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Sample records for adjustable effective properties

  1. ESIPT fluorescent dyes with adjustable optical properties: Substituent and conjugation effects

    Based on the design and synthesis of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (3) derivatives, we demonstrate a prototypical system to investigate both substituent and conjugation effects on excited-state intramolecular proton transfer emission through a combination of experimental and theoretical studies. On the one hand, adding an electron-withdrawing substituent at the phenol ring in 3 results in a decrease of HOMO, and hence, an increase in the energy gap of the keto-tautomer emission (o-4 and p-4). An opposite effect is observed when an electron-donating substituent is added (1). On the other hand, the elongation of the p-conjugation length by the installed 2-methylenemalononitrile group (o-2 and p-2) induces further π-electron delocalization, and thus a smaller emission energy gap. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations on these proton transfer dyes are reported in order to rationalize their electronic structure and optical properties. - Highlights: • A novel series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline derivatives was synthesized. • These molecules undergo an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reaction. • The proton-transfer emission can be fine-tuned from 600 nm to 655 nm

  2. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  3. Adjustable ferroelectric properties in paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric trilayers

    Lu Xiaoyan [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Wang Biao [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Zheng Yue [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Li Chenliang [Electro-Optics Technology Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2008-02-07

    A trilayer paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric system is studied within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory in consideration of the elastic interactions between each layer. An analytic expression of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature for the ferroelectric layer is derived. The polarization, dielectric properties and the response to the external field are studied numerically. Our results show that there are two types of thickness effects on the properties of the film considering the effect of dislocation. By changing the thickness of each layer, the ferroelectric layer can be highly adjusted and may have very good potential applications such as transducers, sensors and actuators.

  4. Adjustable ferroelectric properties in paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric trilayers

    A trilayer paraelectric/ferroelectric/paraelectric system is studied within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire theory in consideration of the elastic interactions between each layer. An analytic expression of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature for the ferroelectric layer is derived. The polarization, dielectric properties and the response to the external field are studied numerically. Our results show that there are two types of thickness effects on the properties of the film considering the effect of dislocation. By changing the thickness of each layer, the ferroelectric layer can be highly adjusted and may have very good potential applications such as transducers, sensors and actuators

  5. Properties of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index.

    Steinley, Douglas

    2004-09-01

    This article provides an investigation of cluster validation indices that relates 4 of the indices to the L. Hubert and P. Arabie (1985) adjusted Rand index--the cluster validation measure of choice (G. W. Milligan & M. C. Cooper, 1986). It is shown how these other indices can be "roughly" transformed into the same scale as the adjusted Rand index. Furthermore, in-depth explanations are given of why classification rates should not be used in cluster validation research. The article concludes by summarizing several properties of the adjusted Rand index across many conditions and provides a method for testing the significance of observed adjusted Rand indices. PMID:15355155

  6. Ethnic Differences and the Effects of Racism on College Adjustment.

    LeSure, G. Evelyn

    This study investigated ethnic differences and the effects of racism on the college adjustment of African-American, Asian, and Latino students who attended five undergraduate predominantly Anglo-American colleges. Results indicated that social adjustment was better for Anglos than it was for Asians and Latinos. African-Americans reported the most…

  7. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  8. Impacts of parameters adjustment of relativistic mean field model on neutron star properties

    Analysis of the parameters adjustment effects in isovector as well as in isoscalar sectors of effective field based relativistic mean field (E-RMF) model in the symmetric nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter properties has been performed. The impacts of the adjustment on slowly rotating neutron star are systematically investigated. It is found that the mass–radius relation obtained from adjusted parameter set G2** is compatible not only with neutron stars masses from 4U 0614+09 and 4U 1636-536, but also with the ones from thermal radiation measurement in RX J1856 and with the radius range of canonical neutron star of X7 in 47 Tuc, respectively. It is also found that the moment inertia of PSR J073-3039A and the strain amplitude of gravitational wave at the Earth's vicinity of PSR J0437-4715 as predicted by the E-RMF parameter sets used are in reasonable agreement with the extracted constraints of these observations from isospin diffusion data. (author)

  9. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    M S Abdul Aziz; M Z Abdullah; C Y Khor; A Jalar; M A Bakar; W Y W Yusoff; F Che Ani; Nobe Yan; M Zhou; C Cheok

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of printed circuit board (PCB) thickness on adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering. The pin-through-hole (PTH) vertical fill is examined with three PCBs of different thicknesses (i.e., 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm) soldered through adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering at conveyor angles of 0° and 6°. The vertical fill of each PCB is the focus. The PTH solder profile is inspected with a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography scanning machine. The percentages of the PTH vertical fill of both soldering processes are also estimated and compared. The aspect ratio of the PCB is also investigated. Experimental results reveal that adjustable fountain wave soldering yields better vertical fill than conventional wave soldering. The vertical fill level of adjustable fountain wave soldering is 100%, 90%, and 50% for the 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm PCB thickness, respectively. FLUENT simulation is conducted for the vertical fill of the solder profile. Simulation and experimental results show that the PTH solder profiles of the two soldering processes are almost identical. The effect of PCB thickness on PTH voiding is also discussed.

  10. Multiobjective Shape Optimization for Deployment and Adjustment Properties of Cable-Net of Deployable Antenna

    Guoqiang You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on structural features of cable-net of deployable antenna, a multiobjective shape optimization method is proposed to help to engineer antenna’s cable-net structure that has better deployment and adjustment properties. In this method, the multiobjective optimum mathematical model is built with lower nodes’ locations of cable-net as variables, the average stress ratio of cable elements and strain energy as objectives, and surface precision and natural frequency of cable-net as constraints. Sequential quadratic programming method is used to solve this nonlinear mathematical model in conditions with different weighting coefficients, and the results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  11. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability

  12. Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers

    The authors demonstrate the production of amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-C:F) thin film with adjustable wetting properties, inducing variable liquid crystal (LC) pretilt angles. To control the surface wetting properties, they apply a dual radio frequency magnetron system with a controlled power ratio of targets. In this manner we obtain various compositional surfaces with fluorine and carbon components and adjust the surface energy with regard to the various compositions. Whereas the fluorine-rich a-C:F layer shows a preference for homeotropic (vertical) LC alignment, the carbon-rich a-C:F layer shows a planar LC alignment. To achieve uniform LC alignment with a proper pretilt angle, an accelerated Ar+ ion beam irradiates the films after the deposition process. The ion beam selectively destroys the surface bonding of the a-C:F films, yielding an intermediate pretilt angle

  13. Do residential property companies systematically adjust their capital structure? The case of Germany

    Kurzrock, Björn-Martin; Mokinski, Frieder; Schindler, Felix; Westerheide, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether predominantly non-listed corporations in the residential property industry systematically adjust their capital structure to changing financing requirements. Since previous research almost exclusively focused on listed companies, little is known about the considerations that drive the choice of capital structure of nonlisted companies. We therefore adopt established testing approaches for the pecking order theory and the trade-off theory from the finance literature,...

  14. Do residential property companies systematically adjust their capital structure? : The case of Germany

    Kurzrock, Björn-Martin; Mokinski, Frieder; Schindler, Felix; Westerheide, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether predominantly non-listed corporations in the residential property industry systematically adjust their capital structure to changing financing requirements. Since previous research almost exclusively focused on listed companies, little is known about the considerations that drive the choice of capital structure of nonlisted companies. We therefore adopt established testing approaches for the pecking order theory and the trade-off theory from the finance literature,...

  15. Understanding property market dynamics: insights from modelling the supply-side adjustment mechanism

    Nanda Nanthakumaran; Craig Watkins; Allison Orr

    2000-01-01

    The volatility of commercial property markets in the United Kingdomhas stimulated the development of explanatory models of 'price' determination. These models have tended to focus on the demand-side as the driver of change. A corollary of this is that, despite the fact that construction lags are known to exacerbate cyclical fluctuations, the supply-side adjustment mechanism has been subject to relatively little research effort. In this paper the authors develop a new model of commercial prope...

  16. Effects of Divorce Counseling Groups on Adjustment and Self Concept.

    Salts, Connie J.; Zongker, Calvin E.

    1983-01-01

    Tested whether self-concept and adjustment of separated or divorced individuals (N=64) could be enhanced by group counseling. Data showed individuals in either a structured or unstructured group had greater improvement in adjustment than individuals who dropped out. No significant differences in improvement in self-concept were noted. (JAC)

  17. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Adjustment in School.

    Dawud, Samia; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between children's experiences of domestic violence and their adjustment at school. Sixty-three children (28 girls), in Israel, their classmates and teachers took part in the study. Children were divided into four groups: (1) those who were victims of physical abuse; (2) those who witnessed abuse; (3) those who…

  18. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  19. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  20. A Method to Adjust Dielectric Property of SiC Powder in the GHz Range

    Xiaolei Su; Jie Xu; Zhimin Li; Junbo Wang; Xinhai He; Chong Fu; Wancheng Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The SiC powders by Al or N doping have been synthesized by combustion synthesis, using Al powder and NH4Cl powder as the dopants and polytetrafluoroethylene as the chemical activator. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer demonstrates the formation of Al doped SiC, N doped SiC and the Al and N co-doped SiC solid solution powders, respectively. The electric permittivities of prepared powders have been determined in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. It indicates that the electric permittivities of the prepared SiC powders have been improved by the pure Al or N doping and decrease by the Al and N co-doping. The paper presents a method to adjust dielectric property of SiC powders in the GHz range.

  1. Adjustable third-order nonlinear optical properties of the spin coating phenoxazinium–PMMA films

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin coating poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with 3,7-bis(diethylamino)phenoxazin-5-ium chloride (1) are reported. The third-order nonlinear optical properties were tested by Z-scan technology with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturation absorption to saturation absorption with increasing percentage of the phenoxazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) film. The different forms of the spin coating films were obtained by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscope, and the different aggregation phenomenon of the phenoxazinium in the films can explain the adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption phenomena. Moreover, large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10−7 esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10−28 esu) are found with these films. The results indicate that the phenoxazinium dye is the potential material for the third-order nonlinear optical application. - Highlights: • Third-order NLO properties of the phenoxazinium doped PMMA films were obtained. • Reverse saturated absorption changes to saturated absorption by the different percentage of phenoxazinium in the PMMA films. • Different states of films were obtained

  2. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  3. Thermo-adjustable mechanical properties of polymer, lipid-based complex fluids

    Firestone, Millicent; Lee, Sungwon

    2012-02-01

    Combined rheology (oscillatory and steady shear) and SAXS studies reveal details on the temperature-dependent, reversible mechanical properties of nonionic polymer, lipid-based complex fluids. Compositions prepared by introduction of the polymer as either a lipid conjugate or a triblock copolymer form an elastic gel as the temperature is increased to 18 C. The network is produced from PEO chain entanglement and physical crosslinks confined within the intervening aqueous layers of a multilamellar structured lyotropic mesophase. Although the complex fluids are weak gels, tuning of the gel strength can be achieved by temperature adjustment. The sol state formed at reduced temperature arises as a consequence of the well-solvated PEO chains adopting a non-interacting, conformational state. Complex fluids prepared with the triblock copolymers exhibit greater tunability in viscoelasticity than those containing the PEGylated-lipid conjugate because of the temperature-dependent water solubility of the central PPO block. The water solubility of PPO at reduced temperatures results in the polymer being expelled from the self-assembled amphiphilic bilayer, causing collapse of the swollen lamellar structure and loss of the PEO network. At elevated temperatures, the triblock reinserts into the bilayer producing an elastic gel. These studies identify macromolecular architectures for the facile preparation of dynamic soft materials possessing a range of mechanical properties that can be tuned by modest temperature control.

  4. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  5. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Stress on Children's Adjustment in Woman-Abusing Families.

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…

  6. Effective Transport Properties

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  7. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K; Johansen, C

    2010-01-01

    participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...... use of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects.......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...

  8. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2011

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2011. 1) Annual adjustments An increase of 0.35% to the scale of basic salaries paid to Staff Members and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Regulations). No adjustments to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Regulations). No modifications to the following social benefits: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Regulations) Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Regulations). 2) Five-yearly review 2010, financial elements: Adjustment of basic salaries: An increase of 1% for Career Path D. An increase of 2% for Career Paths E to G. Technical adjustment of th...

  9. Assessing Longitudinal Change: Adjustment for Regression to the Mean Effects

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2009-01-01

    Pascarella (J Coll Stud Dev 47:508-520, 2006) has called for an increase in use of longitudinal data with pretest-posttest design when studying effects on college students. However, such designs that use multiple measures to document change are vulnerable to an important threat to internal validity, regression to the mean. Herein, we discuss a…

  10. Electron Beam Adjustment in PLATO RTS 2 Including the Effect of Air Gaps

    Lopes, M C; Trindade, A; Rodrigues, P; Peralta, L

    2002-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Beam characterization for electron dose calculations in PLATO RTS 2 treatment planning system requires the tuning of two adjustment parameters: sqx (the initial angular spread) and FMCS (a "fudge" multiple Coulomb scattering parameter). This work provides a set of suggestions to optimise electron dose calculations with PLATO, taking into account the effect of air gaps between the electron applicator and the patient skin. Material and Methods: Two adjustment criteria have been followed: one which uses just one input data set corresponding to the standard (null) air gap and another one that takes into account the whole range of clinically used distances between the electron applicator and the patient surface. The adjusted values of sqx were compared with experimental data and GEANT3 Monte Carlo code results. A systematic study has been carried out of the effect of both adjustment parameters on electron dose calculations in water. Comparisons of dose distributions and point dose values ha...

  11. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  12. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  13. An Adjusted profile likelihood for non-stationary panel data models with fixed effects

    Dhaene, Geert; Jochmans, Koen

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the bias of the profile score for the autoregressive parameters p and covariate slopes in the linear model for N x T panel data with p lags of the dependent variable, exogenous covariates, fixed effects, and unrestricted initial observations. The bias is a vector of multivariate polynomials in p with coefficients that depend only on T. We center the profile score and, on integration, obtain an adjusted profile likelihood. When p = 1, the adjusted profile likelihood coincides wi...

  14. Experimental Tuned Mass Damper Based on Eddy Currents Damping Effect and Adjustable Stiffness

    LO FEUDO, Stefania; Allani, Anissa; Cumunel, Gwendal; Argoul, Pierre; Bruno, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    International audience — An experimental Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is proposed in order to damp vibrations induced by external excitations. This TMD is based on the Eddy Currents damping effect and is designed in such a way as to allow a manually adjustment of its own stiffness and inherent damping. The TMD's modal parameters estimation is therefore carried out by applying the Continuous Wavelet Transform to the signals obtained experimentally. The influence of the manual adjustment of the T...

  15. The effects of inflation on wage adjustments in firm-level data: grease or sand?

    Groshen, Erica L.; Mark E. Schweitzer

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of inflation on wage changes made by firms in a unique thirty-seven-year panel of occupations and employers drawn from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland Community Salary Survey (CSS). Our analysis first identifies two relative prices embedded in wage changes and, second, draws inferences about the costs and benefits of inflation from the adjustments in these relative prices. Typically, firms manage employer-wide wage adjustments (controlling for occupational...

  16. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF VECTOR CONTROL ON TOTAL CURRENT HARMONIC DISTORTION OF ADJUSTABLE SPEED AC DRIVE

    KARTIK TAMVADA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable speed drive (ASD is becoming a significant load component for power distribution. It involves the use of an Induction motor (IM. This paper involves modeling and control of an Induction motor andinvestigates its effects on the total current harmonic distortion of the adjustable speed ac drives. The simulation was carried out with the aid of the Simulink toolbox available in Matlab. It is seen that with Vector control the THDi of the drive reduces considerably.

  17. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTS OF VECTOR CONTROL ON TOTAL CURRENT HARMONIC DISTORTION OF ADJUSTABLE SPEED AC DRIVE

    KARTIK TAMVADA; R.KAMESWARA RAO

    2012-01-01

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) is becoming a significant load component for power distribution. It involves the use of an Induction motor (IM). This paper involves modeling and control of an Induction motor andinvestigates its effects on the total current harmonic distortion of the adjustable speed ac drives. The simulation was carried out with the aid of the Simulink toolbox available in Matlab. It is seen that with Vector control the THDi of the drive reduces considerably.

  18. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  19. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  20. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  1. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Hammon, Matthias; Janka, Rolf; Dankerl, Peter; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Uder, Michael; Rompel, Oliver [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Gloeckler, Martin; Dittrich, Sven [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  2. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  3. Human capital demand in Brazil: The effects of adjustment cost, economic growth, exports and imports

    Joilson Dias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.

  4. Effects of Forecasts on the Revisions of Concurrent Seasonally Adjusted Data Using the X-11 Seasonal Adjustment Procedure.

    Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark

    Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…

  5. Tailoring Feedback: Effective Feedback Should Be Adjusted Depending on the Needs of the Learner

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    All students deserve effective feedback. General principles for effective feedback should be adjusted depending on the learner's needs. Feedback to struggling students should include focusing on the process, selecting only one or just a few points, giving self-referenced feedback to describe progress or capability, being very clear, and checking…

  6. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  7. Risk-based surveillance: Estimating the effect of unwarranted confounder adjustment

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2011-01-01

    We estimated the effects of confounder adjustment as a part of the underlying quantitative risk assessments on the performance of a hypothetical example of a risk-based surveillance system, in which a single risk factor would be used to identify high risk sampling units for testing. The differenc...

  8. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

  9. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  10. Problems of forming the effective instruments of tax adjusting in the conditions of integration the states

    Сalinescu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Problems, which break the introduction of effective instruments the tax adjusting, are examined as at the level of the state, separate territories and enterprises too. Ways and measures of overcoming the exposed negative sides of socio-economic development the economy of country are outlined. Substantial attention is spared the stimulus of development the depressed territories.

  11. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  12. Effect of cover adjustment on binocular vision function in children with anisometropic amblyopia

    Kai Zhu

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To explore and study the effect of cover adjustment on binocular visual function in children with anisometropic amblyopia.METHODS: Forty-five children with anisometropic amblyopia of our hospital from July 2014 to April 2015 were as the study group, and treated by cover adjustment. Then 40 cases of healthy volunteers were selected as the blank control group. The binocular visual function of the subjects was observed.RESULTS: Before treatments, at 1 and 3mo after treatments, the positive r...

  13. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509

  14. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Salar Faramarzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance s tatistical method (SPSS version 21.Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  15. Phase Formation and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Nd-Fe-B Adjusted by Small Amount of Dy and Co

    T S Jang; T W Lim; H S Aum; D H Lee; M B Kim

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve and stabilize the magnetic properties of nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe magnetic alloys by a compositional adjustment, small amount of Dy and/or Co was added to Nd9Fe84B7 alloys. DTA analysis on the amorphous of the alloys took place as the soft magnetic phases were crystallized, and then the hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B was precipitated from them. While α-Fe and a metastable 1:7 (TbCu7-type) phase were formed simultaneously in Dy and Co-free alloys, they were crystallized separately at different temperatures after Dy or Co was added. This phase separation occurred more clearly in the Dy-treated alloys and the other soft magnetic phase Fe3B was also stabilized by Dy and/or Co. The 1: 7 phase that was stabilized by Dy and/or Co was not eliminated at 700 ℃, decreasing magnetic properties of the alloys. It was eventually disappeared above 725 ℃, but Fe3B was not eliminated even at 750 ℃ when Dy was added more than 0.5 at% or Co was added more than 2.0 at%. Amount of Nd2Fe14B in the alloys tended to increase as Dy addition increased,whereas Co addition did not lead to any appreciable change in the ratio of α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B. Moreover, Dy addition apparently increased coercivity of an alloy while Co addition had a beneficial effect on remanence. The grains in the Dytreated alloys were usually finer than those in the Co-treated alloys. The grain size of both α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B in the alloys exhibiting mr ≥ 0.72 was in the range of 20 ~ 40 nm or even larger 50 nm, which is larger than the theoretical optimum size ( ~ 10 nm). Typical magnetic properties obtained from a Nd7.5Dy1.5Fe82.5Co1.5B7 alloy annealed for 12 min at 725 ℃were iHc=4.85 kOe, Br= 11.32 kG, (BH)max = 15.73 MGOe, and mr=0.73.

  16. Variational assimilation of streamflow into operational distributed hydrologic models: effect of spatiotemporal adjustment scale

    H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    , interior flow assimilation at any adjustment scale produces streamflow predictions with a spatial correlation structure more consistent with that of streamflow observations. We also describe diagnosing the complexity of the assimilation problem using the spatial correlation information associated with the streamflow process, and discuss the effect of timing errors in a simulated hydrograph on the performance of the data assimilation procedure.

  17. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  18. Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth's atmosphere. - Highlights: • Blueprint for 3D remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface. • Procedure for adjusting thousands of parameters with millions of data

  19. Age affects the adjustment of cognitive control after a conflict: evidence from the bivalency effect

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Age affects cognitive control. When facing a conflict, older adults are less able to activate goal-relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information. However, cognitive control also affects the events after a conflict. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict. To this end, we investigated the bivalency effect, that is, the performance slowing occurring after the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli (i.e., sti...

  20. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Yang Hsieh; Huang Fen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participa...

  1. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Somayeh Hozouri; Mojgan pazuki

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The pr...

  2. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Yang Hsieh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981 and Schaefer and Moos (1993 were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching

  3. Application of mesoporous catalysts over palm-oil biodiesel for adjusting fuel properties

    Highlights: ► The catalysts MCM-41 and SiO2/Fe3O4 were used to reduce the low-temperature fluidity of biodiesel. ► The catalyst SiO2/Fe3O4 was found to be more effective than MCM-41 for dehydrogenation and cracking reaction. ► Biodiesel had a lower water formation rate when the catalysts were used in the reaction. ► Biodiesel catalyzed by SiO2/Fe3O4 at 600 °C produced the lowest CFPP and the highest iodine value. - Abstract: Biodiesel has superior fuel characteristics, including a higher flash point, better lubricity, and higher oxygen content, and is thus considered a promising alternative clean fuel to petroleum diesel. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the most significant indicator of the low-temperature fluidity of biodiesel. The CFPP of biodiesel is generally higher than that of petroleum diesel primarily due to the longer carbon-chain structures of the fatty acids in the former. Raw materials such as palm oil and waste cooking oil are widely used as the feedstock to produce biodiesel because of their low cost, good availability, and stable lipid provision. However, they generally have a poor low-temperature fluidity, which limits their application in colder climates. In this experimental study, the catalytic dehydrogenation and cracking reaction technique was used to reduce the CFPP of palm-oil biodiesel with an initial CFPP of as high as 14 °C. The catalytic variables of the type of mesoporous catalyst and operating temperature are considered in this study. The resultant fuel properties of palm-oil biodiesel catalyzed by MCM-41 and SiO2/Fe3O4 were compared with biodiesel thermally cracked without a catalyst. The operating temperature of the catalyzed dehydrogenation and cracking reaction was controlled in the range between 400 and 600 °C. The CFPP decrease reached a maximum of 12 °C when the biodiesel was catalyzed by SiO2/Fe3O4 at 600 °C. The maximum water content was produced when the biodiesel sample was thermally cracked with no

  4. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance. PMID:26686705

  5. Effect of Intervention to Change Life Style to Increase Marital Adjustment

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Etemadi, Ahmad; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Shokooh, Navabi-Nejad

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of life style changes on marital adjustment. Eighty couples who had the most determined maladjustment were selected and randomly divided to experimental and control groups. Then an intervention method for life style change was administered to the experimental group. The Enrich was questionnaire for pre and post test. The results show that, the method of life style changing was reducing marital maladjustment. The marital adjustment change score between two groups (Experimental and Control) was significantly different (pmanagement, conflict resolution and sexual relationships. It was recommended that counselors and psychotherapists select their intervention method according to the maladjustment dimensions to help afflicted couples with maladjustment.

  6. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  8. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  9. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  10. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  11. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels. PMID:21117984

  12. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Somayeh Hozouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  13. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Salar Faramarzi; Mohammad Reza Moradi; Bahareh Motamedi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds) in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups....

  14. Investigating the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investor's decisions in short and long term

    Parvaneh Khaleghi Kasbi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investors’ decisions in short and long term. The primary objective of this study is to find the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on herding behavior of investors in one and several year period. Hence, 85 corporations as the member of Tehran stock exchange over the period 2006-2011 are selected. In order to recognize the herding, by market index consideration, the herded β and in order to hypothesis validity SPSS software and multivariable linear regression have been used. As the results of this study indicate, the adjusted DuPont ratio and its components have more effect on investors’ decisions in short term but in long the period, the effect of this ratio on herding investors’ behavior are reduced. Furthermore, from the two components of adjusted DuPont ratio, profit margin has more effect on investor's decisions.

  15. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  16. Effectiveness of adjustable dorsiflexion night splint in combination with accommodative foot orthosis on plantar fasciitis

    Winson C. C. Lee, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot orthoses and night splints have been used separately to treat patients with plantar fasciitis, but were not always successful. Combined use of both orthoses might give better outcomes. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a soft and self-adjustable dorsiflexion night splint in combination with an accommodative foot orthosis for patients with plantar fasciitis. Twenty-eight patients were assigned to group A (foot orthosis only and group B (combination of foot orthosis and dorsiflexion night splints. A Foot Function Index (FFI questionnaire was used to evaluate the pain and functions of feet just before, 2 weeks after, and 8 weeks after the treatments. Results showed that subjects in group B had significantly reduced pain scores at week 2 (p < 0.001 and week 8 (p < 0.001. In group A, no statistical differences were noted in the pain (p = 0.15, disability (p = 0.56, activity limitation (p = 0.75, and total FFI (p = 0.35 scores for the three time periods. The application of foot orthoses with adjustable dorsiflexion night splints was found to be more effective than the application of foot orthoses alone in relieving foot pain in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  17. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  18. Radiation Effects on Polymer Properties

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Report compiles data on effects of radiation on physical properties of synthetic organic materials. Emphasis on materials of interest to nuclear-equipment and nuclear-reactor designers. Data covers five categories of polymeric materials: Insulators, elastomeric seals and gaskets, lubricants, adhesives, and coatings. More than 250 materials represented.

