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Sample records for adjustable effective properties

  1. ESIPT fluorescent dyes with adjustable optical properties: Substituent and conjugation effects

    Based on the design and synthesis of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (3) derivatives, we demonstrate a prototypical system to investigate both substituent and conjugation effects on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer emission through a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. On the one hand, adding an electron-withdrawing substituent at the phenol ring in 3 results in a decrease of HOMO, and hence, an increase in the energy gap of the keto-tautomer emission (o-4 and p-4). An opposite effect is observed when an electron-donating substituent is added (1). On the other hand, the elongation of the p-conjugation length by the installed 2-methylenemalononitrile group (o-2 and p-2) induces further π-electron delocalization, and thus a smaller emission energy gap. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations on these proton transfer dyes are reported in order to rationalize their electronic structure and optical properties. - Highlights: • A novel series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline derivatives was synthesized. • These molecules undergo an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reaction. • The proton-transfer emission can be fine-tuned from 600 nm to 655 nm

  2. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  3. Adjustable ferroelectric properties in paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric trilayers

    Lu Xiaoyan [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Wang Biao [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Zheng Yue [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Li Chenliang [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2008-02-07

    A trilayer paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric system is studied within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory in consideration of the elastic interactions between each layer. An analytic expression of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature for the ferroelectric layer is derived. The polarization, dielectric properties and the response to the external field are studied numerically. Our results show that there are two types of thickness effects on the properties of the film considering the effect of dislocation. By changing the thickness of each layer, the ferroelectric layer can be highly adjusted and may have very good potential applications such as transducers, sensors and actuators.

  4. Adjustable ferroelectric properties in paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric trilayers

    A trilayer paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric system is studied within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory in consideration of the elastic interactions between each layer. An analytic expression of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature for the ferroelectric layer is derived. The polarization, dielectric properties and the response to the external field are studied numerically. Our results show that there are two types of thickness effects on the properties of the film considering the effect of dislocation. By changing the thickness of each layer, the ferroelectric layer can be highly adjusted and may have very good potential applications such as transducers, sensors and actuators

  5. Properties of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index.

    Steinley, Douglas

    2004-09-01

    This article provides an investigation of cluster validation indices that relates 4 of the indices to the L. Hubert and P. Arabie (1985) adjusted Rand index--the cluster validation measure of choice (G. W. Milligan & M. C. Cooper, 1986). It is shown how these other indices can be "roughly" transformed into the same scale as the adjusted Rand index. Furthermore, in-depth explanations are given of why classification rates should not be used in cluster validation research. The article concludes by summarizing several properties of the adjusted Rand index across many conditions and provides a method for testing the significance of observed adjusted Rand indices. PMID:15355155

  6. Ethnic Differences and the Effects of Racism on College Adjustment.

    LeSure, G. Evelyn

    This study investigated ethnic differences and the effects of racism on the college adjustment of African-American, Asian, and Latino students who attended five undergraduate predominantly Anglo-American colleges. Results indicated that social adjustment was better for Anglos than it was for Asians and Latinos. African-Americans reported the most…

  7. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. Impacts of parameters adjustment of relativistic mean field model on neutron star properties

    Analysis of the parameters adjustment effects in isovector as well as in isoscalar sectors of effective field based relativistic mean field (E-RMF) model in the symmetric nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter properties has been performed. The impacts of the adjustment on slowly rotating neutron star are systematically investigated. It is found that the mass–radius relation obtained from adjusted parameter set G2** is compatible not only with neutron stars masses from 4U 0614+09 and 4U 1636-536, but also with the ones from thermal radiation measurement in RX J1856 and with the radius range of canonical neutron star of X7 in 47 Tuc, respectively. It is also found that the moment inertia of PSR J073-3039A and the strain amplitude of gravitational wave at the Earth's vicinity of PSR J0437-4715 as predicted by the E-RMF parameter sets used are in reasonable agreement with the extracted constraints of these observations from isospin diffusion data. (author)

  9. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    M S Abdul Aziz; M Z Abdullah; C Y Khor; A Jalar; M A Bakar; W Y W Yusoff; F Che Ani; Nobe Yan; M Zhou; C Cheok

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of printed circuit board (PCB) thickness on adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering. The pin-through-hole (PTH) vertical fill is examined with three PCBs of different thicknesses (i.e., 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm) soldered through adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering at conveyor angles of 0° and 6°. The vertical fill of each PCB is the focus. The PTH solder profile is inspected with a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography scanning machine. The percentages of the PTH vertical fill of both soldering processes are also estimated and compared. The aspect ratio of the PCB is also investigated. Experimental results reveal that adjustable fountain wave soldering yields better vertical fill than conventional wave soldering. The vertical fill level of adjustable fountain wave soldering is 100%, 90%, and 50% for the 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm PCB thickness, respectively. FLUENT simulation is conducted for the vertical fill of the solder profile. Simulation and experimental results show that the PTH solder profiles of the two soldering processes are almost identical. The effect of PCB thickness on PTH voiding is also discussed.

  10. Multiobjective Shape Optimization for Deployment and Adjustment Properties of Cable-Net of Deployable Antenna

    Guoqiang You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on structural features of cable-net of deployable antenna, a multiobjective shape optimization method is proposed to help to engineer antenna’s cable-net structure that has better deployment and adjustment properties. In this method, the multiobjective optimum mathematical model is built with lower nodes’ locations of cable-net as variables, the average stress ratio of cable elements and strain energy as objectives, and surface precision and natural frequency of cable-net as constraints. Sequential quadratic programming method is used to solve this nonlinear mathematical model in conditions with different weighting coefficients, and the results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  11. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability

  12. Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers

    The authors demonstrate the production of amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-C:F) thin film with adjustable wetting properties, inducing variable liquid crystal (LC) pretilt angles. To control the surface wetting properties, they apply a dual radio frequency magnetron system with a controlled power ratio of targets. In this manner we obtain various compositional surfaces with fluorine and carbon components and adjust the surface energy with regard to the various compositions. Whereas the fluorine-rich a-C:F layer shows a preference for homeotropic (vertical) LC alignment, the carbon-rich a-C:F layer shows a planar LC alignment. To achieve uniform LC alignment with a proper pretilt angle, an accelerated Ar+ ion beam irradiates the films after the deposition process. The ion beam selectively destroys the surface bonding of the a-C:F films, yielding an intermediate pretilt angle

  13. Do residential property companies systematically adjust their capital structure? The case of Germany

    Kurzrock, Björn-Martin; Mokinski, Frieder; Schindler, Felix; Westerheide, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether predominantly non-listed corporations in the residential property industry systematically adjust their capital structure to changing financing requirements. Since previous research almost exclusively focused on listed companies, little is known about the considerations that drive the choice of capital structure of nonlisted companies. We therefore adopt established testing approaches for the pecking order theory and the trade-off theory from the finance literature,...

  14. Do residential property companies systematically adjust their capital structure? : The case of Germany

    Kurzrock, Björn-Martin; Mokinski, Frieder; Schindler, Felix; Westerheide, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether predominantly non-listed corporations in the residential property industry systematically adjust their capital structure to changing financing requirements. Since previous research almost exclusively focused on listed companies, little is known about the considerations that drive the choice of capital structure of nonlisted companies. We therefore adopt established testing approaches for the pecking order theory and the trade-off theory from the finance literature,...

  15. Understanding property market dynamics: insights from modelling the supply-side adjustment mechanism

    Nanda Nanthakumaran; Craig Watkins; Allison Orr

    2000-01-01

    The volatility of commercial property markets in the United Kingdomhas stimulated the development of explanatory models of 'price' determination. These models have tended to focus on the demand-side as the driver of change. A corollary of this is that, despite the fact that construction lags are known to exacerbate cyclical fluctuations, the supply-side adjustment mechanism has been subject to relatively little research effort. In this paper the authors develop a new model of commercial prope...

  16. Effects of Divorce Counseling Groups on Adjustment and Self Concept.

    Salts, Connie J.; Zongker, Calvin E.

    1983-01-01

    Tested whether self-concept and adjustment of separated or divorced individuals (N=64) could be enhanced by group counseling. Data showed individuals in either a structured or unstructured group had greater improvement in adjustment than individuals who dropped out. No significant differences in improvement in self-concept were noted. (JAC)

  17. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  18. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  19. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Adjustment in School.

    Dawud, Samia; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between children's experiences of domestic violence and their adjustment at school. Sixty-three children (28 girls), in Israel, their classmates and teachers took part in the study. Children were divided into four groups: (1) those who were victims of physical abuse; (2) those who witnessed abuse; (3) those who…

  20. A Method to Adjust Dielectric Property of SiC Powder in the GHz Range

    Xiaolei Su; Jie Xu; Zhimin Li; Junbo Wang; Xinhai He; Chong Fu; Wancheng Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The SiC powders by Al or N doping have been synthesized by combustion synthesis, using Al powder and NH4Cl powder as the dopants and polytetrafluoroethylene as the chemical activator. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer demonstrates the formation of Al doped SiC, N doped SiC and the Al and N co-doped SiC solid solution powders, respectively. The electric permittivities of prepared powders have been determined in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. It indicates that the electric permittivities of the prepared SiC powders have been improved by the pure Al or N doping and decrease by the Al and N co-doping. The paper presents a method to adjust dielectric property of SiC powders in the GHz range.

  1. Adjustable third-order nonlinear optical properties of the spin coating phenoxazinium–PMMA films

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin coating poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with 3,7-bis(diethylamino)phenoxazin-5-ium chloride (1) are reported. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were tested by Z-scan technology with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturation absorption to saturation absorption with increasing percentage of the phenoxazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) film. The different forms of the spin coating films were obtained by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscope, and the different aggregation phenomenon of the phenoxazinium in the films can explain the adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption phenomena. Moreover, large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10−7 esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10−28 esu) are found with these films. The results indicate that the phenoxazinium dye is the potential material for the third-order nonlinear optical application. - Highlights: • Third-order NLO properties of the phenoxazinium doped PMMA films were obtained. • Reverse saturated absorption changes to saturated absorption by the different percentage of phenoxazinium in the PMMA films. • Different states of films were obtained

  2. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  3. Thermo-adjustable mechanical properties of polymer, lipid-based complex fluids

    Firestone, Millicent; Lee, Sungwon

    2012-02-01

    Combined rheology (oscillatory and steady shear) and SAXS studies reveal details on the temperature-dependent, reversible mechanical properties of nonionic polymer, lipid-based complex fluids. Compositions prepared by introduction of the polymer as either a lipid conjugate or a triblock copolymer form an elastic gel as the temperature is increased to 18 C. The network is produced from PEO chain entanglement and physical crosslinks confined within the intervening aqueous layers of a multilamellar structured lyotropic mesophase. Although the complex fluids are weak gels, tuning of the gel strength can be achieved by temperature adjustment. The sol state formed at reduced temperature arises as a consequence of the well-solvated PEO chains adopting a non-interacting, conformational state. Complex fluids prepared with the triblock copolymers exhibit greater tunability in viscoelasticity than those containing the PEGylated-lipid conjugate because of the temperature-dependent water solubility of the central PPO block. The water solubility of PPO at reduced temperatures results in the polymer being expelled from the self-assembled amphiphilic bilayer, causing collapse of the swollen lamellar structure and loss of the PEO network. At elevated temperatures, the triblock reinserts into the bilayer producing an elastic gel. These studies identify macromolecular architectures for the facile preparation of dynamic soft materials possessing a range of mechanical properties that can be tuned by modest temperature control.

  4. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  5. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Stress on Children's Adjustment in Woman-Abusing Families.

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…

  6. Effective Transport Properties

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  7. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K; Johansen, C

    2010-01-01

    participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...... use of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects.......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...

  8. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2011

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2011. 1) Annual adjustments An increase of 0.35% to the scale of basic salaries paid to Staff Members and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Regulations). No adjustments to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Regulations). No modifications to the following social benefits: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Regulations) Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Regulations). 2) Five-yearly review 2010, financial elements: Adjustment of basic salaries: An increase of 1% for Career Path D. An increase of 2% for Career Paths E to G. Technical adjustment of th...

