a social psychological framework of concepts and ideas relevant to studying psychosocial phenomena in modern societies. It suggests that social psychological phenomenon and processes can only be properly understood when they are anchored in history, culture and macro social conditions. Therefore, social representations are carriers of collective memories of social groups which are adequate for shaping the present through the past; while using the past to meet t...

  1. Social Constraints are Associated with Negative Psychological and Physical Adjustment in Bereavement.

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. PMID:25708231

  2. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  3. School Belonging, Ethnic Identity, and Psychological Adjustment among Ethnic Minority College Students

    Gummadam, Praveena; Pittman, Laura D.; Ioffe, Micah

    2016-01-01

    This study considers how the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority college students may be linked to a sense of school belonging and ethnic identity, two constructs related to individuals feeling like they belong to a larger group. Using self-reports from 311 undergraduates from ethnic minority backgrounds, school belonging was found to be…

  4. Grandmother-Grandchild Relationship Quality Predicts Psychological Adjustment among Youth from Divorced Families

    Henderson, Craig E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sanders, Leah M.; Louden, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates maternal grandmother-grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and…

  5. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  6. Maternal Parenting and Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment of Migrant Children in Urban China

    Zhao, Siman; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations of maternal warmth, behavioral control, and encouragement of sociability to social, school, and psychological adjustment in migrant children in China. The participants were 284 rural-to-urban migrant children (M age = 11 years, 149 boys) in migrant children's schools and their mothers. Data on parenting were…

  7. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

  8. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  10. Preoperative psychological adjustment and surgical outcome are determinants of psychosocial status after anterior temporal lobectomy.

    Hermann, B.P.; Wyler, A R; Somes, G

    1992-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the role of preoperative psychological adjustment, degree of postoperative seizure reduction, and other relevant variables (age, education, IQ, age at onset of epilepsy, laterality of resection) in determining emotional/psychosocial outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy. Ninety seven patients with complex partial seizures of temporal lobe origin were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Washington Psychosocial Seizure Invent...

  11. Perceived Racial Discrimination, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among African American College Students

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three competing models of the relations among perceived discrimination, social support, and indicators of psychological adjustment in a sample of 135 African American college students. The three competing models, social support buffering, social support mobilization, and social support deterioration, were…

  12. Perceived Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents: A 1-Year Prospective Study

    Salguero, Jose M.; Palomera, Raquel; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, emotional intelligence has appeared as a predictor of adults' mental health, but little research has examined its involvement in adolescents' psychological adjustment. In this paper, we analyzed the predictive validity of perceived emotional intelligence (attention to feelings, emotional clarity, and emotional repair) over…

  13. Minority Students' Psychological Adjustment in the School Context: An Integrative Review of Qualitative Research on Acculturation

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at systematically analyzing the findings reported in qualitative research on acculturation and psychological adjustment in the school context. Content analysis was conducted using the deductively developed and inductively enriched system of categories. The results of the study provide insights into youths' acculturation and…

  14. Impact of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Violence on Social Adjustment of School Children in India

    Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…

  15. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  16. An Empirical Study into Gender Differences in the Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments of University Support

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships.…

  17. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion Versus Cultural Pluralism.

    Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage  = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:27091829

  18. A systematic review of the psychological correlates of adjustment outcomes in adults with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Jordan, Cheryl; Sin, Jacqueline; Fear, Nicola T; Chalder, Trudie

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic long term condition which poses significant psychosocial adjustment challenges. The purpose of this review was to systematically identify psychological factors related to adjustment in adults with IBD with the aim of suggesting evidence based targets that may be modifiable though psychological intervention. Twenty five studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and a narrative synthesis was conducted. A wide range of psychological variables were addressed covering six broad categories; personality traits, interpersonal traits, stress and coping, emotions and emotional control, IBD related cognitions and non IBD related cognitions. The most consistent relationship was found between certain emotion focused coping strategies and worse adjustment outcomes in IBD. Some evidence also hi-lighted a relationship between personality traits (such as neuroticism,) perceived stress, emotions and emotional control (such as alexithymia) and IBD related cognitions (such as illness perceptions) and negative adjustment outcomes. The results of this review suggest that interventions to improve adjustment in IBD may benefit from a focus on coping strategies, perceived stress and IBD related cognitions. PMID:27318795

  19. Longitudinal Pathways to Competence and Psychological Adjustment among African American Children Living in Rural Single-Parent Households.

    Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride; Kim, Sooyeon; Brown, Anita C.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between maternal psychological functioning and child competence and psychological adjustment among black families with 11-year-old children. Found a chain of influences over a 3-year period in which maternal education and income were linked with maternal psychological functioning, which predicted competence-promoting…

  20. The Multi-dimensional Nature of Religiosity/Spirituality and its Association with Psychological Adjustment

    Schettino, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the dimensional structure of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and its relationship with positive psychological adjustment (defined here as a latent variable indicated by lower levels of depression and perceived stress and higher levels of positive affect) within a Christian context. Two separate samples (total N = 806) were recruited online via Amazon MechTurk and consisted of Christian American adults (age > 18). R/S was measured using the MCRSI, a 29-item inventor...

  1. The Role of Psychological Adjustment in the Decision-making Process for Voluntary Termination of Pregnancy

    S. Sereno; Leal, I.; Maroco, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study's objective was to evaluate the role of psychological adjustment in the decision-making process to have an abortion and explore individual variables that might influence this decision. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we sequentially enrolled 150 women who made the decision to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy in Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa, in Lisbon, Portugal, between September 2008 and June 2009. The instruments were the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Sc...

  2. PERPETUAL FOREIGNER IN ONE’S OWN LAND: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR IDENTITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; SMALARZ, LAURA

    2011-01-01

    The perpetual foreigner stereotype posits that members of ethnic minorities will always be seen as the “other” in the White Anglo-Saxon dominant society of the United States (Devos & Banaji, 2005), which may have negative implications for them. The goal of the present research was to determine whether awareness of this perpetual foreigner stereotype predicts identity and psychological adjustment. We conducted a series of studies with 231 Asian Americans and 211 Latino/as (Study 1), 89 African...

  3. Psychologically Adjusted Persons Are Less Aware of How They Are Perceived by Others.

    Mosch, Alice; Borkenau, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Focusing on individual differences, we studied three influences on the accuracy of meta-perceptions of personality: (a) projection, that is, relying on one's self-perception; (b) normative meta-insight, that is, relying on the perception of the typical person by others; and (c) distinctive meta-insight, that is, relying on others' perception of one's unique personality attributes. Using a round-robin design, 52 groups of four acquainted students described themselves, three acquaintances, and their meta-perceptions on the Big-Five factors of personality, and provided self-reports of psychological adjustment. Projection, normative, and distinctive meta-insight contributed uniquely to meta-perception, yet qualified by systematic individual differences: Psychologically adjusted meta-perceivers projected more and relied on distinctive meta-insight less. Moreover, acquaintance raised projection. Thus, psychologically adjusted meta-perceivers were less aware of discrepancies between their self-perceptions and their actual perceptions by others, and the better people knew another person, the more strongly they expected that this other person perceived them like they perceived themselves. PMID:27229675

  4. Parent-child role reversal and psychological adjustment among immigrant youth in Israel.

    Oznobishin, Olga; Kurman, Jenny

    2009-06-01

    Parent-child role reversal and its relation to psychological adjustment was investigated in Israel among immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Study 1 examined immigrant and Israeli-born college students (n = 184), and Study 2 examined adolescents (n = 180) by means of self-report questionnaires. Two major factors of role reversal emerged: child dominance and family support. The results of both studies clearly showed that immigrants assume more dominant roles and parental responsibilities in their families and receive less support from their parents than their Israeli-born peers. Role reversal dimensions had differential relations with adjustment. Child dominance was mostly not related to adjustment, except for a positive correlation with psychological distress among immigrants. Familial support appeared to be the most important factor related to better adjustment among all studied groups, immigrants included. It is interesting that language brokering (i.e., translating for parents), although associated with child dominance, was negatively related to self-perceptions. Possible explanations within the Israeli context are suggested for negative language brokering correlates, with support from the interviews conducted among the immigrants. PMID:19586203

  5. Single mothers by choice: Mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    Golombok, Susan; Zadeh, Sophie; Imrie, Susan; Smith, Venessa; Freeman, Tabitha

    2016-06-01

    Fifty-one solo mother families were compared with 52 two-parent families all with a 4-9-year-old child conceived by donor insemination. Standardized interview, observational and questionnaire measures of maternal wellbeing, mother-child relationships and child adjustment were administered to mothers, children and teachers. There were no differences in parenting quality between family types apart from lower mother-child conflict in solo mother families. Neither were there differences in child adjustment. Perceived financial difficulties, child's gender, and parenting stress were associated with children's adjustment problems in both family types. The findings suggest that solo motherhood, in itself, does not result in psychological problems for children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866836

  6. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Psicodoc and Psyarticles. Fourteen articles were found and analyses show that most interventions had some efficacy in the psychological adjustment of children and their parents; nevertheless, there is a limited number of treatments that can in fact be considered effective. The convenience of psychological interventions is discussed and how they must comprehend strengths and the promotion of psychological health and should not be based solely on deficits and psychopathological models. Possibly, this reorientation will help fostering significant clinic changes regarding the stress associated to cancer and its treatment.

  7. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler; Carmen Bragado-Álvarez; María J. Hernández-Lloreda

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline...

  8. Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. The current report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14 – 21) in New York ...

  9. Psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: A systematic review.

    Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine studies describing the psychological stress and adjustment in pregnancy after an assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment. A systematic search of the electronic databases was performed. This review considered only quantitative, primary studies in the English language, published during the period 2000-2014 and relevant to the objective. The population of interest was previously infertile pregnant women. Outcome variables were general anxiety, depressive symptoms, pregnancy-specific anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, pregnancy attitudes and adjustment, and maternal-fetal attachment. Twenty studies met the inclusion and methodological criteria and were included in the review. The review revealed that compared to women who conceive naturally or to general norms, women who conceive after an in vitro fertilization treatment had greater pregnancy-specific anxiety, poorer quality of life, either the same or less depressive symptomatology, the same level of self-esteem, more positive attitudes toward pregnancy demands, and higher levels of maternal-fetal attachment. However, the evidence regarding the general anxiety levels in pregnancy after an ART treatment was inconclusive. Methodological limitations and differences across studies may explain the inconsistencies in their findings regarding the impact of ART. This review provides an insight into psychological reactions and adjustment in pregnancy after an ART treatment. PMID:26212077

  10. Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment of Vietnamese Refugees: An Ecological Acculturation Framework.

    Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina

    2015-12-01

    Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.78.1.109 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed. PMID:26443380

  11. The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence

    Kristina Sesar; Marijana Barišić; Maja Pandža; Arta Dodaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to b...

  12. Models of traumatic experiences and children's psychological adjustment: the roles of perceived parenting and the children's own resources and activity.

    Punamäki, R L; Qouta, S; el Sarraj, E

    1997-08-01

    The relations between traumatic events, perceived parenting styles, children's resources, political activity, and psychological adjustment were examined among 108 Palestinian boys and girls of 11-12 years of age. The results showed that exposure to traumatic events increased psychological adjustment problems directly and via 2 mediating paths. First, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more negative parenting they experienced. And, the poorer they perceived parenting, the more they suffered from high neuroticism and low self-esteem. Second, the more traumatic events children had experienced, the more political activity they showed, and the more active they were, the more they suffered from psychological adjustment problems. Good perceived parenting protected children's psychological adjustment by making them less vulnerable in two ways. First, traumatic events decreased their intellectual, creative, and cognitive resources, and a lack of resources predicted many psychological adjustment problems in a model excluding perceived parenting. Second, political activity increased psychological adjustment problems in the same model, but not in the model including good parenting. PMID:9306648

  13. Psychological Adjustment: Are adopted adolescents at greater risk for negative outcomes?

    Caroline Tozzi Reppold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades several authors have indicated that being an adopted child resulted in a higher risk of psychological maladjustment. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes in perception of parental styles in adopted and no-adopted adolescents Brazilians. The sample comprised 524 adolescents (68 were adopted and 456 were raised by their biological parents. The instruments used were a demographic questionnaire and theResponsiveness Scales and Parental Demands. The findings indicated that adoptive parents are significantly more indulgent than biological parents. In comparison, the adolescents described their biological parents as more negligent. The findings corroborated the transcultural effects of parental styles on the psychological adjustment and confirmed the hypothesis that the parental socialization strategies moderate the development of adoptedadolescent.

  14. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  15. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  16. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men. PMID:11444052

  17. Relational aggression in middle childhood predicting adolescent social-psychological adjustment: the role of friendship quality.

    Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked. PMID:24156310

  18. Long-term psychological adjustment to witnessing interparental physical conflict during childhood.

    Henning, K; Leitenberg, H; Coffey, P; Bennett, T; Jankowski, M K

    1997-06-01

    A retrospective survey of undergraduate students was used to examine the long-term psychological impact of witnessing interparental physical aggression during childhood. Two hundred and three of 1,452 young adults surveyed (14%) reported witnessing as children at least one incident of physical aggression between their parents. Both men and women who witnessed interparental physical conflict reported higher levels of current psychological distress than a comparison group of young adults who never observed physical aggression between their parents. This group difference remained even after controlling for parental divorce, parental SES, physical abuse of the child, parental alcoholism, and nonphysical discord witnessed between parents. Additional analyses found that the negative effect of witnessing interparental aggression was intensified when the aggression was serious enough to warrant some type of outside assistance for the victim and when the parent of the same-sex was seen being victimized. Although these findings provided support for the theory that witnessing interparental physical aggression is a traumatic experience that may have long-term psychological ramifications, we also found that a substantial proportion of the variance accounted for in adult adjustment by interparental physical conflict was mediated through decreased parental caring and warmth during childhood. Implications for these results, limitations of the present study, and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:9192140

  19. Predictors of psychological adjustment in early placed adopted children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2013-06-01

    Little research has focused on predictors of psychological adjustment among early placed adopted children. Additionally, the research on adopted children in lesbian or gay parent-families is sparse. The current study examined 40 female same-sex, 35 male same-sex, and 45 different-sex parent families with adopted children, all of whom were placed in their adoptive homes under the age of 18 months. We explored aspects of children's preadoptive and postadoptive contexts (measured at 3 months postplacement) in relation to children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms (measured at 2 years postplacement; M age = 2.33 years). Findings revealed that lack of parental preparation for the adoption, and parental depressive symptoms, were associated with higher parent-reported levels of both externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Additionally, parents' relationship conflict was associated with higher levels of parent- and partner-reported internalizing symptoms. Children's adjustment outcomes did not differ by family type. Our findings point to the importance of considering the adoptive family context (including parent and couple subsystems) in predicting later adjustment in early placed adopted children, in diverse family contexts. PMID:23750525

  20. Psychological Acceptance Mediates the Impact of the Behaviour Problems of Children with Intellectual Disability on Fathers' Psychological Adjustment

    MacDonald, Elaine E.; Hastings, Richard P.; Fitzsimons, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research with mothers of children with intellectual disabilities has shown that psychological acceptance is related to maternal psychological well-being. The present research extended this line of enquiry to fathers and explored the potential for psychological acceptance to mediate the impact of children's behaviour problems…

  1. Predictors of international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as...... psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally...... adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students’ psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired...

  2. Does nipple preservation in mastectomy improve satisfaction with cosmetic results, psychological adjustment, body image and sexuality?

    Didier, F; Radice, D; Gandini, S; Bedolis, R; Rotmensz, N; Maldifassi, A; Santillo, B; Luini, A; Galimberti, V; Scaffidi, E; Lupo, F; Martella, S; Petit, J Y

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the influence of nipple areolar complex (NAC) sparing in mastectomy, on patient satisfaction with cosmetic results, body-image, sexuality and psychological well-being. We developed a specific questionnaire and compared two groups of women who underwent radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). Between 2004 and 2006, 310 women with NAC preservation and 143 patients with successive NAC reconstruction were mailed the questionnaire at follow-up 1 year after definitive complete breast reconstruction surgery. 256 questionnaires was available. Our results showed significant differences in favour of the NAC sparing group regarding body image (difficulty in looking at themselves naked and being seen naked by their partners after surgery, P = 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively); regarding satisfaction with the appearance of the nipple (P < .0001) and with the sensitivity of the nipple (P = 0.001); regarding the feeling of mutilation (P = 0.003). NAC sparing in mastectomy has a positive impact on patient satisfaction, body image and psychological adjustment. PMID:19003526

  3. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  4. Links between patterns of racial socialization and discrimination experiences and psychological adjustment: a cluster analysis.

    Ajayi, Alex A; Syed, Moin

    2014-10-01

    This study used a person-oriented analytic approach to identify meaningful patterns of barriers-focused racial socialization and perceived racial discrimination experiences in a sample of 295 late adolescents. Using cluster analysis, three distinct groups were identified: Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination, and High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination clusters. These groups were substantively unique in terms of the frequency of racial socialization messages about bias preparation and out-group mistrust its members received and their actual perceived discrimination experiences. Further, individuals in the High Barrier Socialization-High Discrimination cluster reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than those in the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. However, no differences in adjustment were observed between the Low Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination and High Barrier Socialization-Low Discrimination clusters. Overall, the findings highlight important individual differences in how young people of color experience their race and how these differences have significant implications on psychological adjustment. PMID:25124381

  5. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for ...

  6. The Impact of Ecological Risk and Perceived Discrimination on the Psychological Adjustment of African American and European American Youth

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Pulgiano, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of cumulative ecological risk (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage and ecologically salient stressful events) and perceived discrimination on the psychological adjustment of urban African American and European American youth. Findings indicated that both cumulative ecological risk and perceived…

  7. Adolescents' True-Self Behavior and Adjustment: The Role of Family Security and Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs

    Goldner, Limor; Berenshtein-Dagan, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Associations between security within the family, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, true-self behavior, and knowledge of true self, as well as levels of adjustment, were explored in a sample of early adolescents and midadolescents in Israel (N = 302, mean age = 14.19 years). Both security within the family and needs satisfaction were found…

  8. Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in Spanish Families with Blind Children. A Change in Psychological Adjustment?

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…

  9. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  10. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Sergio Murgui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psychological adjustment and their victim-blaming attributions. The sample consists of 314 men convictedof intimate partner violence who were referred to a community-based intervention program. Results froma structural equation model showed that social support and stressful life events were related topsychological adjustment. Psychological adjustment also was related to victim-blaming attributions amongintimate partner violence offenders. A better understanding of the relationships between psychologicaladjustment of intimate partner violence offenders and its determinants, as well as its impact on victimblamingattributions, may provide support to new intervention strategies. Implications of these results forimproving the effectiveness of intervention programs are discussed.