  19. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting. PMID:10802832

  20. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health...

  1. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of mal-adjusted pre-school children

    Mehdi Khanbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of mal-adjusted children (children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: By using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected, and among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens under the support of welfare organization were randomly selected. From pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children that could have behavioral disorder according to their teachers and parents complaints, were carefully tested, and among them, by the results obtained from child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4, teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were selected, and they were randomly divided into control and experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is done by the use of pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results: values of calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control and experimental group is meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (F(1,12=74/94, P<0/001 so there is a meaningful difference between means of disobedience disorder post-test scores in experimental and control group by having the fixed effect of pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of 2 groups shows that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in experimental group (M=14/09 is lower than control group (M=36/66. Therefore, applying play therapy in experimental group in comparison with control group, who did not receive these instructions, caused reduction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in pre-school children. Conclusion: Results of this research show that the children's disobedience is reduced by benefiting from play therapy.

  2. Adjustment of a Korean Voxel Phantom and Its Effect on Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    Many different voxel models have been developed for use in the calculation of the radiation doses to organs and tissues in the human body. Most of these voxel models are constructed from the CT and MR images of individuals. The organs and tissues are, however, not always discernable on CT and MR images, making it difficult to segment some organs and tissues. Furthermore, these models do not represent the average radiation workers in Korea because the height, weight, and organ masses are different from those of the average Korean workers. This paper compares two Korean voxel models (VKH-Man, HDRK-Man), which have been constructed from the same data set of serially-sectioned color images, in terms of calculated organs doses. The HDRK-Man has been developed by adjusting the VKH Man to the data of the 'Reference Korean'. In this study, organs doses were calculated with these developed models and the calculated values were compared each other to see the effect of the adjustment

  3. Adjustment of a Korean Voxel Phantom and Its Effect on Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Cho, Sung Koo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choon Sik [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Chung, Min Suk; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Many different voxel models have been developed for use in the calculation of the radiation doses to organs and tissues in the human body. Most of these voxel models are constructed from the CT and MR images of individuals. The organs and tissues are, however, not always discernable on CT and MR images, making it difficult to segment some organs and tissues. Furthermore, these models do not represent the average radiation workers in Korea because the height, weight, and organ masses are different from those of the average Korean workers. This paper compares two Korean voxel models (VKH-Man, HDRK-Man), which have been constructed from the same data set of serially-sectioned color images, in terms of calculated organs doses. The HDRK-Man has been developed by adjusting the VKH Man to the data of the 'Reference Korean'. In this study, organs doses were calculated with these developed models and the calculated values were compared each other to see the effect of the adjustment.

  4. Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence.

    Wentzel, Kathryn R

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on student adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Based on information from 452 sixth graders from two suburban middle schools, results of multiple regressions indicated that the five teaching dimensions explained significant amounts of variance in student motivation, social behavior, and achievement. High expectations (maturity demands) was a consistent positive predictor of students' goals and interests, and negative feedback (lack of nurturance) was the most consistent negative predictor of academic performance and social behavior. The role of motivation in mediating relations between teaching dimensions and social behavior and academic achievement also was examined; evidence for mediation was not found. Relations of teaching dimensions to student outcomes were the same for African American and European American students, and for boys and girls. The implications of parent socialization models for understanding effective teaching are discussed. PMID:14717258

  5. The effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error adjustments

    Nathalie Schouppe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown detrimental effects of alcohol on post-error adjustments. In contrast to previous studies, which focused on only one aspect of post-error adaptive behavior, we compared the effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error slowing, post-error reduction of interference and post-error improvement of accuracy. Moreover, we used a between-subjects design (N = 45 comparing a control condition to both an alcohol and an alcohol-placebo condition as to disentangle physiological and expectancy effects of alcohol. In a standard Stroop congruency task, we found that intoxicated participants as well as participants with the incorrect belief of being intoxicated showed significant decreased post-error slowing compared to a control group. Furthermore, we found evidence for a condition-independent post-error increase of interference and post-error decrease of accuracy. The underlying mechanisms of the post-error adaptation effects are discussed in terms of the orienting account (Notebaert et al., 2009.

  6. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  7. Effects of chain flexibility on the properties of DNA hydrogels.

    Pan, Wei; Wen, Hao; Niu, Lin; Su, Cuicui; Liu, Chenyang; Zhao, Jiang; Mao, Chengde; Liang, Dehai

    2016-07-01

    The effect of chain rigidity on the mechanic properties of DNA hydrogels was studied. Counterintuitively, the hydrogel formed by mainly flexible chains exhibited better stability, stretchability, and much mechanical properties than the hydrogel containing only rigid chains. Calculations showed that the crosslinking ratio in the hydrogel formed by flexible chains was about twice that of the hydrogel formed by rigid chains under the same conditions. We attributed this to the ease of conformational adjustment of flexible chains. Incorporation of 25% rigid chains further improved the performance of DNA hydrogel by shrinking the pore size and tuning its distribution. PMID:27121600

  8. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  9. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  10. Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood

    Kim, Byung Mi; Choi, Anna L.; Ha, Eun Hee; Pedersen, Lise; Nielsen, Flemming; Weihe, Pal; Hong, Yun Chul; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in...

  11. The Effects of Personality and Acculturation on the Adjustment of North American Sojourners in Taiwan

    Swagler, Michelle A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2005-01-01

    As more North Americans sojourn abroad in the emerging global marketplace, it is important to understand the factors related to successful cross-cultural adjustment. This study explores how personality factors and acculturation influence the cross-cultural adjustment process of North Americans sojourning in Taiwan. The results reveal that greater…

  12. Hydrothermal-hydrolysis synthesis and photocatalytic properties of nano-TiO2 with an adjustable crystalline structure

    Tri-phase (anatase, rutile, and brookite), bi-phase (anatase and rutile), and mono-phase (rutile) TiO2 nanomaterials with different morphologies were successively synthesized using a hydrothermal-hydrolysis method and adjusting the Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratio in a precursor solution. The properties of the fabricated nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photocatalytic reaction, and other techniques. It has been shown that TiO2 nanorods can be obtained by increasing the Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratio in a precursor solution from 1:0 to 0.3:0.7. TiO2 nanoparticles are formed if the Ti3+ fraction in the solution is further increased. The selective synthesis of TiO2 nanomaterials is explained by a decrease in the reaction rate and by changes in acidity with increasing Ti3+ content. The tri-phase nanorods and bi-phase nanoparticles synthesized with Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratios from 1:0 to 0.8:0.2 and 0.2:0.8 to 0:1, respectively, have a higher degradation ability with respect to methylene blue aqueous solutions under UV irradiation at ambient temperature compared to purely rutile TiO2 nanorods synthesized with Ti4+/Ti3+ molar ratios from 0.7:0.3 to 0.3:0.7. The high photocatalytic activity of the multi-phase TiO2 samples is primarily attributed to their larger band gap and suppressed recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs.

  13. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  14. General Nuclear Properties with Effective Interactions

    This report deals with the use of some effective interactions in calculating properties of closed shell nuclei and of the nuclear surface. Closed shell nuclei have been investigated by several groups; the work of three of these groups is discussed here. Davies, Baranger et al. use a momentum-dependent Gaussian effective interaction whose parameters are adjusted to fit the binding energy and density of nuclear matter using first-order perturbation theory and also match at least the low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts. Pearson and Saunier use quite similar interactions except that instead of fitting low-energy scattering data, they insist that the long range part must be of the one-boson exchange form, at least in 1S0 states. Brink and Boeker study various interactions which fit nuclear matter and the alpha particle binding energy. For 16O, these groups obtain somewhat too low a binding energy. Bethe has worked out a theory of the nuclear surface, which uses a quite simple effective interaction derived from a realistic interaction. Bethe uses the Thomas-Fermi approximation and obtains an analytic form for the particle density distribution at the nuclear surface. He also calculates the nuclear surface energy and surface thickness and obtains good agreement with empirical values. The nuclear surface problem has also been studied by other authors who do not make the Thomas-Fermi approximation. In particular, if one uses a simple effective interaction of the form suggested by Skyrme, with the same criteria as Brink and Boeker, then the surface energy comes out in good agreement with empirical values. In addition, this effective interaction can be used to assess the accuracy of the Thomas-Fermi approximation. This approximation underestimates the surface energy by only 1½ MeV. (author)

  15. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  16. A Preliminary Assessment of the Adjuster Rod Depletion Effect in the CANDU Reactor

    Kim, Yonghee; Roh, Gyuhong; Kim, Won Young; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Lifetime of the Wolsong-1 CANDU reactor, which will be shutdown in April, 2009. Major reactor components such as the pressure tube are to be replaced and it is expected that the CANDU reactor can be operated for additional 25-30 years. Meanwhile, all the reactivity devices including the adjuster rods (ADJ) are supposed to be continuously used without any change. In the CANDU reactor, 21 stainless steel (SS) ADJs are used to control the core power distribution and compensate for some reactivity loss during several abnormal cases. The ADJs are normally fully inserted and the SS absorber should undergo a slow depletion through neutron irradiation for a long time. In April, 2009, the accumulated FPY (Full Power Day) of Wolsong-1 is about 23 years. Depletion of ADJs should result in a smaller ADJ worth and a higher fuel burnup and the core power distribution should also be affected by the ADJ depletion. In this work, the effects of the ADJ depletion have been assessed in terms of ADJ worth, time-average core characteristics.

  17. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2012

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, June and December 2011, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2012. 1)  Five-yearly review 2010 (decisions taken by Council in December 2010) In line with the second phase of Council decisions, increases of 1% and 2% have been applied to basic salaries in Career Path D and Career Paths E to G respectively1); In addition, Health Insurance Scheme contribution rates have been modified (from 4.27%) to 4.41% for the member and (from 6.59%) to 6.86% for the Organization. 2)  Package of measures towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund (decisions taken by Council in June 2011) In accordance with Council decisions, the Organization’s contribution rate for new members of the Fund as of 1.1.2012 is 17%.  The provisions for current members remain unchanged. 3)&nb...

  18. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce. PMID:21375123

  19. Magnitude and directional effects of marital sex-role incongruence on marital adjustment.

    Li, J T; Caldwell, R A

    1987-03-01

    Economic and social forces have converged to influence the fundamental nature of marriage in the 1980s. Marriages are shifting from the complementary type, in which the husband is employed and the wife cares for the household and children, to the parallel type, in which both spouses are employed and both are responsible for the housework. This study examines the relationship between marital sex role incongruence and marital adjustment. Both the magnitude and the direction of the incongruence are related to marital adjustment level. The study's major hypothesis is that the relationship between marital sex-role incongruence and marital adjustment is a function of both the magnitude of the incongruence and the direction of the disagreement. Couples in the study were recruited from a moderately sized midwestern university community. 103 couples agreed to participate but 73 couples actually returned the questionnaire. Of these 73 couples, 63% were randomly recruited through door-to-door solicitation, 29% were recruited from an evangelical Christian organization and church, and 8% were recruited from acquaintances of the 1st author. After deleting incomplete questionnaires, final sample size was 67 couples. Each member of a marital dyad completed a questionnaire including a Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital adjustment, a Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale to measure marital sex-role orientation, a Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Form C to measure social desirability bias, and a demographic information sheet. Findings indicate that direction of incongruence plays a very important role in determining the impact of marital sex-role incongruence on marital adjustment; namely, the greater the incongruence is in the direction of the wife being more egalitarian relative to her husband, the more negative is the estimated impact on marital adjustment. Conversely, the greater the incongruence is in the direction of the husband being more egalitarian than his

  20. Postural adjustments in sitting position : effect of development, training and brain lesions

    Brogren, Eva

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of postural adjustments, and how this development could be affected by daily training and early brain lesions. To this end postural adjustments were assessed by means of multiple surface EMGs of neck, trunk and legmuscles and kinematics in various well documented groups of children. The youngest infants aged 5-6 months showed clear evidence that the basic level of postural control was functionally active prior ...

  1. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  2. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  3. Exploring the Effects of Social Networking on Students' Perceptions of Social Connectedness, Adjustment, Academic Engagement, and Institutional Commitment

    Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.; Trujillo, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a tool being explored by many institutions as a means of connecting to and communicating with students. This study explores whether or not students' use of social networking services (SNSs) has significant effects on social connectedness, college adjustment, academic engagement, and institutional commitment. Students' use of…

  4. Effect of flow adjustment dialysate (Qd hemodialysis on effectiveness of underweight patients

    Daniel Ducuara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available KDOQI guidelines in 2006 using standard dialysis adequacy Kt/V, where V is volume of distributionof urea, underweight patients have lower total body water, lower V, which couldreduce the requirement without affecting Qd the efficiency of dialysis. Objective: to evaluatethe effect on the adequacy of dialysis Qd reduction occurs in patients weighing less than orequal to 60 kg who are on hemodialysis. Methodology: patients with chronic kidney diseaseon hemodialysis regularly with weight less than or equal to 60 kg of a renal clinic to evaluatetwo periods I and II, were continued therapy parameters with decrease of Qd for the secondperiod. The variables were collected directly by the researchers of the history. The values thusobtained would be compared using t test or paired variables, and statistical significance of thetest below 0,05. Results: we included 61 patients, 60.7% female, mean age 57,3 years (SD 14,8.Average age of men 60.1 (SD 13,9 and women was 55,9 (SD 15,4. There were no statisticallysignificant differences for the variables Kt/V, Hemoglobin and there was a significant reductionin the phosphorus levels. Conclusions: this study demonstrates that adequate therapy is achievedwith less than Qd traditional standards, with 400 ml/min in patients with low weight as long asyou keep the other parameters of renal substitution.

  5. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Psicodoc and Psyarticles. Fourteen articles were found and analyses show that most interventions had some efficacy in the psychological adjustment of children and their parents; nevertheless, there is a limited number of treatments that can in fact be considered effective. The convenience of psychological interventions is discussed and how they must comprehend strengths and the promotion of psychological health and should not be based solely on deficits and psychopathological models. Possibly, this reorientation will help fostering significant clinic changes regarding the stress associated to cancer and its treatment.

  6. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment of Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    Ali Akbar Soleimani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results: Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion: EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples.

  7. Effects of sodium on nitrate uptake and osmotic adjustment of Suaeda physophora

    2010-01-01

    Na+ ions play an important role in the growth of halophyte. The effect of Na+ ions on nitrate uptake and osmotic adjustment in the euhalophyte Suaeda physophora was investigated under glasshouse conditions. Seedlings were exposed to 1 mmol/L NaCl (control),300 mmol/L NaCl,150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl or 300 mmol/L KCl treatments for 24 d. Dry weight was not affected greatly by different salt treatments,but water content and succulence in leaves of S. physophora were significantly increased at 300 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl treatments. The concentrations of Na+ and NO3’ in leaves of S. physophora were the highest at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl,but lowest at 300 mmol/L KCl treatment. Moreover,the increase of NO3’ concentration did not result in the decrease of Cl-concentration at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl treatments. The estimated contribution of NO3’ to osmotic potential (CNO3) in leaves of S. physophora was 9.8% at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl,and CNa and CCl were 31.0% and 23.3%,respectively. However,CNO3,CNa and CCl were respectively 1.6%,7.9% and 11.9% at 300 mmol/L KCl treatment. It is concluded that Na+ stimulates NO3’ absorption and the stimulation is independent on the internal or the external Cl-concentration in the euhalophyte S. physo-phora. These characteristics may explain the high levels of N in leaves of saline desert plants in arid ecosystem.

  8. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction. PMID:26171384

  9. Attachment-based classifications of children's family drawings: psychometric properties and relations with children's adjustment in kindergarten.

    Pianta, R C; Longmaid, K; Ferguson, J E

    1999-06-01

    Investigated an attachment-based theoretical framework and classification system, introduced by Kaplan and Main (1986), for interpreting children's family drawings. This study concentrated on the psychometric properties of the system and the relation between drawings classified using this system and teacher ratings of classroom social-emotional and behavioral functioning, controlling for child age, ethnic status, intelligence, and fine motor skills. This nonclinical sample consisted of 200 kindergarten children of diverse racial and socioeconomic status (SES). Limited support for reliability of this classification system was obtained. Kappas for overall classifications of drawings (e.g., secure) exceeded .80 and mean kappa for discrete drawing features (e.g., figures with smiles) was .82. Coders' endorsement of the presence of certain discrete drawing features predicted their overall classification at 82.5% accuracy. Drawing classification was related to teacher ratings of classroom functioning independent of child age, sex, race, SES, intelligence, and fine motor skills (with p values for the multivariate effects ranging from .043-.001). Results are discussed in terms of the psychometric properties of this system for classifying children's representations of family and the limitations of family drawing techniques for young children. PMID:10353083

  10. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  11. Adjustment disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  12. The Differential Effects of Forms and Settings of Exposure to Violence on Adolescents' Adjustment

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants…

  13. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    Gaolong Zhu

    Full Text Available A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI and reduced simple ratio (RSR, MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area.

  14. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  15. Effectiveness of price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts. Consequences of the 2011 BGH rulings; Wirksamkeit von Preisanpassungsklauseln in Fernwaermelieferungsvertraegen. Konsequenzen der BGH-Urteile 2011

    Buedenbender, Ulrich; Gromm, Marcel [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, Energiewirtschaftsrecht und Arbeitsrecht

    2011-07-01

    In 2011, the BGH had to decide for the first time on price adjustment clauses. There were four court rulings on price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts, and price adjustment clauses were considered to be ineffective in all cases. This is a trend similar to the rulings on gas supply contracts since 2005. This contribution discusses the consequences of the 2011 BGH rulings for future price adjustment clauses in district heat supply contracts. The contract partners, especially the customers of district heating utilities, must be sure whether a raised supply price will be based on an effective price adjustment clause, or whether it will enable the customer to refuse payment. (orig.)

  16. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    Jiang SP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results: The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98% of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81% were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10% were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which

  17. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 minutes. A back mapper and motion analysis equipment were used to measure pelvic posture and angles of lower limb joints for the experimental and control group. [Results] The values obtained before and after the intervention were compared. For the experimental group, the results were significantly different in terms of reduced differences in hip flexion between the left and right hips and in knee abduction between the left and right knees. Differences in pelvic position and pelvic torsion were also found in the experimental group. No significant differences in the control group were identified. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment affects pelvic position and torsion and this enhancement to pelvic stability decreases hip flexion and knee abduction during walking.

  18. The effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment

    Abas Mahvash Wernoosfaderani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment is one of the most stressful disabilities. The mental health of parents caring for children with hearing impairment is at risk. Therefore, technical support and intervention are very valuable for these families. These services are also useful for children’s development. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment.Methods: In this study, 37 parents of children with hearing impairment were selected as the sample population. Interviews and case studies were conducted to determine whether the parents were receiving social work services. The social adjustment scale was used to assess parents’ social adjustment. Analysis of variance (F was used to analyze the data and information obtained from parents.Results: Data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between parents who had received social work services and parents who had not received social work services (p<0.001.Conclusion: According to the obtained results, parents who had received social work services experienced higher social adjustment. It can be said that providing assistance to parents of children with hearing impairment can improve their social integration.

  19. Cause and effect relationship between post-merger operating performance changes and workforce adjustments

    Kuvandikov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Prior empirical research provides substantial evidence showing that mergers and acquisitions lead to operating performance decline (Ghosh, 2001). At the same time such transactions involve workforce reductions, as reported in the public media. However, systematic empirical evidence on the association between operating performance and workforce adjustments is inconclusive. On the one hand workforce reductions may be undertaken to improve efficiency and firm profitability (Cascio et al., 1997) ...

  20. An Effect Of Girl Students Interest In Science, Study Habits And School Adjustment On Academic Achievement In Science

    Ashokkumar B. Surapur

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse independent and combined effects of variables viz., Interest in science (higher and lower), Study habits (good and poor) and School Adjustment (high and low) on Academic achievement in Science. The sample of the present study includes 300 students selected randomly from IXth Standard studying science subject. The study revealed that, (i) The Girl students with higher interest in science have more influence on Academic achievement in science than the Gir...

  1. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2014-01-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-e...

  2. A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval

    Gaolong Zhu; Weimin Ju; Chen, J. M.; Yibo Liu

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests s...

  3. Effects of composition on waste glass properties

    The electrical conductivity, viscosity, chemical durability, devitrification, and crystallinity of a defense waste glass were measured. Each oxide component in the glass was varied to determine its effect on these properties. A generic study is being developed which will determine the effects of 26 oxides on the above and additional properties of a wide field of possible waste glasses. 5 figures, 2 tables

  4. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Ayman S. Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  5. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2014-01-01

    proximity to the city centre compared to similar properties in Berlin’s periphery once we control for the properties’ physical characteristics. The observed temporal evolution of the rental price distribution between 2008 and 2013 thereby hints at an ongoing gentrification process in Germany’s capital...... find that districts’ net in-migration balances are positively correlated with quality-adjusted rental price levels for higher quantiles of the distribution, thereby potentially proxying the price dynamics of underlying gentrification processes. Using statistical tests from the explanatory spatial data...

  6. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  7. Adjustable collimator

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  8. Commutation effect of Adjustable Speed Drives due to installation of active harmonic filters

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Kalaschnikow, Sergej; Hansen, Steffan;

    2011-01-01

    The success of designing an industrial installation with Active Filters depends on how precise the load profile of the application is known, because this determines the amount of harmonic currents to be compensated. However, once the Active Filter is added to the installation, the harmonic currents...... may increase due to changes in the commutation behavior of diode rectifier converters. The change of natural commutation determines higher harmonics currents of the diode rectifiers and therefore higher harmonic loading of the Active Filter in the installation. This paper presents a method to estimate...... the commutation behavior of Adjustable Speed Drives when their harmonic currents are compensated by a Shunt Active Filter. The method is formulated as an analytical computation algorithm verified by simulations. Further on the method is implemented in a Harmonic Calculation Toolbox which facilitates...

  9. The effects of backward adjustable thoracic support in wheelchair on spinal curvature and back muscle activation for elderly people.

    Chun-Ting Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting.Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9 were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (-0.32±4.80° when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27° and lumbar support (-8.97±3.31° sitting postures (P<0.001, and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (-23.38±6.50° when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°, normal (0.44±7.47°, and lumbar support (-16.76±4.77° sitting postures (P<0.05. It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain.

  10. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described. The...... observations indicate that the most homogeneous concrete does not necessarily exhibit the lowest rheological properties....

  11. Essays in applied macroeconomics: Asymmetric price adjustment, exchange rate and treatment effect

    Gu, Jingping

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II examines the possible asymmetric response of gasoline prices to crude oil price changes using an error correction model with GARCH errors. Recent papers have looked at this issue. Some of these papers estimate a form of error correction model, but none of them accounts for autoregressive heteroskedasticity in estimation and testing for asymmetry and none of them takes the response of crude oil price into consideration. We find that time-varying volatility of gasoline price disturbances is an important feature of the data, and when we allow for asymmetric GARCH errors and investigate the system wide impulse response function, we find evidence of asymmetric adjustment to crude oil price changes in weekly retail gasoline prices. Chapter III discusses the relationship between fiscal deficit and exchange rate. Economic theory predicts that fiscal deficits can significantly affect real exchange rate movements, but existing empirical evidence reports only a weak impact of fiscal deficits on exchange rates. Based on US dollar-based real exchange rates in G5 countries and a flexible varying coefficient model, we show that the previously documented weak relationship between fiscal deficits and exchange rates may be the result of additive specifications, and that the relationship is stronger if we allow fiscal deficits to impact real exchange rates non-additively as well as nonlinearly. We find that the speed of exchange rate adjustment toward equilibrium depends on the state of the fiscal deficit; a fiscal contraction in the US can lead to less persistence in the deviation of exchange rates from fundamentals, and faster mean reversion to the equilibrium. Chapter IV proposes a kernel method to deal with the nonparametric regression model with only discrete covariates as regressors. This new approach is based on recently developed least squares cross-validation kernel smoothing method. It can not only automatically smooth

  12. The Creation of Effective Property Rights

    Herschel I. Grossman

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, general-equilibrium models have taken effective property rights to be given and have been concerned only with analysing the allocation of resources among productive uses and the distribution of the resulting product. But, this formulation of the economic problem is incomplete because it neglects that the appropriative activities by which people create the effective property rights that inform allocation and distribution are themselves an alternative use of scarce resources.This...