  9. Assessing Longitudinal Change: Adjustment for Regression to the Mean Effects

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2009-01-01

    Pascarella (J Coll Stud Dev 47:508-520, 2006) has called for an increase in use of longitudinal data with pretest-posttest design when studying effects on college students. However, such designs that use multiple measures to document change are vulnerable to an important threat to internal validity, regression to the mean. Herein, we discuss a…

  10. Electron Beam Adjustment in PLATO RTS 2 Including the Effect of Air Gaps

    Lopes, M C; Trindade, A; Rodrigues, P; Peralta, L

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Beam characterization for electron dose calculations in PLATO RTS 2 treatment planning system requires the tuning of two adjustment parameters: sqx (the initial angular spread) and FMCS (a "fudge" multiple Coulomb scattering parameter). This work provides a set of suggestions to optimise electron dose calculations with PLATO, taking into account the effect of air gaps between the electron applicator and the patient skin. Material and Methods: Two adjustment criteria have been followed: one which uses just one input data set corresponding to the standard (null) air gap and another one that takes into account the whole range of clinically used distances between the electron applicator and the patient surface. The adjusted values of sqx were compared with experimental data and GEANT3 Monte Carlo code results. A systematic study has been carried out of the effect of both adjustment parameters on electron dose calculations in water. Comparisons of dose distributions and point dose values ha...

  11. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  12. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  13. The effects of inflation on wage adjustments in firm-level data: grease or sand?

    Groshen, Erica L.; Mark E. Schweitzer

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of inflation on wage changes made by firms in a unique thirty-seven-year panel of occupations and employers drawn from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Community Salary Survey (CSS). Our analysis first identifies two relative prices embedded in wage changes and, second, draws inferences about the costs and benefits of inflation from the adjustments in these relative prices. Typically, firms manage employer-wide wage adjustments (controlling for occupational...

  14. An Adjusted profile likelihood for non-stationary panel data models with fixed effects

    Dhaene, Geert; Jochmans, Koen

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the bias of the profile score for the autoregressive parameters p and covariate slopes in the linear model for N x T panel data with p lags of the dependent variable, exogenous covariates, fixed effects, and unrestricted initial observations. The bias is a vector of multivariate polynomials in p with coefficients that depend only on T. We center the profile score and, on integration, obtain an adjusted profile likelihood. When p = 1, the adjusted profile likelihood coincides wi...

  15. Experimental Tuned Mass Damper Based on Eddy Currents Damping Effect and Adjustable Stiffness

    LO FEUDO, Stefania; Allani, Anissa; Cumunel, Gwendal; Argoul, Pierre; Bruno, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    International audience — An experimental Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is proposed in order to damp vibrations induced by external excitations. This TMD is based on the Eddy Currents damping effect and is designed in such a way as to allow a manually adjustment of its own stiffness and inherent damping. The TMD's modal parameters estimation is therefore carried out by applying the Continuous Wavelet Transform to the signals obtained experimentally. The influence of the manual adjustment of the T...

  16. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF VECTOR CONTROL ON TOTAL CURRENT HARMONIC DISTORTION OF ADJUSTABLE SPEED AC DRIVE

    KARTIK TAMVADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable speed drive (ASD is becoming a significant load component for power distribution. It involves the use of an Induction motor (IM. This paper involves modeling and control of an Induction motor andinvestigates its effects on the total current harmonic distortion of the adjustable speed ac drives. The simulation was carried out with the aid of the Simulink toolbox available in Matlab. It is seen that with Vector control the THDi of the drive reduces considerably.

  17. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF VECTOR CONTROL ON TOTAL CURRENT HARMONIC DISTORTION OF ADJUSTABLE SPEED AC DRIVE

    KARTIK TAMVADA; R.KAMESWARA RAO

    2012-01-01

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) is becoming a significant load component for power distribution. It involves the use of an Induction motor (IM). This paper involves modeling and control of an Induction motor andinvestigates its effects on the total current harmonic distortion of the adjustable speed ac drives. The simulation was carried out with the aid of the Simulink toolbox available in Matlab. It is seen that with Vector control the THDi of the drive reduces considerably.

  18. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  19. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  20. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  1. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Hammon, Matthias; Janka, Rolf; Dankerl, Peter; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Uder, Michael; Rompel, Oliver [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Gloeckler, Martin; Dittrich, Sven [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  2. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  3. Human capital demand in Brazil: The effects of adjustment cost, economic growth, exports and imports

    Joilson Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.

  4. Effects of Forecasts on the Revisions of Concurrent Seasonally Adjusted Data Using the X-11 Seasonal Adjustment Procedure.

    Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark

    Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…

  5. Tailoring Feedback: Effective Feedback Should Be Adjusted Depending on the Needs of the Learner

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    All students deserve effective feedback. General principles for effective feedback should be adjusted depending on the learner's needs. Feedback to struggling students should include focusing on the process, selecting only one or just a few points, giving self-referenced feedback to describe progress or capability, being very clear, and checking…

  6. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

  7. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  8. Problems of forming the effective instruments of tax adjusting in the conditions of integration the states

    Сalinescu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Problems, which break the introduction of effective instruments the tax adjusting, are examined as at the level of the state, separate territories and enterprises too. Ways and measures of overcoming the exposed negative sides of socio-economic development the economy of country are outlined. Substantial attention is spared the stimulus of development the depressed territories.

  9. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  10. Risk-based surveillance: Estimating the effect of unwarranted confounder adjustment

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2011-01-01

    We estimated the effects of confounder adjustment as a part of the underlying quantitative risk assessments on the performance of a hypothetical example of a risk-based surveillance system, in which a single risk factor would be used to identify high risk sampling units for testing. The differenc...

  11. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  12. Effect of cover adjustment on binocular vision function in children with anisometropic amblyopia

    Kai Zhu

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To explore and study the effect of cover adjustment on binocular visual function in children with anisometropic amblyopia.METHODS: Forty-five children with anisometropic amblyopia of our hospital from July 2014 to April 2015 were as the study group, and treated by cover adjustment. Then 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected as the blank control group. The binocular visual function of the subjects was observed.RESULTS: Before treatments, at 1 and 3mo after treatments, the positive r...

  13. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509

  14. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Salar Faramarzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance s tatistical method (SPSS version 21.Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  15. Phase Formation and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Nd-Fe-B Adjusted by Small Amount of Dy and Co

    T S Jang; T W Lim; H S Aum; D H Lee; M B Kim

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve and stabilize the magnetic properties of nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe magnetic alloys by a compositional adjustment, small amount of Dy and/or Co was added to Nd9Fe84B7 alloys. DTA analysis on the amorphous of the alloys took place as the soft magnetic phases were crystallized, and then the hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B was precipitated from them. While α-Fe and a metastable 1:7 (TbCu7-type) phase were formed simultaneously in Dy and Co-free alloys, they were crystallized separately at different temperatures after Dy or Co was added. This phase separation occurred more clearly in the Dy-treated alloys and the other soft magnetic phase Fe3B was also stabilized by Dy and/or Co. The 1: 7 phase that was stabilized by Dy and/or Co was not eliminated at 700 ℃, decreasing magnetic properties of the alloys. It was eventually disappeared above 725 ℃, but Fe3B was not eliminated even at 750 ℃ when Dy was added more than 0.5 at% or Co was added more than 2.0 at%. Amount of Nd2Fe14B in the alloys tended to increase as Dy addition increased,whereas Co addition did not lead to any appreciable change in the ratio of α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B. Moreover, Dy addition apparently increased coercivity of an alloy while Co addition had a beneficial effect on remanence. The grains in the Dytreated alloys were usually finer than those in the Co-treated alloys. The grain size of both α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B in the alloys exhibiting mr ≥ 0.72 was in the range of 20 ~ 40 nm or even larger 50 nm, which is larger than the theoretical optimum size ( ~ 10 nm). Typical magnetic properties obtained from a Nd7.5Dy1.5Fe82.5Co1.5B7 alloy annealed for 12 min at 725 ℃were iHc=4.85 kOe, Br= 11.32 kG, (BH)max = 15.73 MGOe, and mr=0.73.

  16. Variational assimilation of streamflow into operational distributed hydrologic models: effect of spatiotemporal adjustment scale

    H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    , interior flow assimilation at any adjustment scale produces streamflow predictions with a spatial correlation structure more consistent with that of streamflow observations. We also describe diagnosing the complexity of the assimilation problem using the spatial correlation information associated with the streamflow process, and discuss the effect of timing errors in a simulated hydrograph on the performance of the data assimilation procedure.

  17. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  18. Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth's atmosphere. - Highlights: • Blueprint for 3D remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface. • Procedure for adjusting thousands of parameters with millions of data

  19. Age affects the adjustment of cognitive control after a conflict: evidence from the bivalency effect

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Age affects cognitive control. When facing a conflict, older adults are less able to activate goal-relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information. However, cognitive control also affects the events after a conflict. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict. To this end, we investigated the bivalency effect, that is, the performance slowing occurring after the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli (i.e., sti...

  20. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Yang Hsieh; Huang Fen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participa...

  1. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Somayeh Hozouri; Mojgan pazuki

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The pr...

  2. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Yang Hsieh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981 and Schaefer and Moos (1993 were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching

  3. Application of mesoporous catalysts over palm-oil biodiesel for adjusting fuel properties

    Highlights: ► The catalysts MCM-41 and SiO2/Fe3O4 were used to reduce the low-temperature fluidity of biodiesel. ► The catalyst SiO2/Fe3O4 was found to be more effective than MCM-41 for dehydrogenation and cracking reaction. ► Biodiesel had a lower water formation rate when the catalysts were used in the reaction. ► Biodiesel catalyzed by SiO2/Fe3O4 at 600 °C produced the lowest CFPP and the highest iodine value. - Abstract: Biodiesel has superior fuel characteristics, including a higher flash point, better lubricity, and higher oxygen content, and is thus considered a promising alternative clean fuel to petroleum diesel. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the most significant indicator of the low-temperature fluidity of biodiesel. The CFPP of biodiesel is generally higher than that of petroleum diesel primarily due to the longer carbon-chain structures of the fatty acids in the former. Raw materials such as palm oil and waste cooking oil are widely used as the feedstock to produce biodiesel because of their low cost, good availability, and stable lipid provision. However, they generally have a poor low-temperature fluidity, which limits their application in colder climates. In this experimental study, the catalytic dehydrogenation and cracking reaction technique was used to reduce the CFPP of palm-oil biodiesel with an initial CFPP of as high as 14 °C. The catalytic variables of the type of mesoporous catalyst and operating temperature are considered in this study. The resultant fuel properties of palm-oil biodiesel catalyzed by MCM-41 and SiO2/Fe3O4 were compared with biodiesel thermally cracked without a catalyst. The operating temperature of the catalyzed dehydrogenation and cracking reaction was controlled in the range between 400 and 600 °C. The CFPP decrease reached a maximum of 12 °C when the biodiesel was catalyzed by SiO2/Fe3O4 at 600 °C. The maximum water content was produced when the biodiesel sample was thermally cracked with no

  4. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance. PMID:26686705

  5. Effect of Intervention to Change Life Style to Increase Marital Adjustment

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Etemadi, Ahmad; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Shokooh, Navabi-Nejad

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of life style changes on marital adjustment. Eighty couples who had the most determined maladjustment were selected and randomly divided to experimental and control groups. Then an intervention method for life style change was administered to the experimental group. The Enrich was questionnaire for pre and post test. The results show that, the method of life style changing was reducing marital maladjustment. The marital adjustment change score between two groups (Experimental and Control) was significantly different (pmanagement, conflict resolution and sexual relationships. It was recommended that counselors and psychotherapists select their intervention method according to the maladjustment dimensions to help afflicted couples with maladjustment.

  6. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  8. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  9. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  10. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  11. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels. PMID:21117984

  12. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Somayeh Hozouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  13. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Salar Faramarzi; Mohammad Reza Moradi; Bahareh Motamedi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds) in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups....