  11. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25345480

  12. Psychological adjustment and victim-blaming among intimate partner violence offenders: The role of social support and stressful life events

    Sergio Murgui; Enrique Gracia; Marisol Lila

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence offenders often use victim-blaming attributions to explain their own violentbehavior. These attributions represent an important challenge for intervention programs for intimatepartnerviolence offenders. The main objectives of this study were to analyze both the influence of socialsupport and stressful life events on the psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressivesymptomatology) of intimate partner violence offenders and the relationship between offenders’psy...

  13. Adjustment to amputation and psychological distress: an examination of the intervening role of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth

    Mac Conaill, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Successful adjustment to amputation can be quantified in a number of ways. Physical measures such as prosthesis use, mobility indices, and activities of daily living have traditionally been suggested as outcome measures in the literature. More recently, the importance of psychological outcomes is gaining attention. This study was based in a regional prosthetic, orthotic, and limb-absence rehabilitation unit. It was developed in order to provide an overview of a range of issues affecting pa...

  14. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature. PMID:25650758

  15. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  16. The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence

    Kristina Sesar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to bullying had significantly higherlevels of anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, and dissociative andtraumatic symptoms compared to those who were not exposed to bullying.Respondents who were exposed to bullying in all three examinedperiods (the period from the first to fourth grade, the period from the fifth to eighth grade and the high school period had higher scores on the subscale of dissociative symptoms and sexual trauma symptoms compared to respondents who were exposed through one or twoperiods. Victims abused in all three periods have more symptoms ofanxiety and sleeping problems compared to the subjects exposed tobullying during one examination period. There were no differences inthe level of depressive symptoms and sexual problems regarding theduration of bullying. Also, there were no differences in psychologicaladjustment between respondents who were bullied during one specificperiod. Conclusion. Bullying experiences in childhood and adolescenceare connected with difficulties in psychological adjustment inyoung adulthood.

  17. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  18. The Relationships among Caregiver and Adolescent Identity Status, Identity Distress and Psychological Adjustment

    Wiley, Rachel E.; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent…

  19. Network Characteristics, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Benson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment…

  20. Parental Control: A Second Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Parental control is among the important factors influencing the psychological development of children. In addition to other questionnaires, a questionnaire of father and mother control was administered to adolescents in nine countries. The results showed that parental control differs across cultures. Parental control was higher in the eastern than…

  1. The impact of social constraints and sense of coherence on the psychological adjustment of adolescents and young adults with CF

    Kaya L. Beinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the medical understanding of Cystic Fibrosis (CF has dramatically improved, however, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the psychological adjustment of families coping with CF. We examined the utility of the Social Cognitive Processing (SCP Model in understanding the interactions of parents and young people with CF. We also examined the relationship between social constraints, a key construct in the SCP model, sense of coherence (SOC and other psychological adjustment indicators for young people with CF. Participants comprised 49 individuals with CF, aged 16–25, recruited through state-based CF organisations in Australia. The results indicated that participant ratings of difficulties with communication (social constraints were positively associated with ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress and negatively related to ratings of positive affect and seeing life challenges as predictable, manageable and meaningful (SOC. Ratings of SOC were also positively related to ratings of positive affect and negatively related to ratings of depression, anxiety and stress. A significant mediating effect of SOC was also identified in the relationships between social constraints and positive affect and social constraints and stress. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Profiling retirees in the retirement transition and adjustment process: examining the longitudinal change patterns of retirees' psychological well-being.

    Wang, Mo

    2007-03-01

    The author used role theory, continuity theory, and the life course perspective to form hypotheses regarding the different retirement transition and adjustment patterns and how different individual and contextual variables related to those patterns. The longitudinal data of 2 samples (n(1) = 994; n(2) = 1,066) from the Health and Retirement Survey were used. Three latent growth curve patterns of retirees' psychological well-being were identified as coexisting in the retiree samples through growth mixture modeling (GMM) analysis. On the basis of the latent class membership derived from GMM, retiree subgroups directly linked to different growth curve patterns were profiled with individual (e.g., bridge job status) and contextual variables (e.g., spouse working status). By recognizing the existence of multiple retiree subgroups corresponding to different psychological well-being change patterns, this study suggests that retirees do not follow a uniform adjustment pattern during the retirement process, which reconciles inconsistent previous findings. A resource perspective is further introduced to provide a more integrated theory for the current findings. The practical implications of this study are also discussed at both individual level and policy level. PMID:17371091

  3. The impact of a bariatric rehabilitation service on weight loss and psychological adjustment - study protocol

    Hollywood Amelia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective form of obesity management for those whose BMI is greater than 40 (or 35 with co morbidities. A minority of patients, however, either do not show the desired loss of excess weight or show weight regain by follow up. Research highlights some of the reasons for this variability, most of which centres on the absence of any psychological support with patients describing how although surgery fixes their body, psychological issues relating to dietary control, self esteem, coping and emotional eating remain neglected. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of a health psychology led bariatric rehabilitation service (BRS on patient health outcomes. The bariatric rehabilitation service will provide information, support and mentoring pre and post surgery and will address psychological issues such as dietary control, self esteem, coping and emotional eating. The package reflects the rehabilitation services now common place for patients post heart attack and stroke which have been shown to improve patient health outcomes. Methods/Design The study is a randomised control trial and patients will be allocated to receive either usual care or the bariatric rehabilitation service pre and post bariatric surgery. Follow up measures of weight loss and psychological issues will be taken at baseline (2 weeks preoperatively, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The contents of the bariatric service and the follow up measures are based on previous pilot work and have been developed further by the research team working closely with two patient support groups (BOSPA & WLSinfo. This study will take place in St Richard's Hospital in Chichester in the UK. Discussion It is predicted that a bariatric rehabilitation service will improve weight loss following surgery and will also facilitate changes in other psychological variables such as quality of life, dietary control, self esteem, coping and

  4. Does nipple preservation in mastectomy improve satisfaction with cosmetic results, psychological adjustment, body image and sexuality?

    Didier, F.; Radice, D.; Gandini, S; Bedolis, R.; Rotmensz, N.; Maldifassi, A.; B. Santillo; Luini, A; Galimberti, V.; Scaffidi, E.; Lupo, F.; Martella, S.; Petit, J. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the influence of nipple areolar complex (NAC) sparing in mastectomy, on patient satisfaction with cosmetic results, body-image, sexuality and psychological well-being. We developed a specific questionnaire and compared two groups of women who underwent radical mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). Between 2004 and 2006, 310 women with NAC preservation and 143 patients with successive NAC reconstruction were mailed the questionnaire at follo...

  5. International Students in the U.S.: Social and Psychological Adjustment

    Jackson, Michelle; Ray, Sukanya; Bybell, Danica

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of self-esteem, hope, optimism, coping, acculturative stress, and social support on international students' depressive symptoms and sociocultural adjustment. Seventy international students completed a self-report online survey. The most notable finding was that the international students used adaptive and…

  6. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  7. Children Born through Reproductive Donation: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Adjustment

    Golombok, Susan; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Roman, Gabriela; Jadva, Vasanti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Parenting and children's adjustment were examined in 30 surrogacy families, 31 egg donation families, 35 donor insemination families, and 53 natural conception families. Methods: Parenting was assessed at age 3 by a standardized interview designed to assess quality of parenting and by questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression,…

  8. Social Networking Site Use Predicts Changes in Young Adults' Psychological Adjustment

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…

  9. The Social Psychological Adjustment of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Diaz, Joseph O. Prewitt; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    1987-01-01

    Reviews research literature on Puerto Rican youth and summarizes findings on factors influencing return migration and the cultural and physical adjustment of return migrants. Presents findings of a survey of Puerto Rican students, non-migrants and return migrants, which attempted to determine whether there was a relationship between reading…

  10. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families com...

  11. The relevance of autistic traits to sibling relationship quality and psychological adjustment

    Wheeler, Zoë Rose

    2011-01-01

    This thesis in part addressed a call by Hodapp, Glidden & Kaiser (2005) to focus on identifying potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between growing up with a sibling with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and adverse outcomes such as poorer sibling relationship quality (SRQ) and adjustment problems. It attempted to clarify previous inconsistent findings in the literature by considering autism as a dimensional disorder (with traits present on a continuum between the general...

  12. Comorbidity Structure of Psychological Disorders in the Online e-PASS Data as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment Measures: Psychological Distress, Adequate Social Support, Self-Confidence, Quality of Life, and Suicidal Ideation

    AL-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-01-01

    Background A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. Objective This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of co...

  13. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  14. Shame and Guilt: Relationships of Test of Self-Conscious Affect Measures With Psychological Adjustment and Gender Differences in Iran

    Nima Ghorbani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students (N = 132 responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.

  15. Effects of Corporal Punishment, Perceived Caretaker Warmth, and Cultural Beliefs on the Psychological Adjustment of Children in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…

  16. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis: the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease

    Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were emp

  17. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis : the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease

    Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were emp

  18. Psychological Adjustment and Levels of Self Esteem in Children with Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties Influences the Results of a Randomized Intervention Trial

    Lahav, Orit; Apter, Alan; Ratzon, Navah Z.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates how much the effects of intervention programs are influenced by pre-existing psychological adjustment and self-esteem levels in kindergarten and first grade children with poor visual-motor integration skills, from low socioeconomic backgrounds. One hundred and sixteen mainstream kindergarten and first-grade children, from low…

  19. On the Construction of Teachers’ Psychological Adjustment Mechanism in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校教师心理调节机制的建构

    叶玲

    2015-01-01

    To establish the teachers’ psychological adjustment mechanism in higher vocational colleges can promote the teachers’ good health and work efficiency, and develop the students’ healthy psychology. According to the psychology phenomena of oppressive and hostile, stubborn and obsessive-compulsive disorder, fear and anxiety, occupational stress disorder,it is necessary for higher vocational colleges to build the four psychological mechanisms of regulating channels, adjustment mode,adjustment contents and adjustment safeguard,so as to maintain the long-term and persistent psychological adjustment mechanisms.%高职院校教师心理调节机制的建立有利于促进教师身体健康、提高工作效率,有利于学生心理的健康发展。针对高职院校教师目前存在的压抑及仇视、固执及强迫症、恐惧及焦躁、职业压力症、交往症等各种心理现象,需要建立高职院校教师心理调节渠道机制、心理调节方式机制、心理调节内容机制以及心理调节保障机制等四大机制,才能更好地保持高职院校教师心理调节的长效性和持续性。

  20. Psychology

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  1. Psychological adjustment and quality of life in children and adolescents following open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease: a systematic review

    Bauersfeld Urs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with congenital heart defects (CHD requiring open-heart surgery are a group at high risk for health-related sequelae. Little consensus exists regarding their long-term psychological adjustment (PA and health-related quality of life (QoL. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to determine the current knowledge on long-term outcome in this population. Methods We included randomized controlled trials, case control, or cohort studies published between 1990–2008 evaluating self- and proxy-reported PA and QoL in patients aged between two and 17 years with a follow-up of at least two years after open heart surgery for CHD. Results Twenty-three studies assessing psychological parameters and 12 studies assessing QoL were included. Methodological quality of the studies varied greatly with most studies showing a moderate quality. Results were as follows: (a A considerable proportion of children experienced psychological maladjustment according to their parents; (b studies on self-reported PA indicate a good outcome; (c the studies on QoL suggest an impaired QoL for some children in particular for those with more severe cardiac disease; (d parental reports of psychological maladjustment were related to severity of CHD and developmental delay. Conclusion A significant proportion of survivors of open-heart surgery for CHD are at risk for psychological maladjustment and impaired QoL. Future research needs to focus on self-reports, QoL data and adolescents.

  2. On University Students' Psychological Problems at Uni-versity and the Adjustment%在校大学生心理问题及调适

    杨美娜

    2015-01-01

    当代大学生心理问题已经引起社会的广泛关注,大学生作为一个特殊的社会群体,他们身上承载着来自社会各界的期望和压力,同时也呈现出独特的精神状态,也产生一些心理困惑。本文在分析大学生心理问题的基础上,提出了心理障碍的调适方法,具有十分重要的指导意义,能够更好地促进大学生身心和个性的健康发展。%Contemporary university students' psychological prob-lems have aroused the wide attention of the society. As a special social group, they are under the expectation and pressure from all walks of life, and meanwhile, they present unique spiritual state and have some psychological confusions. Based on analyzing u-niversity students' psychological problems, this paper proposes the methods to adjust their psychological disorders, aiming to better promote their healthy physical and psychological develop-ment as well as personality development.

  3. 在校大学生心理问题及调适%On University Students' Psychological Problems at Uni-versity and the Adjustment

    杨美娜

    2015-01-01

    当代大学生心理问题已经引起社会的广泛关注,大学生作为一个特殊的社会群体,他们身上承载着来自社会各界的期望和压力,同时也呈现出独特的精神状态,也产生一些心理困惑。本文在分析大学生心理问题的基础上,提出了心理障碍的调适方法,具有十分重要的指导意义,能够更好地促进大学生身心和个性的健康发展。%Contemporary university students' psychological prob-lems have aroused the wide attention of the society. As a special social group, they are under the expectation and pressure from all walks of life, and meanwhile, they present unique spiritual state and have some psychological confusions. Based on analyzing u-niversity students' psychological problems, this paper proposes the methods to adjust their psychological disorders, aiming to better promote their healthy physical and psychological develop-ment as well as personality development.

  4. On University Students' Psychological Barriers in Inter-personal Communications and the Adjustment%大学生人际交往心理障碍及其调适

    刘倩

    2014-01-01

    人际交往问题不仅关系到大学生的学习生涯,更是大学生能否适应社会生活的重要因素。影响大学生人际交往的心理因素主要有院认知偏差、不良情绪、人格差异障碍等,而家庭教育、学校环境以及社会变革的大背景等促成了这些心理因素的产生。因此,从端正认知、驾驭情绪、完善人格、提升沟通技巧方面对人际交往心理障碍进行调适有着较好的针对性和有效性。%Interpersonal problems not only relate to university students' learning career, but also affect university students' adaptation to social life. The psychological factors affecting uni-versity students' interpersonal communications mainly include cognitive bias, bad mood, personality difference disorders, etc., while such backgrounds as family education, school environment and social change, contribute to the formation of these psycholog-ical factors. Therefore, it is targeted and effective to adjust psy-chological barriers in interpersonal communications from the im-provement of communication skills by correcting cognition, con-trolling emotion, and perfecting personality.

  5. Analysis of Psychological State Adjustment before the Competitions of Wrestling Athletes%摔跤运动员赛前心理状态调控分析

    叶胜

    2014-01-01

    摔跤是同场对抗性的运动项目,双方运动员对抗激烈,变化多端,对运动员的体能、心智能力的要求较高,随着摔跤比赛技战术水平的提高运动员的心理素质对比赛结果的影响越来越大。文章拟从心理学的角度对摔跤运动员赛前可能出现的不良心理状态进行分析,在了解运动员不良心理状态的基础上,提出稳定情绪法、合理比赛目标法、树立信心,激发斗志法、模拟训练法、专门化知觉训练、语言激励法、表象训练法、活动调节法、自我暗示法的赛前心理调控方案,希望通过本研究对摔跤运动的科学化训练提供理论参考,促进我国摔跤运动的发展。%Wrestling is a confrontational with field sport, both players against intensely, with high requirements for athlete's physical, mental capacity. As the improvement of technical and tactical level, psychological quality has more and more influence on wrestling athletes competition results. This paper from a psychological point of vie, analyzes wrestlers psychological state before competitions, based on the understanding of athletes bad psychological states, the study proposes the psychological adjustment methods, including: keeping emotional stability, reasonable goal of game, keeping confidence, motivating spirits, simulating training, specialized perceptual training, language excitation method, imagery training method, activity adjustment, self-regulation psychological hint, hoping to provide a theoretical reference for scientific training of wrestling through this research, promote the development of wrestling .

  6. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  7. Improving Psychological Adjustment among Late-Stage Ovarian Cancer Patients: Examining the Role of Avoidance in Treatment

    Rost, Ann D.; Wilson, Kelly; Buchanan, Erin; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J.; Mutch, David

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that individuals dealing with a cancer diagnosis are less likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, and psychological distress when they cope with their condition from a stance of emotional and cognitive acceptance (e.g. Dunkel, et al., 1992; Stanton, et al., 2000). Although traditional CBT often includes some acceptance-oriented…

  8. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  9. Common Psychological Problems and Psychological Adjustment of Retired Veteran Cadres%离退休老干部的常见心理问题及心理调试

    杨爱琼; 徐丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨离退休老干部常见的心理问题以及相关的心理调试。方法对乌鲁木齐市离退休老干部进行心理问卷调查,进行一些初步的探讨。结果离退休老干部出现失落感、孤独感、依赖心理占50%以上,忧虑、恐惧感、悲观消极心理仅占25%以下。结论帮助老干部及时地解决心理问题,为老年人的身体和心理健康提供良好的基础,让他们拥有积极向上的心理状态。%Objective To explore the common psychological problems of retired veteran cadres and the related psychological adjustment.Methods A psychological questionnaire survey was conducted on the retired veteran cadres in Urumqi. Results From the retired veteran cadres appear to have a sense of loss, loneliness, dependence of the psychological accounted for more than 50% of the anxiety, fear, pessimism, only 25% of the following.Conclusion To help the old cadres to eliminate the psychological barrier in time, to create good conditions for the physical and mental health of the old cadres, to maintain the best state of mind.