  13. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  14. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author)

  15. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  16. Effects of chemical ecological adjustment and control experiment on phytoplankton community in the Aoshan Bay

    陈碧鹃; 赵俊; 辛福言; 崔毅; 过锋

    2002-01-01

    There is a low nutrient level in the Aoshan Bay. In June 1999, the chemical adjustment and control experiment was made in the Aoshan Bay. Following tracts investigation was carried out before the experiment and on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 45th day/after the experiment. While the variance of amount of phytoplankton, the replacement of superior species and the species composition of phytoplankton were researched. The results show that the amount of phytoplankton in the Aoshan Bay rises gradually after the experiment. Ceratium macroceros Cleve of pyrophyta was the dominant species before the experiment, its dominant index was 37.7%. Six days after the experiment, its dominant index dropped to 17.6%. Meanwhile the dominant index of Asterionella japonics Cleve rose from 7.1% to 39.2%, it became the first dominant species. Forty-five days after the experiment, the amount of phytoplankton in the Aoshan Bay was 5.15 to 137.32 times more than that in 1997.

  17. Effects of pH adjustment with phosphates on attributes and functionalities of normal and high pH beef.

    Young, O A; Zhang, S X; Farouk, M M; Podmore, C

    2005-05-01

    Longissimus dorsi muscles from six normal- and six high-ultimate pH bulls were selected for fine mincing and subsequent pH adjustment with acid and alkaline pyrophosphate. Four pH treatments were prepared: initially high remains high (mean of pH 6.37), high becomes normal (5.62); initially normal remains normal (5.65), and normal becomes high (6.21). The addition level of phosphate as P(2)O(5) was the same in all replicates. Before pH adjustment, colour and water holding capacity (WHC) values were strongly affected by higher (initial) pH in expected ways: darker, lower chroma, higher capacity. After pH adjustment, these values were affected only by the final pH, not the initial pH (the pH history). Total protein solubility was likewise affected by final pH but not initial pH. In contrast, the combination high initial pH-high final pH improved sarcoplasmic protein solubility by 20% over the combination normal initial pH-high final pH. Sarcoplasmic protein solubility is an indicator of strain required to fracture cooked batters made from the minced meats; in the event, the rank order of the four treatments for strain-to-fracture matched that of sarcoplasmic protein solubility. Statistically, sarcoplasmic protein solubility and strain-to-fracture were both affected by initial pH (P<0.01) and final pH (P<0.001). However, stress required to fracture cooked batters was entirely controlled by initial pH (P<0.01). In other words, the stress-to-fracture advantage of initially high pH meat was not matched by upward pH adjustment of initially normal pH meat. Emulsion stability, which is better with higher pH meat, was affected by initial and final pH (both P<0.01). Cook yield, like WHC of pH-adjusted raw meat, was more due to final pH than initial pH, similarly cooked batter colour, whereas final pH had a significant effect on quality attributes (generally better when higher). An initially high pH history conferred an enduring advantage on three important batter attributes

  18. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  19. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  20. Examining the Effects of Residence and Gender on College Student Adjustment in Iran: Implications for Psychotherapists

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Nunnery, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of on-campus residence, in comparison with commuter status, on academic performance, vocational commitment, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the college environment among female and male Iranian students at Shiraz University, Iran. The study sought to extend previous work investigating the effects of college…

  1. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  2. Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-04-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above-average profiles elicited greater improvement in parents' functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at 3rd grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early- to middle-childhood years. PMID:26866838

  3. Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    Keith Klostermann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2011-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflict showed low correspondence. As a block, teacher and student reports of TSRQ predicted all outcomes, above prior performance on that outcome and ba...

  5. Effect of drought and abscisic acid application on the osmotic adjustment of four wheat cultivars

    The accumulation of osmolytes in leaf tissues and the abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure are well-recognized mechanisms associated with drought tolerance in crop plants. We determine the response in terms of osmotic potential and the contents of leaf proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugar at booting and grain filling stages of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to drought and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) in a pot study. Leaf sample were collected 3, 6 and 9 days after drought induction and at 48 and 72 h of re-watering (recovery). Marked decreases in osmotic potential associated with the accumulation of proline, glycine betaine and soluble sugars occurred under conditions of drought stress Accession 011320 was most sensitive to drought and showed the largest decrease in osmotic potential and least accumulation of proline, sugar and glycine betaine The inhibitory effects of drought stress were ameliorated by exogenous application of ABA. This ameliorating effect was more pronounced at the booting than at grain filling stage particularly in the sensitive accession 011320. Upon rewatering the recovery from drought stress was found to be greater in case of abscisic acid application. The leaf praline content is seen to be a suitable indicator for selecting drought-tolerant genotypes. (author)

  6. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  7. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects

    Fritz, C; Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-01-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's vocal tract. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' tracts using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this 'normal' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, a...

  8. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this "normal" configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects" such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa. PMID:16334701

  9. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' ``muscle memory'' is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this ``normal'' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for ``special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa.

  10. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  11. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research

  12. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research program has been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that is being taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research

  13. The Effect of Alkaline Material Particle Size on Adjustment Ability of Buffer Capacity

    Girts Bumanis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pH control in biotechnological processes like anaerobic digestion is one of the key factors to ensure high efficiency in the biogas production process. The decrease of pH level in the digestion process occurs due to the rapid acid formation during metabolic processes of bacteria which leads to the inhibition of the methane producing bacteria; therefore further digestion process is limited. The efficiency of anaerobic digestion reactor decreases dramatically if the pH level falls under pH 6.6. This problem is common for single-stage continuous digesters with a high organic solid content; therefore the active pH controlling method is commonly used. By creating inorganic alkaline material, the passive pH controlling system could be created. Soluble alkalis are enclosed in the matrix of material during the activation process thus providing slow leaching of free alkalis from the material structure in water medium and ensuring pH increase. In this research a porous alkaline composite material was developed as a pH controlling agent for the biogas production. Two mixture compositions with a different Si/Al and Si/Na ratio were created. The effect of particle size of the material was investigated in order to provide different leaching rates for the described material. Granular material with particle fractions 1/2 mm, 2/4 mm and 4/8 mm and a cubical specimen with dimensions 20×20×20 mm were tested. The pH level of water medium increased up to pH 11.6 during the first day and final pH value decreased to 7.8 after 20-day leaching. Alkali leaching can be increased by 19-32% changing the mixture composition by adding glass powder to the alkaline material. The particle size factor was negligible for leaching rate of alkaline material due to the high porosity of material. Research results show that this composite material has a potential to be applied in pH control for biotechnological purposes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7325

  14. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  15. Effective Rheological Properties in Semidilute Bacterial Suspensions

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Berlyand, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction of the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model.

  16. Effective Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanocomposites

    Christoph Etrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanocomposites find many applications, such as nanometric coatings in emerging fields, such as optotronics, photovoltaics or integrated optics. To make use of their ability to affect light propagation in an unprecedented manner, plasmonic nanocomposites should consist of densely packed metallic nanoparticles. This causes a major challenge for their theoretical description, since the reliable assignment of effective optical properties with established effective medium theories is no longer possible. Established theories, e.g., the Maxwell-Garnett formalism, are only applicable for strongly diluted nanocomposites. This effective description, however, is a prerequisite to consider plasmonic nanocomposites in the design of optical devices. Here, we mitigate this problem and use full wave optical simulations to assign effective properties to plasmonic nanocomposites with filling fractions close to the percolation threshold. We show that these effective properties can be used to properly predict the optical action of functional devices that contain nanocomposites in their design. With this contribution we pave the way to consider plasmonic nanocomposites comparably to ordinary materials in the design of optical elements.

  17. Effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene

    Hossain, Zubaer

    This talk will discuss effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene under the presence of atomic scale heterogeneity. Polycrystallinity is ubiquitous in solids, but theories describing their effective behavior remain limited, particularly when heterogeneity is present in the form of nonuniform deformation or composition. Over the decades, exploration of the effective transport and strength properties of heterogeneous systems has been carried out mostly with random distribution of grains or regular periodic structures under various approximations, in translating the underlying physics into a single representative volume element. Although heterogeneity can play a critical role in modulating the basic behavior of low-dimensional materials, it is difficult to capture the local characteristics accurately by these approximations. Taking polycrystalline graphene as an example material, we study the effective structural properties (such as Young's Modulus, Poisson's ratio and Toughness) by using a combination of density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulations. We identify the key mechanisms that govern their effective behavior and exploit the understanding to engineer the behavior by doping with a carefully selected choice of chemical elements.

  18. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  19. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications. (paper)

  20. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  1. Control of plasma properties in capacitively coupled oxygen discharges via the electrical asymmetry effect

    Schüngel, E; Zhang, Q-Z; Iwashita, S; J. Schulze(Universität Bochum I. Institut für Experimentalphysik, Germany); Hou, L-J; Wang, Y-N; Czarnetzki, U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract By using a combined experimental, numerical and analytical approach, we investigate the control of plasma properties via the Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE) in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge. In particular, we present the first experimental investigation of the EAE in electronegative discharges. A dual-frequency voltage source of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz is applied to the powered electrode and the discharge symmetry is controlled by adjusting the phase angle ? between th...

  2. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  3. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. These facilities must not only provide safe storage of radioactive wastes but must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strenght related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degrees F no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349 apply. ACI 349 states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties. Methods proposed in a report, 'Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures', by Pacific Northwest Laboratories can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  4. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degree F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  5. Effect of melt cleanliness on the properties

    Samuel, F. H.; Liu, H.; Samuel, A. M.

    1993-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of melt cleanliness with respect to the presence of inclusions on the properties of an Al-10 wt pct Si metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with 10 vol pct SiC particles. The occurrence of inclusions was controlled by filtra- tion, using ceramic foam filters of 10, 20, and 30 ppi sizes, under gravity and pressure. Test bars obtained from filtered and unfiltered melt castings, prepared from fresh (as-received) and recycled composite materials, were T6-tempered and tensile tested at room temperature. The casting quality was examined using X-ray radiography. The results indicate that various factors influence the casting quality and mechanical properties of the cast composite. The A12O3 films and spinel MgAl2O4 — the main inclusions observed in the present composite — are chiefly responsible for the degradation in the mechanical properties. In addition, SiC sedimentation, Al4C3 formation, the hydrogen level of the melt, and the starting material used can also influence these properties. Fracture studies reveal that the inclusions and associated microvoids act as the crack initiation sites during composite fracture. Simple filtration using 10 ppi ceramic foam filters under gravity serves adequately in removing these inclusions and producing the desired mechanical properties.

  6. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  7. Effect of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Risk Factors in Morbidly Obese Adolescents

    Rushika Conroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on weight loss, inflammatory markers, and components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MeS in morbidly obese adolescents and determined if those with MeS lose less weight post-LAGB than those without. Data from 14–18 yr adolescents were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months following LAGB. Significant weight loss and improvements in MeS components were observed 6 months and one year following LAGB. The incidence of MeS declined 56.8% after 6 months and 69.6% after 12 months. There was no significant difference in amount of weight lost post-LAGB between those with and without MeS at either timepoint. Correlations between change in weight parameters and components of MeS in those with and without MeS at baseline were examined and found to vary by diagnostic category. LAGB is effective for short-term improvement in weight, inflammatory markers, and components of MeS in morbidly obese adolescents.

  8. An Examination of the Effects of Career Development Courses on Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Adjustment to College, Learning Integration, and Academic Success

    Hansen, Michele J.; Pedersen, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of career development courses on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), college adjustment, learning integration, academic achievement, and retention among undecided undergraduates. It also investigated the effects of course format on career decision-making abilities and academic success outcomes and…

  9. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Sruthi Ravindranathan; Bhanu prasanth Koppolu; Smith, Sean G.; Zaharoff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions fro...

  10. The effects of gender, acclimation state, the opportunity to adjust clothing and physical disability on requirements for thermal comfort

    Parsons, K.C. [Human Thermal Environments Laboratory, Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    A programme of laboratory studies into thermal comfort requirements is presented. Two studies used groups of 16 subjects over a range of conditions (warm to cool) to investigate the effects of gender over 3 hours exposures in simulated living room/office environments. It was found that for identical levels of clothing and activity, there were only small differences in the thermal comfort responses of male and female subjects for neutral and slightly warm conditions. For cool conditions, female subjects tended to be cooler than males. An experiment to investigate the effects of heat acclimation on thermal comfort requirements involved six male subjects providing thermal comfort responses in neutral and slightly warm environments over 2 days. They then carried out an acclimatization program over 4 days, for 2 hours per day, exercising in a hot (45 {sup o}C, 40% relative humidity) environment. Thermal comfort responses were then recorded in two sessions over 2 days in identical conditions to the pre-acclimation session. It was found that changes in thermal comfort responses were small and likely to be of little practical significance. An investigation into the behaviour of people to maintain thermal comfort by adjusting their clothing was conducted using eight male and eight female subjects. Seated subjects reduced or increased their clothing level by using a wardrobe of clothing that was familiar to them. It was found that subjects can adjust their clothing to maintain thermal comfort, but within limits. Upper limits (clothing off) will be determined by modesty and acceptability. Lower limits (clothing on) will be determined by clothing design and acceptability. A low air temperature limit of 18 {sup o}C in freely available clothing may provide a working hypothesis. A laboratory study of thermal comfort requirements for people with physical disabilities compared responses with those of people without physical disabilities. It was found that there are few group

  11. Effects of irradiation on mechanical properties

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. The effects of irradiation on the mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel steels are explained. This chapter provides some background on the critical elements controlling neutron damage effects. Distinction is made between vessels made in the USA and in the former USSR

  12. N3LO NN interaction adjusted to light nuclei in ab exitu approach

    Shirokov, A M; Kim, Y; Sosonkina, M; Maris, P; Vary, J P

    2016-01-01

    We use phase-equivalent transformations to adjust off-shell properties of similarity renormalization group evolved chiral effective field theory NN interaction (Idaho N3LO) to describe binding energies and spectra of light nuclei without NNN forces.

  13. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  14. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl. PMID:26801818

  15. Treating Urge Incontinence in Older Women: A Cost-Effective Investment in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALY

    Victoria L. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of urge incontinence treatments for older women. Methods. Decision-analytic models assessed three treatment pathways: (1 limited behavioral therapy (LBT; (2 full behavioral therapy (FBT with biofeedback; and (3 drug (DRUG, with allowances for crossover options following initial treatments. Model inputs were gathered from published data. Cost data were based on third party payer reimbursement. Outcomes were measured as the number of incontinence episodes avoided and quality-adjusted life years gained (QALYs. Results. At baseline values costs per QALY gained ranged from US$3696 to $10609. LBT was the least costly with the lowest benefit. Switching from LBT to FBT, with the greatest gain, was $415 per additional QALY. DRUG was the most expensive option. Sensitivity analyses showed that only small changes in key inputs were required for DRUG to generate greater gains than FBT. Medication costs had to fall substantially for DRUG to be cost competitive. Conclusion. All treatment strategies provide QALYs gains at a bargain price, compared to the standard of US$50,000 per QALY gained. No single treatment strategy dominated under all conditions. Clinicians should offer multiple treatment options to older women with urge incontinence.

  16. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler; Carmen Bragado-Álvarez; María J. Hernández-Lloreda

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline...

  17. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Lord, Jadienne H.; Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collabora...

  18. Effect of Rare Earths on Properties of BNbRE Rail Steel

    李春龙; 智建国; 王荣

    2003-01-01

    The development and properties of BNbRE rail steel and the effect of RE on rail steel were studied. The results show that the properties of rail steel (σb≥980 MPa, δ5≥8%) can be improved by adding RE and niobium and adjusting the content of C, Si and Mn in steel. At the same time, the abrasion resistance, contact fatigue and fatigue property of BNbRE rail steel are excellent. It also shows that RE in rail steel has the functions of purifying steel, modifying inclusion and micro-alloy action effect. The improved steel-making process enhances the quality of molten steel. Although the content of RE is low, excellent properties of BNbRE rail steel are achieved.

  19. Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails

    Schumann, U.

    2005-05-15

    Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and climatic effects of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than assessed in an international assessment in 1999. Contrails trigger contrail cirrus with far larger coverage than observed for line-shaped contrails, but still unknown radiative properties. Some model simulations indicate an impact of particles and particle precursors emitted from aircraft engines on cirrus cloud properties. However, the magnitude of this effect cannot yet be assessed. Contrail formation can be avoided only by flying in sufficiently warm and dry air. The formation of contrail cirrus can be reduced by avoiding flights in ice-supersaturated regions of the atmosphere, e.g. by raising the flight level into the lower-most stratosphere. (orig.)

  20. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  1. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training.

    Art, T; Votion, D; McEntee, K; Amory, H; Linden, A; Close, R; Lekeux, P

    1994-01-01

    Two randomly distributed groups of thoroughbred horses were compared during a 12-week period for their cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustment to strenuous exercise, training and detraining. The horses were trained following the same standardized schedule and were regularly investigated using standardized treadmill exercise tests (SET) of increasing speed. After the first SET and during the whole experimental period, a group of 6 horses received a probiotic (Bioracing) once a day while a group of 5 horses received a placebo. All other conditions were similar for both groups. During each SET, the oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, tidal volume (inspired volume), respiratory rate and expired minute volume were obtained using 2 ultrasonic pneumotachographs and a mass spectrometer. All the parameters were the mean of the values calculated during the last 20 s of the SET. Heart rate was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. In both groups, training induced significant modification in most of the cardio-respiratory parameters, ie peak oxygen uptake, peak carbon dioxide output, respiratory exchange ratio, ventilation/min to oxygen-uptake ratio and oxygen-uptake to heart-rate ratio. After the 3-week detraining period, most of the values were again similar to the pre-training values in both groups. However, the training-induced modifications of most of the cardio-respiratory parameters occurred earlier and were proportionally greater in the probiotic-treated group than in the control. The respiratory coefficient decreased in the control but not in the treated group. All other parameters changed similarly in both groups. This suggests that Bioracing could modify the physiological effects of training by improving some aerobic metabolic capacities for carbohydrate utilization, but that this effect occurs only during training and not during periods of physical

  2. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  3. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  4. Electrostatic Embedding To Model the Impact of Environment on Photophysical Properties of Molecular Crystals: A Self-Consistent Charge Adjustment Procedure.

    Wilbraham, Liam; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2016-07-12

    A case study of 1,8-dihydroxy-2-napthaldehyde (DHNA)-exhibiting an excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer resulting in photophysical properties sensitive to the surrounding environment-has been used to assess the performance of electrostatic embedding approaches designed to accurately recover the effects of a bulk crystalline environment on calculated photophysical properties. The first approach, based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) applied in a QM/QM' scheme, makes use of a background point charge distribution which can accurately reproduce the exact ground-state Ewald potential of the bulk crystal. The second approach seeks to "optimize" these charges in a self-consistent manner in order to reproduce the electrostatic field produced by the environment at the excited state. Using these two approaches, both absorption and emission properties of molecular crystals, such as the position and the relative shift in the emission bands in the solid state with respect to solution, can be accurately reproduced. More generally, the results obtained show how these computationally affordable approaches can be used to predict the excited-state behavior of molecules in condensed phases, thus allowing their employment to predict or design new molecular materials with enhanced photophysical properties. PMID:27231786

  5. Adjusting for confounding effects of treatment switching in a randomized phase II study of dabrafenib plus trametinib in BRAF V600+ metastatic melanoma.

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Amonkar, Mayur M; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Sun, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive melanoma who were assigned to 150 mg dabrafenib twice daily combined with 2 mg trametinib once daily in a phase I/II study showed a median overall survival (OS) of 23.8 months, compared with 20.2 months for patients assigned to dabrafenib alone [hazard ratio (HR)=0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-1.24; data cutoff March 2013], on the basis of an intention-to-treat analysis. Because patients assigned to dabrafenib monotherapy were allowed to switch to combination therapy upon disease progression, we attempted to adjust for confounding effects on OS. Randomization-based adjustment methods, Rank Preserving Structural Failure Time Models and the Iterative Parameter Estimation algorithm, were used. Two analyses, 'treatment group' (assumes that treatment effect continues beyond treatment discontinuation) and 'on treatment' (assumes that the treatment effect disappears upon treatment discontinuation), were used to test assumptions on the durability of the treatment effect. A total of 45/54 (83%) patients assigned to dabrafenib monotherapy switched to the trametinib/dabrafenib combination. Adjusted OS HRs ranged from 0.47 to 0.50, depending on the analysis, compared with the unadjusted OS HR of 0.73. CIs continued to cross 1.00; thus, adjusted estimates did not provide statistically significant evidence of a treatment benefit on survival. Reduction of HRs after adjusting for the effect of treatment switching suggests that the intention-to-treat analysis underestimates the effect of dabrafenib plus trametinib on OS, although several factors, such as small trial size and methodological assumptions, affect the certainty of the conclusions. PMID:26340744

  6. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  7. Adjusted effects of domestic violence, tobacco use, and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel on child mortality.

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Studies that have separately examined the consequences of gender based violence upon women, use of solid fuel for cooking, and mother and father's use of tobacco on child health have concluded that they serve as risk factors for maternal and child health. Some authors have implied that these studies may have run the risk of overestimating the burden of disease of one factor over another. In this paper, we included all four factors in the same model to estimate their adjusted effects on child mortality, controlling for the demographic factors. The data come from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey of India that interviewed a nationally representative sample of 39,257 couples. Of the four factors, mothers' use of tobacco presented the highest risk for child mortality (OR = 1.42; CI = 1.27-1.60) followed by fathers' use of tobacco (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.12-1.36), households' use of solid fuel for cooking (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.06-1.43), and physical abuse upon mothers (OR = 1.20; CI = 1.10-1.32). Among the households that used solid fuel for cooking, improved cookstoves users experienced 28 % lower odds of child mortality (OR = 0.72; CI = 0.61-0.86) compared to nonusers of improved cookstoves. Additionally, increase in age of mothers at birth of first child, parents' education, and household wealth served as protective factors for child mortality. To prevent child death, programs should focus on reducing couple's use of tobacco, protecting women from physical abuse, and helping households switch from solid to liquid fuel. Moreover, a significant reduction in child death could be attained by improving girls' education, and delaying their age at marriage and first birth. PMID:23065299

  8. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Gargano A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  9. Cost Effectiveness, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years and Supportive Care: Recombinant Human Erythropoietin as a Treatment of Cancer-Associated Anaemia

    Pierre-Yves Cremieux; Stan N. Finkelstein; Berndt, Ernst R.; Jeffrey Crawford; Mitchell B. Slavin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To measure the cost effectiveness of a supportive care intervention when the no-treatment option is unrealistic in an analysis of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) treatment for anaemic patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Further, to assess whether quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) can provide the basis for an appropriate measure of the value of supportive care interventions. Design: A modelling study drawing cost and effectiveness assumptions from a literature...

  10. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  11. Effects of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding on sleep and metabolism: a 12-month follow-up study

    Gerber LM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ana C Krieger,1 Heekoung Youn,2 Frank Modersitzki,2 Ya-Lin Chiu,1 Linda M Gerber,1 Elizabeth Weinshel,2 Christine R Fielding21Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital, 2New York University School of Medicine and NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NYBackground: Obstructive sleep apnea is commonly associated with metabolic changes and obesity, and changes in body weight by either medical or surgical approaches have been considered to affect the severity of sleep apnea and appetite-controlling hormones. This prospective study evaluated the effect of weight loss induced by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB surgery on respiratory disturbance during sleep, oxygen saturation levels, sleep architecture, and leptin and ghrelin levels.Methods: Participants were patients at a university-based medical center surgical weight loss program. All participants with a body mass index > 30 kg/m2 undergoing LAGB surgery for weight reduction were offered the opportunity to participate in the study. Procedures included overnight polysomnography followed by fasting hormone levels at baseline and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Thirty subjects (10 men, 20 women of mean age 44.0 ± 12.5 years were recruited. At 12 months postoperatively, mean excess weight loss was 44.4% ± 14%. The apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 34.2 ± 35 to 19.0 ± 21.7 events per hour (P < 0.0001, while leptin levels decreased from 24.5 ± 17.42 pg/mL to 11.6 ± 10.6 pg/mL (P = 0.02. Ghrelin levels did not change substantially. Nadir oxygen saturation levels increased from 81% to 84% at 12 months (P = 0.03. Mean oxygen saturation improved and was positively correlated with ghrelin levels at both time points (r = 0.39, P = 0.07, and r = 0.60, P = 0.01.Conclusion: LAGB surgery was associated with 44.4% excess weight loss at 12 months, accompanied by a 33.7% improvement in apnea-hypopnea index as well as a reduction in leptin levels by 31.7% in this group

  12. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers. PMID:24384596

  13. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants content such as ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, carotenoid were significantly increased and malonaldehyde contents were decreased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, suggesting that Mo application enhanced the ability of scavenging active oxygen species. The osmotic-adjustment products such as soluble protein, proline and soluble sugar were also increased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, indicating that Mo improved the osmotic adjustment ability in wheat. It is hypothesized that Mo application might improve the drought tolerance of wheat by enhancing water utilization capability and the abilities of antioxidative defense and osmotic adjustment. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient cultivars wheat in response to Mo under drought stress are discussed. PMID:25221925

  14. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Enhancing Marital Adjustment and Quality of Life among Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    Najafi, Maryam; SOLEIMANI, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Kamkar, Elnaz Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of emotionally fo- cused therapy (EFT-C) on promoting marital adjustment of infertile couples with marital conflicts by improving quality of life. Materials and Methods This is a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post–test design in which 30 infertile couples (60 individuals) were chosen by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly divided into two groups, sample and control, of 15 couples each. Next, couples in the sam...