  14. Investigating the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investor's decisions in short and long term

    Parvaneh Khaleghi Kasbi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investors’ decisions in short and long term. The primary objective of this study is to find the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on herding behavior of investors in one and several year period. Hence, 85 corporations as the member of Tehran stock exchange over the period 2006-2011 are selected. In order to recognize the herding, by market index consideration, the herded β and in order to hypothesis validity SPSS software and multivariable linear regression have been used. As the results of this study indicate, the adjusted DuPont ratio and its components have more effect on investors’ decisions in short term but in long the period, the effect of this ratio on herding investors’ behavior are reduced. Furthermore, from the two components of adjusted DuPont ratio, profit margin has more effect on investor's decisions.

  15. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  16. Effectiveness of adjustable dorsiflexion night splint in combination with accommodative foot orthosis on plantar fasciitis

    Winson C. C. Lee, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot orthoses and night splints have been used separately to treat patients with plantar fasciitis, but were not always successful. Combined use of both orthoses might give better outcomes. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a soft and self-adjustable dorsiflexion night splint in combination with an accommodative foot orthosis for patients with plantar fasciitis. Twenty-eight patients were assigned to group A (foot orthosis only and group B (combination of foot orthosis and dorsiflexion night splints. A Foot Function Index (FFI questionnaire was used to evaluate the pain and functions of feet just before, 2 weeks after, and 8 weeks after the treatments. Results showed that subjects in group B had significantly reduced pain scores at week 2 (p < 0.001 and week 8 (p < 0.001. In group A, no statistical differences were noted in the pain (p = 0.15, disability (p = 0.56, activity limitation (p = 0.75, and total FFI (p = 0.35 scores for the three time periods. The application of foot orthoses with adjustable dorsiflexion night splints was found to be more effective than the application of foot orthoses alone in relieving foot pain in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  17. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  18. Radiation Effects on Polymer Properties

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Report compiles data on effects of radiation on physical properties of synthetic organic materials. Emphasis on materials of interest to nuclear-equipment and nuclear-reactor designers. Data covers five categories of polymeric materials: Insulators, elastomeric seals and gaskets, lubricants, adhesives, and coatings. More than 250 materials represented.

  19. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting. PMID:10802832

  20. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health...

  1. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of mal-adjusted pre-school children

    Mehdi Khanbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of mal-adjusted children (children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: By using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected, and among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens under the support of welfare organization were randomly selected. From pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children that could have behavioral disorder according to their teachers and parents complaints, were carefully tested, and among them, by the results obtained from child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4, teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were selected, and they were randomly divided into control and experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is done by the use of pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results: values of calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control and experimental group is meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (F(1,12=74/94, P<0/001 so there is a meaningful difference between means of disobedience disorder post-test scores in experimental and control group by having the fixed effect of pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of 2 groups shows that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in experimental group (M=14/09 is lower than control group (M=36/66. Therefore, applying play therapy in experimental group in comparison with control group, who did not receive these instructions, caused reduction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in pre-school children. Conclusion: Results of this research show that the children's disobedience is reduced by benefiting from play therapy.

  2. Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence.

    Wentzel, Kathryn R

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on student adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Based on information from 452 sixth graders from two suburban middle schools, results of multiple regressions indicated that the five teaching dimensions explained significant amounts of variance in student motivation, social behavior, and achievement. High expectations (maturity demands) was a consistent positive predictor of students' goals and interests, and negative feedback (lack of nurturance) was the most consistent negative predictor of academic performance and social behavior. The role of motivation in mediating relations between teaching dimensions and social behavior and academic achievement also was examined; evidence for mediation was not found. Relations of teaching dimensions to student outcomes were the same for African American and European American students, and for boys and girls. The implications of parent socialization models for understanding effective teaching are discussed. PMID:14717258

  3. Adjustment of a Korean Voxel Phantom and Its Effect on Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    Many different voxel models have been developed for use in the calculation of the radiation doses to organs and tissues in the human body. Most of these voxel models are constructed from the CT and MR images of individuals. The organs and tissues are, however, not always discernable on CT and MR images, making it difficult to segment some organs and tissues. Furthermore, these models do not represent the average radiation workers in Korea because the height, weight, and organ masses are different from those of the average Korean workers. This paper compares two Korean voxel models (VKH-Man, HDRK-Man), which have been constructed from the same data set of serially-sectioned color images, in terms of calculated organs doses. The HDRK-Man has been developed by adjusting the VKH Man to the data of the 'Reference Korean'. In this study, organs doses were calculated with these developed models and the calculated values were compared each other to see the effect of the adjustment

  4. Adjustment of a Korean Voxel Phantom and Its Effect on Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Cho, Sung Koo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choon Sik [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Chung, Min Suk; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Many different voxel models have been developed for use in the calculation of the radiation doses to organs and tissues in the human body. Most of these voxel models are constructed from the CT and MR images of individuals. The organs and tissues are, however, not always discernable on CT and MR images, making it difficult to segment some organs and tissues. Furthermore, these models do not represent the average radiation workers in Korea because the height, weight, and organ masses are different from those of the average Korean workers. This paper compares two Korean voxel models (VKH-Man, HDRK-Man), which have been constructed from the same data set of serially-sectioned color images, in terms of calculated organs doses. The HDRK-Man has been developed by adjusting the VKH Man to the data of the 'Reference Korean'. In this study, organs doses were calculated with these developed models and the calculated values were compared each other to see the effect of the adjustment.

  5. The effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error adjustments

    Nathalie Schouppe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown detrimental effects of alcohol on post-error adjustments. In contrast to previous studies, which focused on only one aspect of post-error adaptive behavior, we compared the effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error slowing, post-error reduction of interference and post-error improvement of accuracy. Moreover, we used a between-subjects design (N = 45 comparing a control condition to both an alcohol and an alcohol-placebo condition as to disentangle physiological and expectancy effects of alcohol. In a standard Stroop congruency task, we found that intoxicated participants as well as participants with the incorrect belief of being intoxicated showed significant decreased post-error slowing compared to a control group. Furthermore, we found evidence for a condition-independent post-error increase of interference and post-error decrease of accuracy. The underlying mechanisms of the post-error adaptation effects are discussed in terms of the orienting account (Notebaert et al., 2009.

  6. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  7. Effects of chain flexibility on the properties of DNA hydrogels.

    Pan, Wei; Wen, Hao; Niu, Lin; Su, Cuicui; Liu, Chenyang; Zhao, Jiang; Mao, Chengde; Liang, Dehai

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chain rigidity on the mechanic properties of DNA hydrogels was studied. Counterintuitively, the hydrogel formed by mainly flexible chains exhibited better stability, stretchability, and much mechanical properties than the hydrogel containing only rigid chains. Calculations showed that the crosslinking ratio in the hydrogel formed by flexible chains was about twice that of the hydrogel formed by rigid chains under the same conditions. We attributed this to the ease of conformational adjustment of flexible chains. Incorporation of 25% rigid chains further improved the performance of DNA hydrogel by shrinking the pore size and tuning its distribution. PMID:27121600

  8. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee; Pedersen, Lise; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal; Hong, Yun Chul; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in...

  9. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  10. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  11. The Effects of Personality and Acculturation on the Adjustment of North American Sojourners in Taiwan

    Swagler, Michelle A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2005-01-01

    As more North Americans sojourn abroad in the emerging global marketplace, it is important to understand the factors related to successful cross-cultural adjustment. This study explores how personality factors and acculturation influence the cross-cultural adjustment process of North Americans sojourning in Taiwan. The results reveal that greater…

  12. Hydrothermal-hydrolysis synthesis and photocatalytic properties of nano-TiO2 with an adjustable crystalline structure

    Tri-phase (anatase, rutile, and brookite), bi-phase (anatase and rutile), and mono-phase (rutile) TiO2 nanomaterials with different morphologies were successively synthesized using a hydrothermal-hydrolysis method and adjusting the Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratio in a precursor solution. The properties of the fabricated nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photocatalytic reaction, and other techniques. It has been shown that TiO2 nanorods can be obtained by increasing the Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratio in a precursor solution from 1:0 to 0.3:0.7. TiO2 nanoparticles are formed if the Ti3+ fraction in the solution is further increased. The selective synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials is explained by a decrease in the reaction rate and by changes in acidity with increasing Ti3+ content. The tri-phase nanorods and bi-phase nanoparticles synthesized with Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratios from 1:0 to 0.8:0.2 and 0.2:0.8 to 0:1, respectively, have a higher degradation ability with respect to methylene blue aqueous solutions under UV irradiation at ambient temperature compared to purely rutile TiO2 nanorods synthesized with Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratios from 0.7:0.3 to 0.3:0.7. The high photocatalytic activity of the multi-phase TiO2 samples is primarily attributed to their larger band gap and suppressed recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs.

  13. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  14. General Nuclear Properties with Effective Interactions

    This report deals with the use of some effective interactions in calculating properties of closed shell nuclei and of the nuclear surface. Closed shell nuclei have been investigated by several groups; the work of three of these groups is discussed here. Davies, Baranger et al. use a momentum-dependent Gaussian effective interaction whose parameters are adjusted to fit the binding energy and density of nuclear matter using first-order perturbation theory and also match at least the low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts. Pearson and Saunier use quite similar interactions except that instead of fitting low-energy scattering data, they insist that the long range part must be of the one-boson exchange form, at least in 1S0 states. Brink and Boeker study various interactions which fit nuclear matter and the alpha particle binding energy. For 16O, these groups obtain somewhat too low a binding energy. Bethe has worked out a theory of the nuclear surface, which uses a quite simple effective interaction derived from a realistic interaction. Bethe uses the Thomas-Fermi approximation and obtains an analytic form for the particle density distribution at the nuclear surface. He also calculates the nuclear surface energy and surface thickness and obtains good agreement with empirical values. The nuclear surface problem has also been studied by other authors who do not make the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In particular, if one uses a simple effective interaction of the form suggested by Skyrme, with the same criteria as Brink and Boeker, then the surface energy comes out in good agreement with empirical values. In addition, this effective interaction can be used to assess the accuracy of the Thomas-Fermi approximation. This approximation underestimates the surface energy by only 1½ MeV. (author)

  15. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  16. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2012

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, June and December 2011, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2012. 1)  Five-yearly review 2010 (decisions taken by Council in December 2010) In line with the second phase of Council decisions, increases of 1% and 2% have been applied to basic salaries in Career Path D and Career Paths E to G respectively1); In addition, Health Insurance Scheme contribution rates have been modified (from 4.27%) to 4.41% for the member and (from 6.59%) to 6.86% for the Organization. 2)  Package of measures towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund (decisions taken by Council in June 2011) In accordance with Council decisions, the Organization’s contribution rate for new members of the Fund as of 1.1.2012 is 17%.  The provisions for current members remain unchanged. 3)&nb...

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of the Adjuster Rod Depletion Effect in the CANDU Reactor

    Kim, Yonghee; Roh, Gyuhong; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Lifetime of the Wolsong-1 CANDU reactor, which will be shutdown in April, 2009. Major reactor components such as the pressure tube are to be replaced and it is expected that the CANDU reactor can be operated for additional 25-30 years. Meanwhile, all the reactivity devices including the adjuster rods (ADJ) are supposed to be continuously used without any change. In the CANDU reactor, 21 stainless steel (SS) ADJs are used to control the core power distribution and compensate for some reactivity loss during several abnormal cases. The ADJs are normally fully inserted and the SS absorber should undergo a slow depletion through neutron irradiation for a long time. In April, 2009, the accumulated FPY (Full Power Day) of Wolsong-1 is about 23 years. Depletion of ADJs should result in a smaller ADJ worth and a higher fuel burnup and the core power distribution should also be affected by the ADJ depletion. In this work, the effects of the ADJ depletion have been assessed in terms of ADJ worth, time-average core characteristics.

  18. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce. PMID:21375123

  19. Postural adjustments in sitting position : effect of development, training and brain lesions

    Brogren, Eva

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of postural adjustments, and how this development could be affected by daily training and early brain lesions. To this end postural adjustments were assessed by means of multiple surface EMGs of neck, trunk and legmuscles and kinematics in various well documented groups of children. The youngest infants aged 5-6 months showed clear evidence that the basic level of postural control was functionally active prior ...