  10. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were

  11. Analysis and adjustment of university teachers' psychological pressure%高校教师心理压力分析及调适

    王永祥

    2012-01-01

    The psychological pressure is an important factor that influences university teachers' mental health,so the study on it not only improves university teachers' psychological health but also meets the national strategy of constructing a harmonious society.The paper analyzes the types and causes of university teachers psychological pressure and proposes strategies to adjust such pressure.%心理压力是影响高校教师心理健康的重要因素,对其进行研究不仅有利于提高校教师的心理健康水平,而且也符合国家提出的和谐社会的战略。对高校教师的心理压力种类及产生原因进行了分析,进而在分析的基础上提出了调适高校教师心理压力的策略。

  12. 运动员赛前心理状态调整的策略%Strategy for Athletes to Adjust Psychological State before the Game

    宋世亮

    2015-01-01

    运动员的赛前心理状态对比赛以及最终的成绩具有明显的作用。赛前加强对运动员心理状态的调整,可以有效强化放松心理情绪、积极休息、缓解身体疲劳,使运动员状态恢复到稳定的心理状态。运动员赛前心理状态受环境、裁判、比赛的规模等客观与自身主观因素的制约,赛前心理状态的调整应注意因人而异、区别对待,强化放松的心理情绪、积极休息、缓解身体疲劳等关键环节,采用赛前的适应性训练、封闭训练、自信心强化训练、自我控制与调节等方法,避免不良因素的刺激与情绪波动,以最佳的心理状态参加比赛。%The psychological state of athletes before the game has an obvious effect on the game and the final results. Increasing the adjustment on the psychological state of the athletes can effectively strengthen the relaxation of mental feeling,active rest,fatigue relief to help athletes back to steady psychological state. The psychological state of athletes before the game are affected by objective and subjective factors, like environment,referees,scale of the game,so its adjustment should differ from person to person and make difference,paying attention to key stage,such as strengthen the relaxation of mental feeling,active rest,fatigue relief,adopting adaptive training before the game,closed training,self-confidence intensive training,self-control and regulation and other methods,avoiding irritation of bad factors and mood swings,attending the competition at best psychological state.

  13. 音乐教师课堂应激心理及自我调适%Music teachers classroom psychological stress and self-adjustment

    陈荣

    2013-01-01

    With music education reform continued to deepen ,music education affective features the full attention ,students learn increasingly comprehensive psychological studies ,but music teacher psychological research has been relatively scarce .Teaching is a stress careers ,in music teaching music teacher changes the psychological stress on students learning and learning outcomes have enormous impact Teachers also affect work perfomance and physical health ,the paper on the music teacher's classroom performance and stress source attrubution ,to explore classroom psychological stress of self -adjustment.%随着音乐教育改革的不断深入,音乐教育的情感性特征得到了充分的重视,学生的学习心理研究日趋全面,但是对于音乐教师的心理研究却相对匮乏。作为教师心理的重要研究部分,音乐教师应激心理在课堂教学中对学生的学习状况及学习结果有着巨大的影响,同时也影响教师工作绩效和身心健康,本文就音乐教师课堂的应激表现及应激源的归因,探索音乐教师课堂应激心理自我调适的手段。

  14. The Psychology Intervenes to the Official Despondent Barrier Patient Psychology Adjustment Influence%护理心理干预对公务员抑郁障碍患者心理调适的影响

    王雪荣; 沈学武

    2011-01-01

    psychology adjustment had the remarkable treatment result,the neurology department nurses should grasp the psychological intervention the technology and the correlation theories knowledge,improve nursing service-pattern,and enhance psychological nursing the grade of service.

  15. Adjustment, psychological functioning and health-related quality of life in adults with primary malignant brain tumours

    Baker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The thesis has been prepared in a paper-based format and includes three papers: Paper 1, a systematic review; Paper 2, an empirical study; and Paper 3, a critical appraisal and reflection on the work.Paper 1 has been prepared for submission to Neuro-Oncology. The paper presents a systematic review of 21 studies concerning the relationships of demographic, clinical and mental health factors on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological functioning in adults with primary malignant...

  16. Typologies of Post-divorce Coparenting and Parental Well-Being, Parenting Quality and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting profiles and examine whether these profiles differentiate between levels of parents' well-being, parenting practices, and children's psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct post-divorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents' self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimensions: agreement, exposure to conflict, undermining/support, and division of labor. A three cluster solution was found and replicated. Parents in the high-conflict coparenting group exhibited significantly lower life satisfaction, as well as significantly higher divorce-related negative affect and inconsistent parenting than parents in undermining and cooperative coparenting clusters. The cooperative coparenting group reported higher levels of positive family functioning and lower externalizing and internalizing problems in their children. These results suggested that a positive coparenting alliance may be a protective factor for individual and family outcomes after parental divorce. PMID:26518292

  17. 高职毕业生就业心理问题与自我调适%Employment psychological problems and self-adjustment of higher vocational graduates

    莫丽

    2013-01-01

      随着就业制度和就业方式的变革,高职毕业生就业遇到了前所未有的压力。本文对高职毕业生常见的就业心理问题进行分析,提出有效的自我调适方法,对高职毕业生进行合理引导,使他们客观地认识社会、认识自己,做好充分的就业心理准备,把握好就业机会,有利于服务社会。%With the reform of employment system and employment ways, the employment of graduates had hitherto unknown pressure. The paper analyzes the common psychological problems of employment of graduates of higher vocational education, proposes the effective self-adjustment method, reasonably guide for college graduates, making them understand the society, understand their own objectively, do a good job of psychological preparation, a good grasp of employment opportunities, conducive to social services.

  18. 音乐对幼儿"自闭症"的心理调适功能%Psychological Adjustment Function of Music for Children with "Autism"

    李媛

    2015-01-01

    Children"autism" is a psychological disease in clinical medicine in recent years, showing a growing trend. Music, as an au-ditory art, plays a psychological adjustment role for autistic children, even a therapeutic effect through its unique entertainment func-tion. This paper makes a discussion from the relationship between children autism and music, the growing environment of children with autism and the particularity of music itself, as well as the role and significance of music on autism.%幼儿"自闭症",是近年临床医学的心理性疾病,并呈现出日趋增长的态势. 音乐,作为一门听觉艺术,可以通过其专有的娱乐功能对幼儿"自闭症"心理上的孤僻起到一定的调适,进而达到治疗的效用. 本文从幼儿"自闭症"与音乐的关系,自闭症患儿成长的周围环境与音乐本身所具有的特殊性以及音乐对自闭症的作用和意义等多维度展开讨论.

  19. 音乐对幼儿"自闭症"的心理调适功能%Psychological Adjustment Function of Music for Children with "Autism"

    李媛

    2015-01-01

    幼儿"自闭症",是近年临床医学的心理性疾病,并呈现出日趋增长的态势. 音乐,作为一门听觉艺术,可以通过其专有的娱乐功能对幼儿"自闭症"心理上的孤僻起到一定的调适,进而达到治疗的效用. 本文从幼儿"自闭症"与音乐的关系,自闭症患儿成长的周围环境与音乐本身所具有的特殊性以及音乐对自闭症的作用和意义等多维度展开讨论.%Children"autism" is a psychological disease in clinical medicine in recent years, showing a growing trend. Music, as an au-ditory art, plays a psychological adjustment role for autistic children, even a therapeutic effect through its unique entertainment func-tion. This paper makes a discussion from the relationship between children autism and music, the growing environment of children with autism and the particularity of music itself, as well as the role and significance of music on autism.

  20. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  1. 大学生违法犯罪与心理调适%Students criminal and psychological adjustment

    乔潮

    2012-01-01

    College students crimes issue has aroused widespread concern.Students criminal problems caused mainly because of misplaced values of life,cognitive theory of self-centered and family,social,and personal qualities of the combined effects of intrinsic.Is imperative that mental health promotion and popularization of knowledge,strengthen students self-cultivation,and to carry out psychological counseling and psychotherapy activities,to develop legal awareness,strengthen the legal system,to be a new generation of people with lofty ideals,moral integrity,good education and a strong sense of discipline.%大学生违法犯罪问题已经引起社会的广泛关注。造成大学生违法犯罪问题的原因,主要是人生观价值观的错位,认知上的自我中心论,以及家庭、社会、个人内在素质的综合影响。当务之急是宣传和普及心理卫生知识,加强大学生自我修养,开展心理咨询和心理治疗活动,培养法律意识,增强法制观念,做合格的"四有"新人。

  2. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety. PMID:23070955

  3. 图书馆流通馆员心理疲劳及其调适%The Psychological Fatigue of Library ’s Circulation Librarians and Its Adjustment

    周英姿

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the concept of the psychological fatigue of library’s circulation librarians, analyzes the causes of the generation of circulation librarians, and probes into the measures for adjusting the psychological fatigue of library’s circulation librarians.%阐述了流通馆员心理疲劳的概念,分析了流通馆员心理疲劳产生的原因,探讨了调适流通馆员心理疲劳的措施。

  4. Enrollment motivation and psychological adjustment of military medical graduate students%军医大学研究生入学动机与心理调适

    鲁娟; 王悦; 林志永

    2014-01-01

    To put forward appropriate psychological adjustment by exploring the enrollment motivation of military medical graduate students,the enrollment motivations of all graduate students in the military medical university were surveyed with self -made question-naire and analyzed in different genders ,specialties, grades, degrees, levels, etc.The results showed that the motivations were mainly extrinsic, including advancing diplomas(66.8%), personal interest(42.4%), pressure of obtaining employment(13.7%), parents requirements(12.9%), others’ suggestions(12.4%), going with the stream(8.6%), etc,which were different in different groups .%为探究军医大学研究生的入学动机,提出相应的心理调适对策,采用自制问卷调查某军医大学所有研究生入学动机,以性别、专业、年级、学位类型、培养层次等为自变量进行数理统计分析。结果显示军医大学研究生入学动机主要是提高学历(66.8%)、个人兴趣(42.4%);其次是逃避就业压力(13.7%)、家人要求(12.9%)、他人建议(12.4%)、随大流(8.6%)等,以外部动机为主,不同群体之间动机均有不同。

  5. Electric Power Employee Psychological Adjustment and Happiness Promotion in New Period%新时期电力员工心理调适与幸福感提升

    张正刚

    2014-01-01

    随着我国社会经济高速发展和电力体制改革不断深入,员工承担的职场压力越来越大,紧张的生活节奏与高强度的工作压力,使员工的心理和行为一时很难适应。企业有必要对员工心理状况有个系统了解,加强人文关怀和心理调适,提高员工的适应能力,让每一位员工都拥有阳光心态和健康幸福的生活。%Along with the high speed development of the social economy and the continuous deepening of the electric power system reform in our country, the pressure undertaken by staff is bigger and bigger. The nervous rhythm of life and the high strength work pressure make the psychology and behavior of the employee hard to adapt. It is necessary for enterprise to have a systematic understanding about the psy-chological status of the employee, strengthen the humanistic care and psychological adjustment, improve the adaptive capacity of staff, and let every employee have sunny psychology and healthy and happy life.

  6. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  7. The School Adjustment and Its Relationship with Psychological Separation of Undergraduates%大学生学校适应现状及其与心理分离的关系研究

    潘朝霞; 吴丹萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the school adjustment and its relationship with psychological separation of undergraduates. Methods A total of 800 undergraduates were measured by College Student Adaptability Inventory and Psychological Separation Inventory. Results ①There were no significant gender and grade differences on the general adjustment levels. Just on environmental general evaluation(t = -3. 578.P<001) and study adaptation(t = -2. 281 ,P<0. 05).the female students were significantly higher than male. Freshmen's environmental general evaluation were significantly higher than that of sophomore(F=3. 829,P< 0. 05)adjustment were significantly higher than freshmen's (F=6. 537.P<0. 01). ②The relationship between psychological separation and school adjustment was significant. Undergraduates' attitudinal independence and emotional independence to parent and school adjustment had negative effects whereas conflict independence to parent and school adjustment had positve effects. ③Psychological separation had significant influence on social anxiety beyond demographic variables(△R2 =9%). Conclusion Psychological separation affects school adjustment of undergraduates.but it is not the most important factor.%目的 了解大学生的学校适应状况及其与心理分离的关系.方法 采用大学生学校适应量表和心理分离量表对800名大学生实施测量.结果 ①大学生学校适应不存在显著的性别和年级差异,在环境适应(t=-3.578)与学习适应(t=-2.281)上女生明显好于男生;大一学生的环境总体认同水平显著高于大二学生(F=3.829,P<0.05),大三学生的职业选择适应水平显著高于大一学生(F=6.537,P<0.01);②大学生心理分离与学校适应相关显著.大学生学校适应与父母态度独立、情感独立有显著负相关;与父母的冲突独立有显著正相关;③在控制了人口统计学变量后,心理分离对学校适应有显著预测作用(△R2=9

  8. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    ... may need to work to help with family finances. All of the changes that they face can ... 2000). Goal instability and adjustment to physical disability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2). 251-265. This ...

  9. Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

  10. Can parents adjust to the idea that their child is at risk for a sudden death?: Psychological impact of risk for Long QT Syndrome

    Hendriks, K.S.W.H.; Grosfeld, F.J.M.; van Tintelen, J.P.; van Langen, I.M.; Wilde, A.A.M.; van den Bout, J.; ten Kroode, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,

  11. Can parents adjust to the idea that their child is at risk for a sudden death? : Psychological impact of risk for Long QT Syndrome

    Grosfeld, FJM; van Tintelen, JP; van Langen, IM; Wilde, AAM; van den Bout, J; ten Kroode, HFJ

    2005-01-01

    Can a parent adjust to the idea that its child is at risk for a sudden death? This question is raised by a diagnostic procedure in which children were tested for an inherited Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). This potentially life-threatening but treatable cardiac arrhythmia syndrome may cause sudden death,

  12. Adjustment among Immigrant Pupils in Sweden: Social, Emotional and Linguistic Variables and Their Relationship. Educational and Psychological Interactions, No. 55, February 1976.

    Ekstrand, Lars Henric

    The data collection procedures for a study of a population of 2400 immigrant children in Sweden are described. Means, dispersions and intercorrelations for 22 variables are given. Social and emotional adjustment figures are found to be higher than expected, and correlate only minimally with second language achievement figures. It is concluded that…

  13. Analysis on the Psychological Pressure of Obese Students in Primary and Secondary Schools and the Adjustment Strategies%中小学肥胖人群的心理压力分析及其调适策略

    胡春香

    2014-01-01

    随着我国物质水平的不断提高,肥胖已经成为威胁我国人民健康的重要因素,中小学生也不例外。肥胖除了会给我们的生理健康产生危害之外,还会对我们的心理健康造成影响,如产生抑郁和焦虑的情绪、人际关系方面的问题及较低的自我评价和自尊水平。但是,现有的关于青少年的肥胖问题主要是从生理方面进行研究,对心理方面的研究相对较少,笔者拟从肥胖对青少年造成的心理压力的角度分析,并提出相应的心理调适策略,为中小学心理健康教育提供理论依据。%With the increasing level of material life, obesity has become an important factor threatening the health of people, and primary and secondary school children are no exception. Obesity will not only cause harm to our physical health, but also to our mental health, such as depression and anxiety, interpersonal problems and lower levels of self-evaluation and self-esteem. However, the existing problem of obesity on adolescents is mainly studied from physiological aspects, and there are relatively little research on the psychological aspects of obesity. From the per-spective of psychological stress caused by obesity for adolescents, the writer proposes corresponding psychological adjustment strategies, aiming to provide theoretical basis for psychological health education in primary and secondary schools.

  14. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  15. Recursos psicológicos e ajustamento pessoal frente à incapacidade funcional na velhice Psychological resources and personal adjustment for functional incapacity in aging

    Dóris Firmino Rabelo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante do aumento da prevalência de condições crônicas na população idosa, crescente atenção é dada à identificação dos fatores psicológicos e sociais que podem afetar o bem-estar e a qualidade de vida de indivíduos mais velhos com incapacidades. Os recursos psicológicos e sociais de que o indivíduo dispõe são um caminho na determinação das implicações da incapacidade funcional na vida das pessoas afetadas. Esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar algumas maneiras pelas quais os indivíduos enfrentam suas perdas em funções físicas e papéis sociais e a extensão em que os recursos psicológicos e sociais operam sobre os efeitos negativos das condições crônicas na qualidade de vida dos idosos. Entre as variáveis explanatórias apresentadas estão o suporte social, as crenças e estados emocionais positivos, a regulação afetiva, o mecanismo de comparação social, o senso de auto-eficácia percebida, o mecanismo de seleção-otimização-compensação e mecanismos de coping.Considering the increase of chronic conditions in the elderly people, more attention has been given to the identification of the psychological and social factors that can affect the well-being and the quality of life of individuals with incapacities. The psychological and social resources that the individual disposes are clues to determine the implications of the functional incapacity in the life of affected people. This review has the objective to present some ways which the individuals face their losses in physical functions and social roles, and in which extension the psychological and social resources operate over the negative effects of the chronic conditions in the elderly quality of life. Among the explainable variables presented there is the social support, the positive emotional states and beliefs, the affectionate regulation, the mechanism of social comparison, the sense of self-sufficiency, the selection

  16. Analysis and Adjustment of College Students' Love Psychology%大学生恋爱心理分析与调适

    冯晓艳

    2011-01-01

    Moral educators in colleges and universities should understand the characteristics of college students' lover psychology,in order to avoid the negative influence of love affairs on the students' growth.This paper puts forward a comprehensive analysis meth%高校德育工作者应了解大学生的恋爱心理特征,掌握调适大学生心理的方法,以避免恋爱问题对学生成长造成负面影响。本文提出了较为全面的恋爱问题分析方法和心理引导措施,以期为学生工作中处理相关问题提供有益借鉴。

  17. 浅议当代大学生心理问题调适%Brief Comment on the Psychological Problems and Adjustment of Contemporary College Students

    张能云

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,the number of college students is increasing rapidly.With the enhancement of legal consciousness in the college,school rules has become more and more flexible and loose,and college students' personality is further highlighted.Although the college is increasingly attaching great importance to the mental health of college students,the group of psychological problems among college students is getting bigger and bigger.%近几年,高校学生容量骤然剧增,随着高校法制意识的增强,校规校纪也日趋灵活、宽松,大学生的个性得以进一步凸现。尽管高校对大学生的心理健康日益重视,但大学生中存在心理问题的群体却愈来愈大。

  18. Adjustment of the Short Track Speed Skaters'Psychology in Starting%短道速滑运动员起跑心理状态的调整

    耿丽; 刘翠佳

    2011-01-01

    比赛中短道速滑的起跑,对于整个比赛的过程和最终取得成绩起着至关重要的作用。运动员起跑时不良起跑心理状态表现为训练和比赛动机障碍、过度紧张性情绪障碍、焦虑性情绪障碍、抑制障碍,提出采取消除紧张情绪、消除焦虑和畏惧情绪、生物反馈法、集中注意力、念动训练法等方法与手段调整运动员赛前的心理状态。%The starting is crucial for a short track speed skater to perform through a competition and catch the final result. The skaters'bad psychology in starting shows the motivational perplexity of training and competition, the emotional handicap of overstrain and anxiety, the disorder of inhibitory control. The paper suggests clearing up their feelings of nervousness, anxiety and fear with the methods and means of biofeedback, focusing attention, ideomotion training.