  15. Cardio-respiratory, haematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise: effect of a probiotic in horses during training

    Art, Tatiana; Votion, Dominique; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Amory, Hélène; Linden, Annick; Close, Roland; Lekeux, Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Two randomly distributed groups of thoroughbred horses were compared during a 12-week period for their cardio-respiratory and metabolic adjustment to strenuous exercise, training and detraining. The horses were trained following the same standardized schedule and were regularly investigated using standardized treadmill exercise tests (SET) of increasing speed. After the first SET and during the whole experimental period, a group of 6 horses received a probiotic (Bioracing) once a day while a ...

  16. Effects of high proline accumulation on chloroplast and mitochondrial ultrastructure and on osmotic adjustment in tobacco plants

    Lucélia Borgo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Proline accumulates in many organisms in response to abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity. Reports have discussed the role of proline in relation to osmotic adjustment, even though no clear-cut evidence has yet been provided demonstrating this association as a defense mechanism against drought stress in plants. However, it has been indicated that the application of exogenous proline can damage the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and mitochondria. In this study, using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a mutant p5cs gene from Vigna aconitifolia under control of the CaMV 35S promoter, we show that the high levels of endogenous proline accumulated in leaves does not contribute to the osmotic adjustment in plants under water deficit conditions. Additionally, electron microscopic observations of mitochondria and chloroplasts show that the ultrastructure of these organelles was not damaged even in the transgenic plants, with the leaves presenting the highest endogenous proline content in (100 µmol g-1 dry mass. This investigation demonstrates that in tobacco, high levels of endogenous free proline are not associated with osmotic adjustment and that elevated proline content in leaves, even at levels 10 times higher than normal, do not disturb the chloroplast and mitochondria ultrastructure under both irrigated and water deficit conditions.

  17. A new daily dividend-adjusted index for the Danish stock market, 1985-2002: Construction, statistical properties, and return predictability

    Belter, Klaus; Engsted, Tom; Tanggaard, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    We present a new dividend-adjusted blue chip index for the Danish stock market covering the period 1985-2002. In contrast to other indices on the Danish stock market, the index is calculated on a daily basis. In the first part of the paper a detailed description of the construction of the index is...

  18. Investigation on the coupling effect of thermochromism and microstructure on spectral properties of structured surfaces

    Fang Junfei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Xuan Yimin, E-mail: ymxuan@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li Qiang; Fan Desong; Huang Jinguo [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper is aimed at studying the coupling effect of thermochromism and surface microstructure on the spectral properties of structured surfaces. We prepare the samples of structured surfaces of perovskite-type manganese thermochromic materials by patterning one-dimensional gratings and two-dimensional cavity arrays by means of the photolithographic technique. Experiment on radiative properties of these samples indicates that the emittance of the structured surfaces dramatically increases compared with that of the bulk thermochromic materials. It is demonstrated the adjustable emittance range of the thermochromic materials can be effectively enlarged by designing the surface morphology. This implies a novel approach for improving the thermochromic effect of the perovskite-type manganese materials.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on cadmium telluride surface properties

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the surface properties of cadmium telluride is studied. The possibility of oriented modification of surface properties for increasing the adsorption activity and obtaining the materials, suited for the sensor transducer production, is shown

  20. The Effects Of Demolition Control Precincts On Property Values

    Elliott, P.; Warren, C.; Staines, J

    2015-01-01

    As municipal governments continue to implement historic preservation regulations, it is vitally important to understand the effects on the designated properties and the housing market. Determining and understanding the impact is important for property owners, buyers, planning authorities and valuers. Whilst it is known that historic preservation designation has an effect on property value, the effects are mixed and unclear. The direction and magnitude of the effect is dependent on locational ...

  1. The Effect of the Neurac Sling Exercise on Postural Balance Adjustment and Muscular Response Patterns in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    Kim, Ji Hae; Kim, Young Eok; Bae, Sea Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of the Neurac sling exercise on postural balance adjustment and muscular response patterns in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen CLBP patients participated in this study. They were randomly and equally assigned to group I, whose members received ordinary physical therapy (40 minutes per time, four times per week), and group II, whose members performed a lumbar stabilization exercise using the Neurac sling aft...

  2. When Do We See Resilience: The Effects of Parentâ s History of Maltreatment on Parenting Behaviors and Childrenâ s Adjustment

    Riser, Diana Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that children are at a greater risk of maladjustment in cases where a parent has experienced childhood maltreatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of parentâ s childhood maltreatment in its effects on parenting behavior, parent characteristics, and child adjustment. The multiple pathways through which parentâ s childhood maltreatment can be both directly and indirectly linked to child maladjustment were explored. Further, risk and protectiv...

  3. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  4. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  5. EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FERTILIZER ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    WANG Ya-qin; WANG Ji-hong

    2004-01-01

    Electric fertilizer, I. E. Exerting electric field on plants during growing season instead of chemical fertilizer, is a kind of physical fertilizer, and the third kind of fertilizer with developmental prospect after inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer. For the purpose of studying the changes of physical and chemical properties of soil after exerting electric field, five treatments with different applications of chemical fertilizer were arranged on the black soil in Yushu City of Jilin Province by randomized block method, and electric field was exerted on plants every ten days during the growing season. Through sample analysis the paper arrives at following conclusions: 1) Exerting electric field can make soil's granular structure increase, bulk density decrease, moisture capacity increase,thus improving the perviousness of soil. 2) Exerting electric field can make microorganism's number increase and activity strengthen, thus activating nutrient and increasing organic matter content. 3) Exerting electric field with 0.1A medium has the best effect. So the chemical fertilizer can be saved. Therefore, we can say that the application of electric fertilizer is favorable for decreasing chemical poison, improving soil, relaxing the contradiction between the supply and demand of chemical fertilizer, and decreasing production cost of agriculture and forestry.

  6. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Flor-Serra Ferran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  7. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing one's thoughts and feelings and is ... stem cell research? What is the clinical trials process? Get support Ask us anything Get a peer ...

  8. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  9. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  10. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most important point to remember is ... to rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can ...

  11. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coax...

  12. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  13. Identification of effective properties of particle reinforced composite materials

    Kushnevsky, V.; Morachkovsky, O.; Altenbach, H.

    1998-01-01

    For the determination of effective elastic properties an energy averaging procedure has been used for particle reinforced composite materials. This procedure is based on finite element calculations of the deformation energy of a characteristic volume element. The proposed approach allows the determination of effective properties of particle reinforced composite with acceptable precision. The calculated effective properties of the composite are found in range between upper and lower Hashin-Sht...

  14. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  15. Effects of ICG concentration and particle diameter on photophysical properties of ICG-doped nanoparticles

    Crovisier, Jason; Bahmani, Baharak; Saleh, Reema; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2014-03-01

    The variety of nanoparticles developed by numerous investigators has presented a diverse platform for various optical imaging applications in biomedicine. We have previously reported that the FDA-approved chromophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) can be successfully encapsulated by cross-linked poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH)-Disodium Monophosphate (Na2HPO4) to form a nanoparticle for near-infrared imaging applications. The diameter of the constructs is dependent on the charge ratio between the polymer and salt used to encapsulate the chromophore. Modifications of the synthesis methods can alter the photophysical properties of the capsules, either through the adjustment of the charge ratio between PAH and Na2HPO4 or concentration of ICG successfully impregnated into the capsule. Through understanding the effects of tuning the nanoparticle properties, the photophysical characteristics of the constructs can be optimized. Here we present the results of adjusting the diameter of the nanoparticle and amount of ICG on the hydrodynamic diameters, absorption and fluorescence characteristics, and the relative fluorescence quantum yield. Optimizing the photophysical properties of the constructs can lead to increased imaging sensitivity and contrast for potential translational applications, including tumor imaging, which may utilize these nanoconstructs.

  16. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    2010-04-01

    ... (e) of the Act shall be made in lieu of the adjustments for depreciation otherwise required by... the amount of the terms-letter reserve applicable to such property. (c) Adjustment for depreciation... changeover date and before the 1956 adjustment date, for depreciation applicable to such property...

  17. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  18. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect

  19. Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials

    Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang

    2005-01-01

    The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.

  20. Comparison Method - Preference Of Adjustment Techniques Among Valuers

    Anuar Alias; Noor Hana Asyikin Nor Hanapi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the adjustment techniques applied by valuers in determining the market value of the property. There are several types of adjustment techniques that can be applied in comparison method such as summative percentage, dollar percentage, add and/or subtract percentage, and proper base adjustments. In order to investigate the most preferred adjustment techniques applied by valuers in Malaysia as well as the elements of adjustment, a questionnaire survey is conducted that involv...

  1. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state) that...... vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  2. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  3. Effect of fibril shape on adhesive properties

    Soto, Daniel; Hill, Ginel; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, Noé; Cutkosky, Mark; Kenny, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Research into the gecko's adhesive system revealed a unique architecture for adhesives using tiny hairs. By using a stiff material (β-keratin) to create a highly structured adhesive, the gecko's system demonstrates properties not seen in traditional pressure-sensitive adhesives which use a soft, unstructured planar layer. In contrast to pressure sensitive adhesives, the gecko adhesive displays frictional adhesion, in which increased shear force allows it to withstand higher normal loads. Synthetic fibrillar adhesives have been fabricated but not all demonstrate this frictional adhesion property. Here we report the dual-axis force testing of single silicone rubber pillars from synthetic adhesive arrays. We find that the shape of the adhesive pillar dictates whether frictional adhesion or pressure-sensitive behavior is observed. This work suggests that both types of behavior can be achieved with structures much larger than gecko terminal structures. It also indicates that subtle differences in the shape of these pillars can significantly influence their properties.

  4. Effects of Sports on College Students’ Mental Adjustment%体育运动项目对大学生的心理调节作用

    穆然华

    2012-01-01

      联合采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)对我国大学生心理健康状况进行调查,通过分析不同心理问题大学生对不同体育项目调节作用的认知状况,探索新时期大学生心理健康教育工作中与体育锻炼融合的心理干预途径和方法,研究结果表明:不同心理问题的大学生对运动项目的心理健康调节作用认知状况不同,进行心理干预时应结合运动项目自身独特的心理调节作用给予区别对待。%  This paper, by using the symptom checklist, 90 (SCL-90), based on the survey of college students’ mental health in China and the analysis of the cognition of college students with different mental problems about the effects of sports on their mental adjustment, explores the approaches and ways of mental intervention which integrate physical exercise with mental health education. Results show that college students with different mental problems have different cognition of the effects of sports on their mental adjustment; therefore, different measures should be taken in mental intervention according to the unique effects of sports items on students’ mental adjustment.

  5. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  6. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...

  7. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Zifa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, Jinyuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observ...

  8. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis;

    2016-01-01

    shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not......In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced...... milk and a LW gain≥0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the...

  9. A New Procedure for Resonance Integral Table with Pre-Adjusted Resonance Interference Effect for Transport Lattice Codes

    Resonance treatment is the most important part in the deterministic transport lattice calculation. The conventional resonance treatment requires resonance integrals tabulated as a function of the background cross section (σb) or subgroup data transformed from the resonance integral table. Typically the resonance integrals for a nuclide are generated as a function of background cross sections through solving slowing down equation for 1-dimensional cylindrical fuel. Slowing down equation is solved for the very fine energy groups with scattering and absorption cross sections for resonant nuclide and potential cross sections for background nuclides. Resonance interference is considered not at this stage but at the transport calculation through the Bondarenko's iteration. This procedure results in some errors in predicting the interfered resonance cross sections. Sometimes the resonance integrals are adjusted from the comparison with the critical experiments such as TRX-1 and -2 and with other reference results to conserve the whole resonance reaction rate. A new procedure has been developed to predict the group-wise self-shielded cross sections correctly. This procedure has been developed by using MERIT, SUBDATA, KARMA developed at KAERI, and MCNP

  10. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  11. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Weihong Huang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  12. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    Sophia Haussener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  13. Effect of skin-pass rolling direction on magnetic properties of semiprocessed nonoriented electrical steel sheets

    Kurosaki, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Shiozaki, M.

    1999-09-01

    Effect of skin-pass rolling direction on magnetic properties and directionality in semiprocessed nonoriented electrical steel sheets produced by skin-pass rolling process was studied. Skin-pass rolling direction greatly affects magnetic properties and directionality. By control of skin-pass rolling direction, the value of B{sub 50} in the required directions such as 0{degree}, 90{degree} and circumferential direction can be adjusted and the value of B{sub 50} is higher than that of the usual skin-pass rolling direction of 0{degree}. The textures of the steel sheets developed after batch annealing varied with the skin-pass rolling directions and this result indicates that the residual strain energy by skin-pass rolling varies with skin-pass rolling directions.

  14. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers. PMID:27067734

  15. Property Tax Reform in China : Optional property tax proposals and the effects on residence price

    Xu, Yiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives some theoretical instructions of China’s property tax reform which include the reform of land lease system, the design of tax base, tax rates and tax relief, and also provides some interesting property tax proposals for Shanghai and estimates the effects of property tax reform on residence price.This paper selects a case study of Shanghai which can provide useful methods or findings to other cases characterized by similar traits and situations. Through observation and analysi...

  16. 种植结构调整对区域水循环的影响分析%Effect of planting structure adjustment on water cycle

    张金萍; 裴源生; 郭兵托; 赵勇

    2011-01-01

    process: the strength of water cycle is weakened; the groundwater table is declined, the water - drawing and drainage consumption is also decreased. In the plain area of Ningxia municipality, the Yellow River is the main water source for agriculture irrigation, the Yellow River water consumption is occupied by above 75% in the whole water use. The planting structure adjustment will cause the reduce of the Yellow River water consumption for nature ecosystem; (2) the different planting structure adjustment has a different effect on water consumption: when the paddy planting area decreases, the soil evaporation and the crop transpiration separately reduce by 0. 19 × 108 m3 and 0.82 × 108 m3, while the intercrop area decreases, the decrements of evaporation and transpiration are 1.18 × l08 m3 and 0. 16 × 108 m3; (3) the planting structure adjustment has an important effect on water consumption of ecosystem: when the paddy area decreased by 0.6 million mu, low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption separately reduce 0.2 × 108 m3 and 0.03 × 108 m3, while the intercrop area decreased by 0.6 million mu, low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption separately reduce 0.21 × 108 m3 and 0.05 × 108 m3; (4) low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption of the whole region are all reduced, but low efficient water consumption also plays the important role. From the mentioned above, regardless of the regional water cycle process and the water consumption change, the planting structure adjustment also has a great effect on them. Meanwhile, compared with other engineering measures, the planting structure adjustment has the characteristics of time-saving and labour-saving, which make it become an important development aspect to iraprove the water use efficiency.

  17. Quantifying effects of particulate properties on powder flow properties using a ring shear tester.

    Hou, Hao; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2008-09-01

    Effects of particle size, morphology, particle density, and surface silicification, on powder flow properties were investigated using a ring shear tester. Flow properties were quantified by flow function (FF), that is, unconfined yield strength, f(c), as a function of major principal stress. A total of 11 powders from three series of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC): Avicel (regular MCC, elongated particles), Prosolv (silicified MCC, elongated particles), and Celphere (spherical MCC), were studied. Particle size distribution in each type of MCC was systematically different. Within each series, smaller particles always led to poorer powder flow properties. The slope of FF line was correlated to degree of powder consolidation by external stress. A key mechanism of the detrimental effect of particle size reduction on flow properties was the larger powder specific surface area. Flow properties of Celphere were significantly better than Avicel of comparable particles size, suggesting spherical morphology promoted better powder flow properties. Flow properties of powders different in densities but similar in particle size, shape, and surface properties were similar. When corrected for density effect, higher particle density corresponded to better flow behavior. Surface silicification significantly improved flow properties of finer MCC, but did not improve those of coarser. PMID:18228607

  18. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  19. Relative contribution of effects included in contemporary groups for adjusted and actual 120-day and 210-day weights in Nelore cattle in Brazil

    Lillian Pascoa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72, 731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore. Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001 for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS and dam age at calving (DAC had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations.

  20. Forage density effect on sound insulation properties

    Green, Ole; Tortajada, Vicent Gassó; Gislum, René;

    2010-01-01

    One of the main parameters affecting forage management and quality is density. Existing methods used for measuring physical properties of forage involve costly destructive analysis. A frequent and appropriate control of the forage density is required for optimizing the management of silage, hay and...... forage density. The method has been used to analyse the correlation of the density with the sound insulation spectra produced by small-scale models of hay, silage and straw. Results show that the sound insulation spectra of forage have a high correlation with the density and a significant congruence with...

  1. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  2. Effects of Particle Shape on Mechanical Properties of Aggregates

    Benediktsson, Stefán

    2015-01-01

    Aggregates are one of the primary building material used in the world. The durability of construction aggregates will therefore depend upon the quality of aggregate mechanical properties. It is therefore important to understand how particle shape will effect mechanical properties of aggregates, measured by the Los Angeles and micro-Deval values. In order to assess the influence of particle shape on aggregate mechanical properties, the proportion of flaky and cubic particles, measured by the f...

  3. Effect of Hybridization on Stiffness Properties of Woven Textile Composites

    Bejan, Liliana; Taranu, Nicolae; Sîrbu, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on stiffness properties of woven textile reinforced polymeric composites with respect to hybridization, and geometry of reinforcement. The analyzed composites represent combinations of different fibre materials (E-glass, Kevlar 49, carbon HM) in a predetermined fabric geometry (a plane weave embedded in thermosetting polymeric resin) serving controlled properties and required performance. The effects of hybridization on the stiffness properties of woven textile composites have been studied with respect to the fibres materials, the unbalancing degree of fabrics, and the variation of compactness and undulation of yarns. Some undesirable effects in fabric geometry can be overcome by the combined effects of hybridization and compactness.

  4. Effects of Land Use and Management on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Horel, Ágota; Tóth, Eszter; Gelybó, Györgyi; Kása, Ilona; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Farkas, Csilla

    2015-11-01

    Soil hydraulic properties are among the most important parameters that determine soil quality and its capability to serve the ecosystem. Land use can significantly influence soil properties, including its hydraulic conditions; however, additional factors, such as changes in climate (temperature and precipitation), can further influence the land use effects on soil hydraulic properties. In order to develop possible adaptation measures and mitigate any negative effects of land use and climatic changes, it is important to study the impact of land use and changes in land use on soil hydraulic properties. In this paper, we summarize recent studies examining the effect of land use/land cover and the associated changes in soil hydraulic properties, mainly focusing on agricultural scenarios of cultivated croplands and different tillage systems.

  5. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  6. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk. PMID:27334116

  7. Effects of drilling variables on burr properties

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1976-09-01

    An investigation utilizing 303Se stainless steel, 17-4PH stainless steel, 1018 steel, and 6061-T6 aluminum was conducted to determine the influence of drilling variables in controlling burr size to minimize burr-removal cost and improve the quality and reliability of parts for small precision mechanisms. Burr thickness can be minimized by reducing feedrate and cutting velocity, and by using drills having high helix angles. High helix angles reduce burr thickness, length, and radius, while most other variables reduce only one of these properties. Radial-lip drills minimize burrs from 303Se stainless steel when large numbers of holes are drilled; this material stretches 10 percent before drill-breakthrough. Entrance burrs can be minimized by the use of subland drills at a greatly increased tool cost. Backup-rods used in cross-drilled holes may be difficult to remove and may scratch the hole walls.

  8. Effects of the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on Marital Adjustment in New Stepfamilies: A Randomized Trial

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; LOW, SABINA; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-01-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO™) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with highe...

  9. Evaluating the effect of magnetocaloric properties on magnetic refrigeration performance

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology that relies on the magnetocaloric effect in a solid refrigerant. Magnetocaloric materials are in development and properties are reported regularly. Recently, there has been an emphasis on...

  10. The effect of an adjustable sitting angle on the perceived discomfort from the back and neck-shoulder regions in building crane operators.

    Gustafson-Söderman, U

    1987-12-01

    In a previous working environment study of building crane operators, it has been found that approximately 70% experienced discomfort from the locomotor system. Comments by the interviewed crane operators indicated that it is, among other things, the forward flexed sitting position during lifts close to the crane that causes discomfort. This investigation sought to apply knowledge from the forestry industry concerning the beneficial effects of improved operator's seats to the work situation of crane operators. On a construction site with three cranes, an operator's seat with adjustable sitting angle was installed in one of the cranes. Estimation of perceived strain-discomfort in the lumbar region of the back as well as in the neck-shoulder region was assessed according to Borg's scale. Data were collected from the crane operators seated in their ordinary operator's seat, seated in the test seat, and seated in another crane with an ordinary type of seat. The results showed that in [Formula: see text] of all lifts, the crane operator was sitting bent-forward with little opportunity for relief via a backrest or armrests. The highest estimated discomfort values in the study were also obtained in an ordinary operator's seat on days with a high proportion of lifts close to the crane. When working in the test seat, none of the subjects gave an estimate higher than 0.5 (discomfort equivalent to very, very weak). An adjustable operator's seat could be a good alternative to a fixed seat, and more tests would be desirable. PMID:15676634

  11. Effects of crushed stone dust on some properties of concrete

    Çelik, Tahir; Marar, Khaled

    1996-01-01

    Crusher dust is a fine material formed during the process of comminution of rock into crushed stone or crushed sand. This dust is composed by particles which pass 75 μm BS sieve. Effects of dust content in aggregate on properties of fresh and hardened concrete are not known very well. An experimental study was undertaken to find out the effects of various proportions of dust content on properties of fresh concrete and hardened concrete.

  12. Effects of the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital adjustment in new stepfamilies: a randomized trial.

    Bullard, Lisha; Wachlarowicz, Marissa; DeLeeuw, Jamie; Snyder, James; Low, Sabina; Forgatch, Marion; DeGarmo, David

    2010-08-01

    Effects of intervention with the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on marital relationship processes and marital satisfaction in recently married biological mother and stepfather couples were examined. Sixty-seven of the 110 participating families were randomly assigned to PMTO, and 43 families to a non-intervention condition. Intervention had reliable positive indirect effects on marital relationship processes 24 months after baseline which in turn were associated with higher marital satisfaction. These indirect effects were mediated by the impact of PMTO on parenting practices 6 months after baseline. Enhanced parenting practices resulting from PMTO prevented escalation of subsequent child behavior problems at school. Consistent with a family systems perspective and research on challenges to marital quality in stepfamilies, improved co-parenting practices were associated with enhanced marital relationship skills and marital satisfaction as well as with prevention of child behavior problems. PMID:20731495

  13. Effects of vacation properties on local education budgets

    Jason Giersch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residents of school districts with large percentages of vacation properties have the opportunity to export a portion of their school taxes onto the owners of those vacation properties. Those property owners are unlikely to consume educational services or have the opportunity to vote against local school taxes. Previous studies address exportation of taxes onto vacation property owners and the effects on local government budgets generally but not on education finances specifically. This study connects research on rates of vacation properties with that on local education finances by using data from the state of Georgia in 2010 and weighted least squares regression analysis to show that high percentages of vacation properties do indeed result in larger local school expenditures.

  14. Developmental Model Using Gestalt-Play versus Cognitive-Verbal Group with Chinese Adolescents: Effects on Strengths and Adjustment Enhancement

    Shen, Yih-Jiun

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of short-term developmental group counseling applying Gestalt-play versus cognitive-verbal approaches with Taiwanese adolescents. On a measure of behavioral and emotional strengths, teachers reported significant changes in students' overall behavioral and emotional strengths measured via total scores. Specific…

  15. Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Adjustment Moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Activity: Within- and between-Family Risk

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA activity…

  16. Analytical fuel property effects: Small combustors

    Cohen, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The study performed in Phase 1 of this program applies only to a T700/CT7 engine family type combustor functioning in the engine as defined and does not necessarily apply to other cycles or combustors of differing stoichiometry. The study was not extended to any of the fuel delivery accessories such as pumps or control systems, nor was there any investigation of potential systems problems which might arise as a consequence of abnormal properties such as density which might affect delivery schedules or aromatics content which might affect fuel system seals. The T700/CT7 engine is a front drive turboshaft or turboprop engine in the 1500-1800 shp (1120-1340 kW) class as currently configured with highpower core flows of about 10 lb/sec (4.5 kg/sec). It employs a straight-through annular combustion system less than 5 in. (12.5 cm) in length utilizing a machined ring film cooled construction and twelve low-pressure air blast fuel injectors. Commercial and Naval versions employ two 0.5 Joule capacitive discharge surface gap ignitors.

  17. 中国存款准备金率调整的有效性分析%Effectiveness analysis of the deposit reserve ratio adjustment

    吴庆春

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of the deposit reserve ratio is one of the three traditional monetary policy tools, its effectiveness is directly related to the effects of monetary policy and is directly related to the macroeconomic regulation and control.Through selecting nearly a decade of data of the deposit reserve ratio and the associated monetary indicators and economic indicators,the establishment of the economic models between deposit reserve ratio and monetary indicators and of the economic models between RRR and economic indicators,was in order to trying explain the effectiveness of the the deposit reserve ratio adjustment,and by using the linear model to give some recommendations to monetary policy.%存款准备金率的调整是3大传统货币政策工具之一,其有效性直接关系到货币政策的作用效果,直接关系到宏观经济调控。通过选取近十年的存款准备金率和相关货币指标与经济指标的数据,建立存款准备金率和货币指标的经济模型以及存款准备金率与经济指标的经济模型,力图以此来说明存款准备金率调整的有效性,并对存款准备金率的调整这一货币政策的使用提供建议。

  18. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  19. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include grieving, taking ... treatment options. Related pages What is a complete vs incomplete injury? What emergency procedures occur following an ...

  20. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... thoughts and feelings and is something that takes time. The goal of adjusting is to rebuild one's ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in ...