  20. Magnitude and directional effects of marital sex-role incongruence on marital adjustment.

    Li, J T; Caldwell, R A

    1987-03-01

    Economic and social forces have converged to influence the fundamental nature of marriage in the 1980s. Marriages are shifting from the complementary type, in which the husband is employed and the wife cares for the household and children, to the parallel type, in which both spouses are employed and both are responsible for the housework. This study examines the relationship between marital sex role incongruence and marital adjustment. Both the magnitude and the direction of the incongruence are related to marital adjustment level. The study's major hypothesis is that the relationship between marital sex-role incongruence and marital adjustment is a function of both the magnitude of the incongruence and the direction of the disagreement. Couples in the study were recruited from a moderately sized midwestern university community. 103 couples agreed to participate but 73 couples actually returned the questionnaire. Of these 73 couples, 63% were randomly recruited through door-to-door solicitation, 29% were recruited from an evangelical Christian organization and church, and 8% were recruited from acquaintances of the 1st author. After deleting incomplete questionnaires, final sample size was 67 couples. Each member of a marital dyad completed a questionnaire including a Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital adjustment, a Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale to measure marital sex-role orientation, a Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Form C to measure social desirability bias, and a demographic information sheet. Findings indicate that direction of incongruence plays a very important role in determining the impact of marital sex-role incongruence on marital adjustment; namely, the greater the incongruence is in the direction of the wife being more egalitarian relative to her husband, the more negative is the estimated impact on marital adjustment. Conversely, the greater the incongruence is in the direction of the husband being more egalitarian than his

  1. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  2. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  3. Exploring the Effects of Social Networking on Students' Perceptions of Social Connectedness, Adjustment, Academic Engagement, and Institutional Commitment

    Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.; Trujillo, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a tool being explored by many institutions as a means of connecting to and communicating with students. This study explores whether or not students' use of social networking services (SNSs) has significant effects on social connectedness, college adjustment, academic engagement, and institutional commitment. Students' use of…

  4. Effect of flow adjustment dialysate (Qd hemodialysis on effectiveness of underweight patients

    Daniel Ducuara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available KDOQI guidelines in 2006 using standard dialysis adequacy Kt/V, where V is volume of distributionof urea, underweight patients have lower total body water, lower V, which couldreduce the requirement without affecting Qd the efficiency of dialysis. Objective: to evaluatethe effect on the adequacy of dialysis Qd reduction occurs in patients weighing less than orequal to 60 kg who are on hemodialysis. Methodology: patients with chronic kidney diseaseon hemodialysis regularly with weight less than or equal to 60 kg of a renal clinic to evaluatetwo periods I and II, were continued therapy parameters with decrease of Qd for the secondperiod. The variables were collected directly by the researchers of the history. The values thusobtained would be compared using t test or paired variables, and statistical significance of thetest below 0,05. Results: we included 61 patients, 60.7% female, mean age 57,3 years (SD 14,8.Average age of men 60.1 (SD 13,9 and women was 55,9 (SD 15,4. There were no statisticallysignificant differences for the variables Kt/V, Hemoglobin and there was a significant reductionin the phosphorus levels. Conclusions: this study demonstrates that adequate therapy is achievedwith less than Qd traditional standards, with 400 ml/min in patients with low weight as long asyou keep the other parameters of renal substitution.

  5. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Psicodoc and Psyarticles. Fourteen articles were found and analyses show that most interventions had some efficacy in the psychological adjustment of children and their parents; nevertheless, there is a limited number of treatments that can in fact be considered effective. The convenience of psychological interventions is discussed and how they must comprehend strengths and the promotion of psychological health and should not be based solely on deficits and psychopathological models. Possibly, this reorientation will help fostering significant clinic changes regarding the stress associated to cancer and its treatment.

  6. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment of Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    Ali Akbar Soleimani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results: Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion: EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples.

  7. Effects of sodium on nitrate uptake and osmotic adjustment of Suaeda physophora

    2010-01-01

    Na+ ions play an important role in the growth of halophyte. The effect of Na+ ions on nitrate uptake and osmotic adjustment in the euhalophyte Suaeda physophora was investigated under glasshouse conditions. Seedlings were exposed to 1 mmol/L NaCl (control),300 mmol/L NaCl,150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl or 300 mmol/L KCl treatments for 24 d. Dry weight was not affected greatly by different salt treatments,but water content and succulence in leaves of S. physophora were significantly increased at 300 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl treatments. The concentrations of Na+ and NO3’ in leaves of S. physophora were the highest at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl,but lowest at 300 mmol/L KCl treatment. Moreover,the increase of NO3’ concentration did not result in the decrease of Cl-concentration at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl treatments. The estimated contribution of NO3’ to osmotic potential (CNO3) in leaves of S. physophora was 9.8% at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl,and CNa and CCl were 31.0% and 23.3%,respectively. However,CNO3,CNa and CCl were respectively 1.6%,7.9% and 11.9% at 300 mmol/L KCl treatment. It is concluded that Na+ stimulates NO3’ absorption and the stimulation is independent on the internal or the external Cl-concentration in the euhalophyte S. physo-phora. These characteristics may explain the high levels of N in leaves of saline desert plants in arid ecosystem.

  8. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384

  9. Attachment-based classifications of children's family drawings: psychometric properties and relations with children's adjustment in kindergarten.

    Pianta, R C; Longmaid, K; Ferguson, J E

    1999-06-01

    Investigated an attachment-based theoretical framework and classification system, introduced by Kaplan and Main (1986), for interpreting children's family drawings. This study concentrated on the psychometric properties of the system and the relation between drawings classified using this system and teacher ratings of classroom social-emotional and behavioral functioning, controlling for child age, ethnic status, intelligence, and fine motor skills. This nonclinical sample consisted of 200 kindergarten children of diverse racial and socioeconomic status (SES). Limited support for reliability of this classification system was obtained. Kappas for overall classifications of drawings (e.g., secure) exceeded .80 and mean kappa for discrete drawing features (e.g., figures with smiles) was .82. Coders' endorsement of the presence of certain discrete drawing features predicted their overall classification at 82.5% accuracy. Drawing classification was related to teacher ratings of classroom functioning independent of child age, sex, race, SES, intelligence, and fine motor skills (with p values for the multivariate effects ranging from .043-.001). Results are discussed in terms of the psychometric properties of this system for classifying children's representations of family and the limitations of family drawing techniques for young children. PMID:10353083

  10. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  11. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  12. The Differential Effects of Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence on Adolescents' Adjustment

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants…

  13. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    Gaolong Zhu

    Full Text Available A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI and reduced simple ratio (RSR, MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area.

  14. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  15. Effectiveness of price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts. Consequences of the 2011 BGH rulings; Wirksamkeit von Preisanpassungsklauseln in Fernwaermelieferungsvertraegen. Konsequenzen der BGH-Urteile 2011

    Buedenbender, Ulrich; Gromm, Marcel [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaftsrecht und Arbeitsrecht

    2011-07-01

    In 2011, the BGH had to decide for the first time on price adjustment clauses. There were four court rulings on price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts, and price adjustment clauses were considered to be ineffective in all cases. This is a trend similar to the rulings on gas supply contracts since 2005. This contribution discusses the consequences of the 2011 BGH rulings for future price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts. The contract partners, especially the customers of district heating utilities, must be sure whether a raised supply price will be based on an effective price adjustment clause, or whether it will enable the customer to refuse payment. (orig.)

  16. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    Jiang SP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results: The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98% of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81% were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10% were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which

  17. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 minutes. A back mapper and motion analysis equipment were used to measure pelvic posture and angles of lower limb joints for the experimental and control group. [Results] The values obtained before and after the intervention were compared. For the experimental group, the results were significantly different in terms of reduced differences in hip flexion between the left and right hips and in knee abduction between the left and right knees. Differences in pelvic position and pelvic torsion were also found in the experimental group. No significant differences in the control group were identified. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment affects pelvic position and torsion and this enhancement to pelvic stability decreases hip flexion and knee abduction during walking.

  18. The effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment

    Abas Mahvash Wernoosfaderani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment is one of the most stressful disabilities. The mental health of parents caring for children with hearing impairment is at risk. Therefore, technical support and intervention are very valuable for these families. These services are also useful for children’s development. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment.Methods: In this study, 37 parents of children with hearing impairment were selected as the sample population. Interviews and case studies were conducted to determine whether the parents were receiving social work services. The social adjustment scale was used to assess parents’ social adjustment. Analysis of variance (F was used to analyze the data and information obtained from parents.Results: Data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between parents who had received social work services and parents who had not received social work services (p<0.001.Conclusion: According to the obtained results, parents who had received social work services experienced higher social adjustment. It can be said that providing assistance to parents of children with hearing impairment can improve their social integration.

  19. Cause and effect relationship between post-merger operating performance changes and workforce adjustments

    Kuvandikov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior empirical research provides substantial evidence showing that mergers and acquisitions lead to operating performance decline (Ghosh, 2001). At the same time such transactions involve workforce reductions, as reported in the public media. However, systematic empirical evidence on the association between operating performance and workforce adjustments is inconclusive. On the one hand workforce reductions may be undertaken to improve efficiency and firm profitability (Cascio et al., 1997) ...

  20. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2014-01-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-e...

  1. An Effect Of Girl Students Interest In Science, Study Habits And School Adjustment On Academic Achievement In Science

    Ashokkumar B. Surapur

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse independent and combined effects of variables viz., Interest in science (higher and lower), Study habits (good and poor) and School Adjustment (high and low) on Academic achievement in Science. The sample of the present study includes 300 students selected randomly from IXth Standard studying science subject. The study revealed that, (i) The Girl students with higher interest in science have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Gir...

  2. A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval

    Gaolong Zhu; Weimin Ju; Chen, J. M.; Yibo Liu

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests s...

  3. Effects of composition on waste glass properties

    The electrical conductivity, viscosity, chemical durability, devitrification, and crystallinity of a defense waste glass were measured. Each oxide component in the glass was varied to determine its effect on these properties. A generic study is being developed which will determine the effects of 26 oxides on the above and additional properties of a wide field of possible waste glasses. 5 figures, 2 tables

  4. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  5. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2014-01-01

    proximity to the city centre compared to similar properties in Berlin’s periphery once we control for the properties’ physical characteristics. The observed temporal evolution of the rental price distribution between 2008 and 2013 thereby hints at an ongoing gentrification process in Germany’s capital...... find that districts’ net in-migration balances are positively correlated with quality-adjusted rental price levels for higher quantiles of the distribution, thereby potentially proxying the price dynamics of underlying gentrification processes. Using statistical tests from the explanatory spatial data...

  6. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  7. Adjustable collimator

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  8. Commutation effect of Adjustable Speed Drives due to installation of active harmonic filters

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Kalaschnikow, Sergej; Hansen, Steffan;

    2011-01-01

    The success of designing an industrial installation with Active Filters depends on how precise the load profile of the application is known, because this determines the amount of harmonic currents to be compensated. However, once the Active Filter is added to the installation, the harmonic currents...... may increase due to changes in the commutation behavior of diode rectifier converters. The change of natural commutation determines higher harmonics currents of the diode rectifiers and therefore higher harmonic loading of the Active Filter in the installation. This paper presents a method to estimate...... the commutation behavior of Adjustable Speed Drives when their harmonic currents are compensated by a Shunt Active Filter. The method is formulated as an analytical computation algorithm verified by simulations. Further on the method is implemented in a Harmonic Calculation Toolbox which facilitates...

  9. The effects of backward adjustable thoracic support in wheelchair on spinal curvature and back muscle activation for elderly people.

    Chun-Ting Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting.Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9 were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (-0.32±4.80° when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27° and lumbar support (-8.97±3.31° sitting postures (P<0.001, and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (-23.38±6.50° when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°, normal (0.44±7.47°, and lumbar support (-16.76±4.77° sitting postures (P<0.05. It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain.

  10. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described. The...... observations indicate that the most homogeneous concrete does not necessarily exhibit the lowest rheological properties....