  19. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  20. An Analysis of College Personnel Administrators' Psychological Pressure and Its Adjustment%高校人事管理工作者心理压力分析及调适

    胡丽琴

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis of college personnel administrators' psychological pressure concerning the traits of college personnel administration. It holds that college personnel administrators should learn to co-exist with pressure. They should reinforce study to raise their working abilities and apply proper methods to release and adjust work pressure to enjoy themselves in working based on a clear recognition and a correct assessment of themselves.%文章结合高校人事管理工作的特点,分析了高校人事管理工作者主要面对的心理压力,认为高校人事管理工作者应学会与压力共存,正确认识和评价自己,加强学习,提高工作能力,适当运用一些方法来缓解和调适工作压力,享受工作乐趣。

  1. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence

  2. Revenge and Psychological Adjustment After Homicidal Loss

    van denderen, Mariette; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence

  3. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  4. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  5. Vietnamese Amerasians: Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychotherapy.

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)

  6. Effect of Comprehensive Psychological Intervention for the Adjustment of Depression in Community Elderly%综合心理干预对社区老人抑郁情绪调整的效果分析

    刘爱芹; 张红燕; 孙红霞; 邵君; 胡良奎

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effeet of comprehensive psychological intervention for the adjustment of depres‐sion in community elderly .Methods:236 cases over the age of 60 in community were randomly divided into experi‐mental group (118 cases)and control group (118 cases)during the January to July 2011 ,two groups by self psycho‐logical health status and Hamilton Depression volume table (HAMD)and compared the results .Results:The experi‐mental group received comprehensive psychological intervention ,the compliance of the old for mastery of health knowledge and was significantly better than the control group (t=2 4.5 ,P<0 0.5) .After the intervention ,the elderly of experimental group had lower ratio of problems than the control group in three aspects including physical health , mental health and social life .Pre-experiment and port -experiment HAMD scores in two groups were compared , the score d-value of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group ,the difference was significant (t=‐4 4.3 ,P<0 0.1) .Conclusion:Comprehensive professional psychological health education can ef‐fectively intervene mental health problems ,reduce the negative depression mood and improve the quality of life in community elderly people .%目的:探讨综合心理干预对社区老人抑郁情绪调整的效果。方法:2011年1-7月对社区60岁以上老人236例,随机分成综合心理干预实验组和对照组各118例,将两组采用自编的健康知识掌握评分量表、生活质量状况问卷和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定,将结果进行对比。结果:实验组接受综合心理干预后老年人在躯体健康、心理健康、社会生活3个维度存在问题的比率都低于对照组;实验前后两组 HAMD评分比较,实验组实验前后评分差值明显高于对照组,差异有显著性意义(t=‐44.3,P<00.1)。结论:专业综合心理干预能有效提高社区老年人的

  7. Psychological Profile Of High Jumpers

    Joawad Ali; Najmuddin Khan; Mohd. Arshad Bari

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was structured to develop the psychological profile of High Jumpers. For the purpose of this study 14 male High Jumpers participated in all India athletic meet in Chennai were taken as the subjects. The age of the subjects were ranged from 18 to 25 years. For developing psychological profile six psychological parameters were selected i.e. sports competition anxiety, sports achievement motivation, stress, social adjustment, body-image and sports morality. To acquire ...

  8. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  9. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  10. Adjustable collimator

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  11. 心理学知识技能培训对护士心理弹性和工作压力调适的效果观察%Observation on effect of psychology knowledge and technique training on adjustment of nurses' mental resilience and working pressure

    竺雪红; 应晓薇; 刘昱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of psychology knowledge and technique training on adjustment of nurses' mental resilience and working pressure. Method 210 nurses receive psychology knowledge and technique training. Assess the result by Nurse Job Stressors Questionnaire, Nurses' Master on Common Psychology Knowledge and Technique Scale and Adversity Quotient Self-test Table before and after training. Result There is significant difference on nurses' working pressure, psychology knowledge and technique and adversity quotient between the results before and after psychology knowledge and technique training. Conclusion Psychology knowledge and technique training can help nurses improve mental resilience and relieve working pressure.%目的 观察心理学知识技能培训对护士心理弹性和工作压力调适的效果.方法 对210名护士进行心理学知识技能培训,采用护士压力源量表、护士常用心理知识技能掌握评价表、逆境商数自测表分别在培训前后对护士进行测评.结果 心理学知识技能培训后,护士工作压力、心理知识技能、逆境商数测评较培训前有显著改善.结论心理学知识技能培训可提高护士心理弹性、降低工作压力.

  12. Psychological Treatment

    ... needs. Psychological treatments used to treat IBS include psychotherapy (dynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well-designed treatment studies of IBS supports ...

  13. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    the assignment. Design/methodology/approach - Using a two-flow sample of US expatriates in Germany and German expatriates in the USA, we examine and compare the psychological and socio-cultural adjustment of each group of executives. Findings - Controlling for the length of assignment, we find that...... German expatriates in the USA were better adjusted, both socio-culturally and psychologically, than American expatriates in Germany. These results support the asymmetry hypothesis and call into question previous findings attesting to the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment. Originality......Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurdle...

  14. Positive psychology

    Carr, Alan.

    2005-01-01

    Clinical Psychology has traditionally focused on psychological deficits and disability. It has rarely privileged clients’ resilience and resourcefulness. The critical psychology tradition in the UK has highlighted the shortcomings of this approach (Johnstone, 2000; Newnes, Holmes, & Dunn, 1999, 2001). The new positive psychology movement aims to develop a knowledge base focusing on human strengths to complement deficit based approaches (Snyder & Lopez, 2002). This message of po...

  15. Positive Psychology

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. Psychological Treatments

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  17. Social Psychology, Unemployment and Macroeconomics

    Darity, William A; Arthur H. Goldsmith

    1996-01-01

    In a conventional macroeconomic model, following a policy change, as nominal wages adjust the economy returns to its original real levels of employment, output, and unemployment. This description of events ignores the social psychological consequences of exposure to unemployment. On theoretical grounds, unemployment is expected to damage psychological health, which in turn harms personal productivity. Empirical work supports both of these propositions. This paper presents a 'behavioral' macro...

  18. 高职生就业心理问题分析及调适对策%Analysis of the Employment Psychological Problems and Adjustment of Higher Vocational Students

    盛祖华

    2012-01-01

    高职生就业时存在着焦虑、不满、自卑、从众、攀比、盲目等心理问题,其成因是对自我和对环境认知度较低。要消除高职生就业时的心理问题必须从学校教育着眼,加强对学生的职业心理品质培养和职业生涯规划教育是解决高职毕业生心理问题的有效方法。%There are anxiety, resentment, inferiority, conformity, competition, blindness and other psychological problems in the employment of the higher vocational students, which is because of the low self and environmental awareness. To eliminate the psychological problems in the employment of the higher vocational students, it must focus on the school education. It is an effective way to train the students' professional psychological quality and help them plan the professional carrer in order to solve the psychological problems.

  19. 应用脑电功率谱分析意境作业心理调控的特异性%Specificity analysis of psychological adjustment of Imaginary Working based on electroencephalographical power spectra

    王卫卫; 魏泽仁; 胡庆川; 李神奕; 王燕平; 韩爱庆; 贾德贤; 张维波; 魏玉龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analysis the electroencephalographical (EEG)specificity of psychological adjustment of Imaginary Working (IW)by comparing the EEG power of trained subjects and untrained subjects.Methods University students were recruited as the subjects,randomly and equally divided into experimental group and control group.The students of experimental group were trained Imaginary Working,with no intervention on those of control group.The changes of powers during the process of Imaginary Working were synchronously detected by EEG,furthermore,the delta(δ)band,theta(θ) band,alpha(α)band,and beta (β)band were compared and analyzed from three aspects of general points,time interval,and different leads.Results There were very significant differences in δ,θ,αand βbands between the two groups at both Imaginary Working (IW)and resting state (RS)(P 0.05).The absolute power of αband showed statis-tical differences in lead of F7,C3,C4,P3,P4,T3,T4,T5,T6,PZ,O1 and O2(P <0.05),while that of βband showed significant difference in lead of FP2,F7,F8,P3,P4,T5,T6,C4,PZ,O1 and O2 (P <0.05).The highest power of αand βband both appeared in the lead of O1 and O2.Conclusion Imag-inary Working induced the rhythmic response of δ,θ,αand βband,especially the rhythm alternated fast waves and slow waves.It is suggested that Imaginary Working keep the brain in rest state,and relieve tension,and adjust negative emotions.%目的:通过检测接受和未接受意境作业训练的受试者脑电功率,分析意境作业心理调控的脑电特异性。方法选择在校大学生为受试对象,采用随机对照的方法,分为实验组和对照组,比例为1∶1,对实验组受试者进行意境作业培训,对照组不做任何干预,意境作业内容不告知。应用脑电同步检测意境作业过程中的脑电变化,并从总体、时段、空间3方面对δ、θ、α、β4个频带比较分析;时段分为4个静息态(0~3)和3个意境作业(1~3

  20. [Psychological violences].

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  2. Psychological Contracts: Are They Still Relevant?

    Maguire, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence from a banking organization illustrated how change has an impact on psychological contracts. Concluded that maintenance of contracts makes an important contribution to relationships but organizations need to adjust psychological contracts to meet the needs of the work force. (Contains 58 references.) (JOW)

  3. Toward a Psychological Taxonomy of Work

    Dawis, Rene V.; Lofquist, Lloyd H.

    1975-01-01

    A new approach to the construction of a psychological taxonomy of work is presented. Based on the Theory of Work Adjustment, occupational aptitude patterns and occupational reinforcer-pattern clusters are cross-classified to develop psychologically homogeneous groups of occupations (Taxons). (Author)

  4. Ajustamento psicológico e perspectiva de velhice pessoal em adultos com deficiência física Ajuste psicológico e la perspectiva percibida del envejecimiento personal en adulto y adultos moyores con discapacidad física Psychological adjustment and personal aging perspective in adults and older adults with physical disability

    Marineia Crosara de Resende

    2009-12-01

    exige capacidad adaptante, y resistencia para hacer frente a acontecimientos de vida y a los desafíos personales, sociales y ambientales producidos por la discapacidad.We carried out an investigation to analyze the relationships between perceived psychological adjustment and perspective of personal aging in adult and aged people with physical disability. Materials and Method: 90 participants, both genders, aged 25 to 84 , answered questionnaires asking for information on socio demographic characteristics and disability; the Sheppard Inventory of attitudes toward own aging; and a scale assessing perceived psychological adjustment. Results: The indexes of personal adjustment were moderate and high. The women had the lowest scores. There were observed positive correlations between positive psychological adjustment and positive attitudes toward own aging. Those that had congenital disability and reported higher psychological adjustment showed more positive perspectives of personal aging. Conclusion: Aging with physical disability is a complex process that demands adaptive competence, and resilience to cope with life events and the personal, social and environmental challenges produced by disability.

  5. Loneliness and Adjustment to Old Age.

    Hansson, Robert O.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Two studies examined loneliness in older adults (N=177). Loneliness was found to be related to poor psychological adjustment and to dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. It was also related to fears, expectations, and personality characteristics likely to inhibit the restoration of personal support networks after a stressful life…

  6. Narrative Psychology

    Hiles, D.; Čermák, Ivo

    London: Sage Publication, 2008, s. 147-164 ISBN 978-1-4129-0780-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : narative analysis * interpretive approaches to naratives * transparency Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. Sport Psychology.

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  8. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  9. Crenças irracionais, ajustamento psicológico e satisfação de vida em estudantes universitários Irrational beliefs, psychological adjustment and life satisfaction in college students

    Adriana da Matta

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crenças irracionais (CIs são interpretações ilógicas da realidade que colaboram para o desenvolvimento de perturbações emocionais. A premissa deste estudo é que as CIs podem estar relacionadas ao ajustamento emocional e à satisfação de vida. Estudantes universitários (n=157, responderam ao Questionário de Crenças Irracionais, à Escala de Crenças Irracionais, à Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo e à Escala de Satisfação de Vida. As CIs apresentaram correlações positivas com dois fatores da Escala Fatorial de Neuroticismo (Vulnerabilidade e Ansiedade e negativa com idade e com satisfação de vida. Os resultados levam a reflexões importantes sobre a efetividade da Terapia Cognitiva, em especial da Terapia Racional Emotivo-Comportamental, para o ajustamento emocional e para a satisfação de vida dos clientes, que poderiam ser medidas indiretas de sucesso terapêutico.Irrational beliefs (IB are illogical interpretations of reality that contribute to the development of emotional problems. This study aims to show that irrational beliefs in college students (n=157 might be related to emotional adjustment and life satisfaction. The participants have completed Irrational Beliefs Questionnaire, Neuroticism Factorial Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale. The IB showed positive correlation with two factors of the Neuroticism Factorial Scale (Vulnerability and Anxiety, and negative correlation with age and life satisfaction. The results suggest important considerations on the effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy, especially of Rational Emotive Therapy, for the emotional adjustment and life satisfaction of the clients, which could be an indirect measure of the therapeutic success.

  10. The Perils of "Adjustment Disorder" as a Diagnostic Category

    Daniels, John

    2009-01-01

    "Adjustment disorder" occupies a peculiar position in the diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) straddling the boundary between normal and abnormal psychology. A more human-centered approach in counseling offers a defense of "normal" adjustment as…

  11. Psychological maltreatment.

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  12. 网络时代民办高校青年教师职业心理冲突透析与调适%Young teachers in private colleges occupation psychological conflict dialysis and adjustment of network times

    仇建宁

    2013-01-01

    The network bring many new changes,new features to the education,counselors in Colleges and universities are private universities vulnerable groups marginalized,the personal occupation development is facing a huge dilemma.Good social recognition,effective management system and the concept and the improvement of mental welfare initiatives will stimulate and promote private college counselors work achievements,enhance their psychological capital and occupation of happiness.%网络给教育带来诸多新变化、新特点,民办高校辅导员在高校是被边缘化的弱势群体,其个人职业发展面临着巨大的困境。良好的社会认可、切实的管理体制和理念以及完善心理福利供给等举措必将充分激发和促进民办高校辅导员工作取得成效,提升其心理资本和职业幸福感。

  13. The Investigation to the Effect of Yoga on the Psychological Adjustment to the Female Teachers in Colleges and Universities%瑜伽对高校女教职工心理调节影响的调查研究

    王金林

    2014-01-01

    以部分高校参加瑜伽锻炼女教职工为研究对象,通过文献资料法、调查问卷法、数理统计法和实验法对参与锻炼高校女教职工的心理和生理情况进行分析,为身心压力较大的高校女教职工制定适宜的计划,每天督促按时完成,帮助其缓解身心的压力,为服务高校工作提供参考。%Selecting part of college female faculty participating in yoga exercises as the object , using methods of literature data, questionnaire, mathematical statistics and experiment , this paper analyzes the psychological and physiological situation of college female faculty who taking part in exercise , to establish suitable plan for female teachers with high physical and mental pressure , to urge them to finish every day, to help them relieve the pressure of body and mind .The study aims to provide reference for colleges and universities work.

  14. Relations between Preference for Solitude and Psychological Adjustment in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence:A Moderated Mediating Model%儿童中期和青春期早期独处偏好与心理适应之关系:有调节的中介效应

    刘俊升; 周颖; 李丹; 陈欣银

    2015-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children remove themselves from opportunities for social interaction. Most previous research has focused shy children (who withdraw due to a social fear and wariness), whereas less is known about children who may simply have apreference for solitude. Empirical studies have found that although preference for solitude appears to be a relatively benign form of social withdrawal in Western societies, children who prefer solitude or aloneness tend to report higher level of adjustment problems in China. However, most of the studies conducted in Western societies have relied on children’s self reports, whereas the findings in China have been based primarily on peer evaluations of preference for solitude. These methodological inconsistencies reduce the comparability of the results. Thus, the first aim of the present study was to examine the relations between Chinese children’s self-reports of preference for solitude and indices of psychological maladjustment. According to the contextual-developmental perspective, cultural context plays an important role in the development of individual social and behavioral functioning. Whereas most Western societies emphasize independence and self-expression, Chinese society places greater emphasis on interdependent ties among individuals and group harmony. As a result, children who prefer aloneness and maintain distance from the group may be viewed as anti-collective, and thus would be more likely to be rejected by peers. Such negative feedback from peers may, in turn, place unsociable children at a higher risk for psychological maladjustment. In this regard, peer relationships would be expected to play an important mediating role in the relations between preference for solitude and psychological adjustment. As compared to the middle childhood, a significant developmental change during pre-adolescence is the increased value placed on privacy and alone time. Adolescents may begin to respect unsociable individuals

  15. Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Adjustments among Malaysian Gifted Learners: Implication towards School Counseling Provision

    Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid; Ishak, Noriah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Gifted learners have special characteristics which make them unique individuals. However, just like their normative group, gifted learners experience some psychological issues that hinder their ability to adjust in new environments. This study aims to examine levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and adjustments (psychological, social and…

  16. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  17. Cognitive psychology

    Anderson, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The author considers the following areas of cognitive psychology: architectural principles of the human mind; knowledge representation; spreading activation; control of cognition; memory; learning; language; and prediction. He tries to provide pointers to the field at large learning the view of his book the architecture of cognition (Anderson 1983) for those who require a more detailed treatment. 76 references.

  18. Psychological IVF

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...

  19. Space psychology

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  20. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing one's thoughts and feelings and is ... stem cell research? What is the clinical trials process? Get support Ask us anything Get a peer ...

  1. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  2. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  3. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most important point to remember is ... to rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can ...

  4. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an A...

  5. Evolutionary Psychology

    Heylighen, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach to the study of the mind that is founded on Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. It assumes that our mental abilities, emotions and preferences are adapted specifically for solving problems of survival and reproduction in humanity’s ancestral environment, and derives testable predictions from this assumption. This has important implications for our understanding of the conditions for human well-being.

  6. Educational psychology

    Sunil Patil

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the more recent developments and the present state of research into educational psychology in German speaking countries. Particular emphasis is given to research on: parental upbringing and its effects on child development; the examination of socialization effects within and across different scbool systems; studies on teaching-leaming processes and on social interaction in the classroom; the systematic promotion of the development of cognitive abilities and motives in stud...