  1. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include ... a peer mentor Advocate for change Fundraise with Team Reeve Champions Committee Volunteering About Us Our story ...

  2. Occupational Adjustment of Immigrants

    Zorlu, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves significantly with the duration of residence. The extent of this initial disadvantage and the rate of adjustment vary across immigrant groups according to the transferability of skills associated with t...

  3. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  4. Child maltreatment polyvictimization: Rates and short-term effects on adjustment in a representative Hong Kong sample

    Chan, KL; Yan, E.; Fong, DYT; Tiwari, A.; Brownridge, DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the unique effects of multiple forms of victimization, namely child abuse and neglect (CAN) and exposure to parental intimate partner violence (IPV), on children's self-blame, feelings of being threatened, self-esteem, and ability to control anger. Method: The cross-sectional study recruited a population-based sample of 2,062 children aged 12-17 years in Hong Kong. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the children. The prevalence rate of th...

  5. Use of Computational Matrix Adjustment to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Common Influenza Vaccines against the Emergence of Drift Variants

    Jennifer Tram

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Every year the FDA issues a recommendation for the composition of the year’s common influenza vaccine for influenzas A and B. The FDA can consistently predict the dominance of a particular strand of influenza virus by taking into account previous years’ antigenic characterization percentages. However, the sudden disappearance of dominant antigens and the sudden emergence of drift variants can disrupt this pattern, which questions the effectiveness of that year’s vaccine. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool was used to compare the protein sequences for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase between the strands in the vaccine and the dominant viral strands. This study examined the effectiveness of vaccines from 2000 to 2012, focusing on the transitions between the B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineages and A/New Caledonia and A/California lineages (H1N1. Between the years 2005 and 2006, dominance of the B/Yamagata lineage, represented by B/Shanghai/361/2002, disappeared almost entirely. For the 2005-2006 flu season, the CDC recommended a B/Shanghai/361/2002 vaccine which expressed a 98% identity to the dominant influenza B hemagglutinin sequence and a 97% identity to the dominant neuraminidase sequence. From 2007 to 2008, the A/New Caledonia virus declined to 34% of cases while the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 virus increased to 66%. The A/New Caledonia/20/99 vaccine effectively expressed a 97% identity to the hemagglutinin sequence of A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 strand and a 98% identity to the neuraminidase sequence. This study demonstrates that from 2000 to 2012, despite drift variants in influenza viruses, the CDC-recommended vaccine effectively matches the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase protein sequences of the dominant viruses.

  6. Use of Computational Matrix Adjustment to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Common Influenza Vaccines against the Emergence of Drift Variants

    Jennifer Tram

    2014-01-01

    Every year the FDA issues a recommendation for the composition of the year’s common influenza vaccine for influenzas A and B. The FDA can consistently predict the dominance of a particular strand of influenza virus by taking into account previous years’ antigenic characterization percentages. However, the sudden disappearance of dominant antigens and the sudden emergence of drift variants can disrupt this pattern, which questions the effectiveness of that year’s vaccine. Basic Local Alignmen...

  7. Power compensation effect of an adjustable-speed rotary condenser with a flywheel for a large capacity magnet power supply

    Akagi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hikaru

    1999-01-01

    Direct connection of the synchrotron magnet power supply to the utilities causes the effect of pulsed reactive and active power in the AC line. Conventionally, Static Var Control system compensates the reactive power generated by the thyristor converter to reduce the flicker in the power line. However, it is necessary to control not only a reactive power but also an active power for the future large scale synchrotron magnet power supply in order to reduce the dissipation power and to realize ...

  8. The Effects of Comprehensive Exercise Program on the Adjustments of Standing Balance in Community-Dwelling Elderly Persons

    Maejima, Hiroshi; Kanetada, Yuji; Sunahori, Hitoshi; Murase, Azusa; Otani, Takuya; Sakamoto, Nozomi; Yoshimura, Osamu; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of comprehensive exercise program widely accepted as a community-based physical intervention for the prevention of falling in the elderly persons on their controlling standing balance. Twenty-six community-dwelling elderly persons (13 males and females; 69.8 ± 2.8 years old) participated in this study. Daily exercise was comprised of walking for more than 30 min, stretching, muscle strengthening and balance exercise without exercise equipme...

  9. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students

    Hijazi, Alaa M.; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Lumley, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions—expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)—had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate t...

  10. Self-adjusted elastic action and its CBM pool-forming effect of the high rank coal reservoir

    QIN Yong; FU Xuehai; WU Caifang; FU Guoyou; BU Yingying

    2005-01-01

    The coal reservoir is a kind of geologic body with considerable elasticity, and its response to stress is more sensitive than the routine ones. In the pool-forming process of the coalbed methane, (CBM) the action of many external geodynamic factors in the coal reservoir is represented by the ability of CBM's diffusion and migration in the coal reservoir.Therefore, the occurrence of the natural fissures in the coal reservoir becomes a key that determines whether the CBM pool can be formed or not. Based on the principle, the authors have designed a comprehensive method of physical modeling to study the elasticity of the coal matrix block with different coal ranks in the light of the solid to fluid coupling,have established the model of the volume deformation (selfadjusted elastic effect) of the coal reservoir under the condition of the effective stress-adsorption/desorption, and have obtained a correct understanding of the law of the elastic deformation. Afterwards, a new viewpoint, named as the self-closing elastic effect for forming the CBM pool in the high rank reservoir, is put forward, providing an initial point and a scientific basis for a further investigation into its dynamic factors, possible mechanism and role in the CBM energy-balancing system.

  11. Effect Of Solidification Speed On Fatigue Properties

    Mccay, M. H.; Schmidt, D. D.; Hamilton, W. D.; Alter, W. S.; Parr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Fast solidification increases fatigue life, but failure distribution becomes less predictable. Report describes effects of rate of solidification on nickel-based super-alloy MAR-M246(Hf) used in turbine blades. Based on experiments in which specimens directionally solidified at 5 cm/h and 30 cm/h, then tested for high cycle fatigue. Specimens also inspected by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis and optical and electron microscopy.

  12. Performing sensitivity studies of fracture network parameters in order to obtain effective hydraulic properties for porous medium models

    Within the scope of a R and D project concerning long term safety assessments for waste disposal in deep mines, GRS used the fracture network code NAPSAC 4.0. The objective was to obtain effective hydraulic properties calculated with statistically generated small scale fracture network models as data input for large scale effective porous medium models. The latter were used for far field calculations. The results of the fracture network parameter studies show the possibility to adjust the field investigations according to the parameter sensitivity and to judge the reliability of subsequent fracture network simulations. (author)

  13. Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus): I. Developmental effects and chronic and acute metabolic adjustments.

    Black, Juli L; Burggren, Warren W

    2004-04-01

    Chronic exposure to a low incubation temperature clearly slows the development of poikilothemic chicken embryos (or any other poikilotherms), but little is known about the more subtle developmental effects of temperature, especially on physiological regulatory systems. Consequently, two populations of chicken embryos were incubated at 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C. When compared at the same development stage, incubation temperature had no significant impact on embryonic survival or growth. Moreover, the relative timing of major developmental landmarks (e.g. internal pipping), expressed as a percentage of development, was unaffected by temperature. The ability to maintain the rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) during an acute drop in ambient temperature (T(a)) improved from Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stages 39-40 to 43-44 in the 38 degrees C but not the 35 degrees C populations. Late stage (HH43-44) embryos incubated at 38 degrees C could maintain (O(2)) (approximately 27-33 micro l g(-1) min(-1)) during an acute drop in T(a) to approximately 30 degrees C. However, at the same stage 35 degrees C embryos acutely measured at 38 degrees C were unable to similarly maintain their (O(2)), which fell as soon as T(a) reached 36 degrees C. Thus, while hypothermic incubation does not affect gross development (other than would be predicted from a simple effect of Q(10)), there is a significant delay in the relative timing of the onset of thermoregulatory ability induced by hypothermic incubation. PMID:15037648

  14. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  15. Benign Adjusting Effects of Long Tunnel on Environment and Slope Hazards: taking Erlang Mountain Tunnel as an example

    WANG Quancai; WANG Lansheng; ZENG Lin; CHEN Yong

    2006-01-01

    The 21st century shall be a century of accelerated development of tunnel construction in China. But until now, what have been frequently stated in reports about influence of tunnels on environment are basically negative. In fact, this is not true. Tunnels, especially those extend across sensitive areas do exert some positive functions on improving environment and preventing local slope hazards. These positive effects, being new phenomena, are found and put forward by the authors after a series of careful observations have been carried out and in-depth analysis performed the first time. Meanwhile, it is a positive evaluation that the authors made upon tunnels. Many important phenomena and data are cited as evidence and their causative factors are analyzed in this paper as well.

  16. Numerical simulation of the alloying elements effect on steels’ properties

    W. Sitek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of the research carried out was evaluation of alloying elements effect on high-speed steels hardness and fracture toughness and austenite transformations during continuous cooling of structural steels.Design/methodology/approach: Multi-layer feedforward neural networks with learning rule based on the error backpropagation algorithm were employed for modelling the steels properties. Then the neural networks worked out were employed for the computer simulation of the effect of particular alloying elements on the steels’ properties.Findings: Obtained results show that neural network are useful in evaluation of synergic effect of alloying elements on selected materials properties when classical investigations’ results do not provide evaluation of the effect of two or more alloying elements.Practical implications: Numerical simulation presented in the work, based on using the adequate material models may feature an alternative for classical investigations on effect of alloying elements on steels’ properties.Originality/value: The use of the neural networks as an tool for evaluation of the chemical composition effect on steels’ properties.

  17. Effect of Zn on mechanical property and corrosion property of extruded Mg-Zn-Mn alloy

    YIN Dong-song; ZHANG Er-lin; ZENG Song-yan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Zn on the microstructure, the mechanical property and the corrosion property in simulated body fluid(SBF) of an extruded Mg-Mn alloy was studied. The results indicate that the addition of Zn element can significantly refine the grain size of the extruded Mg-Mn alloy. When Zn content is increased from 0% to 3%, the grain size decreases from 12 μm to 4 μm. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties also increase remarkably with increasing Zn content. When Zn content is 3%, the ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength are increased by 54.7 MPa and 69.7 MPa, respectively. Zn can also improve the anti-corrosion property of the alloy. The best anti-corrosion property is obtained with 1% Zn. However, further increase of Zn content up to 3% deteriorates the corrosion property. Finally, the influence mechanism of Zn on the microstructure, the mechanical property and the corrosion property was discussed.

  18. Effect of large mechanical stress on the magnetic properties of embedded Fe nanoparticles.

    Saranu, Srinivasa; Selve, Sören; Kaiser, Ute; Han, Luyang; Wiedwald, Ulf; Ziemann, Paul; Herr, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for next generation high density magnetic data storage devices. Data storage requires precise control of the magnetic properties of materials, in which the magnetic anisotropy plays a dominant role. Since the total magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy scales with the particle volume, the storage density in media composed of individual nanoparticles is limited by the onset of superparamagnetism. One solution to overcome this limitation is the use of materials with extremely large magneto-crystalline anisotropy. In this article, we follow an alternative approach by using magneto-elastic interactions to tailor the total effective magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles. By applying large biaxial stress to nanoparticles embedded in a non-magnetic film, it is demonstrated that a significant modification of the magnetic properties can be achieved. The stress is applied to the nanoparticles through expansion of the substrate during hydrogen loading. Experimental evidence for stress induced magnetic effects is presented based on temperature-dependent magnetization curves of superparamagnetic Fe particles. The results show the potential of the approach for adjusting the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, which is essential for application in future data storage media. PMID:21977439

  19. Effect of large mechanical stress on the magnetic properties of embedded Fe nanoparticles

    Srinivasa Saranu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles are promising candidates for next generation high density magnetic data storage devices. Data storage requires precise control of the magnetic properties of materials, in which the magnetic anisotropy plays a dominant role. Since the total magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy scales with the particle volume, the storage density in media composed of individual nanoparticles is limited by the onset of superparamagnetism. One solution to overcome this limitation is the use of materials with extremely large magneto-crystalline anisotropy. In this article, we follow an alternative approach by using magneto-elastic interactions to tailor the total effective magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles. By applying large biaxial stress to nanoparticles embedded in a non-magnetic film, it is demonstrated that a significant modification of the magnetic properties can be achieved. The stress is applied to the nanoparticles through expansion of the substrate during hydrogen loading. Experimental evidence for stress induced magnetic effects is presented based on temperature-dependent magnetization curves of superparamagnetic Fe particles. The results show the potential of the approach for adjusting the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, which is essential for application in future data storage media.

  20. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury

    Ashraf S. Gorgey, MPT, PhD, FACSM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively] on oxygen uptake, cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI. A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative oxygen uptake or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 than in P200 (p = 0.07, whereas recovery oxygen uptake was 23% greater in P350 than in P200 (p = 0.03. There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001 and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001 FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative oxygen uptake or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery oxygen updake and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling.

  1. Speed of Adjustment to Selected Labour Market and Tax Reforms

    Annabelle Mourougane; Lukas Vogel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the length of economic adjustments to selected structural reforms, drawing on simulations with dynamic general equilibrium and macro-economic neo-Keynesian models. Employment adjustment costs appear to have only a limited effect on the pace of adjustment to reforms and the influence of price adjustment costs on output dynamics is found to be marginal. Accommodative monetary policy can speed up the adjustment to a new equilibrium, though to a varying degree in the different...

  2. Studying laser radiation effect on steel structure and properties

    А. М. Gazaliyev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of laser radiation on the structure and properties of annealed and tempered steel with different content of carbon. For surface hardening there was used a laser complex equipped with Nd: YAG pulse laser with power density up to 30 kW/сm2. As a result of the carried-out studies there were calculated characteristics of laser, steel microstructure and properties.

  3. Using geophysical techniques to characterize tillage effect on soil properties

    Jonard, Francois; Mahmoudzadeh,; Roisin,; Weihermüller, Lutz; Andre, Frederic; Vereecken, Harry; S. Lambot

    2012-01-01

    Tillage practices influence physical, chemical, and biological soil properties, which also affect soil quality and consequently plant growth. In this study, the main objective was to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on soil physical properties by using geophysical methods, namely, ground-penetrating radar (far-field and near-field GPR), capacitance probes (ThetaProbe and 5TE), electromagnetic induction (EMI) (Profiler and EM38), soil sampling, and by soil penetrometer. Since 2...

  4. Effect of Surfactant Mixtures on Skin Structure and Barrier Properties

    James-Smith, Monica A.; Hellner, Brittney; Annunziato, Nancy; Mitragotri, Samir

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two commonly studied surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB), on skin barrier properties. Using skin conductivity, FT-IR of stratum corneum samples, and penetration of radiolabelled SDS, we determined that addition of C12TAB lowers the ability of SDS to perturb skin’s barrier properties. Ultrafiltration experiments revealed that addition of C12TAB serves to decrease the concentration of monomers and sub-micellar ag...

  5. Bone Quality: The Mechanical Effects of Microarchitecture and Matrix Properties

    Day, Judd

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this body of work we have examined some of the current concepts pertaining to the relation between bone mass, bone quality and the mechanical properties of bone. In our first series of studies we used a model of human osteoarthritis to investigate the implications of changes in the effective tissue modulus. Having established that the material properties of the trabecular bone were altered in the earliest stages of osteoarthritis, we then investigated a possible cause, namely th...

  6. Effect of fiber type on mechanical properties of polyurethane composites

    2004-01-01

    The effects of three different types of fibers (E-glass, S-glass and Carbon fibers) on physical and mechanical properties of polyurethane resin based composites were studied. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, and interlaminar shear strength) of the polyurethane composites were found to depend primarily on the type of fiber, and specifically on the accessibility of hydroxy functionality on the fiber. The results showed that carbon fiber rei...

  7. Effects of the manufacturing parameter and chemical composition on properties of HANA-4 cladding tube

    KEPCO NF conducted some researches to improve workability of HANA-4 cladding tube. It was changed to TREX outer diameter for increase Q-factor in first pilgering process related to the workability of cladding tube. In general, a increasing Q-factor leads to improvement yield of tubing manufacture in zirconium alloys. And decreasing of amount of alloying element changed cladding properties. The secondary phase particle analysis, the corrosion behavior and the texture were examined for HANA-4 alloys with adjustments of chemical compositions and TREX outer diameter for the purpose of enhancement formability. The precipitate type, size, and distribution of HANA-4 alloy were not changed as the chemical composition and the manufacturing parameters. The corrosion weight gain was decreased with reducing alloying elements, which considered the beneficial effect of reduced tin

  8. Effects of deposition parameters on the properties of VO2 thin films

    WANG Lixia; LI Jianping; GAO Xiaoguang; HE Xiuli

    2006-01-01

    The vanadium oxide thin films are deposited for microbolometers by radio frequency reactive sputtering method at room temperature. The effects of the oxygen partial pressure on the deposition rate, electrical properties and compositions of the films are discussed. The as-deposited VOx thin films with x value of nearly 2 are deposited by adjusting the oxygen partial pressure. After oxidation annealing of these films in air, the VO2 films with high temperature coefficients of resistivity (about - 49%/℃ ) and low resistivity can be obtained. The square resistances of the films are in the range of 100 kΩ/squ-300 kΩ/squ. All films are deposited at room temperature and annealed at 400℃, in which the compatibility between VOx deposition process and MEMS (micro electromechanical systems) is greatly improved.

  9. Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction

    Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed

  10. The Effects of Migration on Reading Achievement, Physical, Social and School Adjustment on a Group of Migrant and Non-Migrant Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.; Seilhamer, Emily Stella

    Almost 300 non-migrant, migrant, return migrant, and circulatory migrant high school students participated in a study of the relationship of the level of adjustment to mainstream Puerto Rican society and the frequency of migration. No direct relationship between reading achievement and physical adjustment was found. However, as the level of…

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of radon protection methods in domestic properties: a comparative case study in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, UK

    Building regulations in the UK have since 1992 required that radon-proof membranes be installed in new domestic properties to protect residents against the adverse effects of radon. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of the current regulatory regime with an alternative that would entail new properties being tested for radon after construction, and being remediated if necessary. The alternative regime is found to be more cost-effective for a sample of properties in Brixworth, Northamptonshire, UK. For this regime, the central estimate of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained, the measure of cost-effectiveness used, is Pounds 2869 compared to Pounds 6182 for installing membranes, results suggesting a case for re-examining the current regulations on radon protection in new properties. Pilot studies will, however, be needed to consider how different means of protecting residents of new properties against radon might operate in practice and to provide improved evidence on their relative cost-effectiveness

  12. The Effectiveness of Training in Communicative Skills Training with A Cognitive – Behaviorist Approach on Spouses ’Marital Adjustment and the Prevention of Addicts from Relapsing in Male Addicts in Isfahan

    2008-11-01

    Findings: The result showed that training in communicative skills with a cognitive-behaviorist approach influences positively general adjustment. No positive effect was noticed in marital satisfaction and mutual correlation factors. There is positive effect of training skills on mutual agreement and love expression factors. Furthermore, the prevention of addicts from relapsing in male addicts, the number of relapse in control group is more than experimental group but this different was not significant. Results: In general, communicative skills training with a cognitive – behaviorist approach effects spouses adjustment of male addicts.

  13. Effects of Capacity Ratios between Anode and Cathode on Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    The areal capacity ratio of negative to positive electrodes (N/P ratio) is the most important factor to design the lithium ion batteries with high performance in the consideration of balanced electrochemical reactions. In this study, the effect of N/P ratio (1.10, 1.20, and 1.30) on electrochemical properties has been investigated with a lithium polymer battery with PVdF-coated separator and 1.40 Ah of capacity. The N/P ratio is controlled by adjusting the anode thickness with a fixed anode density. The cell with an N/P ratio higher than 1.10 effectively suppresses the lithium plating at the 0.85C-rate charging at 25 °C and the cell with 1.20 of N/P ratio shows the enhanced cycle performance in comparison with other cells. Among the cells with differently designed N/P ratios, significant difference was not observed in the aging test with fully charged batteries at 25 and 45 °C. The effect of N/P ratio on electrochemical properties of lithium batteries can help to design the safe full cell without lithium plating

  14. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecast over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Tang, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.; Lin, C. Y.; Xin, J. Y.; Song, T.; Hu, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been validated as an efficient approach for improving ozone forecasts. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over Beijing and surrounding regions during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed during the application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecast over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs was noticed during the night and the morning vs. significant deterioration of the forecasts during daytime with 190 % increase of the RMSEs, suggesting the negative DA impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method, as a further investigation, confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. An improvement of the NOx emission estimation was obtained from the cross-variable assimilation under relatively small errors in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime, while deterioration of the NOx emission estimation was found under large biases in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime. However, the cross-variable assimilation improved the NOx emission estimations during the night and the morning even with large biases in the prior estimations. The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable assimilation, i.e., positive DA impacts on NO2 forecast over some urban sites, negative DA impacts over the other urban sites and weak DA

  15. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, ZiFa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, JinYuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed through application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in the real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecasts over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts (with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs) was noticed at night and in the morning versus significant deterioration during daytime (with 190 % increase of the RMSEs), suggesting that the negative data assimilation impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal-data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. In the same way, NOx emission estimation was improved at night and in the morning even under large biases in the prior emission, while it deteriorated during daytime (except for the case of minor errors in the prior emission). The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable data assimilation, i.e., positive data assimilation impacts on NO2 forecasts over some urban sites, negative data assimilation impacts over the other urban sites, and weak data assimilation impacts over suburban sites, highlighted the limitations of the EnKF under strong nonlinear relationships between chemical variables. Under strong nonlinearity between daytime ozone concentrations and NOx emissions

  16. Effect of Surface and Salt Properties on the Ion Distribution around Spherical Nanoparticles: Monte Carlo Simulations.

    Clavier, Arnaud; Carnal, Fabrice; Stoll, Serge

    2016-08-18

    Nanoparticle surface charge properties represent key parameters to predict their fate, reactivity, and complexation in natural, biological, and industrial dispersions. In this context, we present here an original approach to better understand the surface charge electrostatic properties of spherical nanoparticles (NPs). The ion distribution around one nanoparticle is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and by adjusting a wide range of parameters including NP properties (surface charge density and site distribution), salt concentration (ionic strength and cation concentration), and salt valency (mono-, di-, and trivalent salt). A canonical Metropolis Monte Carlo method is used to reach equilibrium states and a primitive Coulomb model is applied to describe the electrostatic interactions between explicit discrete sites, counterions, and salt particles. Our results show that the presence of explicit surface charges on the NP and in solution has a strong influence on the local ion distribution and on the effective surface charge of the nanoparticles. The increase of surface charge density reduces the NP effective charge by the formation of a condensation layer around the nanoparticle. However, a limit of condensation is achieved due to steric effects and electrostatic repulsions. The presence of di- and trivalent cations is also found to strongly modify the effective charge and improve condensation state as long as electrostatic repulsion between the cations close to the surface are not so strong. At high trivalent cation concentration, the NP effective charge is greatly reduced and the local environment around the nanoparticle becomes more structured with the formation of a multi layer structure composed by anions and cations. PMID:27459187

  17. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  18. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi; Prof. N. D. Dhoot

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  19. Adjustments and Depression

    Full Text Available ... 7309 ☰ Living with Paralysis Get Support Get Involved Research Events Blog & Forum About Us Donate Living with Paralysis > Newly paralyzed > How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and ...

  20. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  1. Structural adjustment programs and the trickle-down effect: a case study of the Fujimori period in Peru, using reproductive health as an indicator for levels of poverty.

    Menon, Sonia Simone

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to investigate whether the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/United Nations/World Bank (OECD/UN/WB) poverty reduction objectives are compatible with the neo-liberal development model, using Peru as a case study. Three OECD/UN reproductive health indicators were selected to assess poverty: female literacy, infant mortality and maternal mortality. Fertility rates were also analyzed to explore the impact that neo-Malthusian policies have wielded. Shortly after his ascendance to power in 1990, President Fujimori undertook health finance reforms to promote cost-effectiveness and efficiency under political guidance from international financial institutions (IFIs). Internationally, Peru was portrayed as a neo-liberal success story. However, maternal mortality rates throw into contention claims that economic growth has a trickle-down effect. From the fertility rates, it can be deduced that the advent of structural adjustment has led to a resurgence of a neo-Malthusianism approach, putting family planning on the front burner, to the detriment of reproductive health. PMID:18567951

  2. Effects of irradiation on the gelation properties of muscle protein

    Gel properties of muscle protein are the important functional characteristics in meat and its products. which determine the meat products' unique quality. such as texture. Juiciness. fat content and sensory characteristics As a novel food preservation technique, irradiation may lead to changes in the composition and structure of protein molecule. and impact the gel forming ability and gelation properties of muscle protein. Based on the introduction of gel forming mechanism of muscle protein, effects of irradiation on the water holding capacity, mechanical properties and structure of muscle protein gel were reviewed in detail. High-dose irradiation could weaken the water holding capacity of muscle protein and result in the loss of meat juice. With different irradiation conditions or raw materials, influences of irradiation on the texture and theological properties of muscle protein gels are varied, and effects on the structure of muscle protein and its gel are more complex. Finally, the research trend of irradiation effects on the gelation properties of muscle protein is put forward. (authors)

  3. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  4. Effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of -titanium alloys

    H-J Christ; A Senemmar; M Decker; K Prüßner

    2003-06-01

    Conflicting opinions exist in the literature on the manner in which hydrogen influences the mechanical properties of -titanium alloys. This can be attributed to the -stabilizing effect of hydrogen in these materials leading to major changes in the microstructure as a result of hydrogen charging. The resulting (extrinsic) effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties can possibly cover up the direct (intrinsic) influences. On the basis of experimentally determined thermodynamic and kinetic data regarding the interaction of hydrogen with -titanium alloys, hydrogen concentrations of up to 8 at.% were established in three commercial alloys by means of hydrogen charging from the gas phase. In order to separate intrinsic and extrinsic effects the charging was carried out during one step of the two-step heat treatment typical of metastable -titanium alloys, while the other step was performed in vacuum. The results on the single-phase condition represent the intrinsic hydrogen effect. Monotonic and cyclic strength increase at the expense of ductility with increasing hydrogen concentration. The brittle to ductile transition temperature shifts to higher values and the fatigue crack propagation threshold value decreases. The microstructure of the metastable, usually two-phase -titanium alloys is strongly affected by hydrogen, although the extent of this effect depends not only on the hydrogen concentration but also on the temperature of charging. This microstructural influence (extrinsic effect) changes the mechanical properties in the opposite direction as compared to the intrinsic hydrogen effect.