  11. Essays in applied macroeconomics: Asymmetric price adjustment, exchange rate and treatment effect

    Gu, Jingping

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II examines the possible asymmetric response of gasoline prices to crude oil price changes using an error correction model with GARCH errors. Recent papers have looked at this issue. Some of these papers estimate a form of error correction model, but none of them accounts for autoregressive heteroskedasticity in estimation and testing for asymmetry and none of them takes the response of crude oil price into consideration. We find that time-varying volatility of gasoline price disturbances is an important feature of the data, and when we allow for asymmetric GARCH errors and investigate the system wide impulse response function, we find evidence of asymmetric adjustment to crude oil price changes in weekly retail gasoline prices. Chapter III discusses the relationship between fiscal deficit and exchange rate. Economic theory predicts that fiscal deficits can significantly affect real exchange rate movements, but existing empirical evidence reports only a weak impact of fiscal deficits on exchange rates. Based on US dollar-based real exchange rates in G5 countries and a flexible varying coefficient model, we show that the previously documented weak relationship between fiscal deficits and exchange rates may be the result of additive specifications, and that the relationship is stronger if we allow fiscal deficits to impact real exchange rates non-additively as well as nonlinearly. We find that the speed of exchange rate adjustment toward equilibrium depends on the state of the fiscal deficit; a fiscal contraction in the US can lead to less persistence in the deviation of exchange rates from fundamentals, and faster mean reversion to the equilibrium. Chapter IV proposes a kernel method to deal with the nonparametric regression model with only discrete covariates as regressors. This new approach is based on recently developed least squares cross-validation kernel smoothing method. It can not only automatically smooth

  12. The Creation of Effective Property Rights

    Herschel I. Grossman

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, general-equilibrium models have taken effective property rights to be given and have been concerned only with analysing the allocation of resources among productive uses and the distribution of the resulting product. But, this formulation of the economic problem is incomplete because it neglects that the appropriative activities by which people create the effective property rights that inform allocation and distribution are themselves an alternative use of scarce resources.This...

  13. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)

  14. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  15. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  16. Effects of chemical ecological adjustment and control experiment on phytoplankton community in the Aoshan Bay

    陈碧鹃; 赵俊; 辛福言; 崔毅; 过锋

    2002-01-01

    There is a low nutrient level in the Aoshan Bay. In June 1999, the chemical adjustment and control experiment was made in the Aoshan Bay. Following tracts investigation was carried out before the experiment and on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 45th day/after the experiment. While the variance of amount of phytoplankton, the replacement of superior species and the species composition of phytoplankton were researched. The results show that the amount of phytoplankton in the Aoshan Bay rises gradually after the experiment. Ceratium macroceros Cleve of pyrophyta was the dominant species before the experiment, its dominant index was 37.7%. Six days after the experiment, its dominant index dropped to 17.6%. Meanwhile the dominant index of Asterionella japonics Cleve rose from 7.1% to 39.2%, it became the first dominant species. Forty-five days after the experiment, the amount of phytoplankton in the Aoshan Bay was 5.15 to 137.32 times more than that in 1997.

  17. Effects of pH adjustment with phosphates on attributes and functionalities of normal and high pH beef.

    Young, O A; Zhang, S X; Farouk, M M; Podmore, C

    2005-05-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscles from six normal- and six high-ultimate pH bulls were selected for fine mincing and subsequent pH adjustment with acid and alkaline pyrophosphate. Four pH treatments were prepared: initially high remains high (mean of pH 6.37), high becomes normal (5.62); initially normal remains normal (5.65), and normal becomes high (6.21). The addition level of phosphate as P(2)O(5) was the same in all replicates. Before pH adjustment, colour and water holding capacity (WHC) values were strongly affected by higher (initial) pH in expected ways: darker, lower chroma, higher capacity. After pH adjustment, these values were affected only by the final pH, not the initial pH (the pH history). Total protein solubility was likewise affected by final pH but not initial pH. In contrast, the combination high initial pH-high final pH improved sarcoplasmic protein solubility by 20% over the combination normal initial pH-high final pH. Sarcoplasmic protein solubility is an indicator of strain required to fracture cooked batters made from the minced meats; in the event, the rank order of the four treatments for strain-to-fracture matched that of sarcoplasmic protein solubility. Statistically, sarcoplasmic protein solubility and strain-to-fracture were both affected by initial pH (P<0.01) and final pH (P<0.001). However, stress required to fracture cooked batters was entirely controlled by initial pH (P<0.01). In other words, the stress-to-fracture advantage of initially high pH meat was not matched by upward pH adjustment of initially normal pH meat. Emulsion stability, which is better with higher pH meat, was affected by initial and final pH (both P<0.01). Cook yield, like WHC of pH-adjusted raw meat, was more due to final pH than initial pH, similarly cooked batter colour, whereas final pH had a significant effect on quality attributes (generally better when higher). An initially high pH history conferred an enduring advantage on three important batter attributes

  18. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  19. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  20. Examining the Effects of Residence and Gender on College Student Adjustment in Iran: Implications for Psychotherapists

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Nunnery, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of on-campus residence, in comparison with commuter status, on academic performance, vocational commitment, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the college environment among female and male Iranian students at Shiraz University, Iran. The study sought to extend previous work investigating the effects of college…

  1. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  2. Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-04-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above-average profiles elicited greater improvement in parents' functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at 3rd grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early- to middle-childhood years. PMID:26866838

  3. Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    Keith Klostermann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2011-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflict showed low correspondence. As a block, teacher and student reports of TSRQ predicted all outcomes, above prior performance on that outcome and ba...

  5. Effect of drought and abscisic acid application on the osmotic adjustment of four wheat cultivars

    The accumulation of osmolytes in leaf tissues and the abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure are well-recognized mechanisms associated with drought tolerance in crop plants. We determine the response in terms of osmotic potential and the contents of leaf proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugar at booting and grain filling stages of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to drought and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) in a pot study. Leaf sample were collected 3, 6 and 9 days after drought induction and at 48 and 72 h of re-watering (recovery). Marked decreases in osmotic potential associated with the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars occurred under conditions of drought stress Accession 011320 was most sensitive to drought and showed the largest decrease in osmotic potential and least accumulation of proline, sugar and glycine betaine The inhibitory effects of drought stress were ameliorated by exogenous application of ABA. This ameliorating effect was more pronounced at the booting than at grain filling stage particularly in the sensitive accession 011320. Upon rewatering the recovery from drought stress was found to be greater in case of abscisic acid application. The leaf praline content is seen to be a suitable indicator for selecting drought-tolerant genotypes. (author)

  6. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  7. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects

    Fritz, C; Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-01-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's vocal tract. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' tracts using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this 'normal' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, a...

  8. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this "normal" configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects" such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa. PMID:16334701

  9. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' ``muscle memory'' is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this ``normal'' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for ``special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa.

  10. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research program has been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that is being taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research

  11. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research

  12. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  13. The Effect of Alkaline Material Particle Size on Adjustment Ability of Buffer Capacity

    Girts Bumanis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pH control in biotechnological processes like anaerobic digestion is one of the key factors to ensure high efficiency in the biogas production process. The decrease of pH level in the digestion process occurs due to the rapid acid formation during metabolic processes of bacteria which leads to the inhibition of the methane producing bacteria; therefore further digestion process is limited. The efficiency of anaerobic digestion reactor decreases dramatically if the pH level falls under pH 6.6. This problem is common for single-stage continuous digesters with a high organic solid content; therefore the active pH controlling method is commonly used. By creating inorganic alkaline material, the passive pH controlling system could be created. Soluble alkalis are enclosed in the matrix of material during the activation process thus providing slow leaching of free alkalis from the material structure in water medium and ensuring pH increase. In this research a porous alkaline composite material was developed as a pH controlling agent for the biogas production. Two mixture compositions with a different Si/Al and Si/Na ratio were created. The effect of particle size of the material was investigated in order to provide different leaching rates for the described material. Granular material with particle fractions 1/2 mm, 2/4 mm and 4/8 mm and a cubical specimen with dimensions 20×20×20 mm were tested. The pH level of water medium increased up to pH 11.6 during the first day and final pH value decreased to 7.8 after 20-day leaching. Alkali leaching can be increased by 19-32% changing the mixture composition by adding glass powder to the alkaline material. The particle size factor was negligible for leaching rate of alkaline material due to the high porosity of material. Research results show that this composite material has a potential to be applied in pH control for biotechnological purposes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7325

  14. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  15. Effective Rheological Properties in Semidilute Bacterial Suspensions

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Berlyand, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction of the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model.

  16. Effective Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanocomposites

    Christoph Etrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanocomposites find many applications, such as nanometric coatings in emerging fields, such as optotronics, photovoltaics or integrated optics. To make use of their ability to affect light propagation in an unprecedented manner, plasmonic nanocomposites should consist of densely packed metallic nanoparticles. This causes a major challenge for their theoretical description, since the reliable assignment of effective optical properties with established effective medium theories is no longer possible. Established theories, e.g., the Maxwell-Garnett formalism, are only applicable for strongly diluted nanocomposites. This effective description, however, is a prerequisite to consider plasmonic nanocomposites in the design of optical devices. Here, we mitigate this problem and use full wave optical simulations to assign effective properties to plasmonic nanocomposites with filling fractions close to the percolation threshold. We show that these effective properties can be used to properly predict the optical action of functional devices that contain nanocomposites in their design. With this contribution we pave the way to consider plasmonic nanocomposites comparably to ordinary materials in the design of optical elements.

  17. Effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene

    Hossain, Zubaer

    This talk will discuss effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene under the presence of atomic scale heterogeneity. Polycrystallinity is ubiquitous in solids, but theories describing their effective behavior remain limited, particularly when heterogeneity is present in the form of nonuniform deformation or composition. Over the decades, exploration of the effective transport and strength properties of heterogeneous systems has been carried out mostly with random distribution of grains or regular periodic structures under various approximations, in translating the underlying physics into a single representative volume element. Although heterogeneity can play a critical role in modulating the basic behavior of low-dimensional materials, it is difficult to capture the local characteristics accurately by these approximations. Taking polycrystalline graphene as an example material, we study the effective structural properties (such as Young's Modulus, Poisson's ratio and Toughness) by using a combination of density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulations. We identify the key mechanisms that govern their effective behavior and exploit the understanding to engineer the behavior by doping with a carefully selected choice of chemical elements.

  18. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications. (paper)

  19. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  20. Control of plasma properties in capacitively coupled oxygen discharges via the electrical asymmetry effect

    Schüngel, E; Zhang, Q-Z; Iwashita, S; J. Schulze(Universität Bochum I. Institut für Experimentalphysik, Germany); Hou, L-J; Wang, Y-N; Czarnetzki, U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract By using a combined experimental, numerical and analytical approach, we investigate the control of plasma properties via the Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE) in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge. In particular, we present the first experimental investigation of the EAE in electronegative discharges. A dual-frequency voltage source of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz is applied to the powered electrode and the discharge symmetry is controlled by adjusting the phase angle ? between th...

  1. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  2. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. These facilities must not only provide safe storage of radioactive wastes but must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strenght related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degrees F no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349 apply. ACI 349 states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties. Methods proposed in a report, 'Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures', by Pacific Northwest Laboratories can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  3. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degree F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  4. Effect of melt cleanliness on the properties

    Samuel, F. H.; Liu, H.; Samuel, A. M.

    1993-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of melt cleanliness with respect to the presence of inclusions on the properties of an Al-10 wt pct Si metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with 10 vol pct SiC particles. The occurrence of inclusions was controlled by filtra- tion, using ceramic foam filters of 10, 20, and 30 ppi sizes, under gravity and pressure. Test bars obtained from filtered and unfiltered melt castings, prepared from fresh (as-received) and recycled composite materials, were T6-tempered and tensile tested at room temperature. The casting quality was examined using X-ray radiography. The results indicate that various factors influence the casting quality and mechanical properties of the cast composite. The A12O3 films and spinel MgAl2O4 — the main inclusions observed in the present composite — are chiefly responsible for the degradation in the mechanical properties. In addition, SiC sedimentation, Al4C3 formation, the hydrogen level of the melt, and the starting material used can also influence these properties. Fracture studies reveal that the inclusions and associated microvoids act as the crack initiation sites during composite fracture. Simple filtration using 10 ppi ceramic foam filters under gravity serves adequately in removing these inclusions and producing the desired mechanical properties.