  7. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  8. 再创造式音乐治疗对慢性精神分裂症患者始动性与心理调适的影响%Effects of recreative music therapy on initiative and psychological adjustment of chronic schizophrenia patients

    常超华; 刘世兴; 刘芳峰; 曹伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore recreative music therapy on improvement of initiative and psychological adjustment of chron-ic schizophrenia patients. Methods:80 patients with chronic schizophrenia were randomly selected and divided into observation group (n=40) and control group (n=40). All the patients received conventional drug therapy and occupational and recreational treatment;besides, observation group also received recreative music therapy. Before and after the treatment, inpatient psychiatric rehabilitation outcome scale ( IPROS) and scale for assessment of negative symptoms ( SANS) were used to assess. Results:Before the treatment, differences of SANS and IPROS scores between the two groups had no statistical significance (P>0. 05);however, after the treatment, the SANS and IPROS total scores as well as each factor score of observation group were better than those of control group (P0.05),治疗后观察组患者的SANS、IPROS总分及各个因子得分均优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:再创造式音乐治疗有利于改善慢性精神分裂症患者的始动性与心理调适。

  9. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... and psychological symptoms. It can worsen pain, make sleep difficult, cause loss of energy, take away your ... Administration for Community Living, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 20201. Grantees undertaking projects ...

  10. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... behaviors as well as other aspects of your life. Depression can cause physical and psychological symptoms. It ... loss of energy, take away your enjoyment of life and make it difficult for you to take ...

  11. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... as other aspects of your life. Depression can cause physical and psychological symptoms. It can worsen pain, make sleep difficult, cause loss of energy, take away your enjoyment of ...

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... of your life. Depression can cause physical and psychological symptoms. It can worsen pain, make sleep difficult, ... affecting about 1 in 5 people. There are treatments available to ease the symptoms of depression using ...

  13. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  14. Clinical Psychology in Pakistan

    Riffat Moazam Zaman

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the state of psychology in Pakistan, with special reference to clinical psychology. The issues of statutory recognition, credentials required for practice, public perception of psychology, the practice of indigenous "clinical psychology", sources of payment for psychological services, and relations between psychologists and psychiatrists are reviewed.

  15. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Weihong Huang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  16. Attitude toward aging seniors and psychological well-being

    Lorenna Cláudia Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate attitudes and psychological well-being of the elderly in Santo Antônio de Jesus-Ba. This is a descriptive, field, quantitative, where the sample was non-probabilistic, consisting of 54 seniors. The elderly showed positive attitudes towards old age and a positive sense of psychological well-being. Attitudes can act as coping mechanisms in the face of losses of old age by increasing the psychological adjustment.

  17. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  18. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E.; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having exper...

  19. The Expatriates Workforce in Malaysia: Challenges of Acculturation Adjustment

    Hassan, Sarah Amir

    2009-01-01

    The following research centers on the expatriates as work force in Malaysia and the challenges of acculturation adjustment. The research reviews challenges encountered by expatriates and psychological and socio-cultural adjustment. A qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews used to acknowledge the expatiates’ experience in each interview. My objective in this research was mainly to highlight challenges faced by expatriates working in Malaysia, especially in the context of cros...

  20. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  1. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  2. Parental Locus of Control and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…

  3. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  4. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include grieving, taking ... treatment options. Related pages What is a complete vs incomplete injury? What emergency procedures occur following an ...

  5. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... thoughts and feelings and is something that takes time. The goal of adjusting is to rebuild one's ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in ...

  6. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include ... a peer mentor Advocate for change Fundraise with Team Reeve Champions Committee Volunteering About Us Our story ...

  7. Occupational Adjustment of Immigrants

    Zorlu, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves significantly with the duration of residence. The extent of this initial disadvantage and the rate of adjustment vary across immigrant groups according to the transferability of skills associated with t...

  8. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  9. Introduction to Psychology.

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  10. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  11. Tinnitus and psychological comorbidities

    Zirke, Nina

    2014-01-01

    To explain pathogenetic reasons for tinnitus cochlear, acustic or neurophysiological reasons are discussed. Regardless of the origin of tinnitus, psychological factors are attributed to the chronification of tinnitus. Psychological comorbidities seem to decrease the opportunity of tinnitus habituation. Studies have demonstrated that patients with high tinnitus related distress are frequently accompanied by psychological comorbidities. We examined the prevalence of psychological disorders ...

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... Depression, however, is a serious medical disorder that affects your thoughts, feelings, physical health and behaviors as well as other aspects of your life. Depression can cause physical and psychological symptoms. It can worsen pain, make sleep difficult, cause loss of energy, take away your ...

  13. Factors That Contribute to the Adjustment of International Students

    Mesidor, Jean Kesnold; Sly, Kaye F.

    2016-01-01

    Leaving home to attend college is an important milestone for college students. However, the transition from home to college can be challenging, especially for students studying abroad. In this article, the authors explore factors that contribute to the academic, cultural, social, and psychological adjustments of international students. Adjustment…

  14. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesi...

  15. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH)

  16. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  17. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi; Prof. N. D. Dhoot

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  18. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... 7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Newly paralyzed > How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and ...

  19. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  20. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  1. PSYCHOLOGY OF FAMILY BUSINESS

    Taylyakova, Feruzahon

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  2. The psychology of Risk

    ASSAILLY, Jean Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at a comprehensive review of scientific knowledge on the psychology of risk. We shall present three theoretical approaches of this concept: 1. The psychological perspective, 2. The biological perspective, 3. The contextual perspective.

  3. Adler's Concept of Social Interest: Theory, Measurement, and Implications for Adjustment.

    Crandall, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a new, short measure of social interest and examines its relations to a variety of measures of adjustment and psychological well-being. Also summarizes the meaning of Adler's concept of social interest and his theorizing concerning its influence on adjustment. (Author/SS)

  4. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which exhibited high…

  5. Acculturation and Adjustment among Immigrant Chinese Parents: Mediating Role of Parenting Efficacy

    Costigan, Catherine L.; Koryzma, Celine M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting efficacy beliefs as a mediator of the association between acculturation and adjustment. The sample consisted of 177 immigrant Chinese mothers and fathers with early adolescent children in Canada. Acculturation was assessed bidimensionally as Canadian and Chinese orientations. A latent psychological adjustment variable…

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Adjustment among First Year College of Education Students

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…

  7. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  8. Psychology of Religion

    ULU, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  9. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J. (Jiří); Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, D. (Dalibor)

    2010-01-01

    psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychother...

  10. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the ...

  11. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334. ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  12. Psychology in Mexico

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  13. Nursing and Psychological Treatments

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ameringer, Suzanne; Harrison, Tondi; Phillips, Christopher M.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2005-01-01

    This brief article presents a comment on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. In his article, Barlow pointed to the need "to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession" by changing the terminology of practice in the health care context from psychotherapy to psychological treatments and suggested that the only…

  14. Psychology in India

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  15. Psychology and Literature.

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  16. Stability and Change in Adjustment Profiles Among Chinese American Adolescents: The Role of Parenting.

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Asian American adolescents are often depicted as academically successful but psychologically distressed, a pattern known as the achievement/adjustment paradox. In a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents (54 % females), we identified three distinct patterns of adjustment in early adolescence, middle adolescence, and emerging adulthood: the well-adjusted group, which was the largest, exhibited high achievement and low psychological distress; the poorly-adjusted group exhibited poor achievement and moderate distress; and the paradox group exhibited relatively high achievement and high distress. More than half of the adolescents remained in the same profile over time. Adolescents with supportive parents were more likely to stay well-adjusted, and those with "tiger" parents were more likely to stay in the paradox group over time. The present study focused on the critical role of parenting in early adolescence, highlighting variations in Chinese American adolescents' adjustment in multiple domains over time. PMID:26022414

  17. Credit Valuation Adjustment

    Hoffman, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk has become a topical issue since the 2007 Credit Crisis, particularly for its impact on the valuation of OTC derivatives. This becomes critical when the credit risk of entities involved in a contract either as underlying or counterparty become highly correlated as is the case during macroeconomic shocks. It impacts the valuation of such contracts through an additional term, the credit valuation adjustment (CVA). This can become large with such correlation. This thesis outlines the...

  18. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  19. Physicians' adjustment to retirement.

    Virshup, B; Coombs, R H

    1993-01-01

    We address the questions, How do physicians adjust to and enjoy their retirement? What factors contribute to the well-being of retired physicians? A 60-item questionnaire mailed to 238 retired physicians in Los Angeles County with a 41.6% response rate assessed health, standard of living, relationships, activities, emotional difficulties, and general enjoyment. Health often improved after retirement, as did relationships with spouses and children. Standard of living was comfortable or better ...

  20. Testing a Social Ecological Model for Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Relations between political violence and child adjustment are matters of international concern. Past research demonstrates the significance of community, family and child psychological processes in child adjustment, supporting study of inter-relations between multiple social ecological factors and child adjustment in contexts of political violence. Testing a social ecological model, 300 mothers and their children (M= 12.28 years, SD = 1.77) from Catholic and Protestant working class neighborh...

  1. The role of perceived parental socialization practices in school adjustment among Norwegian upper secondary school students

    Studsrød, Ingunn; Bru, Edvin

    2009-01-01

    Background. Lack of adjustment or school failure is a concern to educators, educational and school psychologists as well as parents, but few studies have focused on school adjustment during late adolescence. Moreover, studies have yet to explore associations between parenting and school adjustment among upper secondary school students. Aim. The primary objective of this study is to explore the relative and unique influence of parental support, behavioural control and psychological control ...

  2. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  3. Quantitative Methods in Psychology: Inevitable and Useless

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantit...

  4. Is pre-retirement planning always good? An exploratory study of retirement adjustment among Hong Kong Chinese retirees.

    Yeung, Dannii Y

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of four types of pre-retirement planning activities (financial, health, social life, and psychological planning) on retirement adjustment were investigated in a sample of Chinese retirees residing in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two phases of data collection, pre-retirement and post-retirement phases. Pre-retirement planning behaviors and psychological health (including attitudes toward retirement, adjustment to retirement, anxiety toward retirement, psychological well-being (PWB), and psychological distress) six months before and after retirement were measured. The final sample consisted of 90 Hong Kong Chinese retirees. Compared with the pre-retirement phase, retirees exhibited more positive attitudes toward retirement and better adjustment after they had actually retired, whereas their level of anxiety and psychological distress remained low over time. Pre-retirement planning was found to be predictive of changes in psychological health, though its impact was not always positive depending on the type of planning activities. In particular, greater psychological planning was associated with positive attitudes toward retirement and better PWB, whereas more social life planning activities were associated with greater psychological distress. In addition to financial and health planning, psychological planning activities should also be prompted to facilitate a smooth adjustment to retirement. PMID:23072256

  5. Chronic diseases in children and adolescents-some psychological characteristics

    Nada POP JORDANOVA; Fustić, Stojka; Zorčec, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of children suffer from chronic diseases, which demand careful adjustment, and the coping and active role of all involved in the treatment. Psychological problems in this population are increased by the long duration of procedures, specific diet and low physical activity. In this study various psychometric instruments are used to evaluate the psychological characteristics of children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes m...

  6. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  7. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  8. The Design of Fiscal Adjustments

    Alesina, Alberto Francesco; Ardagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers three results. First, in line with the previous literature, we confirm that fiscal adjustments based mostly on the spending side are less likely to be reversed. Second, spending based fiscal adjustments have caused smaller recessions than tax based fiscal adjustments. Finally, certain combinations of policies have made it possible for spending based fiscal adjustments to be associated with growth in the economy even on impact rather than with a recession. Thus, expansionary ...

  9. Technical Document for Price Adjustment

    Zheng Tian; Mulugeta Kahsai; Randall Jackson

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the basis for the price adjustment mechanisms in a time series IO model. The essentials of the price adjustment and price change propagation algorithms are presented, along with a matrix permutation algorithm that facilitates the implementation of the price adjustment mechanism. The Matlab function is provided.

  10. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  11. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  12. Psychological Interventions in Dermatology

    Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor-patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive ...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychologica...

  14. Culture and psychological distress

    William W. Dressler; Mauro Campos Balieiro; José Ernesto dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological) influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. In this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distres...

  15. Psychology of advertising

    Vochomůrková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    This bachelory thesis is attending to problematics of psychology of advertising. In theoretical part, it is trying to describe advertising and beginning of psychological research in historical view. It shows advertising as the component of marketing mix and so the part of marketing strategy, it definates advertising and its elements and its communication channels. The work indroduces basic psychological findings: motivation, attention, perception and learning, which are straighly outspread...

  16. Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Andy Lane

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...

  17. Psychological violence against children

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  18. Psychology. 5th edition

    Martin, G. Neil; Carlson, Neil R.; Buskist, William

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive, lively and engaging introduction to the fascinating study of the subject. The fifth edition of the best-selling Psychology is a contemporary text that will captivate all psychology students. The authors describe and explore every major area of psychology and present the latest findings, along with clear evaluation of controversial theories and models, to give a rigorous and critical grounding in the subject. Over 420 new references in this thoroughly updated fifth editi...

  19. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-01-01

    "The first 'Workshop Qualitative Research in Psychology' took place in Blaubeuren, Germany from October 20-22, 2000. The meeting was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology of the University of Tübingen, Germany. The purpose of the meeting was to begin a network of qualitative psychologists. Thirty-two participants got to know each other, presented and discussed their research, discussed potential further developments within the field of qualitative psychology, and inspired each ot...

  20. Virtue and Empirical Psychology

    Robertson, Kyle Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the relationship between empirical social psychology and the philosophical tradition of virtue ethics. It argues that social psychology is conceptually important for virtue ethics, that their relationship has been misunderstood by some prominent philosophers, and that a wide variety of evidence from social psychology is useful and inspirational for virtue ethics. First, it offers several novel criticisms of a well-known critique of virtue ethics. This critique claim...

  1. The psychology of cyberspace

    Suler, John

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this online hypertext book is to explore the psychological dimensions of environments created by computers and online networks. It is intended as an evolving conceptual framework for understanding the various psychological components of cyberspace and how people react to and behave within it. You can find the latest version of "The Psychology of Cyberspace" by clicking here: http://www.rider.edu/users/suler/psycyber/psycyber.html

  2. Economics, psychology, and happiness

    Koyasu, Masuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the relationships between economics, psychology, and happiness. Economics was originally a moral philosophy which focused on some psychological processes of economic events. However, nineteenth century economists tried to change the nature of economics from that of being a moral philosophy to that of a more specialized scientific area. Some of the twentieth century psychologists have tried to reinstate economics as a moral science with the help of psychological cons...

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY POTENTIAL

    Aleksey, Al

    2014-01-01

    The publication presents the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the model of socio-psychological personality in the context of the determinants of innovation. On the basis of provisions on socio-axiological characteristics of the person that has the potential-vector nature, the constructed formal scheme psychological «charge-discharge» in the chain of life manifestations of personality. In the framework of the psychological theories of personality, consciousness, activity developed the id...

  4. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    Van Lieshout Ryan J; MacQueen Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in im...

  5. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  6. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state) that...... vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  7. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  8. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  9. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  10. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  11. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's effe

  12. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  13. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  14. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  15. Psychology in Japan.

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. PMID:26892102

  16. The Psychology of Globalization.

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…

  17. Simulation and psychology

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  18. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  19. Friends' Knowledge of Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Adjustment: Accuracy, Bias, and the Influences of Gender, Grade, Positive Friendship Quality, and Self-Disclosure

    Swenson, Lance P.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that close friends may be knowledgeable of youth's psychological adjustment. However, friends are understudied as reporters of adjustment. The current study examines associations between self- and friend-reports of internalizing and externalizing adjustment in a community sample of fifth-, eighth-, and eleventh-grade youth.…

  20. Theorising context in psychology

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  1. Measuring Sojourner Adjustment among American students studying abroad.

    Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2011-11-01

    The literature on "Sojourner Adjustment," a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups. PMID:22125351

  2. Pregnancy as a psychological event

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapor-Stanulović Petronila

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Apart from physiological and somatic changes, pregnancy is a complex phenomenon which also includes psychological and social changes. Pregnancy, especially the first one, represents a powerful psychological event. This paper deals with pregnancy as a psychological event, considering psychological changes in the course of pregnancy as a stressful event. Psychological changes during pregnancy Pregnancy is always associated with changes in psychological functioning of pregnant women...

  3. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  4. Machines in psychology? Spaceships in psychology!

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Šolcová, Iva; Stuchlíková, I.; Mazehóová, Y.

    2014. [PhD existence IV: česko-slovenská psychologická konference (nejen) pro doktorandy a o doktorandech. 19.05.2014 – 20.05.2014, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spaceflight * isolation * confinement * qualitative research Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  5. Adjusting Curricular Design to

    Ryan Egan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing learners’ ability to self-regulate their own learning has been an ideal sought after by researchers and practitioners alike. Over the past 40 years a plethora of educational psychology research on self-regulated learning (SRL has flooded the literature. In this article I attempt to consolidate key theories from this literature base and propose a 6-point strategy to CREATE a culture of SRL. I will argue that instructors must communicate proximal and long-term goals that have been negotiated by a community of learners, substantially reward all positive aspects of the learning process, judge and reward the learning process by assigning elaborative learning assessments, realistically attribute success and failure to appropriate processes, and tune ineffective strategies and goals to allow the curriculum to evolve in accordance with learner difficulty and success.Enseigner aux apprenants la capacité d’autoréguler leur propre apprentissage est un idéal que poursuivent les chercheurs et les praticiens. Au cours des quarante dernières années, il y a eu surabondance d’études sur l’autorégulation de l’apprentissage dans la littérature sur la psychologie de l’éducation. Dans cet article, l’auteur tente de regrouper les principales théories tirées de cette documentation et de proposer une stratégie composée de six éléments contribuant à la création d’une culture de l’autorégulation. Il soutient que les enseignants doivent communiquer les objectifs à court et à long terme convenus par les apprenants, reconnaître de façon marquée tous aspects positifs du processus d’apprentissage, évaluer et reconnaître ce processus en donnant des travaux élaborés afin de mesurer l’apprentissage, attribuer de façon réaliste les succès et les échecs aux processus appropriés et adapter les stratégies et buts inefficaces afin de permettre l’évolution du curriculum en tenant compte des difficultés et des r

  6. Stress and Psychological Symptoms in Single and Dual Parent Families.

    Williams, Rebecca A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    Stress, coping, and psychological adjustment were compared in single (N=37) and first-time married (N=179) mothers and their young adolescent children. Adolescents completed their questionnaires in school and parents completed theirs at home. Questionnaires measured adolescent stress, behavior problems, perceived competence, and coping; parental…

  7. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  8. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  9. Executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in women.