  5. Capital Asset Pricing Model Adjusted for Anchoring

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    I show that adjusting CAPM for anchoring provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects. Anchoring adjusted CAPM (ACAPM) predicts that stock splits are associated with positive abnormal returns and an increase in return volatility, whereas the reverse stock-splits are associated with negative abnormal returns and a fall in return volatility. Existing empirical evidence strongly supports these predictions. Anchoring has the effect of pushing up the equity premium, a ...

  6. Effect of oxygen on the hydrogenation properties of magnesium films

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2006-01-01

    The effect of magnesium oxide on the magnesium and hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium films have been investigated. We find that by capping metallic magnesium films with oxide overlayers the apparent desorption energy of magnesium is increased from 146 kJ/mol to 314 kJ/mol. The results...... are discussed in light of previous investigations of ball-milled magnesium powders....

  7. Electrical properties of functionalized nanowire field effect transistors

    Weitz, Ralf Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of functional organic materials holds great promise for applications in electronic devices. Semiconducting organic molecules are frequently used as channel material in field effect transistors, due to the ease by which they can be assembled as such components, and the ease with which their properties can be specifically tailored. An extension of the use of organic materials in field effect transistors with the potential to substantially improve the performance of such devices ...

  8. Multiple inoculations of ductile iron and the effects on properties

    Adebayo Badmos; Kelvin Fakehinde

    2015-01-01

    Multiple inoculation of ductile iron and the effects on the structure and mechanical properties have being investigated. Samples of ductile iron were produced with inoculation carried out either once or twice and with different materials as inoculants. Ferrosilicon was used for the primary inoculation and either ferrosilicon or nickel-ferrosilicon for the secondary inoculation. It is observed that the nodules produced are more and finer with multiple inoculations and the effect is more pronou...

  9. Numerical simulation of the alloying elements effect on steels’ properties

    W. Sitek; J. Trzaska

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of the research carried out was evaluation of alloying elements effect on high-speed steels hardness and fracture toughness and austenite transformations during continuous cooling of structural steels.Design/methodology/approach: Multi-layer feedforward neural networks with learning rule based on the error backpropagation algorithm were employed for modelling the steels properties. Then the neural networks worked out were employed for the computer simulation of the effect of...

  10. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level. PMID:26314244

  11. Melatonin adjusts the expression pattern of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and induces antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of seasonal affective disorder.

    Nagy, Andras David; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Goda, Ryosei; Matsuo, Haruka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that C57BL/6J mice exhibit depression-like behavior under short photoperiod and suggested them as an animal model for investigating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this study, we tested if manipulations of the circadian clock with melatonin treatment could effectively modify depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and brain serotonergic system in C57BL/6J mice. Under short photoperiods (8-h light/16-h dark), daily melatonin treatments 2 h before light offset have significantly altered the 24-h patterns of mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (per1, per2, bmal1 and clock) within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) mostly by increasing amplitude in their expressional rhythms without inducing robust phase shifts in them. Melatonin treatments altered the expression of genes of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe (tph2, sert, vmat2 and 5ht1a) and serotonin contents in the amygdala. Importantly, melatonin treatment reduced the immobility in forced swim test, a depression-like behavior. As a key mechanism of melatonin-induced antidepressant-like effect, the previously proposed phase-advance hypothesis of the circadian clock could not be confirmed under conditions of our experiment. However, our findings of modest adjustments in both the amplitude and phase of the transcriptional oscillators in the SCN as a result of melatonin treatments may be sufficient to associate with the effects seen in the brain serotonergic system and with the improvement in depression-like behavior. Our study confirmed a predictive validity of C57BL/6J mice as a useful model for the molecular analysis of links between the clock and brain serotonergic system, which could greatly accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of SAD, as well as the search for new treatments. PMID:25515595

  12. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. PMID:27612770

  13. 煤炭资源税调整测算模型及其效应研究%Analysis on Model and Effects of Coal Resource Tax Adjustment

    郭菊娥; 钱冬; 吕振东; 熊洁

    2011-01-01

    煤炭资源税调整是实现节能减排、推动低碳经济重要的价格调控手段,全球金融危机与我国经济回暖给煤炭资源税调整提供了有利时机.本文基于我国实际情况构建了中国能源CGE模型,测算了从价征收不同煤炭资源税税率的影响效应,结果表明:随着煤炭资源税税率的逐步提升,煤炭需求量减少幅度大干GDP减少幅度,能有效降低单位GDP煤耗.并且对CPI的影响较小.从行业影响来看,价格受影响最大的是电力、热力的生产和供应业,燃气生产和供应业;产出受影响最大的行业依次是燃气生产和供应业,电力、热力的生产和供应业,金属冶炼及压延加工业,化学工业四个行业.受影响较大的行业均是节能减排重点行业.建议政府应将目前的资源税费合并,成为资源税从价计征,提高税率,并对资源税实施专款专用,提高能源利用效率.并根据测算结果提出煤炭资源税调整与补贴投资相结合的政策建议.%Coal resource tax adjustment is an important measure of price regulation for realizing energy-saving and promoting low carbon economy.The global financial crisis and the economic recovery in China are opportunities to adjust coal resource tax.The paper constructs the energy CGE model of China, and then calculates the influence effects of different rates of ad valorem of coal resource tax.The results show that with the coal resource tax rate rising gradually, the CPI climbs slowly, and coal demand reduction is greater than the GDP reduction, which means unit GDP coal consumption reduces.As to impacts of coal resource rate on industry, the industries that have the greatest price shock are electricity, heat production and supply industry and gas production and supply industry; outputs of the four industries influenced greatly are gas production and supply industry, electricity, heat production and supply industry,smelting and pressing of ferrous metals industry and

  14. Credit Valuation Adjustment

    Hoffman, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk has become a topical issue since the 2007 Credit Crisis, particularly for its impact on the valuation of OTC derivatives. This becomes critical when the credit risk of entities involved in a contract either as underlying or counterparty become highly correlated as is the case during macroeconomic shocks. It impacts the valuation of such contracts through an additional term, the credit valuation adjustment (CVA). This can become large with such correlation. This thesis outlines the...

  15. Physicians' adjustment to retirement.

    Virshup, B; Coombs, R H

    1993-01-01

    We address the questions, How do physicians adjust to and enjoy their retirement? What factors contribute to the well-being of retired physicians? A 60-item questionnaire mailed to 238 retired physicians in Los Angeles County with a 41.6% response rate assessed health, standard of living, relationships, activities, emotional difficulties, and general enjoyment. Health often improved after retirement, as did relationships with spouses and children. Standard of living was comfortable or better ...

  16. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs...

  17. Effect of effective microorganisms on soil physical properties

    Effective Microorganisms solution is being used in various parts of Sindh as fertilizer substitute in the agriculture fields since years. Soils of two locations at Bozdar Wada Khairpur Mir's and Nawazabad farm Mirpurkhas were surveyed. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.6 and 6-12 inches. Using analytical methods, given in the Laboratory manual for Soil Analysis, carried out the Physico-chemical analysis. The comparative study of 20-Acre land area of both soils, the one treated with EM (Effective Microorganisms) technology and the other without treatment was carried out. The soil color, soil texture/Particle size analysis, soil moisture, bulk density, soil pH, Electric conductivity, and organic matter were determined. The analysis showed positive results, and it is observed that the quality of the soil was improved by using EM technology. (author)

  18. Global positioning system (GPS) supported block adjustment with self-calibration parameters

    Blankenberg, Leif E.

    1994-08-01

    Systematic errors in the image coordinates is often a problem when working with high accuracy bundle block adjustment. These errors can be modeled by introducing self calibration parameters in the adjustment. In a traditional block adjustment, a dense network of ground control points are required to ensure a reliable estimate of these parameters. In the case of GPS-supported block adjustment, there is usually very little ground control available, but as shown in this paper, it is still possible to estimate the self calibration parameters. This is because of the stabilizing effect the GPS-determined perspective center coordinates have on the block. In this paper, both simulated data and real block data are used to evaluate the accuracy properties of GPS-supported blocks with additional self calibration parameters. Two different sets of additional parameters are evaluated. In the GPS-supported test blocks, the introduction of self calibration parameters improves the empirical tie point accuracy by 30 - 40%.

  19. Effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay

    In this paper, the effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay is undertaken. The wet grinding treatment was performed employing ball and vibro mills for different time spells of 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours. The structural properties were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of ground samples is found to be simple cubic. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and slight change in lattice constant, inter planner spacing and particle size is observed with grinding treatment. The results are in agreement with the available literature

  20. Substituents Effect on the Optical Properties of Benzonitrile and Oligobenzonitriles

    2000-01-01

    The semiempirical calculations were performed to discuss the effects of different substituents on the optical properties of a series of substituted benzonitriles and their corresponding oligomers. The substituents located in para, meta and ortho-position of the benzenoid ring involve a large range of δ-π electron-donor-acceptor capability. Theoretical analysis shows that the optical property is affected by the steric and electronic characteristics of the substituents on the benzenoid ring, moreover, the third-order polarizability regularly varies with the polymerization degrees.

  1. Effect Of Sand Blasting On Soda Lime Glass Properties

    Bousbaa, C.; Madjoubi, M. A.; Hamidouche, Z; N. BOUAOUADJA

    2003-01-01

    The present work is based on a simulation in laboratory of the erosion of a soda lime glass caused by sand blasting during sandstorms. It deals with the effects of sand blasting duration (from 0 to 60 min) and impact angle (from 0 to 90°) on the material and its properties. The principal erosion characteristics and properties of the material studied are the mass loss, the erosion rate, the surface roughness, the optical transmission and the mechanical strength. The influence of the optical tr...

  2. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES AND DRYING EFFECTS OF FLAX DENIM AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN FLAX FABRIC

    David T.W. Chun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A modification of “AATCC Test Method 100-1999” was used for assaying for bacteriostatic/antibacterial properties of denim containing various flax concentrations. Since no direct evidence that increasing the flax content of fabric imparted the fabric with increased bacteriostatic properties was found against the control bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, other possible explanations for the long held presumption that flax fabric exhibited antibacterial properties was sought. Because the appearance of having antibacterial or bacteriostatic properties might be imitated if the flax content would decrease the time fabric would be moist enough for bacterial growth, the effect of drying was evaluated. When flax fabric was saturated and the moisture lost during incubation was measured, there was no improved drying associated with increased flax content. When untreated nonwoven flax was evaluated as possibly containing more ‘antibacterial’ or bacteriostatic components than scoured nonwoven flax material, the population densities increased. This increase suggests that the unscoured nonwoven flax contain compo-nents that support bacterial growth to the extent that bacteriostatic or antibacterial components, if any, are overwhelmed by the components that support bacterial growth. In tests involving the control bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, increasing the flax content of flax fabric did not demonstrate increased antibacterial properties.

  3. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  4. The Effect of Bedding Structure on Mechanical Property of Coal

    Zetian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical property of coal, influencing mining activity considerably, is significantly determined by the natural fracture distributed within coal mass. In order to study the effecting mechanism of bedding structure on mechanical property of coal, a series of uniaxial compression tests and mesoscopic tests have been conducted. The experimental results show that the distribution characteristic of calcite particles, which significantly influences the growth of cracks and the macroscopic mechanical properties of coal, is obviously affected by the bedding structure. Specifically, the uniaxial compression strength of coal sample is mainly controlled by bedding structure, and the average peak stress of specimens with axes perpendicular to the bedding planes is 20.00 MPa, which is 2.88 times the average amount of parallel ones. The test results also show a close relationship between the bedding structure and the whole deformation process under uniaxial loading.

  5. Effect of polysaccharides on the gelatinization properties of cornstarch dispersions.

    Xu, Zhiting; Zhong, Fang; Li, Yue; Shoemaker, Charles F; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Xia, Wenshui

    2012-01-18

    Konjac glucomannan (KG, neutral), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, negatively charged), and chitosan (positively charged) were added to cornstarch dispersions to study the effect of polysaccharide-starch interactions on starch gelatinization properties. Pasting and retrogradation properties were measured with a rheometer and DSC. Swelling properties of the starch granules were determined by solubility index, swelling power, and particle size distribution. Depending on the nature of the different polysaccharides, viscosities of cornstarch dispersions were affected differently. The particle size distributions were not influenced by the addition of any of the polysaccharides. Swelling results showed that the KG and CMC molecules interacted with the released or partly released amylose in the cornstarch dispersions. This was correlated with the short-term retrogradation of the starch pastes being retarded by the additions of KG and CMC. However, the chitosan molecules appeared not to associate with the amylose, so the retrogradation of the chitosan-cornstarch dispersions was not retarded. PMID:22224479

  6. Effect of transglutaminase treatment on skimmed yogurt properties

    Iuliana BANU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of microbial transglutaminase on the stability and rheological properties of skimmed yogurt. The fermentation was carried out with Streptococus theromophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus after incubating the milk with various enzyme concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.04%, at different setting temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C, for 60, 90 and 120 min. The postacidification process and the stability of the yogurt samples were influenced by the degree of polymerization of the milk proteins which depended on the conditions of the milk treated with microbial transglutaminase. The best results in terms of whey separation and rheological properties were obtained when preincubating the milk with 0.04% transglutaminase for 120 min setting at 40°C. The results indicate that transglutaminase may be successfully used for enhancing the functional properties of yogurt with low fat content.

  7. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on elastic properties of ZDTP tribofilms

    Demmou, Karim; Loubet, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the elastic properties of Zinc Dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDTP) tribofilms measured by nanoindentation increase versus applied pressure (Anvil effect) [1, 2]. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, up to 8 GPa, this increase is a reversible phenomenon. A ZDTP tribofilm has been produced on "AISI 52100" steel substrate using a Cameron-Plint tribometer. After its formation, a hydrostatic pressure of about 8 GPa was applied during one minute on the tribofilm using a large radius steel ball ("Brinell-like" test). Nanoindentation tests were performed with a Berkovich tip on pads in order to measure and compare the mechanical properties of the tribofilm inside and outside the macroscopic plastically deformed area. Careful AFM observations have been carried out on each indent in order to take into account actual contact area. No difference in elastic properties was observed between the two areas: tribofilm modulus and pressure sensitivity are the same inside and outside the resi...

  8. Effects of Diffusive Property Heterogeneity on Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for Fractured Rock

    Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhou, Quanlin; Finsterle, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Heterogeneities of diffusion properties are likely to influence the effective matrix diffusion coefficient determined from tracer breakthrough curves. The objectives of this study are (1) to examine if it is appropriate to use a single, effective matrix diffusion coefficient to predict breakthrough curves in a fractured formation, (2) to examine if a postulated scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is caused by heterogeneity in diffusion properties, and (3) to ex...

  9. Effect of drug properties on formulation properties of eudragit non effervescent floating microparticulates

    S L Harikumar; Singh, Satish

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to investigate the effects of selected drugs (captopril and celecoxib) properties on different parameters drug entrapment, in vitro drug release, release pattern, in vitro drug permeation and buoyancy in the formulation of Eudragit S100 non effervescent floating microparticulates. Microparticulates were in size ranges 268.36-352.27 μm (captopril) and 271.36- 365.54 μm (celecoxib). Encapsulation efficiency of celecoxib was good as compar...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    2010-04-01

    ... depletion over the basis of property subject to depletion unless the property is an oil or gas property the... of the shareholders' deductions for depletion for any oil or gas property held by the corporation... the adjusted basis of which exceeds its fair market value on the date of the distribution and...

  11. Effects of humidity on the mechanical properties of gecko setae.

    Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Puthoff, Jonathan B; Mayer, George; Autumn, Kellar

    2011-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in relative humidity (RH) causes changes in the mechanical properties of the keratin of adhesive gecko foot hairs (setae). We measured the effect of RH on the tensile deformation properties, fracture, and dynamic mechanical response of single isolated tokay gecko setae and strips of the smooth lamellar epidermal layer. The mechanical properties of gecko setae were strongly affected by RH. The complex elastic modulus (measured at 5 Hz) of a single seta at 80% RH was 1.2 GPa, only 39% of the value when dry. An increase in RH reduced the stiffness and increased the strain to failure. The loss tangent increased significantly with humidity, suggesting that water absorption produces a transition to a more viscous type of deformation. The influence of RH on the properties of the smooth epidermal layer was comparable with that of isolated seta, with the exception of stress at rupture. These values were two to four times greater for the setae than for the smooth layer. The changes in mechanical properties of setal keratin were consistent with previously reported increases in contact forces, supporting the hypothesis that an increase in RH softens setal keratin, which increases adhesion and friction. PMID:20920615

  12. Fuel property effects on USN gas turbine combustors

    Masters, A. I.; Mosier, S. A.; Nowack, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    For several years the Department of Defense has been sponsoring fuel accommodation investigations with gas turbine engine manufacturers and supporting organizations to quantify the effect of changes in fuel properties and characteristics on the operation and performance of military engine components and systems. Inasmuch as there are many differences in hardware between the operational engines in the military inventories, due to differences in design philosophy and requirements, efforts were initially expended to acquire fuel effects data from rigs simulating the hot sections of these different engines. Correlations were then sought using the data acquired to produce more general, generic relationships that could be applied to all military gas turbine engines regardless of their origin. Finally, models could be developed from these correlations that could predict the effect of fuel property changes on current and future engines. This presentation describes some of the work performed by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, under Naval Air Propulsion Center sponsorship, to determine the effect of fuel properties on the hot section and fuel system of the Navy's TF30-P-414 gas turbine engine.

  13. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  14. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    van Dijk; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an efficient fish stock and to reduce overcapacity for the fishing industry. We develop and apply a bi-level stochastic dynamic programming model to study the effect of a quota adjustment restriction on the net ...

  15. Effect of preparation conditions on properties and permeability of chitosan-sodium hexametaphosphate capsules.

    Angelova, N; Hunkeler, D

    2001-01-01

    Capsules were obtained by interpolymer complexation between chitosan (polycation) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SMP, oligoanion). The effect of the preparation conditions on the capsule characteristics was evaluated. Specifically, the influence of variables such as pH, ionic strength, reagent concentration, and additives on the capsule permeability properties was investigated using dextran as a model permeant. The capsule membrane permeability was found to increase by decreasing the chitosan/SMP ratio as well as adding mannitol to the oligoanion recipient bath. Increasing the ionic strength or the pH of the initial chitosan solution was also found to enhance the membrane permeability, moving the membrane exclusion limit to higher values. Generally, the capsules prepared tinder all tested conditions had a relatively low permeability which rarely exceeded a molecular cut-off of 40 kD based on dextran standards. Furthermore, the diffusion rate showed a strong temporal dependence, indicating that the capsules prepared under various conditions exhibit different apparent pore size densities on the surface. The results indicated that, in order to obtain the desired capsule mass-transfer properties, the preparation conditions should be carefully considered and adjusted. Adding a polyol as well as low salt amount (less than 0.15%) is preferable as a means of modulating the diffusion characteristics, without disturbing the capsule mechanical stability. PMID:11922478

  16. Effect of Intercritical Annealing on Microstructural Evolution and Properties of Quenched & Partitioned (Q&P) Steels

    Wu, Riming; Jin, Xuejun; Wang, Chenglin; Wang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of metastable austenite into martensite in novel quenched & partitioned (Q&P) steels improves sheet formability, allowing this class of high-strength steels to be used for automotive structural components. The current work studies the microstructural evolution by varying intercritical annealing time ( t a), as well as its influence on the martensite-austenite constituent and mechanical properties of Q&P steels. As the t a was prolonged, the morphology of retained austenite progressively transformed from block to a mixture of block and film, and finally changed to totally film. Based on electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements and uniaxial tensile response, the holding time of 600 s at 760 °C was determined to produce the best results in terms of highest volume fraction of retained austenite ( f γ = 15.8%) and largest strain (26.8%) at the ultimate tensile strength (892 MPa). This difference in work-hardening behavior corresponds directly to the transformation rate of retained austenite with different morphology. The slower rate of transformation of filmy austenite allowed for work hardening to persist at high strains where the transformation effect had already been exhausted in the blocky one. There is great potential for properties improvement through adjustment of metastability of retained austenite.

  17. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26077858

  18. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  19. Effect of Natural Fillers on Mechanical Properties of GFRP Composites

    Vikas Dhawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs have replaced conventional engineering materials in many areas, especially in the field of automobiles and household applications. With the increasing demand, various modifications are being incorporated in the conventional FRPs for specific applications in order to reduce costs and achieve the quality standards. The present research endeavor is an attempt to study the effect of natural fillers on the mechanical characteristics of FRPs. Rice husk, wheat husk, and coconut coir have been used as natural fillers in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs. In order to study the effect of matrix on the properties of GFRPs, polyester and epoxy resins have been used. It has been found that natural fillers provide better results in polyester-based composites. Amongst the natural fillers, in general, the composites with coconut coir have better mechanical properties as compared to the other fillers in glass/epoxy composites.

  20. Exotic properties of neutrinos using effective Lagrangians and specific models

    Aparici, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation presents several works on nonstandard properties of neutrinos exploiting the synergies between effective field theory and models. The phenomena are first analysed by means of effective operators, which allow to discuss their phenomenological consequences and to derive estimations about the mass scale of the heavy particles needed to induce the new interactions. In a second phase we propose models that realise the effective operators, allowing us to check the conclusions of effective field theory as well as to extract new phenomenological features of the scenarios considered. The text is divided into two parts: in the first one we apply these ideas to an effective interaction that generates magnetic dipole moments for right-handed neutrinos, and in the second one we discuss a family of operators that violate lepton number without quarks, and which can allow for large rates of neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and small neutrino masses. The right-handed neutrino magnetic moments have ...

  1. Effects of solvent on the solution properties, structural characteristics and properties of silk sericin.

    Jo, Yoon Nam; Um, In Chul

    2015-07-01

    Sericin films have attracted much attention from researchers in biomedical and cosmetic fields because of its unique properties, including good cytocompatibility and its promotion of wound healing. However, poor mechanical properties of sericin films have restricted its application in these fields. In this study, a new solvent, formic acid, was used to fabricate sericin solutions and films. The effects of formic acid on the structural characteristics and mechanical properties of the sericin solutions and films were examined and compared with water. The sericin/formic acid solution showed fewer aggregated sericin molecules, resulting in a lower turbidity than that of the sericin/water solution. In addition, the gelation of the sericin solution was retarded in formic acid compared to that of water. Sericin films cast from the formic acid solution exhibited a much higher crystallinity index than that produced from water. The tensile strength and elongation of the sericin films cast from the formic acid solution were more than double that of the sericin films cast from water. It is expected that the more stable sericin solution and high-crystallinity sericin films, which have significantly improved mechanical properties, produced by using formic acid as the solvent could be utilized in biomedical and cosmetic applications. PMID:25869308

  2. Effects of HTAW on steel melted metal properties

    This paper (written by experts of japanese steel-making industry and of the Welding Research Institute of Osaka University) deals with the effects of HTAW on mechanical and corrosion properties of different steels (C-Si-Mn steels, micro-alloyed steels, low alloy steels for current and high temperature applications), and is done from a compilation of documents published between 1981 and 1994. (A.B.)

  3. Density Functional Studies of Relativistic Effects on Molecular Properties

    Wood, Hayley Marie

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic effects are extremely important for heavy atoms and heavy atom containing molecules. Therefore, a relativistic treatment is needed when calculating molecular properties of these species. The fully- relativistic Dirac treatment involves electronic and positronic wavefunctions and a very large basis set is required. This leads to calculations that are too costly and time-consuming for larger molecules. The Zeroth-Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) is an approximation to the Dirac a...

  4. Evaluating the effect of magnetocaloric properties on magnetic refrigeration performance

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology that relies on the magnetocaloric effect in a solid refrigerant. Magnetocaloric materials are in development and properties are reported regularly. Recently, there has been an emphasis on developing materials with a high entropy change with magnetization while placing lower emphasis on the adiabatic temperature change. This work uses model magnetocaloric materials and a numerical AMR model...

  5. Effect of. gamma. radiation on sorption properties of polymethylphenylsiloxane films

    Eremina, N.S.; Minakova, T.S.; Komissarova, V.N.