  5. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  6. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  7. Effect of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Risk Factors in Morbidly Obese Adolescents

    Rushika Conroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on weight loss, inflammatory markers, and components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MeS in morbidly obese adolescents and determined if those with MeS lose less weight post-LAGB than those without. Data from 14–18 yr adolescents were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months following LAGB. Significant weight loss and improvements in MeS components were observed 6 months and one year following LAGB. The incidence of MeS declined 56.8% after 6 months and 69.6% after 12 months. There was no significant difference in amount of weight lost post-LAGB between those with and without MeS at either timepoint. Correlations between change in weight parameters and components of MeS in those with and without MeS at baseline were examined and found to vary by diagnostic category. LAGB is effective for short-term improvement in weight, inflammatory markers, and components of MeS in morbidly obese adolescents.

  8. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Sruthi Ravindranathan; Bhanu prasanth Koppolu; Smith, Sean G.; Zaharoff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions fro...

  9. An Examination of the Effects of Career Development Courses on Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Adjustment to College, Learning Integration, and Academic Success

    Hansen, Michele J.; Pedersen, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of career development courses on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), college adjustment, learning integration, academic achievement, and retention among undecided undergraduates. It also investigated the effects of course format on career decision-making abilities and academic success outcomes and…

  10. The effects of gender, acclimation state, the opportunity to adjust clothing and physical disability on requirements for thermal comfort

    Parsons, K.C. [Human Thermal Environments Laboratory, Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    A programme of laboratory studies into thermal comfort requirements is presented. Two studies used groups of 16 subjects over a range of conditions (warm to cool) to investigate the effects of gender over 3 hours exposures in simulated living room/office environments. It was found that for identical levels of clothing and activity, there were only small differences in the thermal comfort responses of male and female subjects for neutral and slightly warm conditions. For cool conditions, female subjects tended to be cooler than males. An experiment to investigate the effects of heat acclimation on thermal comfort requirements involved six male subjects providing thermal comfort responses in neutral and slightly warm environments over 2 days. They then carried out an acclimatization program over 4 days, for 2 hours per day, exercising in a hot (45 {sup o}C, 40% relative humidity) environment. Thermal comfort responses were then recorded in two sessions over 2 days in identical conditions to the pre-acclimation session. It was found that changes in thermal comfort responses were small and likely to be of little practical significance. An investigation into the behaviour of people to maintain thermal comfort by adjusting their clothing was conducted using eight male and eight female subjects. Seated subjects reduced or increased their clothing level by using a wardrobe of clothing that was familiar to them. It was found that subjects can adjust their clothing to maintain thermal comfort, but within limits. Upper limits (clothing off) will be determined by modesty and acceptability. Lower limits (clothing on) will be determined by clothing design and acceptability. A low air temperature limit of 18 {sup o}C in freely available clothing may provide a working hypothesis. A laboratory study of thermal comfort requirements for people with physical disabilities compared responses with those of people without physical disabilities. It was found that there are few group

  11. Effects of irradiation on mechanical properties

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. The effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel steels are explained. This chapter provides some background on the critical elements controlling neutron damage effects. Distinction is made between vessels made in the USA and in the former USSR

  12. N3LO NN interaction adjusted to light nuclei in ab exitu approach

    Shirokov, A M; Kim, Y; Sosonkina, M; Maris, P; Vary, J P

    2016-01-01

    We use phase-equivalent transformations to adjust off-shell properties of similarity renormalization group evolved chiral effective field theory NN interaction (Idaho N3LO) to describe binding energies and spectra of light nuclei without NNN forces.

  13. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  14. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl. PMID:26801818

  15. Treating Urge Incontinence in Older Women: A Cost-Effective Investment in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALY

    Victoria L. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of urge incontinence treatments for older women. Methods. Decision-analytic models assessed three treatment pathways: (1 limited behavioral therapy (LBT; (2 full behavioral therapy (FBT with biofeedback; and (3 drug (DRUG, with allowances for crossover options following initial treatments. Model inputs were gathered from published data. Cost data were based on third party payer reimbursement. Outcomes were measured as the number of incontinence episodes avoided and quality-adjusted life years gained (QALYs. Results. At baseline values costs per QALY gained ranged from US$3696 to $10609. LBT was the least costly with the lowest benefit. Switching from LBT to FBT, with the greatest gain, was $415 per additional QALY. DRUG was the most expensive option. Sensitivity analyses showed that only small changes in key inputs were required for DRUG to generate greater gains than FBT. Medication costs had to fall substantially for DRUG to be cost competitive. Conclusion. All treatment strategies provide QALYs gains at a bargain price, compared to the standard of US$50,000 per QALY gained. No single treatment strategy dominated under all conditions. Clinicians should offer multiple treatment options to older women with urge incontinence.

  16. Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails

    Schumann, U.

    2005-05-15

    Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and climatic effects of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than assessed in an international assessment in 1999. Contrails trigger contrail cirrus with far larger coverage than observed for line-shaped contrails, but still unknown radiative properties. Some model simulations indicate an impact of particles and particle precursors emitted from aircraft engines on cirrus cloud properties. However, the magnitude of this effect cannot yet be assessed. Contrail formation can be avoided only by flying in sufficiently warm and dry air. The formation of contrail cirrus can be reduced by avoiding flights in ice-supersaturated regions of the atmosphere, e.g. by raising the flight level into the lower-most stratosphere. (orig.)

  17. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  18. Effect of Rare Earths on Properties of BNbRE Rail Steel

    李春龙; 智建国; 王荣

    2003-01-01

    The development and properties of BNbRE rail steel and the effect of RE on rail steel were studied. The results show that the properties of rail steel (σb≥980 MPa, δ5≥8%) can be improved by adding RE and niobium and adjusting the content of C, Si and Mn in steel. At the same time, the abrasion resistance, contact fatigue and fatigue property of BNbRE rail steel are excellent. It also shows that RE in rail steel has the functions of purifying steel, modifying inclusion and micro-alloy action effect. The improved steel-making process enhances the quality of molten steel. Although the content of RE is low, excellent properties of BNbRE rail steel are achieved.

  19. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler; Carmen Bragado-Álvarez; María J. Hernández-Lloreda

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline...

  20. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Lord, Jadienne H.; Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collabora...

  1. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training.

    Art, T; Votion, D; McEntee, K; Amory, H; Linden, A; Close, R; Lekeux, P

    1994-01-01

    Two randomly distributed groups of thoroughbred horses were compared during a 12-week period for their cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustment to strenuous exercise, training and detraining. The horses were trained following the same standardized schedule and were regularly investigated using standardized treadmill exercise tests (SET) of increasing speed. After the first SET and during the whole experimental period, a group of 6 horses received a probiotic (Bioracing) once a day while a group of 5 horses received a placebo. All other conditions were similar for both groups. During each SET, the oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, tidal volume (inspired volume), respiratory rate and expired minute volume were obtained using 2 ultrasonic pneumotachographs and a mass spectrometer. All the parameters were the mean of the values calculated during the last 20 s of the SET. Heart rate was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. In both groups, training induced significant modification in most of the cardio-respiratory parameters, ie peak oxygen uptake, peak carbon dioxide output, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation/min to oxygen-uptake ratio and oxygen-uptake to heart-rate ratio. After the 3-week detraining period, most of the values were again similar to the pre-training values in both groups. However, the training-induced modifications of most of the cardio-respiratory parameters occurred earlier and were proportionally greater in the probiotic-treated group than in the control. The respiratory coefficient decreased in the control but not in the treated group. All other parameters changed similarly in both groups. This suggests that Bioracing could modify the physiological effects of training by improving some aerobic metabolic capacities for carbohydrate utilization, but that this effect occurs only during training and not during periods of physical

  2. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  3. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  4. Electrostatic Embedding To Model the Impact of Environment on Photophysical Properties of Molecular Crystals: A Self-Consistent Charge Adjustment Procedure.

    Wilbraham, Liam; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2016-07-12

    A case study of 1,8-dihydroxy-2-napthaldehyde (DHNA)-exhibiting an excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer resulting in photophysical properties sensitive to the surrounding environment-has been used to assess the performance of electrostatic embedding approaches designed to accurately recover the effects of a bulk crystalline environment on calculated photophysical properties. The first approach, based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) applied in a QM/QM' scheme, makes use of a background point charge distribution which can accurately reproduce the exact ground-state Ewald potential of the bulk crystal. The second approach seeks to "optimize" these charges in a self-consistent manner in order to reproduce the electrostatic field produced by the environment at the excited state. Using these two approaches, both absorption and emission properties of molecular crystals, such as the position and the relative shift in the emission bands in the solid state with respect to solution, can be accurately reproduced. More generally, the results obtained show how these computationally affordable approaches can be used to predict the excited-state behavior of molecules in condensed phases, thus allowing their employment to predict or design new molecular materials with enhanced photophysical properties. PMID:27231786

  5. Adjusting for confounding effects of treatment switching in a randomized phase II study of dabrafenib plus trametinib in BRAF V600+ metastatic melanoma.

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Amonkar, Mayur M; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Sun, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive melanoma who were assigned to 150 mg dabrafenib twice daily combined with 2 mg trametinib once daily in a phase I/II study showed a median overall survival (OS) of 23.8 months, compared with 20.2 months for patients assigned to dabrafenib alone [hazard ratio (HR)=0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-1.24; data cutoff March 2013], on the basis of an intention-to-treat analysis. Because patients assigned to dabrafenib monotherapy were allowed to switch to combination therapy upon disease progression, we attempted to adjust for confounding effects on OS. Randomization-based adjustment methods, Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time Models and the Iterative Parameter Estimation algorithm, were used. Two analyses, 'treatment group' (assumes that treatment effect continues beyond treatment discontinuation) and 'on treatment' (assumes that the treatment effect disappears upon treatment discontinuation), were used to test assumptions on the durability of the treatment effect. A total of 45/54 (83%) patients assigned to dabrafenib monotherapy switched to the trametinib/dabrafenib combination. Adjusted OS HRs ranged from 0.47 to 0.50, depending on the analysis, compared with the unadjusted OS HR of 0.73. CIs continued to cross 1.00; thus, adjusted estimates did not provide statistically significant evidence of a treatment benefit on survival. Reduction of HRs after adjusting for the effect of treatment switching suggests that the intention-to-treat analysis underestimates the effect of dabrafenib plus trametinib on OS, although several factors, such as small trial size and methodological assumptions, affect the certainty of the conclusions. PMID:26340744

  6. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  7. Adjusted effects of domestic violence, tobacco use, and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel on child mortality.

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Studies that have separately examined the consequences of gender based violence upon women, use of solid fuel for cooking, and mother and father's use of tobacco on child health have concluded that they serve as risk factors for maternal and child health. Some authors have implied that these studies may have run the risk of overestimating the burden of disease of one factor over another. In this paper, we included all four factors in the same model to estimate their adjusted effects on child mortality, controlling for the demographic factors. The data come from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey of India that interviewed a nationally representative sample of 39,257 couples. Of the four factors, mothers' use of tobacco presented the highest risk for child mortality (OR = 1.42; CI = 1.27-1.60) followed by fathers' use of tobacco (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.12-1.36), households' use of solid fuel for cooking (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.06-1.43), and physical abuse upon mothers (OR = 1.20; CI = 1.10-1.32). Among the households that used solid fuel for cooking, improved cookstoves users experienced 28 % lower odds of child mortality (OR = 0.72; CI = 0.61-0.86) compared to nonusers of improved cookstoves. Additionally, increase in age of mothers at birth of first child, parents' education, and household wealth served as protective factors for child mortality. To prevent child death, programs should focus on reducing couple's use of tobacco, protecting women from physical abuse, and helping households switch from solid to liquid fuel. Moreover, a significant reduction in child death could be attained by improving girls' education, and delaying their age at marriage and first birth. PMID:23065299

  8. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Gargano A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  9. Cost Effectiveness, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years and Supportive Care: Recombinant Human Erythropoietin as a Treatment of Cancer-Associated Anaemia

    Pierre-Yves Cremieux; Stan N. Finkelstein; Berndt, Ernst R.; Jeffrey Crawford; Mitchell B. Slavin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To measure the cost effectiveness of a supportive care intervention when the no-treatment option is unrealistic in an analysis of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) treatment for anaemic patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Further, to assess whether quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) can provide the basis for an appropriate measure of the value of supportive care interventions. Design: A modelling study drawing cost and effectiveness assumptions from a literature...