    Wingo, Jana; Kalkut, Erica; Tuminello, Elizabeth; Asconape, Josefina; Han, S Duke

    2013-01-01

    Many students have difficulty adjusting to college, and the contribution of academic and relational factors have been considered in previous research. In particular, depression commonly emerges among college women at this time and could be related to poor adjustment to college. This study examined the relationship between executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in college women. Seventy-seven female participants from a midsize urban university completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, College Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and four subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: the Trail-Making Test, Design Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Color-Word Interference Test. After controlling for IQ score, hierarchical regression analyses showed that subjective and objective measures of executive functioning and depressive symptoms were significantly related to college adjustment problems in academic, relational, and psychological areas. The current study provides evidence for a relationship between cognitive abilities, psychiatric symptoms, and college adjustment. PMID:23397999

  10. Metric-adjusted skew information

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a...... bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 < p = 2 of the WYD-information is a special case of...... (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  11. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  12. Discursive social psychology now.

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. PMID:21790666

  13. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  14. Psychological response of accident

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Quantitative methods in psychology: inevitable and useless

    Aaro Toomela

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian-Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause-effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments.

  16. Psychological considerations in future space missions

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

  17. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  18. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  19. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  20. Diet and psychological health.

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  1. Culture and psychological distress

    William W. Dressler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. In this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distress in an urban area in Brazil. In this theory and method, culture is conceptualized as consisting of shared cultural models that are imperfectly realized in mundane behaviors. The link of cultural model and individual behavior is referred to as "cultural consonance". Here we show that cultural consonance in two different domains is associated with psychological stress, independently from covariates and possible confounding variables. Implications of the results for future research are also discussed.

  2. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  3. Psychological interventions in dermatology

    Piyanjali de Zoysa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor-patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy.

  4. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  5. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  6. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of...... endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition is...

  7. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what are...

  8. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  9. Integrative Psychology: the Return to the Subject of Psychology

    Vladimir V. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative, make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of psychic reality.

  10. INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE RETURN TO THE SUBJECT OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Vladimir V. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  11. Information Technologies in Psychology

    Hauserová, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    This work is concerned with kreitler's psychological method. The goal of this work is toautomatize this method by using computer. This work deals with part of this method calledMeaning dimensions. You will find short description of technologies, which were used.The result of this work is vocabulary and rules that are needed for correct classification ofMeaning dimensions. The work was made simultaneously with thesis written by Bc. Jozef Ličko Information technologies in psychology.

  12. Perspectives on counselling psychology

    Cross, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty participants (113 Chartered Counselling Psychologists, 167 trainees in Counselling Psychology) took part in the project, conducted over 4 years, which aimed at explicating perspectives on what constitutes the discipline of Counselling Psychology. A range of studies employing diverse methodologies are reported which contribute to the overall aim of the project. Research was conceptualised and executed within the constructivist framework and drew heavily upon the Kellian ...

  13. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating...

  14. Psychology for Economists

    Keizer, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodox economics focuses on the analysis of the way the economic force or motivation operates, thereby abstracting from the functioning of other primary forces or motivations, such as the social and the psychic motivation. By assuming perfect rationality psychic problems are ignored. This text discusses six approaches in psychology – cognitive, behaviourist, biological, psychodynamic, humanistic and social psychology - to find out what orthodox economics needs in order to extend its analysi...

  15. PSYCHOLOGY: FOR WHOM?

    SERGIO TRUJILLO*

    2003-01-01

    This essay invites to rethink the place of psychology as a science looking to clarify its reaches and itslimits thorough the light of complexity of human being. Starting from biological, psychological andsocial interactive constitution of people, some questions are drawn related to the Western scientificparadigm and its determination of the possibilities of complex thought. From there, some suggestivealternatives are the presented and the five reflexion nuclei are the formulated from which th...

  16. Societal psychology in Norway

    Phelps, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is comprised of a diverse collection of theoretical and empirical papers from Norway. The choice of societal psychology as a means of organizing these contributions will be discussed in this introduction. Although the term is infrequently used internationally, it has been adopted as the closest translation for the Norwegian disciplinary boundary samfunnspsykologi, which has structured each main contributor’s experience of psychology as graduate ...

  17. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Pérez S., Juan Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Based upon thesis by Heidegger and Lacan, the author differentiates psychology from psychoanalysis, taking as a starting point the impropriety of including the latter within the fundamental project of the epoch of science. Such a project is characterized by the decision of constructing scientific knowledge about everything the epoch of science defines under the status of existent. On the contrary, psychology is thought within the project of the epoch, having and object of knowledge substantia...

  18. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY IN COLOMBIA

    LUIS FLÓREZ-ALARCÓN

    2006-01-01

    An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...

  19. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include interface flexibility, the reproducibility of virtual experience, and the opportunity for on-line monitoring of performance. Applications of VEs are many an...

  20. Avian psychology and communication.

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the i...

  1. Psychology In Argentina

    Modesto M. Alonso

    2016-01-01

    A summary on Psychology as science and profession in Argentina is presented. The report includes a historical review on places, criteria and results of psychologists'education, aspects of their professional practices; quantitative data on universities, graduates and students related to sociodemographic variables; characteristics of research activities, publications, legal frameworks and types of institutions where psychologists work. Some distinctive features of Argentine psychology are menti...

  2. The psychology of advertising

    Novotná, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of knowledge in the field of psychology of advertising. Given the breadth of the issue, the author devotes only a selected area of psychology of advertising. All work is designed according to a logical sequence. The theoretical part proceeds from the explanation concepts of marketing, marketing communication, and then communication mix, from which it gets to the advertising and its specific definitions. This work describes the difficulties with making a...

  3. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  4. Evolutionary health psychology

    Dickins, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    For the last decade and a half the discipline of Evolutionary Psychology (EP) has been developing with great success. The first collection of significant papers was published in 1992 (Barkow et al.) and recently a landmark handbook has been produced summing the progress so far, as well as setting an agenda for future study (Buss, 2005). Unlike other areas within Psychology, EP extends its interest to all behaviours, rightly seeing them as part of an evolved phenotype, and health has not escap...

  5. Psychology in Advertising

    Jedličková, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis summarizes general knowledge of psychology action in the advertising area and mass communication of companies with consumers. It outlines historical development of advertisement as a tool for communication and information of cummunity and its interprenetration and stimulation of the target group. It defines general psychological terms as a preception, an attention, a motivation or associations, which have the fundamental importance to consumer's behavior. It describes the process o...

  6. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011). PMID:21809179

  7. Male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction treatments

    Martins, Mariana Veloso; Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Pedro, Juliana;

    2016-01-01

    for psychological maladjustment. Protective factors were related to the use of coping strategies that involve seeking information and attribution of a positive meaning to infertility, having the support of others and of one's spouse, and engaging in open communication about the infertility problem......BACKGROUND: Similarly to women, men suffer from engaging in fertility treatments, both physically and psychologically. Although there is a vast body of evidence on the emotional adjustment of women to infertility, there are no systematic reviews focusing on men's psychological adaptation to...... infertility and related treatments. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The main research questions addressed in this review were 'Does male psychological adaptation to unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment vary over time?' and 'Which psychosocial variables act as protective or risk factors for...

  8. Mother Positivity and Family Adjustment in Households with Children with a Serious Disability

    Trute, Barry; Benzies, Karen M.; Worthington, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Only limited attention has been given to parent coping resources in the positive adjustment of families of children with a disability. This study is the first to explore maternal positivity as a psychological coping resource related to family adjustment in these families. Consistent with broaden-and-build theory and prior positivity research, positivity was operationalized through a ratio of positive to negative affect scores. We employed longitudinal tracking over a 1 year interval. Children...

  9. Adjusting to life after treatment: distress and quality of life following treatment for breast cancer

    Costanzo, E S; Lutgendorf, S.K.; Mattes, M L; Trehan, S; Robinson, C B; Tewfik, F; Roman, S L

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and anecdotal findings suggest that the completion of cancer treatment may be marked by heightened distress and disrupted adjustment. The present study examined psychological adjustment during the 3 months following treatment among 89 women with stages 0–III breast cancer. Participants completed measures of depression, cancer-related anxiety, cancer concerns, and quality of life at three time points: during treatment, 3 weeks following the end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatmen...

  10. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: Thi...

  11. Relationship between Negative Mental Adjustment to Cancer and Distress in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Seok, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Won-Jung; Lee, Yong Sang; Park, Cheong Soo; Oh, Young-Ja; Kim, Jong-Sun; Chang, Hang-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported that over a third of cancer patients experience significant psychological distress with diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mental adjustment to cancer as well as other biologic and demographic factors may be associated with their distress. We investigated the relationship between mental adjustment and distress in patients with thyroid cancer prior to thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods One hundred and fifty-two thyroid cancer patients were included in t...

  12. Which is Easier, Adjusting to a Similar or to a Dissimilar Culture?

    Selmer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The intuitively paradoxical research proposition that it could be as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a similar as to a dissimilar host culture is tested in this exploratory study. Based on data from a mail survey, a comparison of American business expatriates in Canada and Germany...... respectively did not reveal any difference in their extent of adjustment. Besides a significant between-group difference in cultural distance, confirming that the American expatriates perceived Canada as more culturally similar to America than Germany, no significant inter-group differences were detected for...... general adjustment, interaction adjustment, work adjustment and psychological adjustment.  Neither was there a difference in the time-related variable; time to proficiency. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that the degree of cultural similarity/dissimilarity may be irrelevant as to how easily...

  13. Psychological Adjustment of the Employment of the Poor Students,Research of Enhancing the Employability——Based on SWOT%贫困大学生就业心理调适,提升就业能力探究——基于SWOT分析

    徐建平; 魏继华; 郝红霞

    2012-01-01

    Poor college students,as a special group of college students,their employment psychology existed varying degrees problems influenced by the severe impact of the current employment situation.This article from the definition of poor students in colleges,with the SWOT analysis employment psychology of poor students to conduct a comprehensive analysis,and through the employment framework to build their own government,society,universities,families and poor students are integrated into one system,to enhance the employability of the poor students.%贫困大学生作为大学生中的特殊群体,受高校毕业生就业形势严峻的影响,其就业心理存在不同程度的问题。本文从高校贫困生的界定入手,借助SWOT分析法对贫困大学生的就业心理等进行全面剖析,并通过构建政府、社会、高校、家庭和贫困生自身的"五位一体"的就业框架体系对其进行调适和应对,从而提升贫困大学生的就业能力。

  14. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  15. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among o...

  16. INTERNATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY: AT THE CROSSROADS FOR THE FUTURE OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  17. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  18. [Ibn Sina--psychology and psychological disorders].

    Cerić, I; Mehić-Basara, N

    1997-01-01

    Ebu Ali Husein Ibn Ali Ibn Sina (or Avicenna) was primarily a philosopher with amusing knowledge, who dealt in all aspects of art of medicine, astronomer, poet, musician and psychologist. This giant with an encyclopedic knowledge has dealt in almost all scientific branches or praxis with the great success. Numerous statements of his have been cornerstone of many sciences for centuries; and some of them are (in the era of computers and Internet) still current. The best known treatise on medicine of his is El-Kanun, consisting of five volumes, wherein all medical achievements (including psychology, psychiatry and neurology) of that period were described clearly. In his psychology, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) analyses the essence of human soul, mind, psychical streams, intellectum, dreams and prophecy, man's desires etc. in details. It is unnecessary to point out how much these items are actual in the contemporary psychology. Ibn al-Nefis has described systematically the symptoms and recovery of "head sick" (including headaches, cerebral sick like cranitis, letargy, coma, demency, melancholy, insomnia, nightmares, epilepsy, appoplexy, paralysis, spasm and many others) in his Mujez al-Kanun, that is synopsis of Ibn Sina Kanun. We need much time to see magnificance of this philosopher, that is best known as the great one among the physicians. His writings could be found in whole Bosnia, but there were many few that would study him and his works. It is out task to enable the future generations not only to know those works exist, but, also, to realize the essence of this marvelous genius; because there are very few people that can be compared to him. PMID:9324566

  19. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  20. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  1. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. PMID:22777820

  2. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    interplay between institutionalised individualism and interconnectedness. The focus is on the vertical and horizontal relationships within the socio-cultural psychological framework combining positioning theory with the  life course perspectives. Moreover there is focus on the diaspora processes for the...... South Asian young adults. The paper analyses the discourses of intergenerational care as they intersect with everyday life practices and psychological realities of persons. The results indicate changes in the care pattern and deals with the dilemmas of solidarity, which are in contrast to dominant....... Furthermore interplay of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  3. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology. PMID:27251381

  4. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. PMID:21992501

  5. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  6. Divorce and the Divine: The Role of Spirituality in Adjustment to Divorce

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J.; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of three spiritual responses to divorce for psychological adjustment: appraising the event as a sacred loss/desecration, engaging in adaptive spiritual coping, and experiencing spiritual struggles. A sample of 100 adults (55% female) was recruited through public divorce records. Most appraised their divorce as a sacred…

  7. Study of Personal and Social Adjustment Ability of the Disabled Pupils

    Ryabova, Natalia Vladimirovna; Parfyonova, Tatyana Aleksandrovna

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of experimental work aimed at studying personal and social adjustment of a child with disabilities. Analysis of domestic and foreign psychological and educational literature allowed us to determine the key concept of the study, namely "social and personal orientation", as a trait of a human's personality,…

  8. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  9. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  10. Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Mother-Child Dyads: Implications for Children's Adjustment

    Shipman, Kimberly; Schneider, Renee; Sims, Chandler

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated maternal emotion socialization in physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads (N = 63 dyads) to examine the relation between maternal support in response to children's emotional displays and children's psychological adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Child participants…

  11. Let it be : Expatriate couples' adjustment and the upside of avoiding conflicts

    Erp, K.J.P.M. van; Giebels, E.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the moderating effect of conflict avoidance on the relationship between conflict and psychological adjustment among 45 expatriate couples at two points in time. We propose a model based on the actor-partner interdependence model, which assumes both intrapersonal and interperso

  12. Let it be: expatriate couples' adjustment and the upside of avoiding conflicts

    Erp, van Kim J.P.M; Giebels, Ellen; Zee, van der Karin I.; Duijn, van Marijtje A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the moderating effect of conflict avoidance on the relationship between conflict and psychological adjustment among 45 expatriate couples at two points in time. We propose a model based on the actor–partner interdependence model, which assumes both intrapersonal and interperso

  13. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K; Johansen, C

    2010-01-01

    participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...... use of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects.......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...

  14. Psychology of programming

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  15. Role of engineering psychology

    Savayan, A.

    1984-09-18

    Engineers in all fields encounter one of the chief paradoxes of the scientific and technical revolution: machines and robots, having freed man from heavy physical labor have placed psychological burdens on him that sometimes exceed the capabilities of a specific individual. This is especially true in highly complex facilities that strain individual coping powers. Occupational selection is a necessity in the modern era of social development. The young science of engineering psychology is showing the way in operator safety in complex situations, although its recommendations are not always given the consideration they merit.

  16. The psychology of creativity

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  17. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  18. [Transpersonal psychology -- psychology of consciousness: chances and problems].

    Walach, Harald; Kohls, Niko; Belschner, Wilfried

    2005-01-01

    Transpersonal psychology represents a perspective which has gained importance in psychological research and clinical practice over the last years. This paper offers an overview on the history and the sources of transpersonal psychology. Additionally, important themes and topics of transpersonal psychology will be discussed such as a) the importance of spirituality in psychotherapy and counselling, b) spirituality as a resource for maintaining and regaining health, c) spiritual experiences as an avenue to consciousness, d) the delimination of extraordinary states of consciousness and "spiritual crises". In the next paragraph specific problems and critical points of transpersonal psychology are presented. Among them are the discussion of the question whether experience free of language is at all possible as well as the question how notions coming from eastern traditions can be translated into western psychology. Finally, some positive aspects of transpersonal psychology will be presented, and we submit that transpersonal psychology should be taken seriously in a scientific way. PMID:16136444

  19. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  20. Patterns of psychological distress in mothers of preterm infants.

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; Santos, Hudson; Levy, Janet; White-Traut, Rosemary; O'Shea, T Michael; Geraldo, Victoria; David, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Mothers of preterm infants experience significant psychological distress, with elevated levels of inter-correlated depressive, stress, anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms. In a sample of racially and ethnically diverse mothers of preterm infants, we identified differing patterns of psychological distress during infant hospitalization and examined the effect of these psychological distress patterns on longitudinal trajectories of each psychological distress measure and on maternal perceptions of the child over the first year of the infant's life. Mothers of preterm infants (N=232) completed five questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, stress due to infant appearance, and stress due to parental role alteration during enrollment during the neonatal hospitalization, discharge, and at 2, 6, and 12 months of age adjusted for prematurity. Latent class analysis on the enrollment psychological distress variables allowed us to identify five sub-groups of mothers exhibiting similar patterns of psychological distress, differing primarily in degree and type: low distress, moderate distress, high NICU-related distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress. These classes continued to show different longitudinal trajectories for the psychological distress measures through 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class and, to a lesser degree, mothers in the high depressive and anxiety symptom class remained at risk of significant psychological distress one year after discharge and had less positive perceptions of their child (greater worry and higher perceptions of child vulnerability). In conclusion, distinctive sub-groups of mothers during hospitalization had different patterns of psychological distress throughout the 12-month period and may require different interventions in the NICU. PMID:26495909

  1. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  2. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-01-01

    The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP) and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on ...

  3. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  4. The foundational principles as psychological lodestars: Theoretical inspiration and empirical direction in rehabilitation psychology.

    Dunn, Dana S; Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, the Foundational Principles articulated by Wright (1983) and others guided theory development, research and scholarship, and practice in rehabilitation psychology. In recent decades, these principles have become more implicit and less explicit or expressive in the writings and work of rehabilitation professionals. We believe that the Foundational Principles are essential lodestars for working with people with disabilities that can guide inquiry, practice, and service. To introduce this special issues, this commentary identifies and defines key Foundational Principles, including, for example, Lewin's (1935) person-environment relation, adjustment to disability, the malleability of self-perceptions of bodily states, and the importance of promoting dignity for people with disabilities. We then consider the role the Foundational Principles play in the articles appearing in this special issue. We close by considering some new principles and their potential utility in rehabilitation settings. Readers in rehabilitation psychology and aligned areas (e.g., social-personality psychology, health psychology, rehabilitation therapist, psychiatry, and nursing) are encouraged to consider how the Foundational Principles underlie and can shape their research and practice. PMID:26881302

  5. Intimate partner violence, coercive control, and child adjustment problems.

    Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee

    2015-02-01

    Coercive control is a relationship dynamic that is theorized to be key for understanding physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research examines how coercive control in the context of physical IPV may influence child adjustment. Participants were 107 mothers and their children, aged 7 to 10 years. In each family, mothers reported the occurrence of at least one act of physical IPV in the past 6 months. Mothers reported on physical IPV and coercive control, and mothers and children reported on children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Coercive control in the context of physical IPV related positively with both mothers' and children's reports of child externalizing and internalizing problems, after accounting for the frequency of physical IPV, psychological abuse, and mothers' education. This research suggests that couple relationship dynamics underlying physical IPV are potentially important for understanding how physical IPV leads to child adjustment problems. PMID:24923886

  6. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children.