    1988-11-01

    The effect of ..gamma.. radiation in the 0.01-1 MGy dose range on the capacity of polymethylphenylsiloxane films to sorb water vapors was studied. It was shown that the character of the change in the sorption capacity of the polymer films is a function of the dose of radiation. The results of measurements of the IR spectra were used in discussing the causes of the change in the sorption properties of the films on exposure to ..gamma.. radiation.

  6. Effective thermoelastic properties of composites with periodicity in cylindrical coordinates

    Chatzigeorgiou, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study composites that present cylindrical periodicity in the microstructure. The effective thermomechanical properties of these composites are identified using a modified version of the asymptotic expansion homogenization method, which accounts for unit cells with shell shape. The microscale response is also shown. Several numerical examples demonstrate the use of the proposed approach, which is validated by other micromechanics methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of electron radiation on properties of PLA

    Malinowski, R.; P. Rytlewski; M. Żenkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper was to examine the effects of electron radiation on physicochemical properties of pristine poly(lactic acid) (PLA), or polylactide, and of polylactide containing a selected crosslinking agent.Design/methodology/approach: Samples to be examined were prepared in granulated forms or as moulded pieces and then treated with the high-energy electron radiation (ca. 10 MeV). The methods of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), rheology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) s...

  8. Effects of Coal—Water Mixture Properties in Atomization

    DavidJ.Wildman; JamesM.Ekmann

    1994-01-01

    Recent suggested CWM applications include using filter cake material and mill tailings as coal sources.Neither coal type nor particle size distribution are necessarily well suited for coal-water mixture production.Slurries were prepared with and without additives and attempts were made to characterize their rheological properties and atomize these materials,Limits of operation and the value of existing rheological instrumentation and methods were investigated.Effects of changes in particle size distribution are discussed.

  9. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    Bashar Issa; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Yousef Haik

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The opti...

  10. Edge effects on the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun; Copple, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Two dimensional few-layer black phosphorus crystal structures have recently fabricated and demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to study the edge effects and quantum confinement on the electronic properties of the phosphorene nanoribbons (PNR). Different edge functionalization groups, such as H, F, Cl, OH, O, S, and Se in addition to a pristine case, were studied for a series width of the...

  11. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    Fe74Ni3Si13Cr6W4 amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 °C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine α-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 °C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 °C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 °C show optimal reflection loss under −10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T. - Highlights: ► The annealing temperature effect of Fe-based amorphous alloy was studied. ► Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy has a good absorbing property in C-band. ► There exists a correspondence between microwave properties and microstructure.

  12. Comparison Method - Preference Of Adjustment Techniques Among Valuers

    Anuar Alias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the adjustment techniques applied by valuers in determining the market value of the property. There are several types of adjustment techniques that can be applied in comparison method such as summative percentage, dollar percentage, add and/or subtract percentage, and proper base adjustments. In order to investigate the most preferred adjustment techniques applied by valuers in Malaysia as well as the elements of adjustment, a questionnaire survey is conducted that involves valuers from government and private sectors as respondents. The research reveals that the most preferred adjustment technique among valuers in Malaysia is the summative percentage method with the sequence of adjustment based on the ranking order of tenure, date of transaction, location, physical characteristics, economic, land use and zoning, quantum, topography, and financial terms. This study benefits the profession of real estate especially to practising valuers in Malaysia.

  13. The effect of demagnetization on the magnetocaloric properties of gadolinium

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2009-01-01

    Gadolinium displays a strong magnetocaloric effect at temperatures close to room temperature making it useful in the field of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. We discuss the importance of including the effects of the demagnetization field when considering the magnetocaloric properties of...... gadolinium. The adiabatic temperature change DeltaTad of gadolinium sheets upon application of a magnetic field has been measured at a range of applied magnetic fields and sample orientations. A significant dependence of DeltaTad on the sample orientation is observed. This can be accounted for by the...

  14. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin. PMID:27252000

  15. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Properties of Wool Fabric

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, M. P.

    Wool fiber is commonly used in textile industry, however, it has some technical problems which affect the quality and performance of the finished products such as felting shrinkage, handle, lustre, pilling, and dyeability. These problems may be attributed mainly in the presence of wool scales on the fiber surface. Recently, chemical treatments such as oxidation and reduction are the commonly used descaling methods in the industry. However, as a result of the pollution caused by various chemical treatments, physical treatment such as low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment has been introduced recently because it is similarly capable of achieving a comparable descaling effect. Most of the discussions on the applications of LTP treatment on wool fiber were focused on applying this technique for improving the surface wettability and shrink resistance. Meanwhile, little discussion has been made on the mechanical properties, thermal properties, and the air permeability. In this paper, wool fabric was treated with LTP treatment with the use of a non-polymerizing gas, namely oxygen. After the LTP treatment, the fabrics low-stress mechanical properties, air permeability, and thermal properties were evaluated and discussed.

  16. Effective mechanical properties of concentric cylindrical composites with auxetic phase

    Strek, Tomasz [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Jana Pawla 24 (A5), 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Jopek, Hubert [Periscope Foundation, ul. Sloneczna 18, 62-020 Swarzedz (Poland)

    2012-07-15

    Materials with unusual mechanical properties can be potentially used as matrices to create high-performance lightweight composites. The appearance of materials with negative Poisson's ratio (auxetics), has led to the evaluation of auxetic composites for possible engineering applications. Because the experimental evaluation of composites with specific properties is expensive and time consuming, computational modelling and simulation provide efficient alternatives to predict the parameters of the composites. In this paper a finite element method was used to find the engineering constants (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) of auxetic composites consisting of concentric cylindrical inclusions made of combinations of auxetic and classic (non-auxetic) materials. It has been observed that not only the mechanical properties of the different composite phases influence the effective mechanical properties of the whole composite, but also the location of the same material phases do matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. The Design of Fiscal Adjustments

    Alesina, Alberto Francesco; Ardagna, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers three results. First, in line with the previous literature, we confirm that fiscal adjustments based mostly on the spending side are less likely to be reversed. Second, spending based fiscal adjustments have caused smaller recessions than tax based fiscal adjustments. Finally, certain combinations of policies have made it possible for spending based fiscal adjustments to be associated with growth in the economy even on impact rather than with a recession. Thus, expansionary ...

  18. Magnetic property effect on transport processes in resistance spot welding

    This study investigates the effects of the Curie temperature and magnetic permeability on transport variables, solute distribution and nugget shapes during resistance spot welding. The Curie temperature is the temperature below which a metal or alloy is ferromagnetic with a high magnetic permeability, and above which it is paramagnetic with a small magnetic permeability. The model proposed here accounts for electromagnetic force, heat generation and contact resistance at the faying surface and electrode-workpiece interfaces and bulk resistance in workpieces. Contact resistance includes constriction and film resistances, which are functions of hardness, temperature, electrode force and surface condition. The computed results show that transport variables and nugget shapes can be consistently interpreted from the delay of response time and jump of electric current density as a result of finite magnetic diffusion, rather than through the examination of the variations of dynamic electrical resistance with time. The molten nugget on the faying surface is initiated earlier with increasing magnetic permeability and Curie temperature. A high Curie temperature enhances convection and solute mixing, and readily melts through the workpiece surface near the electrode edge. Any means to reduce the Curie temperature or magnetic permeability, such as adjusting the solute content, can be a good way to control weld quality. This study can also be applied to interpret the contact problems encountered in various electronics and packaging technologies, and so on.

  19. Application effect of surgical ICU nurse post dynamically adjust%外科ICU护士岗位动态调整应用效果

    王玉莲; 陈斌; 毛芙蓉; 李玮; 杜小利

    2013-01-01

    目的:以科室人力资源与工作任务情况为依据,动态调整护士岗位,确保医疗护理安全,提高外科监护室护理质量和满意度.方法:根据护士实际工作综合能力与工作量弹性排班,指派临时组长负责,各班次护士各司其职,分工合作,共同完成工作任务.结果:调动了各级护理人员的工作积极性及参与管理的意识,较好地完成了逐年大幅度增长的工作量且保证了质量和安全,有效地激励了护士的专业发展.结论:在工作量分配不均衡,人力资源有限,无法将护士固定分组排班的护理单元实施临时组长负责制管理模式,能够激发各级护理人员的潜能,有效提高人力资源利用效果和护理质量,是一种可行的护理管理模式.%Objective:The department of human resources and work tasks as the basis, dynamic adjustment of head nurse post, to ensure the safety of medical care, improve surgical care unit nursing quality and satisfaction. Methods:According to the actual work of nurses in comprehensive ability and workload of flexible scheduling, designated temporary leader was responsible for, the shift nurses each duty .division of labor and cooperation, common tasks. Results; The mobilization of all levels of nursing staffs working enthusiasm and participation in management consciousness, better land finished increase year by year the quantity of work and ensure the quality and safety, effectively motivate nurses' professional development. Conclusion;The workload distribution is not balanced, the limited human resources, can not be fixed packet scheduling in nurses nursing unit to implement interim leader responsible system manage-ment pattern, can stimulate all levels of nursing staff's potential, improve human resources utilization effect and the quality of care,is a feasible model of nursing management.

  20. Technical Document for Price Adjustment

    Zheng Tian; Mulugeta Kahsai; Randall Jackson

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the basis for the price adjustment mechanisms in a time series IO model. The essentials of the price adjustment and price change propagation algorithms are presented, along with a matrix permutation algorithm that facilitates the implementation of the price adjustment mechanism. The Matlab function is provided.

  1. The variance of the adjusted Rand index.

    Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J; Hubert, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    For 30 years, the adjusted Rand index has been the preferred method for comparing 2 partitions (e.g., clusterings) of a set of observations. Although the index is widely used, little is known about its variability. Herein, the variance of the adjusted Rand index (Hubert & Arabie, 1985) is provided and its properties are explored. It is shown that a normal approximation is appropriate across a wide range of sample sizes and varying numbers of clusters. Further, it is shown that confidence intervals based on the normal distribution have desirable levels of coverage and accuracy. Finally, the first power analysis evaluating the ability to detect differences between 2, different adjusted Rand indices is provided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881693

  2. Effect of Annealing Conditions on Properties of BSCCO-2212 Bulk

    We fabricated BSCCO-2212(2212) bulk superconductors by using a casting process and evaluated the superconducting properties. The effects of annealing conditions on microstructure and critical properties were studied. It was found that the homogeneous and uniform microstructure improved the critical properties and the microstructures of ingot and annealed rods were different with the size of 2212 rod and tube. The critical current(Ic) of rods increased with increasing annealing time, probably due to increased grain size of 2212. Annealing time of the highest Icfor the smaller rod(diameter of 10 mm) was shorter(150 hr) than that of the larger rod(diameter of 16 mm, 400 hr). This size effect seems to be related to different grain sizes of the intermediate phases such as 2201 and secondary phases in the ingot. In addition, we fabricated 2212 tubes from the rod by removing the center region which contained inhomogeneous microstructures. The Icof 2212 tube with the outer diameter of 16 mm and the thickness of 2 mm was measured to 844 A, which corresponds to the critical current density of 1017 A/cm2 at 77 K.

  3. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    Bashar Issa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm, viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm. The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

  5. Effects of priming exercise on the speed of adjustment of muscle oxidative metabolism at the onset of moderate-intensity step transitions in older adults.

    De Roia, Gabriela; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Adami, Alessandra; Papadopoulou, Christina; Capelli, Carlo

    2012-05-15

    Aging is associated with a functional decline of the oxidative metabolism due to progressive limitations of both O(2) delivery and utilization. Priming exercise (PE) increases the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism during successive moderate-intensity transitions. We tested the hypothesis that such improvement is due to a better matching of O(2) delivery to utilization within the working muscles. In 21 healthy older adults (65.7 ± 5 yr), we measured contemporaneously noninvasive indexes of the overall speed of adjustment of the oxidative metabolism (i.e., pulmonary Vo(2) kinetics), of the bulk O(2) delivery (i.e., cardiac output), and of the rate of muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxygenated hemoglobin, HHb) during moderate-intensity step transitions, either with (ModB) or without (ModA) prior PE. The local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization was evaluated by the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio index. The overall speed of adjustment of the Vo(2) kinetics was significantly increased in ModB compared with ModA (P ModA (P < 0.05), suggesting an improved O(2) delivery. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that, in older adults, PE, prior to moderate-intensity exercise, beneficially affects the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism due to an acute improvement of the local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization. PMID:22422668

  6. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  7. Effects of Corporal Punishment, Perceived Caretaker Warmth, and Cultural Beliefs on the Psychological Adjustment of Children in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…

  8. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis: the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease

    Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were emp

  9. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis : the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease

    Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were emp

  10. Degrading radiation effects on properties of bromobutyl rubber compounds

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Pozenato, Cristina A.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The understanding of chemistry involved in degradation induced radiation is becoming more and more relevant in the re-use of polymeric materials, as well in beneficial radiation uses. Degrading radiation effects have been considered from viewpoint of controlled degradation for isoprene/isobutene in rubbers for recycling purposes. Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer comprising 1.9 to 2.1% bromine and has a lot of applications including in tires air-chambers. In this work there were evaluated gamma-irradiation effects for re-use or recycling objectives in elastomeric bromobutyl compositions irradiated at 5, 15, 25, 50, 100,150 and 200 kGy. Mechanical properties, hardness and swelling were assessed in non-vulcanized and vulcanized rubber, non-irradiated and irradiated at different doses. The major gamma radiation effect in butyl rubber is the generation of free radicals along changes in mechanical properties. Irradiation effects in bromobutyl rubber compounds were comprehensively investigated, demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  11. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  12. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  13. Effect of Exposure to Electrical Discharge on Transformer Oil Properties

    J. S. N'Cho; I. Fofana; T. Aka-Ngnui; A. Beroual

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum based oils, the so-called mineral oils, are used for impregnating solid insulations or filling products of very large number of electric materials: transformers, reactors, cables, bushings, circuit breakers, tap changers, etc. In these equipments, oil is exposed to electrical stress and may experience electrical discharges under certain circumstances. Since the electrical stress is unavoidable in power equipments, the ability of oil to resist decomposition under electrical stress is of great importance for the safety of these devices. Electrical stress together with heat and moisture, in the presence of oxygen, oxidises the oil producing free radicals, acids and sludge that are deleterious to the transformer. In this paper, the effect of electrical discharges on oil properties is reported. The results indicate that quality of oil is considerably affected with increasing voltage stress. Comparing oil properties before and after voltage application allows assessing the outcome of random secondary chemical reactions between large oil born free radicals.

  14. Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties of Zinc Dithiophosphate Tribofilms

    Demmou, K; Loubet, J L; Martin, J M; Demmou, Karim; Bec, Sandrine; Loubet, Jean-Luc; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Nanoindentation tests were performed at several temperatures (24 to 80degC) on one antiwear zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDTP) tribofilm using a Nanoindenter XP (R) entirely set into a climatic chamber. Mechanical properties of the tribofilm were determined using a simple model. AFM observations were conducted to estimate the order of magnitude of the film's thickness. The effect of applied pressure on the elastic properties was demonstrated and taken into account in the present analysis. The use of the F/S^2 parameter, independent of contact geometry, revealed a hardness dependency upon temperature. Furthermore, careful AFM observations of the residual pile-up produced by plastic flow around the indents pointed out the evolution of the film deformation process with temperature.

  15. Effect of ageing on fatigue properties of asphalt

    王佶; 庞凌; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 陈筝

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue properties of asphalts were investigated after various laboratory simulation ageing tests and outdoor natural exposure ultraviolet radiation ageing,by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) time sweep fatigue test in constant strain model and a new type of specimen which was introduced to avoid the problem of adhesion failure between rotor and asphalt binder.The results show that outdoor natural exposure ageing(NEA) causes the decrease of retained fatigue life distinctly,and photodegradation caused by outdoor NEA of 1 250 μm thin films asphalt for three months,is found to be severer than pressure ageing vessel(PAV) with respects to retained fatigue life.The effect of photodegradation increases as the time of outdoor NEA increases.DSR time sweep fatigue test in constant strain indicates that the aged styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified asphalt still displays better fatigue properties than the corresponding base asphalt after ageing.

  16. On the effective properties of thermo-piezoelectric matrix composites

    Explicit expressions for the effective pyroelectric, dielectric, piezoelectric, elastic and thermoelastic constants of a matrix composite have been obtained in closed form. A numerical analysis has been carried out of the concentration dependences of constants of a composite in which the BaTiO3 ceramics is the matrix while the inclusions are represented by spheroidal ceramic particles of PZT-19. A case is examined when the matrix and the inclusions possess opposite polarization. At a certain concentration of PZT-19 the composite exhibits well pronounced pyroelectric properties without having any appreciable piezoeffect. At another concentration, it manifests marked piezoelectric properties, but does not possess the pyroeffect. Practical implementations of the results are discussed. (author)

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a 60Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  18. Effects of nasalance on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and the head voice

    Perna, Nicholas Kevin

    This study aims to measure the effect that nasality has on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and head voice. Not to be confused with forward resonance, nasality here will be defined as nasalance, the reading of a Nasometer, or the percentage of nasal and oral airflow during phonation. A previous study by Peer Birch et al. has shown that professional tenors used higher percentages of nasalance through their passaggio. They hypothesized that tenors used nasalance to make slight timbral adjustments as they ascended through passaggio. Other well respected authors including Richard Miller and William McIver have claimed that teaching registration issues is the most important component of training young tenors. It seemed logical to measure the acoustic effects of nasalance on the tenor passaggio and head voice. Eight professional operatic tenors participated as subjects performing numerous vocal exercises that demonstrated various registration events. These examples were recorded and analyzed using a Nasometer and Voce Vista Pro Software. Tenors did generally show an increase of nasalance during an ascending B-flat major scale on the vowels [i] and [u]. Perhaps the most revealing result was that six of seven tenors showed at least a 5-10% increase in nasalance on the note after their primary register transition on the vowel of [a]. It is suggested that this phenomenon receive further empirical scrutiny, because, if true, pedagogues could use nasalance as a tool for helping a young tenor ascend through his passaggio.

  19. Effects of Niobium Microalloying on Microstructure and Properties of Hot-Dip Galvanized Sheet

    Mohrbacher, Hardy [NiobelCon bvba, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    Niobium microalloying is effective in hot-rolled and cold-rolled steels by providing a fine-grained microstructure resulting in increased strength. To optimize the strengthening effect, alloy design and hot-rolling conditions have to be adapted. As a key issue the dissolution and precipitation characteristics of Nb are discussed in particular with regard to the run-out table conditions. It is then considered how the hot-rolled microstructure and the solute state of Nb interact with the hot-dip galvanizing cycle. The adjusted conditions allow controlling the morphology and distribution of phases in the cold-rolled annealed material. Additional precipitation hardening can be achieved as well. The derived options can be readily applied to produce conventional HSLA and IF high strength steels as well as to modem multiphase steels. It will be explained how important application properties such as strength, elongation, bendability, weldability and delayed cracking resistance can be influenced in a controlled and favorable way. Examples of practical relevance and experience are given.

  20. Analytical fuel property effects: Small combustors, phase 2

    Hill, T. G.; Monty, J. D.; Morton, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of non-standard aviation fuels on a typical small gas turbine combustor were studied and the effectiveness of design changes intended to counter the effects of these fuels was evaluated. The T700/CT7 turboprop engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired for this study. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. No. 2 diesel fuel was also evaluated in this program. Results demonstrated the anticipated higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity with resulting increased metal temperatures on the baseline T700 combustor. Three new designs were evaluated using the non standard fuels. The three designs incorporated enhanced cooling features and smoke reduction features. All three designs, when burning the broad specification fuels, exhibited metal temperatures at or below the baseline combustor temperatures on JP-5. Smoke levels were acceptable but higher than predicted.

  1. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND SIZE EFFECTS OF SINGLE CRYSTAL SILICON

    HAN Guangping; LIU Kai; WANG Xiuhong

    2006-01-01

    Six kinds of micro bridge-beam specimens with different sizes are fabricated using photolithography technology for bending test. Beam specimens with trapezoidal section could be representatives of those with rectangle and square section, which are usually applied in MEMS. Nano indentation method used in bending test can be applied to both elastic and plastic materials. Also, some mechanical properties parameters such as the modulus of elasticity, hardness and the bending strength are obtained. The average modulus of elasticity of SCS is 170.295 0±2.485 0 GPa, showing no size effects, but the bending strength ranges from 3.24 GPa to 10.15 GPa, displaying strong size effects,and the average hardness is 9.496 7± 1.753 3 GPa, in which no obvious size effects are observed.

  2. Effect of the hydration on the biomechanical properties in a fibrin-agarose tissue-like model.

    Scionti, Giuseppe; Moral, Monica; Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Durán, Juan D G; Alaminos, Miguel; Campos, Antonio; López-López, Modesto T

    2014-08-01

    The effect of hydration on the biomechanical properties of fibrin and fibrin-agarose (FA) tissue-like hydrogels is reported. Native hydrogels with approximately 99.5% of water content and hydrogels with water content reduced until 90% and 80% by means of plastic compression (nanostructuration) were generated. The biomechanical properties of the hydrogels were investigated by tensile, compressive, and shear tests. Experimental results indicate that nanostructuration enhances the biomechanical properties of the hydrogels. This improvement is due to the partial draining of the water that fills the porous network of fibers that the plastic compression generates, which produces a denser material, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Results also indicate that the characteristic compressive and shear parameters increase with agarose concentration, very likely due to the high water holding capacity of agarose, which reduces the compressibility and gives consistency to the hydrogels. However, results of tensile tests indicate a weakening of the hydrogels as agarose concentration increases, which evidences the anisotropic nature of these biomaterials. Interestingly, we found that by adjusting the water and agarose contents it is possible to tune the biomechanical properties of FA hydrogels for a broad range, within which the properties of many native tissues fall. PMID:23963645

  3. Thermoelectric properties of quantum dot with Fano-Rashba effect

    Full text. The main challenge in the field of spintronics is to achieve the injection, modulation, and detection of electron spin in nanometer scale structures. In 1990, a spin transistor was proposed, based on the electron spin precession controlled by an external electric field via spin-orbit coupling. On the other hand, Quantum dots (QDs) are very promising nano structures due to their physical properties and applications as electronic devices. Fano and Dicke effects were also found to be present in QD configurations. On the other hand, Song described how a spin filter may be achieved in open QD systems by exploiting Fano resonances that occur in their transmission characteristic. In a QD in which the spin degeneracy of carrier is lifted, they showed that the Fano effect may be used as an effective means to generate spin polarization of transmitted carriers and that electrical detection of the resulting polarization should be possible. The Rashba spin-orbit interaction arises from a structure inversion asymmetry resulting from the asymmetry of the in-plane confining potential in semiconductor heterostructures. This effect causes a spin splitting proportional to k. In general, the condition for the Fano effect is the presence of two scattering channels at least: the discrete level and continuum band. The Fano effect in electronic transport through a single-electron transistor allows to alter the interference between the two paths by changing the voltages on various gates. Kobayashi et al. reported the first tunable Fano experiment in which a well-defined Fano system is realized in an Aharonov-Bohm ring with a QD embedded in one of its arms. Recently, Fano-type resonances due to the interaction of electron states with opposite spin orientation have been studied. Here we investigate the thermoelectric properties of electronic Rashba quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The aim of our study is to probe the role of Fano-Rashba effect in thermoelectric effects

  4. Greywater reuse for irrigation: effect on soil properties.

    Travis, Micheal J; Wiel-Shafran, Alit; Weisbrod, Noam; Adar, Eilon; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-15

    A controlled study of the effect of greywater (GW) irrigation on soil properties was conducted. Containers of sand, loam and loess soils were planted with lettuce, and irrigated with fresh water, raw artificial GW or treated artificial GW. Greywater was treated using a recirculating vertical-flow constructed wetland. Soil samples were collected every 10 days for the 40-day duration of the study, and plant growth was measured. Soils were analysed for physicochemical and biological parameters to determine changes caused by the different treatments. It was demonstrated that raw artificial GW significantly increased the development of hydrophobicity in the sand and loam soils, as determined by water droplet penetration time. No significant changes were observed for the loess soil under all treatments. Observed hydrophobicity was correlated with increased oil and grease and surfactant concentrations in the soil. Zeta (zeta) potential of the soils was measured to determine changes in the soil particle surface properties as a result of GW irrigation. A significant change in zeta-potential (less negative) was observed in the raw artificial GW-irrigated sand, whereas no difference was observed in the loam or loess. Soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW exhibited no increase in hydrophobicity. Fecal coliform bacteria were absent or soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW, but at least 1 order of magnitude higher in raw artificial GW irrigated soils. Only in the last sampling event and only for the loess soil was plant growth significantly higher for fresh water irrigated vs. raw or treated GW irrigated soils. This study demonstrates that treated GW can be effectively irrigated without detrimental effects on soil or plant growth; however, raw GW may significantly change soil properties that can impact the movement of water in soil and the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. PMID:20350744

  5. Effect of Individual Layer Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Al Alloys Laminated Metal Composite Sheets

    Chen, Zejun; Wu, Xia; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Quanzhong; Liu, Qing

    2014-03-01

    For the dissimilar laminated metal composite sheets (LMCS) fabricated by roll bonding technology, the great differences of mechanical properties between the constituent metals lead to the non-uniform deformation and individual layer necking. The individual layer shape affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of dissimilar LMCS. The Al/Al alloy (1100/7075) LMCS with the same thickness and ratio of dissimilar metals, but different individual layer shapes, have been successfully fabricated by hot accumulative roll bonding in conjunction with cold rolling technology. Some effective methods (such as sheet crown, warp degree, and slant angle) were presented to quantitatively evaluate the individual layer shape and necking of constituent metals. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 1100/7075 LMCS with different individual layer shapes were investigated. The effects of bonding interface on the mechanical properties were obtained based on the assessment of individual layer shapes and necking. The strength and elongation of LMCS decrease with the increase of variation of individual layer shapes and necking when the number of layers keeps constant. The research results offer some theoretical guides and references for adjusting the control measures of compatibility deformation, optimizing the hot roll bonding technologies, and designing the novel high-performance dissimilar LMCS.