  10. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  11. Effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding on sleep and metabolism: a 12-month follow-up study

    Gerber LM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ana C Krieger,1 Heekoung Youn,2 Frank Modersitzki,2 Ya-Lin Chiu,1 Linda M Gerber,1 Elizabeth Weinshel,2 Christine R Fielding21Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2New York University School of Medicine and NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NYBackground: Obstructive sleep apnea is commonly associated with metabolic changes and obesity, and changes in body weight by either medical or surgical approaches have been considered to affect the severity of sleep apnea and appetite-controlling hormones. This prospective study evaluated the effect of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB surgery on respiratory disturbance during sleep, oxygen saturation levels, sleep architecture, and leptin and ghrelin levels.Methods: Participants were patients at a university-based medical center surgical weight loss program. All participants with a body mass index > 30 kg/m2 undergoing LAGB surgery for weight reduction were offered the opportunity to participate in the study. Procedures included overnight polysomnography followed by fasting hormone levels at baseline and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Thirty subjects (10 men, 20 women of mean age 44.0 ± 12.5 years were recruited. At 12 months postoperatively, mean excess weight loss was 44.4% ± 14%. The apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 34.2 ± 35 to 19.0 ± 21.7 events per hour (P < 0.0001, while leptin levels decreased from 24.5 ± 17.42 pg/mL to 11.6 ± 10.6 pg/mL (P = 0.02. Ghrelin levels did not change substantially. Nadir oxygen saturation levels increased from 81% to 84% at 12 months (P = 0.03. Mean oxygen saturation improved and was positively correlated with ghrelin levels at both time points (r = 0.39, P = 0.07, and r = 0.60, P = 0.01.Conclusion: LAGB surgery was associated with 44.4% excess weight loss at 12 months, accompanied by a 33.7% improvement in apnea-hypopnea index as well as a reduction in leptin levels by 31.7% in this group

  12. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers. PMID:24384596

  13. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants content such as ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, carotenoid were significantly increased and malonaldehyde contents were decreased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, suggesting that Mo application enhanced the ability of scavenging active oxygen species. The osmotic-adjustment products such as soluble protein, proline and soluble sugar were also increased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, indicating that Mo improved the osmotic adjustment ability in wheat. It is hypothesized that Mo application might improve the drought tolerance of wheat by enhancing water utilization capability and the abilities of antioxidative defense and osmotic adjustment. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient cultivars wheat in response to Mo under drought stress are discussed. PMID:25221925

  14. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training

    Art, Tatiana; Votion, Dominique; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Amory, Hélène; Linden, Annick; Close, Roland; Lekeux, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Two randomly distributed groups of thoroughbred horses were compared during a 12-week period for their cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustment to strenuous exercise, training and detraining. The horses were trained following the same standardized schedule and were regularly investigated using standardized treadmill exercise tests (SET) of increasing speed. After the first SET and during the whole experimental period, a group of 6 horses received a probiotic (Bioracing) once a day while a ...

  15. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Enhancing Marital Adjustment and Quality of Life among Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    Najafi, Maryam; SOLEIMANI, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Kamkar, Elnaz Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of emotionally fo- cused therapy (EFT-C) on promoting marital adjustment of infertile couples with marital conflicts by improving quality of life. Materials and Methods This is a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post–test design in which 30 infertile couples (60 individuals) were chosen by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly divided into two groups, sample and control, of 15 couples each. Next, couples in the sam...

  16. Effects of high proline accumulation on chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure and on osmotic adjustment in tobacco plants

    Lucélia Borgo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Proline accumulates in many organisms in response to abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity. Reports have discussed the role of proline in relation to osmotic adjustment, even though no clear-cut evidence has yet been provided demonstrating this association as a defense mechanism against drought stress in plants. However, it has been indicated that the application of exogenous proline can damage the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and mitochondria. In this study, using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a mutant p5cs gene from Vigna aconitifolia under control of the CaMV 35S promoter, we show that the high levels of endogenous proline accumulated in leaves does not contribute to the osmotic adjustment in plants under water deficit conditions. Additionally, electron microscopic observations of mitochondria and chloroplasts show that the ultrastructure of these organelles was not damaged even in the transgenic plants, with the leaves presenting the highest endogenous proline content in (100 µmol g-1 dry mass. This investigation demonstrates that in tobacco, high levels of endogenous free proline are not associated with osmotic adjustment and that elevated proline content in leaves, even at levels 10 times higher than normal, do not disturb the chloroplast and mitochondria ultrastructure under both irrigated and water deficit conditions.

  17. A new daily dividend-adjusted index for the Danish stock market, 1985-2002: Construction, statistical properties, and return predictability

    Belter, Klaus; Engsted, Tom; Tanggaard, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    We present a new dividend-adjusted blue chip index for the Danish stock market covering the period 1985-2002. In contrast to other indices on the Danish stock market, the index is calculated on a daily basis. In the first part of the paper a detailed description of the construction of the index is...

  18. Investigation on the coupling effect of thermochromism and microstructure on spectral properties of structured surfaces

    Fang Junfei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Xuan Yimin, E-mail: ymxuan@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li Qiang; Fan Desong; Huang Jinguo [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper is aimed at studying the coupling effect of thermochromism and surface microstructure on the spectral properties of structured surfaces. We prepare the samples of structured surfaces of perovskite-type manganese thermochromic materials by patterning one-dimensional gratings and two-dimensional cavity arrays by means of the photolithographic technique. Experiment on radiative properties of these samples indicates that the emittance of the structured surfaces dramatically increases compared with that of the bulk thermochromic materials. It is demonstrated the adjustable emittance range of the thermochromic materials can be effectively enlarged by designing the surface morphology. This implies a novel approach for improving the thermochromic effect of the perovskite-type manganese materials.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on cadmium telluride surface properties

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the surface properties of cadmium telluride is studied. The possibility of oriented modification of surface properties for increasing the adsorption activity and obtaining the materials, suited for the sensor transducer production, is shown

  20. The Effects Of Demolition Control Precincts On Property Values

    Elliott, P.; Warren, C.; Staines, J

    2015-01-01

    As municipal governments continue to implement historic preservation regulations, it is vitally important to understand the effects on the designated properties and the housing market. Determining and understanding the impact is important for property owners, buyers, planning authorities and valuers. Whilst it is known that historic preservation designation has an effect on property value, the effects are mixed and unclear. The direction and magnitude of the effect is dependent on locational ...

  1. When Do We See Resilience: The Effects of Parentâ s History of Maltreatment on Parenting Behaviors and Childrenâ s Adjustment

    Riser, Diana Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that children are at a greater risk of maladjustment in cases where a parent has experienced childhood maltreatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of parentâ s childhood maltreatment in its effects on parenting behavior, parent characteristics, and child adjustment. The multiple pathways through which parentâ s childhood maltreatment can be both directly and indirectly linked to child maladjustment were explored. Further, risk and protectiv...

  2. The Effect of the Neurac Sling Exercise on Postural Balance Adjustment and Muscular Response Patterns in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    Kim, Ji Hae; Kim, Young Eok; Bae, Sea Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of the Neurac sling exercise on postural balance adjustment and muscular response patterns in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen CLBP patients participated in this study. They were randomly and equally assigned to group I, whose members received ordinary physical therapy (40 minutes per time, four times per week), and group II, whose members performed a lumbar stabilization exercise using the Neurac sling aft...

  3. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  4. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  5. EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FERTILIZER ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    WANG Ya-qin; WANG Ji-hong

    2004-01-01

    Electric fertilizer, I. E. Exerting electric field on plants during growing season instead of chemical fertilizer, is a kind of physical fertilizer, and the third kind of fertilizer with developmental prospect after inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer. For the purpose of studying the changes of physical and chemical properties of soil after exerting electric field, five treatments with different applications of chemical fertilizer were arranged on the black soil in Yushu City of Jilin Province by randomized block method, and electric field was exerted on plants every ten days during the growing season. Through sample analysis the paper arrives at following conclusions: 1) Exerting electric field can make soil's granular structure increase, bulk density decrease, moisture capacity increase,thus improving the perviousness of soil. 2) Exerting electric field can make microorganism's number increase and activity strengthen, thus activating nutrient and increasing organic matter content. 3) Exerting electric field with 0.1A medium has the best effect. So the chemical fertilizer can be saved. Therefore, we can say that the application of electric fertilizer is favorable for decreasing chemical poison, improving soil, relaxing the contradiction between the supply and demand of chemical fertilizer, and decreasing production cost of agriculture and forestry.

  6. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Flor-Serra Ferran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  7. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  8. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  9. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing one's thoughts and feelings and is ... stem cell research? What is the clinical trials process? Get support Ask us anything Get a peer ...

  10. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most important point to remember is ... to rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can ...

  11. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coax...

  12. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  13. Identification of effective properties of particle reinforced composite materials

    Kushnevsky, V.; Morachkovsky, O.; Altenbach, H.

    1998-01-01

    For the determination of effective elastic properties an energy averaging procedure has been used for particle reinforced composite materials. This procedure is based on finite element calculations of the deformation energy of a characteristic volume element. The proposed approach allows the determination of effective properties of particle reinforced composite with acceptable precision. The calculated effective properties of the composite are found in range between upper and lower Hashin-Sht...

  14. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  15. Effects of ICG concentration and particle diameter on photophysical properties of ICG-doped nanoparticles

    Crovisier, Jason; Bahmani, Baharak; Saleh, Reema; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2014-03-01

    The variety of nanoparticles developed by numerous investigators has presented a diverse platform for various optical imaging applications in biomedicine. We have previously reported that the FDA-approved chromophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) can be successfully encapsulated by cross-linked poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH)-Disodium Monophosphate (Na2HPO4) to form a nanoparticle for near-infrared imaging applications. The diameter of the constructs is dependent on the charge ratio between the polymer and salt used to encapsulate the chromophore. Modifications of the synthesis methods can alter the photophysical properties of the capsules, either through the adjustment of the charge ratio between PAH and Na2HPO4 or concentration of ICG successfully impregnated into the capsule. Through understanding the effects of tuning the nanoparticle properties, the photophysical characteristics of the constructs can be optimized. Here we present the results of adjusting the diameter of the nanoparticle and amount of ICG on the hydrodynamic diameters, absorption and fluorescence characteristics, and the relative fluorescence quantum yield. Optimizing the photophysical properties of the constructs can lead to increased imaging sensitivity and contrast for potential translational applications, including tumor imaging, which may utilize these nanoconstructs.

  16. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    2010-04-01

    ... (e) of the Act shall be made in lieu of the adjustments for depreciation otherwise required by... the amount of the terms-letter reserve applicable to such property. (c) Adjustment for depreciation... changeover date and before the 1956 adjustment date, for depreciation applicable to such property...

  17. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  18. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect

  19. Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials

    Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang

    2005-01-01

    The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.

  20. Effect of fibril shape on adhesive properties

    Soto, Daniel; Hill, Ginel; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, Noé; Cutkosky, Mark; Kenny, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Research into the gecko's adhesive system revealed a unique architecture for adhesives using tiny hairs. By using a stiff material (β-keratin) to create a highly structured adhesive, the gecko's system demonstrates properties not seen in traditional pressure-sensitive adhesives which use a soft, unstructured planar layer. In contrast to pressure sensitive adhesives, the gecko adhesive displays frictional adhesion, in which increased shear force allows it to withstand higher normal loads. Synthetic fibrillar adhesives have been fabricated but not all demonstrate this frictional adhesion property. Here we report the dual-axis force testing of single silicone rubber pillars from synthetic adhesive arrays. We find that the shape of the adhesive pillar dictates whether frictional adhesion or pressure-sensitive behavior is observed. This work suggests that both types of behavior can be achieved with structures much larger than gecko terminal structures. It also indicates that subtle differences in the shape of these pillars can significantly influence their properties.