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-06-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed. PMID:24976740

  7. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence.

    Cooper, M L; Shaver, P R; Collins, N L

    1998-05-01

    Attachment style differences in psychological symptomatology, self-concept, and risky or problem behaviors were examined in a community sample (N = 1,989) of Black and White adolescents, 13 to 19 years old. Overall, secure adolescents were the best-adjusted group, though not necessarily the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Anxious adolescents were the worst-adjusted group, reporting the poorest self-concepts and the highest levels of symptomatology and risk behaviors. In contrast, avoidant adolescents reported generally high levels of symptomatology and poor self-concepts but similar levels of risk behaviors to those found among secures. Mediation analyses suggested that the observed differences in problem behaviors were at least partially accounted for by the differential experience of distress symptoms (primarily hostility and depression) and by social competence. Finally, patterns of attachment effects were similar across age, gender, and racial groups, with some important exceptions. PMID:9599450

  8. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  9. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  10. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  11. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  12. Political Psychology of European Integration

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  13. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  14. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  15. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  16. Advances in Environmental Psychology

    Nasar, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...

  17. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  18. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  19. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  20. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  1. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  2. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  3. Giftedness and Psychological Type.

    Hawkins, John

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

  4. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  5. Let it be: expatriate couples' adjustment and the upside of avoiding conflicts.

    van Erp, Kim J P M; Giebels, Ellen; van der Zee, Karen I; van Duijn, Marijtje A J

    2011-10-01

    This research examines the moderating effect of conflict avoidance on the relationship between conflict and psychological adjustment among 45 expatriate couples at two points in time. We propose a model based on the actor-partner interdependence model, which assumes both intrapersonal and interpersonal effects, to address simultaneously the effects of one's own and the other's avoidance behavior. We found substantial support for our model, especially for expatriate spouses. As expected, and only for expatriate spouses, avoidance moderated the conflict-adjustment relationship such that both one's own and one's counterpart's avoidance behavior diminished the negative effect of conflicts. Because these effects were observed only at T2 and psychological adjustment decreased from T1 to T2, our research suggests that the impact of expatriation-associated interaction particularly manifests itself in the long run. PMID:21516524

  6. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, stud- ies of the good language learn...

  7. Dancers' perceptions of psychological skills

    Stephanie J. Hanrahan

    1996-01-01

    Psychological skills have been shown to influence the quality of sporting performance and the enjoyment of participation. Although dance obviously involves physical activity and places emphasis on performance it is not traditionally included in discussions of sport psychology. Before investigating the effects of a psychological skills training program on dancers, it is imperative that it is first determined which psychological skills may already be used by dancers, and which skills may be of ...

  8. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    Xuan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners’ initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners’ interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners’ psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners’ situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners’ psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners’ psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners’ habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.

  9. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  10. Gender identity: a multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment.

    Egan, S K; Perry, D G

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the relations between components of gender identity and psychosocial adjustment. The aspects of gender identity assessed were (a) feelings of psychological compatibility with one's gender (i.e.. feeling one is a typical member of one's sex and feeling content with one's biological sex), (b) feelings of pressure from parents, peers, and self for conformity to gender stereotypes. and (c) the sentiment that one's own sex is superior to the other (intergroup bias). Adjustment was assessed in terms of self-esteem and peer acceptance. Participants were 182 children in Grades 4 through 8. Felt gender compatibility (when operationalized as either self-perceived gender typicality or feelings of contentment with one's biological sex) was positively related to adjustment, whereas felt pressure and intergroup bias were negatively associated with adjustment. The results provide new insights into the role of gender identity in children's well-being, help identify sources of confusion in previous work, and suggest directions for future inquiry. PMID:11444482

  11. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  12. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  13. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  14. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  15. Transpersonal: The New Educational Psychology.

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford

    This article lists some of the major ideas and topics of interest in transpersonal psychology and illustrates them with examples of transpersonal education applied to schools. Transpersonal psychology includes psychological aspects of such things as new world views, altered states of consciousness, an impulse toward higher states, self-realization…

  16. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  17. Sprinkling Psychology Courses with Peace.

    Wagner, Richard V.; Bronzaft, Arline L.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that psychology teachers help promote a more active consideration of the psychology of peace and war in the nuclear age by including the topic in their courses. Specific ways to incorporate this issue into psychology courses are offered. (Author/JDH)

  18. Social Justice and School Psychology

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  19. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  20. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  1. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  2. Strategy and Methodology to Diagnose and Treat “Psychological Cold” of Employees

    Guang Xu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Through researching and studying “psychological cold” of the enterprise employees, it has been revealed that the depression, mainly “psychological cold”, is gradually permeating the life and work of employees and significantly impact the operation and management of enterprises. The ill psychological states appear on the employees in enterprises, such as psychological tension, pain and depression, emotional garbage as well as confidence lost, thus incurring the following problems like efficiency decrease, low morale, accident increase and cost rise. From the origin of the “psychological cold” and by combining the reality, this passage suggests a series of methods to manage the psychology of employees, with the aim to solve their psychological problems, relieve their psychological pressure and adjust their psychological emotion. This breaks through not only Chinese traditional way to deal with individual psychology, which is furtive and implicit, but also the ambit of the research patents of socialists and psychologists, thus becoming the new topic which the HR managers in enterprises and culture researchers is emphasising and practising.

  3. Application of Chaos Theory to Psychological Models

    Blackerby, Rae Fortunato

    This dissertation shows that an alternative theoretical approach from physics--chaos theory--offers a viable basis for improved understanding of human beings and their behavior. Chaos theory provides achievable frameworks for potential identification, assessment, and adjustment of human behavior patterns. Most current psychological models fail to address the metaphysical conditions inherent in the human system, thus bringing deep errors to psychological practice and empirical research. Freudian, Jungian and behavioristic perspectives are inadequate psychological models because they assume, either implicitly or explicitly, that the human psychological system is a closed, linear system. On the other hand, Adlerian models that require open systems are likely to be empirically tenable. Logically, models will hold only if the model's assumptions hold. The innovative application of chaotic dynamics to psychological behavior is a promising theoretical development because the application asserts that human systems are open, nonlinear and self-organizing. Chaotic dynamics use nonlinear mathematical relationships among factors that influence human systems. This dissertation explores these mathematical relationships in the context of a sample model of moral behavior using simulated data. Mathematical equations with nonlinear feedback loops describe chaotic systems. Feedback loops govern the equations' value in subsequent calculation iterations. For example, changes in moral behavior are affected by an individual's own self-centeredness, family and community influences, and previous moral behavior choices that feed back to influence future choices. When applying these factors to the chaos equations, the model behaves like other chaotic systems. For example, changes in moral behavior fluctuate in regular patterns, as determined by the values of the individual, family and community factors. In some cases, these fluctuations converge to one value; in other cases, they diverge in

  4. An adjustable contracted CI method

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  5. Self-Adjusting Stack Machines

    Hammer, Matthew A; Chen, Yan; Acar, Umut A

    2011-01-01

    Self-adjusting computation offers a language-based approach to writing programs that automatically respond to dynamically changing data. Recent work made significant progress in developing sound semantics and associated implementations of self-adjusting computation for high-level, functional languages. These techniques, however, do not address issues that arise for low-level languages, i.e., stack-based imperative languages that lack strong type systems and automatic memory management. In this paper, we describe techniques for self-adjusting computation which are suitable for low-level languages. Necessarily, we take a different approach than previous work: instead of starting with a high-level language with additional primitives to support self-adjusting computation, we start with a low-level intermediate language, whose semantics is given by a stack-based abstract machine. We prove that this semantics is sound: it always updates computations in a way that is consistent with full reevaluation. We give a comp...

  6. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  7. Adjustment or updating of models

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  8. Psychological predictors of outcome after gastric banding for morbid obesity

    Larsen, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem in Western societies. Although surgery is considered the treatment of choice in morbid obesity, the outcome is variable and weight regain may occur in the long-term postoperative period. The aim of this thesis was to examine psychological predictors of treatment outcome after Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) for morbid obesity. LAGB is a purely restrictive form of bariatric surgery designed to induce weight loss by limiting food c...

  9. Psychological Aspects of Geographical Moves : Homesickness and Acculturation Stress

    Tilburg, van, T.G.; Vingerhoets, Ad

    2006-01-01

    Mobility of mankind has increased enormously in the past few decades. People leave their homes and native countries for business and study, for vacation or to flee from unsafe conditions like wars and natural disasters. In all cases the sojourner faces a dual challenge of breaking with the familiar home environment and adjusting to new surroundings. This book deals with the psychological and health consequences of leaving the familiar home and the process of creating a new one. The focus is m...

  10. Investigating the psychological processes underlying ego-depletion

    Chow, Tak-sang; 周德生

    2014-01-01

    Self-control is arguably one of the most beneficial adaptations of the agentic self. It enables humans to alter spontaneous, impulsive responses in order to fit one’s goals and standards. Variations in self-control capacity are strong predictors of a wide array of individual and societal outcomes including psychological adjustment, academic achievement, physical health, financial condition, and criminality. In this respect, investigating how to prevent self-control failures is a promising way...

  11. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  12. The Transition to Junior High School: A Longitudinal Study of Self-Esteem, Psychological Symptomatology, School Life, and Social Support.

    Hirsch, Barton J.; Rapkin, Bruce D.

    1987-01-01

    Studied the psychological well-being of 159 white and black students during the transition to junior high school. Group differences in adjustment were examined with respect to race, sex, and academic competence. Adjustment patterns were found to be complex and highly differentiated. (PCB)

  13. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. PMID:10653614

  14. Traversing psychological distance.

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. PMID:24726527

  15. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  16. The psychology of autonomy.

    2016-05-01

    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. PMID:27150409

  17. Psychological aspects of literacy

    Livija Knaflič

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a complex cultural and social phenomenon with multiple effects on both, the individual and social levels. This article presents multidimensional model of literacy with linguistic, cognitive, socio-cultural, developmental and educational dimensions. A use of literacy is a literacy event and it means the use and/or presence of all dimensions of literacy. The use of new technologies and the emergence of digital literacy brought about a new meaning of literacy. There are two main processes to stress: (a the writing (text is more and more dominated by images and (b the book is going to be replaced by the screen. These facts raise at least two questions: what is the future of literacy and what are psychological, social and cultural effects of these changes? The aim of this article is to present a psychological view of literacy skills with a very modest aspiration to offer a better understanding of library users and non users.

  18. The Role of Attachment Styles, Perceived Discrimination, and Cultural Distance in Adjustment of German and Eastern European Immigrants in the Netherlands

    Polek, Elzbieta; Woehrle, Joachim; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of European immigrants in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the role of the cultural distance between native and host cultures as it pertains to the adjustment of immigrants has been examin

  19. Psychosocial adjustments in patients with prostate cancer from pre-diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment.

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated changes in psychosocial adjustment over time and its associated factors in prostate cancer patients. A total of 69 patients with prostate cancer were surveyed at pre-diagnosis, 1 month and 6 months post-treatment. The questionnaires distributed to the patients consisted of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the collected data. The results of adjustments to psychological distress, the domestic environment and the social environment worsened post-treatment. However, the adjustment to health-care orientation was worst at the time of pre-diagnosis and improved during post-treatment. Patients who perceived an unfavourable health status reported poor adjustment in psychological distress. Patients exhibiting poor urinary function poorly adjusted to the domestic environment. Patients with sexual dysfunction exhibited poor adjustment to the social environment. Patients with low education demonstrated poor adjustment to health-care orientation. Further studies should assess the psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer patients and provide interventions following pre-diagnosis. PMID:25307968

  20. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Asrie Yihun; Prakash Anand; Fikadu Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in a...

  1. Social Psychology and Multiculturalism

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    Questions of multiculturalism give rise to lively and important debates in many countries and in many spheres of life. Diversity is considered desirable and necessary for the development of secure ethnic identities and positive intergroup relations, but is also challenged for being inequitable and a threat to social cohesion. After considering conceptions of multiculturalism and relevant country differences, the paper discusses social psychological research on multicultural attitudes and the ...

  2. The psychology of poverty

    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the psychological experience of poor people and the pastoral responsibility to guide them towards poverty transition. A qualitative analysis of the narratives of three participants is compared to the enthralling history of Florcy Mabuza who in her book, Poverty mentality: The root of poverty, explains the dangers of a spiritual and emotional mindset that precipitates and feeds the plight of poverty. Using a literature study to interpret the narratives as well as a me...

  3. Existential Coaching Psychology

    Darren Langdridge

    2012-01-01

    In this article I seek to elaborate a model of existential coaching psychology that is both grounded in existentialphenomenological philosophy but also informed by work in coaching. To date, many attempts to develop anexistential approach to coaching have – in my view – described an approach to coaching that is either indistinguishablefrom existential counselling and psychotherapy or a rather crude form of technical eclecticism.In this article, I discuss the key elements of existential coachi...

  4. Uveitis and Psychological Stress

    Kanfer, R; Wallace, G.; Keane, P. A.; Anna C Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the eye and is often associated with systemic autoimmune disease. A role for the involvement of psychological stress in autoimmune disease has been widely demonstrated. However, uveitis is not classified as an autoimmune disease, and a definite or direct cause has yet to be identified, although infection may be involved. Many uveitis patients retrospectively report stressful life events occurring prior to the onset or recurrence of uveitis. Howev...

  5. PHENOMENON OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DEFENSE

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psychological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organization (style), sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of defense mechanis...

  6. Psychology's epistemological identity

    Matej Černigoj

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the article is first to present three different, mutually irreducible approaches to the study of human psyche, and then to offer a conceptual model that allows their meaningful integration. I begin the article with the common knowledge about three main determinants of human behavior: genetic inheritance, social environment, and one's own activity, which I then link with Stevens' (1998) conceptualization of three appropriate epistemologies in psychology. Nomothetic epistemol...

  7. psychology and economics

    Rabin, Matthew

    1987-01-01

    [Introduction] Several developments have joined to stimulate economists to think about issues that have been on the forefront of psychological research. First, the information revolution in economics has focused economists on the subtle nature of individual information processing. Secondly, developments in game theory have so successfully identified new solution concepts that for almost any pattern of market behaviour there exists a reasonable theory consistent with that pattern. lntros...

  8. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  9. Childhood psychological problems in school settings in rural Southern Africa.

    Melissa A Cortina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.

  10. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include interface flexibility, the reproducibility of virtual experience, and the opportunity for on-line monitoring of performance. Applications of VEs are many and varied, but are especially beneficial where experience can be tailored via augmentation, and where dangerous training situations can be avoided. The use of programmable agents has great future potential in relation to training and interpersonal skill development, also perhaps in clinical diagnosis and therapy. Progress in VE usage in psychological education is limited by cost and availability, though VEs are being used increasingly in classroom and laboratory teaching exercises. Virtual Reality was said to be “an answer waiting for a question”, but questions are being recognized, so that applications of VEs within the behavioural sciences are likely to multiply.

  11. Parenting and other influences on the alcohol use and emotional adjustment of children, adolescents, and emerging adults.

    Fromme, Kim

    2006-06-01

    Five articles in a special section of Psychology of Addictive Behaviors are briefly reviewed. With samples spanning an age range of 6 years to college age, the 5 articles examine potential mediators and moderators of psychological adjustment and drinking behavior. These articles illustrate the potential contributions of gender, personality traits, motivational factors, environmental characteristics, and parenting styles on the alcohol use, consequences, and emotional adjustment of children, adolescents, and emerging adults. Strengths and limitations of the different designs and methods are discussed in relation to the specific findings and the potential insights the special section provides. PMID:16784357

  12. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  13. Psychologies of the Social-Organizational Area in Peru: 2003-2012

    Federico León

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses four subdisciplines of Peruvian psychology. Organizational psychologists face the challenge of adjusting their good practices to scientific evidences; those studied in the United States or Europe are not necessarily relevant to all types of Peruvian organizations and populations. Consumer psychology has achieved popular impacts, but practitioners, either qualitative or quantitative, do not disseminate their methods and findings with rigor. Community psychologists’ contri...

  14. Psychological Language on Twitter Predicts County-Level Heart Disease Mortality

    Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Schwartz, Hansen Andrew; Kern, Margaret L.; Park, Gregory; Labarthe, Darwin R.; Merchant, Raina M.; Jha, Sneha; Agrawal, Megha; Dziurzynski, Lukasz A.; Sap, Maarten; Weeg, Christopher; Larson, Emily E.; Ungar, Lyle H.; Martin E. P. Seligman

    2015-01-01

    Hostility and chronic stress are known risk factors for heart disease, but they are costly to assess on a large scale. We used language expressed on Twitter to characterize community-level psychological correlates of age-adjusted mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD). Language patterns reflecting negative social relationships, disengagement, and negative emotions—especially anger—emerged as risk factors; positive emotions and psychological engagement emerged as protective factors...

  15. Psychological emergency attendance as a psychological service in educational psychology: limits and possibilities

    Edson do Nascimento Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The School Psychology Emergency Practices differs from others School Psychology practices, is more than type of psychology service and should have more institutional visibility. This paper reflects on these references from both the practice of the author and the currently literature in school psychology. To this purpose, we use as reference the concept of Extended Clinic and its relation with Psychology Emergency Service area. We discuss the opportunity of the school psychologist has, among other things, to be able to listen and to welcome spontaneously anyone in the school community seeking for support in case of emergency. In so doing, the author reflects on the condition of psychological emergency service as service and as a type of treatment at school, and school psychology as an area of expertise inserted in this complex environment different of views and perspectives.

  16. Psychological adaptation in the info-communication society: The revised version of Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire.

    Emelin V.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider technology-related changes in psychological needs and boundaries that affect one’s personal adaptation to the info-communication society, as well as how they relate to problematic or excessive technology use. Based on the psychological model of the consequences of technology use, we’ve picked two forms of technology use (one related to mobile phones and the other related to the Internet from a revised version of our Technology-Related Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. The new version includes nine questions: two assessing the excessive use of technology (the inability to resist using technology and subjective dependence, four assessing changes in psychological boundaries (boundaries extension and violation, easiness-related and opportunity-related preference for technology and the other three measuring technology-related needs (functionality, convenience and image making. In the normative sample (N=132, appropriate reliability, factor validity and convergent validity were demonstrated in comparisons to the picture measure of the technology-related boundaries change. Based on hierarchical regression and moderator analysis, it was shown that changes in psychological boundaries affect the excessive use of technology (explaining an additional 17-27% of the variance after adjusting for frequency of use and age group. The extension of boundaries and ease-of-use-related preference for mobile phones versus the Internet predicted satisfaction with life after adjusting for frequency of use, age group, inability to resist and subjective dependency respectively; however, the figures were not statistically significant. Thus, our data supports the hypothesis that there are different kinds of technology-related changes in psychological boundaries that manifest themselves in the subjective feeling of dependence on technology and the feeling that it is impossible to do without technology, which might in some cases

  17. Multi-toning Image Adjustment

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Xiao-juan; PENG Qun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the different lighting environments or other reasons, the pixel colors may be quite different in one image which causes distinct visual discontinuities. It makes the analysis and processing of such an image more difficult and sometime impossible. In this paper, a unified multi-toning image adjustment method is proposed to solve this problem. First, a novel unsupervised clustering method was proposed to partition the source and the target image into a certain number of subsets with similar color statistics. By matching the texture characteristics and luminance distribution between the blocks, it can create optimized correspondence. Then, the color information was transferred from the matched pixels in the source blocks to the target ones. Graph cut method was used to optimize the seams between different subsets in the final step. This method can automatically perform color adjustment of a multi-toning image. It is simple and efficient. Various results show the validity of this method.

  18. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Berno J.E. Misgeld; Kurt Gerlach-Hahn; Daniel Rüschen; Anake Pomprapa; Steffen Leonhardt

    2014-01-01

    Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity...

  19. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  20. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    Liu Hai-bo; Jian-kun Yang; Ji-chun Tan; De-zhi Su; Wen-liang Wang; Xiu-jian Li; Hui Jia

    2010-01-01

    Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6), pp.678-...

  1. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  2. Is Emotional Adjustment Status Predictor of the IUD Survival?

    Ziba Farajzadegan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of emotional adjustment on IUD continuation to understand why persons with similar clinical problems have different interpretation and select different strategies to cope with their complaints.Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study was carried out on 12 randomly chosen health centers of Isfahan province in 2007. Two hundred forty eight literate and married women aged 15-49 years who had chosen IUD as a contraceptive method since 2002 entered the study. After explaining the aim of study and taking informed consent, women completed the demographic, individual characteristics and 32 questions in emotional domain of Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (adult form. May 2007 was considered the end time of IUD consumption as a defined outcome. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS version 15. T–test, chi–square, Mann–Whitney, General Linear Model, Regression were used for data analysis.Results: During this period 60% (146 of women preserved their IUD and 40% (98 of them removed their IUD. The mean score of emotional adjustment was 16.16±6.28 in IUD preserved women in comparison to 18.23±5.63 in IUD removed women. Poor ,moderate and good  grades of emotional adjustment were 54%, 40% and 6% in IUD preserved woman vs 72.4% , 24.5% and 3.1% in IUD removed women.Conclusion: Psychological factors such as emotional adjustment can influence IUD survival; so improved counseling and good candidate selection before IUD insertion is recommended.

  3. Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. I: Qualitative Research in Psychology

    2004-01-01

    The first "Workshop Qualitative Research in Psychology" took place in Blaubeuren, Germany from October 20-22, 2000. The meeting was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology of the University of Tübingen, Germany. The purpose of the meeting was to begin a network of qualitative psychologists. Thirty-two participants got to know each other, presented and discussed their research, discussed potential further developments within the field of qualitative psychology, and inspired eac...

  4. Clinical Psychology, Health Psychology and Psychotherapy: a new Perspectives

    Miloseva, Lence

    2009-01-01

    Conceptions in this paper themselves do not offer new facts and findings; instead; they are concerned with what we view as facts and as findings, how we organize existing facts and findings, and perhaps most important, what question we consider worthy of attention. The single most important contribution of positive psychology has been to provide a collective identity – a common voice and language for researchers and practitioners from clinical psychology, health psychology and psychotherapy. ...

  5. Psychology and phenomenology: a clarification.

    Kendler, Howard H

    2005-01-01

    Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic psychology and philosophical phenomenology both employ a human science approach to psychology that seeks to explain behavior in terms of a person's subjective existence. Maslow's and Heidegger's formulations are both fulfillment theories in that they specify moral values that suggest how life ought to be lived. Natural science methodology rejects the possibility that moral imperatives can be validated, whereas human science methodology allows phenomenological convictions to justify recommendations about a fulfilled life and a good society. The social role of psychology is analyzed within the framework of phenomenological convictions and scientific truth. PMID:15943524

  6. Psychology as a Moral Science

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...... meaning, and posits psychology as one of the critical methods of organizing normative values in society; at the same time it carefully notes the discipline’s history of being sidetracked by overemphasis on theoretical constructs and physical causes—what the author terms “the psychologizing of morality...

  7. Psychologic Distress and Natural Menopause: A Multiethnic Community Study

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Meyer, Peter M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Sommer, Barbara; Cordal, Adriana; Powell, Lynda; Ganz, Patricia A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between psychologic distress and natural menopause in a community sample of African American, White, Chinese, Hispanic, and Japanese women participating in a national women's health study. Methods. A cohort of 16 065 women aged 40 to 55 years provided information on menstrual regularity in the previous year, psychosocial factors, health, and somatic–psychologic symptoms. Psychologic distress was defined as feeling tense, depressed, and irritable in the previous 2 weeks. Results. Rates of psychologic distress were highest in early perimenopause (28.9%) and lowest in premenopause (20.9%) and postmenopause (22%). In comparison with premenopausal women, early perimenopausal women were at a greater risk of distress, with and without adjustment for vasomotor and sleep symptoms and covariates. Odds of distress were significantly higher for Whites than for the other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions. Psychologic distress is associated with irregular menses in midlife. It is important to determine whether distress is linked to alterations in hormone levels and to what extent a mood–hormone relationship may be influenced by socioeconomic and cultural factors. PMID:11527777

  8. Psychology Students' Interest in Graduate Training: A Need for Partnership among Undergraduate Psychology and Graduate School Psychology Programs

    Stinnett, Terry A.; Solomon, Benjamin G.

    2014-01-01

    An initial point of contact for recruitment of qualified persons into school psychology is undergraduate psychology degree programs. Unfortunately, the discipline of school psychology appears to receive at best only cursory coverage in undergraduate psychology texts, curriculum, and discussion by psychology department faculty even though school…

  9. Historical spaces of social psychology

    Kalampalikis, Nikos; Delouvée, Sylvain; Pétard, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some solitary and consensual...

  10. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Dwight Judy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualities of spiritual experience.

  11. Transpersonal Psychology: Mapping Spiritual Experience

    Dwight Judy

    2011-01-01

    The first Journal of Transpersonal Psychology was published in 1969. Since this signal event, transpersonal psychology has emerged as a field of theory and application. A way has been made in Western psychology for the appreciation and study of interior subjective awareness, the domain of spiritual experience. One of the most recent contributions, the Wilber-Combs Lattice, offers a typology to account for both developmental processes throughout the human life span, as well as different qualit...

  12. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of human behavior during evacuations. John Leach’s Dynamic Disaster Model describes three phases and five stages: A Pre-impact phase (Threat Stage and Warning Stage), an Impact phase, and a Post-impact ...

  13. Evolutionary Psychology: The Academic Debate

    Suplizio, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation examines the academic debate that surrounds the new field called "Evolutionary Psychology." Evolutionary psychology has emerged as the most popular successor theory to human sociobiology. Its proponents search for evolved psychological mechanisms and emphasize universal features of the human mind. My thesis is that in order to flourish evolutionary psychologists must engage other researchers on equal terms -- something they have not been doing. To show this, I examine the...

  14. Psychology is a Developmental Science

    Greenberg, Gary; Partridge, Ty; Mosack, Victoria; Lambdin, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that psychology should be understood as a developmental science, and we place the discipline squarely in the realm of the natural sciences. The case is made that scientific progress in psychology has been (and still is) impeded by prolonged misadventures down conceptual dead ends such as biological reductionism, the nature/nurture debate, evolutionary psychology, and the persistent insistence on emphasizing dependent variables that defy observation and measurement, such...

  15. Psychology and pornography: some reflections

    Barker, Meg

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of mainstream psychological research on pornography, which has mainly focused on determining the effects of pornography on human attitudes and behaviour and the possible mechanisms for these effects. The methodological problems with such research are well known in the field of porn studies. Rather than using this as a reason simply to dismiss the contribution of psychology, attention to methods and analyses may be one thing that psychology can particularly...

  16. German cross-cultural psychology

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  17. Psychology of NPP operation safety

    The book is devoted to psychologic investigations into different aspects of NPP operative personnel activities. The whole set of conditions on which successful and accident-free personnel operation depends, is analysed. Based on original engineering and socio-psychologic investigations complex psychologic support for NPP personnel and a system of training and upkeep of operative personnel skills are developed. The methods proposed have undergone a practical examination and proved their efficiency. 154 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  18. History of psychology.

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844648

  19. Ethics of Psychology

    Bom, Tom; Isbrand, Victor Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The project which you are about to be included in is an investigation of a company, PP Møbler, who’s fundamental beliefs differs from the ordinary. Through the Foucauldian paradigm, this project avails itself of an understanding of the moral and ethical conduct embodied in the human animal, through the means of the transcending ‘nature’ of psychology. The main theoretician utilised is Nikolas Rose, and his perception of psychology’s effect on the individual. The aim of the project is to illus...

  20. Darwinian psychology, old and new.

    Hampton, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Many senior American and British psychologists between c1890 and c1925 were engaged in an attempt to settle on a unified definition of the term "instinct" as a psychological construct. Whilst this enterprise failed, some of its basic concepts underpin today's project of evolutionary psychology. This claim is substantiated by an analysis of the similarities between William McDougall's "Social Psychology" (1908), in which he articulated his theory of instincts, and John Tooby's and Leda Cosmides' "The Psychological Foundations of Culture" (1992). It is argued that Tooby's and Cosmides' approach faces similar problems as were faced by McDougall's theory of instincts. PMID:19244679

  1. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument

  2. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    Liu Hai-bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.678-682, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.36

  3. Psychology of anomie

    Narciso Benbenaste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomie is a phenomenon which not only affects daily life but also the quality of institutions and therefore, as studied by economic neo-institutionalism, the possibilities of economic development. So far the treatment of this phenomenon comes predominantly from the sociological theory. In the fi rst part of this paper we recognize some of Emile Durkheim´s contributions, adding Nino´s perspicacious comments as regards “anomia boba” (“dull anomie”.Then we describe, what makes the main purpose of this article, what we believe to be the basic psychological confi guration of a population in which anomie is not perceived as a negative value. That basic confi guration, which takes as a reference observations and data from our own research, consists of the following four characteristics-defi ned psychologically as regressive features: a The individual development represented as opposite to social interest; b tendency to represent the hierarchy as authoritarianism, where there is no difference between authority and authoritarianism; c the primarization of secondary links; d male chauvinism.

  4. The psychology of humanness.

    Haslam, Nick; Loughnan, Steve; Holland, Elise

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the ways in which the concept of "humanness" illuminates a wide and fascinating variety of psychological phenomena. After introducing the concept--everyday understandings of what it is to be human--we present a model of the diverse ways in which humanness can be denied to people. According to this model people may be perceived as lacking uniquely human characteristics, and thus likened to animals, or as lacking human nature, and thus likened to inanimate objects. Both of these forms of dehumanization occur with varying degrees of subtlety, from the explicit uses of derogatory animal metaphors, to stereotypes that ascribe lesser humanness or simpler minds to particular groups, to nonconscious associations between certain humans and nonhumans. After reviewing research on dehumanization through the lens of our model we examine additional topics that the psychology of humanness clarifies, notably the perception of nonhuman animals and the objectification of women. Humanness emerges as a concept that runs an integrating thread through a variety of research literatures. PMID:23947277

  5. Presurgical stress: Nursing and psychological interventions

    Antigoni Fountouki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feelings of ambivalence, melancholy, despair and fear are usual psychological reactions prior to a surgical intervention. Αim: the main aim of this review is a comprehensive presentation of pre-operative anxiety as well as the analysis of the effectiveness of relevant nursing and psychological interventions. A secondary aim was to highlight the role of the nurse in treating pre-operative anxiety. Method: A search in Greek and international databases (IATROTEK, PubMed, CINAHL was conducted. The search strategy combined the following key word: preoperative anxiety, nursing, psychological support. Initially, 123 articles were identified (general articles, clinical studies, reviews, and meta-analysis and after adjustments for duplicate results, the final material of this review were 38 selected articles published during the last decade. Results: Many studies demonstrate the usefulness of preoperative preparation through specialized information and social support interventions in relation to post-surgery adaptation process. The use of methods and strategies that enable the individual to reduce stress and handle the highly-stressing dimensions of the impending surgery have also been proposed. Finally, various psychotherapeutic interventions and other specialized techniques of crisis management as measures to address both the pre-operative anxiety and stress brought about by the disease have also successfully been implemented. Conclusions: The preoperative clinical care must include the systematic treatment of pre-operative anxiety through specialized information. However, behavioral or cognitive interventions that facilitate self-control appear to be more effective and have significant influence on the patient’s postoperative course. Training and education of nurses should be sufficient and part of their continuing education.

  6. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  7. Psychological testing of the psychiatrically injured worker.

    Morgenthaler, E S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide the occupational health worker with an overview of psychological testing, including the rationale for utilizing psychological testing, the psychometric foundations of psychological tests, the types of psychological tests, and the issues related to the psychological assessment of work-related psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:3067394

  8. The Window on Psychology's Literature: A History of Psychological Abstracts

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.; VandenBos, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a…

  9. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Students' Training Experiences in Primary Care Psychology

    Cox, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on counseling psychology doctoral students' perspectives regarding their practicum training experience in primary care psychology. The four participants included three females and one male. Semi-structured individual and focus group interviews were used to explore participants' experiences. The participants described…

  10. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F.; Gardiner, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously ...

  11. Identity of psychology, psychological paradigms and constructivism: Toward a perspective social psychology

    Janek Musek

    2003-01-01

    Philosophical self-reflexion is a healthy practice of any science including psychology. Nevertheless, psychology has long ago outgrew the age of the search for its own identity. It is however a science sui generis, determined by a radical split into Lockean and Kantian (objective and phenomenological) paradigm, each completely legitimate but also completely different in defining the objectives as well as the methods of research. That internal splitting is presented in all psychological discip...

  12. Family environment and psychological adaptation in adolescents Ambiente familiar e adaptação psicológica em adolescentes

    Juliana Burges Sbicigo; Débora Dalbosco Dell'Aglio

    2012-01-01

    The association between quality of family relationships and psychological adjustment has been understudied in the literature. This study tested the predictive relationship between family environment (measured by the dimensions of cohesion, hierarchy, support and conflict) and indicators of psychological adjustment (self-esteem, general self-efficacy and low levels of self-depreciation) in adolescents using structural equation modeling. Participants were 656 students aged between 12 and 18 yea...

  13. A computerized adjustable brain atlas

    A computerized brain atlas, adjustable to the patients anatomy, has been developed. It is primarily intended for use in positron emission tomography, but may also be employed in other fields utilizing neuro imaging, such as sterotactic surgery, transmission computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The atlas is based on anatomical information obtained from digitized cryosectioned brains. It can be adjusted to fit a wide range of images from individual brains with normal anatomy. The corresponding transformation is chosen so that the modified atlas agrees with a set of CT or NMR images of the patient. The computerized atlas can be used to improve the quantification and evaluation of PET data by: Aiding and improving the selection of regions of interests. Facilitating comparisons of functional image data from different individuals or groups of individuals. Facilitating the comparison of different examinations of the same patient, thus reducing the need of reproducible fixation systems. Providing external a priori anatomical information to be used in the image reconstruction. Improving the attenuation and scatter corrections. Aiding in selecting a suitable patient orientation during the PET study. By applying the inverse atlas transformation to PET data set it is possible to relate the PET information to the anatomy of the reference atlas. Reformatted PET data from different patients can thus be averaged, and averages from different categories of patients can be compared. The method will facilitate the identification of statistically significant differences in the PET information from different groups of patients. (orig.)

  14. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  15. Stress, coping, and adjustment in mothers and young adolescents in single- and two-parent families.

    Compas, B E; Williams, R A

    1990-08-01

    Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level of family income, differences in family hassles and coping strategies remained significant. The two groups did not differ on subtypes of symptoms after controlling for income, but single mothers still reported more total psychological symptoms. No differences were found between children in these two family constellations on maternal reports of emotional/behavioral problems or on children's self-reported emotional/behavioral problems, stressful events, or coping. Implications of these findings for adjustment to life in single-parent families are discussed. PMID:2075890

  16. Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection

    Winters, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Import protection is frequently advocated as a means of preserving jobs and avoiding labour adjustment costs. Defining adjustment costs in terms of output forgone during the process of adjustment and ignoring any general equilibrium repercussions, we estimate that quantitative restrictions on British footwear imports during 1979 protected about 1,000 jobs and avoided once-and-for-all adjustment costs of only around 1 million pounds sterling. The result is based on new data which reveal high r...

  17. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  18. Knowing Students' Psychology to Improve Teaching Ef-ficiency%了解学生心理提高教学效率

    周胜琼

    2012-01-01

      To understand students' psychological conditions can help effectively control and adjust their psychology, so that students can develop in a healthy state of mind and the best state of learning, which will arouse students' learning interest, so as to achieve the ideal educational environment, and impro-ve the teaching efficiency.

  19. Mathematical modeling in psychological researches

    Aleksandra Zyolko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the nature of mathematical modeling and its significance in psychological researches. The author distinguishes the types of mathematical models: deterministic, stochastic models and synergetic models. The system approach is proposed as an instrument of implementation of mathematical modelling in psychological research.

  20. Disconnecting Positive Psychology and OBM

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2005-01-01

    This paper responds to the article by Wiegand and Geller which advocates broadening the content of OBM by assimilating content from non-behavioral psychologies. I argue that these psychologies have theories and aims so incompatible with OBM that no added value will be obtained by forming an interconnection. Specific problems with positive…