  1. Comparison Method - Preference Of Adjustment Techniques Among Valuers

    Anuar Alias; Noor Hana Asyikin Nor Hanapi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the adjustment techniques applied by valuers in determining the market value of the property. There are several types of adjustment techniques that can be applied in comparison method such as summative percentage, dollar percentage, add and/or subtract percentage, and proper base adjustments. In order to investigate the most preferred adjustment techniques applied by valuers in Malaysia as well as the elements of adjustment, a questionnaire survey is conducted that involv...

  2. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  3. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state) that...... vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  4. Effects of Sports on College Students’ Mental Adjustment%体育运动项目对大学生的心理调节作用

    穆然华

    2012-01-01

      联合采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)对我国大学生心理健康状况进行调查,通过分析不同心理问题大学生对不同体育项目调节作用的认知状况,探索新时期大学生心理健康教育工作中与体育锻炼融合的心理干预途径和方法,研究结果表明:不同心理问题的大学生对运动项目的心理健康调节作用认知状况不同,进行心理干预时应结合运动项目自身独特的心理调节作用给予区别对待。%  This paper, by using the symptom checklist, 90 (SCL-90), based on the survey of college students’ mental health in China and the analysis of the cognition of college students with different mental problems about the effects of sports on their mental adjustment, explores the approaches and ways of mental intervention which integrate physical exercise with mental health education. Results show that college students with different mental problems have different cognition of the effects of sports on their mental adjustment; therefore, different measures should be taken in mental intervention according to the unique effects of sports items on students’ mental adjustment.

  5. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...

  6. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  7. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, Jinyuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observ...

  8. A New Procedure for Resonance Integral Table with Pre-Adjusted Resonance Interference Effect for Transport Lattice Codes

    Resonance treatment is the most important part in the deterministic transport lattice calculation. The conventional resonance treatment requires resonance integrals tabulated as a function of the background cross section (σb) or subgroup data transformed from the resonance integral table. Typically the resonance integrals for a nuclide are generated as a function of background cross sections through solving slowing down equation for 1-dimensional cylindrical fuel. Slowing down equation is solved for the very fine energy groups with scattering and absorption cross sections for resonant nuclide and potential cross sections for background nuclides. Resonance interference is considered not at this stage but at the transport calculation through the Bondarenko's iteration. This procedure results in some errors in predicting the interfered resonance cross sections. Sometimes the resonance integrals are adjusted from the comparison with the critical experiments such as TRX-1 and -2 and with other reference results to conserve the whole resonance reaction rate. A new procedure has been developed to predict the group-wise self-shielded cross sections correctly. This procedure has been developed by using MERIT, SUBDATA, KARMA developed at KAERI, and MCNP

  9. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis;

    2016-01-01

    shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not......In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced...... milk and a LW gain≥0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the...

  10. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    Sophia Haussener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  11. Effect of skin-pass rolling direction on magnetic properties of semiprocessed nonoriented electrical steel sheets

    Kurosaki, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Shiozaki, M.

    1999-09-01

    Effect of skin-pass rolling direction on magnetic properties and directionality in semiprocessed nonoriented electrical steel sheets produced by skin-pass rolling process was studied. Skin-pass rolling direction greatly affects magnetic properties and directionality. By control of skin-pass rolling direction, the value of B{sub 50} in the required directions such as 0{degree}, 90{degree} and circumferential direction can be adjusted and the value of B{sub 50} is higher than that of the usual skin-pass rolling direction of 0{degree}. The textures of the steel sheets developed after batch annealing varied with the skin-pass rolling directions and this result indicates that the residual strain energy by skin-pass rolling varies with skin-pass rolling directions.

  12. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  13. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Weihong Huang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  14. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers. PMID:27067734

  15. Property Tax Reform in China : Optional property tax proposals and the effects on residence price

    Xu, Yiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives some theoretical instructions of China’s property tax reform which include the reform of land lease system, the design of tax base, tax rates and tax relief, and also provides some interesting property tax proposals for Shanghai and estimates the effects of property tax reform on residence price.This paper selects a case study of Shanghai which can provide useful methods or findings to other cases characterized by similar traits and situations. Through observation and analysi...

  16. Quantifying effects of particulate properties on powder flow properties using a ring shear tester.

    Hou, Hao; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2008-09-01

    Effects of particle size, morphology, particle density, and surface silicification, on powder flow properties were investigated using a ring shear tester. Flow properties were quantified by flow function (FF), that is, unconfined yield strength, f(c), as a function of major principal stress. A total of 11 powders from three series of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC): Avicel (regular MCC, elongated particles), Prosolv (silicified MCC, elongated particles), and Celphere (spherical MCC), were studied. Particle size distribution in each type of MCC was systematically different. Within each series, smaller particles always led to poorer powder flow properties. The slope of FF line was correlated to degree of powder consolidation by external stress. A key mechanism of the detrimental effect of particle size reduction on flow properties was the larger powder specific surface area. Flow properties of Celphere were significantly better than Avicel of comparable particles size, suggesting spherical morphology promoted better powder flow properties. Flow properties of powders different in densities but similar in particle size, shape, and surface properties were similar. When corrected for density effect, higher particle density corresponded to better flow behavior. Surface silicification significantly improved flow properties of finer MCC, but did not improve those of coarser. PMID:18228607

  17. 种植结构调整对区域水循环的影响分析%Effect of planting structure adjustment on water cycle

    张金萍; 裴源生; 郭兵托; 赵勇

    2011-01-01

    process: the strength of water cycle is weakened; the groundwater table is declined, the water - drawing and drainage consumption is also decreased. In the plain area of Ningxia municipality, the Yellow River is the main water source for agriculture irrigation, the Yellow River water consumption is occupied by above 75% in the whole water use. The planting structure adjustment will cause the reduce of the Yellow River water consumption for nature ecosystem; (2) the different planting structure adjustment has a different effect on water consumption: when the paddy planting area decreases, the soil evaporation and the crop transpiration separately reduce by 0. 19 × 108 m3 and 0.82 × 108 m3, while the intercrop area decreases, the decrements of evaporation and transpiration are 1.18 × l08 m3 and 0. 16 × 108 m3; (3) the planting structure adjustment has an important effect on water consumption of ecosystem: when the paddy area decreased by 0.6 million mu, low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption separately reduce 0.2 × 108 m3 and 0.03 × 108 m3, while the intercrop area decreased by 0.6 million mu, low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption separately reduce 0.21 × 108 m3 and 0.05 × 108 m3; (4) low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption of the whole region are all reduced, but low efficient water consumption also plays the important role. From the mentioned above, regardless of the regional water cycle process and the water consumption change, the planting structure adjustment also has a great effect on them. Meanwhile, compared with other engineering measures, the planting structure adjustment has the characteristics of time-saving and labour-saving, which make it become an important development aspect to iraprove the water use efficiency.

  18. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  19. Forage density effect on sound insulation properties

    Green, Ole; Tortajada, Vicent Gassó; Gislum, René;

    2010-01-01

    One of the main parameters affecting forage management and quality is density. Existing methods used for measuring physical properties of forage involve costly destructive analysis. A frequent and appropriate control of the forage density is required for optimizing the management of silage, hay and...... forage density. The method has been used to analyse the correlation of the density with the sound insulation spectra produced by small-scale models of hay, silage and straw. Results show that the sound insulation spectra of forage have a high correlation with the density and a significant congruence with...

  20. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  1. Effects of Particle Shape on Mechanical Properties of Aggregates

    Benediktsson, Stefán

    2015-01-01

    Aggregates are one of the primary building material used in the world. The durability of construction aggregates will therefore depend upon the quality of aggregate mechanical properties. It is therefore important to understand how particle shape will effect mechanical properties of aggregates, measured by the Los Angeles and micro-Deval values. In order to assess the influence of particle shape on aggregate mechanical properties, the proportion of flaky and cubic particles, measured by the f...

  2. Relative contribution of effects included in contemporary groups for adjusted and actual 120-day and 210-day weights in Nelore cattle in Brazil

    Lillian Pascoa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72, 731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore. Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001 for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS and dam age at calving (DAC had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations.

  3. Effect of Hybridization on Stiffness Properties of Woven Textile Composites

    Bejan, Liliana; Taranu, Nicolae; Sîrbu, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on stiffness properties of woven textile reinforced polymeric composites with respect to hybridization, and geometry of reinforcement. The analyzed composites represent combinations of different fibre materials (E-glass, Kevlar 49, carbon HM) in a predetermined fabric geometry (a plane weave embedded in thermosetting polymeric resin) serving controlled properties and required performance. The effects of hybridization on the stiffness properties of woven textile composites have been studied with respect to the fibres materials, the unbalancing degree of fabrics, and the variation of compactness and undulation of yarns. Some undesirable effects in fabric geometry can be overcome by the combined effects of hybridization and compactness.

  4. Effects of Land Use and Management on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Horel, Ágota; Tóth, Eszter; Gelybó, Györgyi; Kása, Ilona; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Farkas, Csilla

    2015-11-01

    Soil hydraulic properties are among the most important parameters that determine soil quality and its capability to serve the ecosystem. Land use can significantly influence soil properties, including its hydraulic conditions; however, additional factors, such as changes in climate (temperature and precipitation), can further influence the land use effects on soil hydraulic properties. In order to develop possible adaptation measures and mitigate any negative effects of land use and climatic changes, it is important to study the impact of land use and changes in land use on soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we summarize recent studies examining the effect of land use/land cover and the associated changes in soil hydraulic properties, mainly focusing on agricultural scenarios of cultivated croplands and different tillage systems.

  5. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  6. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk. PMID:27334116

  7. Effects of drilling variables on burr properties

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1976-09-01

    An investigation utilizing 303Se stainless steel, 17-4PH stainless steel, 1018 steel, and 6061-T6 aluminum was conducted to determine the influence of drilling variables in controlling burr size to minimize burr-removal cost and improve the quality and reliability of parts for small precision mechanisms. Burr thickness can be minimized by reducing feedrate and cutting velocity, and by using drills having high helix angles. High helix angles reduce burr thickness, length, and radius, while most other variables reduce only one of these properties. Radial-lip drills minimize burrs from 303Se stainless steel when large numbers of holes are drilled; this material stretches 10 percent before drill-breakthrough. Entrance burrs can be minimized by the use of subland drills at a greatly increased tool cost. Backup-rods used in cross-drilled holes may be difficult to remove and may scratch the hole walls.

  8. Effects of the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on Marital Adjustment in New Stepfamilies: A Randomized Trial

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; LOW, SABINA; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-01-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO™) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with highe...

  9. Evaluating the effect of magnetocaloric properties on magnetic refrigeration performance

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology that relies on the magnetocaloric effect in a solid refrigerant. Magnetocaloric materials are in development and properties are reported regularly. Recently, there has been an emphasis on...

  10. The effect of an adjustable sitting angle on the perceived discomfort from the back and neck-shoulder regions in building crane operators.

    Gustafson-Söderman, U

    1987-12-01

    In a previous working environment study of building crane operators, it has been found that approximately 70% experienced discomfort from the locomotor system. Comments by the interviewed crane operators indicated that it is, among other things, the forward flexed sitting position during lifts close to the crane that causes discomfort. This investigation sought to apply knowledge from the forestry industry concerning the beneficial effects of improved operator's seats to the work situation of crane operators. On a construction site with three cranes, an operator's seat with adjustable sitting angle was installed in one of the cranes. Estimation of perceived strain-discomfort in the lumbar region of the back as well as in the neck-shoulder region was assessed according to Borg's scale. Data were collected from the crane operators seated in their ordinary operator's seat, seated in the test seat, and seated in another crane with an ordinary type of seat. The results showed that in [Formula: see text] of all lifts, the crane operator was sitting bent-forward with little opportunity for relief via a backrest or armrests. The highest estimated discomfort values in the study were also obtained in an ordinary operator's seat on days with a high proportion of lifts close to the crane. When working in the test seat, none of the subjects gave an estimate higher than 0.5 (discomfort equivalent to very, very weak). An adjustable operator's seat could be a good alternative to a fixed seat, and more tests would be desirable. PMID:15676634