  6. Effect of Sanding on Surface Properties of Medium Density Fiberboard

    Nadir Ayrilmis, Zeki Candan, Turgay Akbulut, Ozgur Balkiz

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of sanding on the surface properties of the medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels made from Rhododendron ponticum L. wood. The MDF panels were sanded with different sizes of the sand paper grit: 60-, 60+80- or 60+80+120-grit. Surface absorption and surface roughness of the MDF panels were determined based on EN 382-1 standard and ISO 4287 by using a fi ne stylus profi lometer, respectively. Sessile water drop technique was used to...

  7. Effect of colchicine on viscoelastic properties of neutrophils.

    Chien, S; Sung, K L

    1984-01-01

    The effect of colchicine (15-60 micrograms/ml) on the viscoelastic properties of human neutrophils was studied by the micropipette technique. The small deformation of the neutrophil in response to a step aspiration pressure was analyzed by using a three-element model in which an elastic element, K1, is in parallel with a Maxwell element composed of another elastic element, K2, in series with a viscous element, mu. Colchicine treatment of neutrophils caused decreases in K2 and mu without affec...

  8. Effect of deformation diagram on molybdenum structure and properties

    Effect of deformation diagram on a tendency to lamination and mechanical properties of disks made of molybdenum alloy is studied. Investigated samples were subjected to hot rolling or forging. X-ray structural analysis of texture is carried out along with estimation of the level of mechanical properties across item cross section. Sample mechanical bending tests were conducted. Sample microstructure is also studied. It is shown that rolled molybdenum has a tendency to lamination, but forged molybdenum is free of such a tendency. Forged sample ductility is practically equal in all directionse but rolled sample ductility in a surface layer is high and decreases with depth. A conclusion is drawn that forged sample grains in a setting surface are equiaxial, but distinct deformation texture is observed for rolled samples and their grains are elongated in the direction of rolling. A conclusion is made that a flow diagram of the process of disk fabrication by forging or stamping ppovides a necessary complex of physicomechanical properties of metal as compared to polling, and metal discharge coefficient decreases sharply in this case

  9. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil physical properties and dispersion

    Khelifa, A.; Fingas, M.; Hollebone, B.P.; Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Pjontek, D. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and field testing have shown that the dispersion of oil spilled in water is influenced by chemical dispersants via the modification of the interfacial properties of the oil, such as oil-brine interfacial tension (IFT). This study focused on new laboratory experiments that measured the effects on the physical properties and dispersion of oil, with particular reference to the effects of chemical dispersants on IFT and oil viscosity and the subsequent effects on oil droplet formation. Experiments were conducted at 15 degrees C using Arabian Medium, Alaska North Slope and South Louisiana crude and Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 chemical dispersants. The dispersants were denser than the 3 oils. The effect of IFT reduction on oil dispersion was measured and showed substantial reduction in the size and enhancement of the concentration of oil droplets in the water column. It was shown that the brine-oil IFT associated with the 3 crudes reduced to less than 3.6 mN/m with the application of the chemical dispersants, even at a low dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR) value of 1:200. The use of chemical dispersants increased the viscosity of the dispersant-oil mixture up to 40 per cent over the neat crude oil. It was shown that for each mixing condition, an optimum value of DOR exists that provides for maximal dispersant effectiveness. The IFT reaches maximum reduction at optimum DOR. It was suggested that oil spill modelling can be improved with further study of IFT reduction with DOR and variations of critical micelle concentration with the type and solubility of chemical dispersant, oil type and oil to water ratio. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Fatigue effect of elastocaloric properties in natural rubber.

    Sebald, Gael; Xie, Zhongjian; Guyomar, Daniel

    2016-08-13

    In the framework of elastocaloric (eC) refrigeration, the fatigue effect on the eC effect of natural rubber (NR) is investigated. Repetitive deformation cycles at engineering strain regime from 1 to 6 results in a rapid rupture (approx. 800 cycles). Degradation of properties and fatigue life are then investigated at three different strain regimes with the same strain amplitude: before onset strain of strain-induced crystallization (SIC) (strain regime of 0-3), onset strain of melting (strain regime of 2-5) and high strain of SIC (strain regime of 4-7). Strain of 0-3 leads to a low eC effect and cracking after 2000 cycles. Strain of 2-5 and 4-7 results in an excellent crack growth resistance and much higher eC effect with adiabatic temperature changes of 3.5 K and 4.2 K, respectively, thanks to the effect of SIC. The eC stress coefficient index γ (ratio between eC temperature change and applied stress) for strains of 2-5 and 4-7 are γ2-5=4.4 K MPa(-1) and γ4-7=1.6 K MPa(-1), respectively, demonstrating the advantage of the strain regime 2-5. Finally, a high-cycle test up to 1.7×10(5) cycles is successfully applied to the NR sample with very little degradation of eC properties, constituting an important step towards cooling applications.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402933

  11. Thermal properties of soils: effect of biochar application

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) have a significant effect on the soil surface energy partitioning and resulting in the temperature distribution. Thermal properties of soil depend on water content, bulk density and organic matter content. An important source of organic matter is biochar. Biochar as a material is defined as: "charcoal for application as a soil conditioner". Biochar is generally associated with co-produced end products of pyrolysis. Many different materials are used as biomass feedstock for biochar, including wood, crop residues and manures. Additional predictions were done for terra preta soil (also known as "Amazonian dark earth"), high in charcoal content, due to adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure for thousands of years i.e. approximately 10-1,000 times longer than residence times of most soil organic matter. The effect of biochar obtained from the wood biomass and other organic amendments (peat, compost) on soil thermal properties is presented in this paper. The results were compared with wetland soils of different organic matter content. The measurements of the thermal properties at various water contents were performed after incubation, under laboratory conditions using KD2Pro, Decagon Devices. The measured data were compared with predictions made using Usowicz statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2006) for biochar, mineral soil and soil with addition of biochar at various water contents and bulk densities. The model operates statistically by probability of occurrence of contacts between particular fractional compounds. It combines physical properties, specific to particular compounds, into one apparent conductance specific to the mixture. The results revealed that addition of the biochar and other organic amendments into the soil caused considerable reduction of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The mineral soil showed the highest thermal conductivity and diffusivity

  12. A review on in situ stiffness adjustment methods in MEMS

    de Laat, M. L. C.; Pérez Garza, H. H.; Herder, J. L.; Ghatkesar, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    In situ stiffness adjustment in microelectromechanical systems is used in a variety of applications such as radio-frequency mechanical filters, energy harvesters, atomic force microscopy, vibration detection sensors. In this review we provide designers with an overview of existing stiffness adjustment methods, their working principle, and possible adjustment range. The concepts are categorized according to their physical working principle. It is concluded that the electrostatic adjustment principle is the most applied method, and narrow to wide ranges in stiffness can be achieved. But in order to obtain a wide range in stiffness change, large, complex devices were designed. Mechanical stiffness adjustment is found to be a space-effective way of obtaining wide changes in stiffness, but these methods are often discrete and require large tuning voltages. Stiffness adjustment through stressing effects or change in Young’s modulus was used only for narrow ranges. The change in second moment of inertia was used for stiffness adjustment in the intermediate range.

  13. Contribution to the study on the flow rate adjustment for gas cooled power reactors (1964)

    1. This original study firstly defines the problem of the adjustment of the coolant flow rate in a reactor channel as a function of the corresponding heat transfer equations and of the local and temporal neutron flux. The necessity of such an adjustment is pointed out and the modifying parameters are studied. An adjustment study using the envelope of the possible flux curves is developed. A short study on the technology and the economical advantage of this adjustment is presented. Some measurements, made on G-1 and G-2, show the precision one can obtain from adjustment apparatus itself as well as from the complete reactor adjustment system. 2. Evolution of nuclear properties of fuel in an heterogeneous thermal reactor. In the first port of this paper, the phenomena of fuel evolution have been mainly pointed out. Now a bibliographical study more qualitatively than quantitatively has been done. This survey specifies the present theories and relates to a real effective cross section and also yields to the bases of such a nuclear calculation. (author)

  14. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  15. On the Damodaran Estimator of Price Adjustment Coefficients

    Säfvenblad, Patrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of the Damodaran (Journal of Finance, 1993) estimator of price adjustment. It is concluded that strong bias and low precision of the Damodaran estimator renders it useless for empirical work, even when the available sample size is very large. As an alternative, a GMM-based estimator is derived. Its properties are significantly better than those of the Damodaran estimator. However, for empirical applications it is still preferable to estimate price adjust...

  16. The Effect of Visual Display Properties and Gain Presentation Mode on the Perceived Naturalness of Virtual Walking Speeds

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Individuals tend to find realistic walking speeds too slow when relying on treadmill walking or Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques for virtual travel. This paper details three studies investigating the effects of visual display properties and gain presentation mode on the perceived naturalness of...... virtual walking speeds: The first study compared three different degrees of peripheral occlusion; the second study compared three different degrees of perceptual distortion produced by varying the geometric field of view (GFOV); and the third study compared three different ways of presenting visual gains...... the visual speed. The third study found a significant main effect of gain presentation mode. Allowing participants to interactively adjust the gain led to a smaller range of perceptually natural gains and this approach was significantly faster. However, the efficiency may come at the expense of...

  17. Effect of diet on mechanical properties of horse's hair.

    Kania, Małgorzata; Mikołajewska, Dorota; Marycz, Krzysztof; Kobielarz, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the effect of diet supplementation with zinc and copper, in different chemical forms (organic and inorganic), on the mechanical properties of the hair of healthy English thoroughbred horses. Hairs were taken from 18 horses which had been fed with oats and hay for a period of 110 days. Twelve of the horses had been additionally given a daily dose of 700 g of highquality 44-ingredients Fohlengold St-Hippolyt muesli made by Muhle Ebert Dilheim. Six of them had received the muesli-containing organic zinc and copper (OS), while the other six horses had received the muesli-containing inorganic zinc and copper (IS). The mechanical properties of the hairs before and after the supplementation period were tested in a Synergie 100 (MTS) testing machine. Each of the hairs was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min until rupture. Young modulus (E), breaking stress (Ru) and yield point (Rs) of the particular hairs were determined. No significant changes in the mechanical parameters were observed in the reference group in which the horses were fed with only oats and hay for the whole experimental period of 110 days. The supplementation of the diet with inorganic zinc and copper resulted in an increase in the elasticity and diameter of the hairs and in a simultaneous reduction in their strength. Whereas organic zinc and copper caused an increase in the elasticity and strength of the hairs and a simultaneous reduction in their diameter. It has been shown that the organic form of the supplemented trace zinc and copper (mainly copper) elements has a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the hairs since it results in an increase in both their elasticity and strength. PMID:20131751

  18. Effect of Ground Waste Concrete Powder on Cement Properties

    Xianwei Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paste/mortar attached to the recycled aggregate decreases the quality of the aggregate and needs to be stripped. The stripped paste/mortar is roughly 20% to 50% in waste concrete, but relevant research is very limited. In this paper, the effects of ground waste concrete (GWC powder, coming from the attached paste/mortar, on water demand for normal consistency, setting time, fluidity, and compressive strength of cement were analyzed. The results show that the 20% of GWC powder (by the mass of binder has little effect on the above properties and can prepare C20 concrete; when the sand made by waste red clay brick (WRB replaces 20% of river sand, the strength of the concrete is increased by 17% compared with that without WRB sand.

  19. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  20. Effect of polybutenes on mechanical and physical properties of polypropylene

    This study investigated the effect of polybutene (PIB) of molecular weights ranging from 480 the 1.600 g/mol in polypropylene homopolymer. Compositions with 0, 3, 5 and 7% of PIB were prepared in internal mixer and compression moulded. The properties evaluated were: tensile strength, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and melt flow index (IF). The results of mechanical tests showed that the presence of the plasticizer reduced the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness. The analysis of XRD showed a drop in the degree of crystallinity of PP/PIB blends. The micrographs obtained by SEM did not reveal the occurrence of the phase separation. The IF analysis confirm the effect of PIB as internal lubricant's, by increasing the rate of flow. (author)

  1. Effect of Superfine Slag Powder on HPC Properties

    2003-01-01

    A superfine slag powder (SP) made from granulated blast furnace slag incorporating activators by using special millingtechnique, was used as supplementary cementitious material in high performance concrete (HPC), replacing part ofthe mass of normal Portland cement. The effects of the SP on the workability, mechanical and crack self-healingproperties of HPC were studied. The hydration process and microstructure characteristics were investigated by X-raydiffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crack self-healing capacitywas evaluated by Brazilian test. The test results indicate that the SP has especially supplementary effect on waterreducing and excellent property of better control of slump loss. The concrete flowability increases remarkably withthe increase of SP replacement level in the range of 20% to 50%. The compressive and splitting tensile strengthsof HPC containing SP are higher than the corresponding strength of the control concrete at all ages. The crackself-healing ability is highly dependent on SP content of HPC.

  2. Effect of surfactants on capacitance properties of carbon electrodes

    Effect of surfactants present in alkaline solutions on the capacitance of carbon electrodes has been studied. Different types of surfactants, i.e., sodium and lithium dodecyl sulphate as anionic surfactants, tetrapropylammonium bromide and iodide as cationic surfactants and polymer of polyethylene glycol and p-t-octylophenol (commercially called Triton® X-100) as non-ionic one have been selected for this target. Concentration of these electrolyte additives was 0.005 mol L−1. Decreasing the surface tension in the electrode/electrolyte interface allows better penetration of electrolyte into the pores. However, surfactants played a different role depending on the electrode polarity. Detailed analysis of capacitance versus current load, frequency dependence as well as self-discharge, cyclability and behaviour in wider voltage range proved especially a profitable effect of Triton® X-100 on capacitor operating in alkaline solution. Influence of surfactant concentration on capacitance properties was also investigated.

  3. Multiple inoculations of ductile iron and the effects on properties

    Adebayo Badmos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple inoculation of ductile iron and the effects on the structure and mechanical properties have being investigated. Samples of ductile iron were produced with inoculation carried out either once or twice and with different materials as inoculants. Ferrosilicon was used for the primary inoculation and either ferrosilicon or nickel-ferrosilicon for the secondary inoculation. It is observed that the nodules produced are more and finer with multiple inoculations and the effect is more pronounced with nickel-ferrosilicon as the secondary inoculant. Multiple inoculations produce an increase in the hardness of ductile iron when ferrosilicon is used as the secondary inoculant while a decrease in the hardness is observed with nickel-ferrosilicon despite the finer nodules. This is explained by the fact that nickel enhances graphitization in cast iron thereby depleting carbon in the matrix and making the cast iron weaker but with more nodules.

  4. Effect of Drug modification on properties of Ketoprofen Transdermal Gel

    Samy Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop Ketoprofen (KPF gel for tansdermal delivery that could enhance dissolution and permeability of KPFand to study the change in release and permeation of transdermal gel after formulating KPF as niosomes and solid dispersions. KPF gels were prepared using Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC and methyl cellulose (MC with and without permeation enhancers (Tween 80 and Oleic acid. The effect of the polymers and permeation enhancers on the in vitro release and permeation was tested. The best formula was formulated as niosomal and solid dispersion gels. The effect of drug modification on the properties of KPF gel was examined. The results showed that both polymers and permeation enhancers affect release and permeation of KPF transdermal gel. The release and permeation from the niosomal gel were highly prolonged when compared to conventional gel .On the other hand, they were enhanced from the solid dispersion gel.

  5. Effect of Moisture on Powder Flow Properties of Theophylline

    Niklas Sandler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Powder flow is influenced by environmental factors, such as moisture and static electricity, as well as powder related factors, such as morphology, size, size distribution, density, and surface area. Pharmaceutical solids may be exposed to water during storage in an atmosphere containing water vapor, or in a dosage form consisting of materials (e.g., excipients that contain water and are capable of transferring in to other ingredients. The effect of moisture on powder flowability depends on the amount of water and its distribution. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of humidity on the flow properties of theophylline using information derived from solid-state analysis of the systems investigated.

  6. Radiation effect on the structure and properties of pyrolytic graphite

    The variation of structural chapacteristics (elementary cell parameters, sizes of coherent scattering regions (CSR), texture index) and physical properties (strength, elasticity modulus, microhardness, coefficient of thermal, expansion (CTE), dimensional stability of pyrolytic graphite (PG) in the course of neutron irradiation effect has been studied. It is shown that the increase of pyrolytic graphite samples by thickness (perpendicularly to deposition plane) in the beginning of irradiation is connected with the cpystal lattice expansion along the c axis is shown. This effect is decreased with the ipradiation temperatupe growth. Upon attaining a certain ''threshold'' fluence value the samples growth by thickness grows abruptly. With irradiation temperature increase the process rate grows+ and its start shifts to minor fluences. In the region of high velocity of form-variation the growth of the elasticity modulus and compression strength drops with the increase of sample thickness

  7. Geometry effect on the magnetic properties of manganese zinc ferrite

    Landgraf, F.J.G.; Lazaro-Colan, V. [Polytechnic School - EPUSP, Av.Prof. Luciano Gualberto 380, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Leicht, J. [Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo, Almeida Prado 532, Sao Paulo 05508-901 (Brazil)], E-mail: leichtj@ipt.br; Janasi, S.R. [Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo, Almeida Prado 532, Sao Paulo 05508-901 (Brazil); Lopes, M.F. [IMAG Industria e Comercio de Componentes Eletronicos Ltda, Embaixador 74, Ribeirao Pires 09410-650 (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    The geometry effect on the bulk magnetic properties of MnZn ferrite toroidal cores produced by the ceramic method was investigated. The MnZn ferrite powder was pressed at two different toroidal sizes and sintered, under controlled atmosphere at different temperatures. The MnZn ferrites cores were characterized according to their magnetic losses, electrical resistivity, initial permeability and Curie temperature. The total loss (200 mT, 100 kHz) in the small cores S (aspect ratio (AR)=2.84) is lower compared with the total loss in the large cores L (AR=0.79). These results show an agreement with the geometry effect observed on electrical steels.

  8. Effects of alkali ions on thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped gallogermanate glasses

    Since information transportation capacity of optical communication network increases rapidly, new optical materials are always demanded with gain bandwidth desirably much broader than traditional erbium-doped silica fiber amplifier (EDFA). We show here in this paper the erbium-doped gallogermanate glasses with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) more than 50 nm. Incorporation of alkali ions such as Li+, Na+, K+ into the system can on the one hand improve the thermal stability of the glasses, and on the other hand enhance the emission at 1.5 μm due to the 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of Er3+ and suppress the upconversion process at the same time. This particularly works best for the case of K+ inclusion. This work might give a general idea on controlling the Er3+ luminescence by simply adjusting the glass component and find a potential laser glass applicable to developing new broadband fiber amplifier. -- Research highlights: → We report on spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped Ga2O3-GeO2-R2O (GGR, R=Li, Na and K) glasses for 1.53 μm fiber amplifier. Effects of alkali metal ions on the thermal stability and spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped GGR glasses have been investigated. → Incorporation of alkali ions such as Li+, Na+, K+ into the system can on the one hand improve the thermal stability of the glasses, and on the other hand enhance the emission at 1.5 μm due to the 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of Er3+ and suppress the upconversion process at the same time. This particularly works best for the case of K+ inclusion. This work might give a general idea on controlling the Er3+ luminescence by simply adjusting the glass component and find a potential laser glass applicable to developing new broadband fiber amplifier.

  9. Effects of biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties

    Gascó, Gabriel; Cely, Paola; María Tarquis, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Méndez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid obtained by the thermal decomposition of organic matter under a limited supply of oxygen and at relatively low temperatures. Biochar can be prepared from the pyrolysis of different organic feedstocks, such as wood and biomass crops, agricultural by-products, different types of waste or paper industry waste materials . The pyrolysis procedure of waste, i.e. sewage sludge, has mainly two advantages, firstly, it removes pathogens from waste and, secondly, biochar can reduce the leaching of heavy metals present in raw sewage sludge. This trend of the use of waste material as feedstocks to the preparation of biochar is increasing in the last years due to industrial development and economic growth imply an increase in waste generation. The application of biochar may have positive effects on soil physical properties as water holding capacity and structure or on soil biological activity and soil quality. Also, biochar can be used to remove water pollutants and can be used in multiple ways in soil remediation due to its adsorption of pesticides or metals. Also, biochar contribute to carbon sequestration due to carbon stability of biochar materials. The objective of this presentation is to review the positive effects of the biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties.

  10. Deformation properties with a finite-range simple effective interaction

    Behera, B.; Viñas, X.; Routray, T. R.; Robledo, L. M.; Centelles, M.; Pattnaik, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    Deformed and spherical even-even nuclei are studied using a finite-range simple effective interaction within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field approach. Different parameter sets of the interaction, corresponding to different incompressibility, are constructed by varying the exponent γ of the density in the traditional density-dependent term. Ten of the 12 parameters of these interactions are determined from properties of asymmetric nuclear matter and spin-polarized pure neutron matter. The two remaining parameters are fitted to reproduce the experimental binding energies known in 620 even-even nuclei using several variants of the rotational energy correction. The rms deviations for the binding energy depend on the value of γ and the way the rotational energy correction is treated but they can be as low as 1.56 MeV, a value competitive with other renowned effective interactions of Skyrme and Gogny type. Charge radii are compared to the experimental values of 313 even-even nuclei and the rms deviation is again comparable and even superior to the one of popular Skyrme and Gogny forces. Emphasis is given to the deformation properties predicted with these interactions by analyzing the potential energy surfaces for several well deformed nuclei and the fission barriers of some nuclei. Comparison of the results with the experimental information, where available, as well as with the results of the Gogny D1S force, shows satisfactory agreement.

  11. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60's as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with γ rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx ∼ 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs ∼ 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex's molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of tyre cords

    Gamma irradiation of high tenacity Nylon 6.6 (Ny 66) and polyester (PET) tyre cords was investigated. The untreated and treated tyre cords with different twist levels were irradiated at different dose rates in air. The effects of irradiation on both Ny 66 and PET cords were not found to be depending on the twist levels of the cords. The changes in the mechanical and thermal properties with absorbed dose at two different dose rates were measured. The mechanical properties were observed to deteriorate with increasing dose for Ny 66 cords, whereas remained almost unchanged for PET cords both in greige and dipped forms. Hot shrinkage value for the greige Ny 66 cords was found to be improved, i.e. decreased. This decrease was much lower for greige PET than Ny 66 cords. It is concluded that PET cord has higher radiation resistance than Ny 66 cord and the effects of high energy irradiation on tyre cords have to be taken into consideration during tyre design if pre-vulcanization with high energy radiation is to be applied

  13. Structural properties and neutron irradiation effects of ceramics

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors and nuclear fusion reactors being developed at present, various ceramics are to be used in the environment of neutron irradiation for undertaking important functions. The change of the characteristics of those materials by neutron irradiation must be exactly forecast, but it has been known that the response of the materials is different respectively. The production method of ceramics and the resulted structures of ceramics which control their characteristics are explained. The features of covalent bond and ionic bond, the synthesis of powder and the phase change by heating, sintering and sintering agent, and grain boundary phase are described. The smelling of ceramics by neutron irradiation is caused by the formation of the clusters of Frenkel defects and minute spot defects. Its restoration by annealing is explained. The defects remaining in materials after irradiation are the physical defects by flipping atoms cut due to the collision with high energy particles and the chemical defects by nuclear transformation. Some physical defects can be restored, but chemical defects are never restored. The mechanical properties of ceramics and the effect of irradiation on them, and the thermal properties of ceramics and the effect of irradiation on them are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Extinction properties of metallic nanowires: Quantum diffraction and retardation effects

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-09

    The standard Mie theory for the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by a metal cylinder that is irradiated by a normally incident plane wave is extended to the case of a metallic nanowire, where two quantum longitudinal waves are excited. The modification of the Mie theory due to quantum diffraction effects is included by employing the quantum hydrodynamic approximation and applying the appropriate quantum additional boundary conditions. The extinction properties of the system and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. Also, as an example the validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed. - Highlights: • Extinction properties of metallic nanowires in the presence of quantum diffraction and retardation effects are studied. • The differences of new results with previous findings based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. • The validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed.

  15. Properties of modified dry masonry mixtures for effective masonry units

    Semenov, V.; Rozovskaya, T.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of the development of dry light-weight mixtures with hollow ceramics microspheres (CMS) for masonry works. For the one-layer fencing structures including effective masonry units, the use of "warm" masonry mortars is necessary. The used light-weight masonry mortars do not provide the brand strength and thermal uniformity of the fencing structures because of high average density. The CMS are effective light-weight aggregate for such mortars. The influence of the dosage of CMS on the physics- and-mechanics parameters and the technological properties of the masonry mortars has been studied. The optimal mixture compositions have been obtained and their main properties have been determined. The influence of an air-entraining admixture and redispersible polymer powders on the average density and physics-and-mechanics parameters of the masonry mortars have been studied. The optimal compositions of light-weight dry masonry mixtures with CMS have been suggested. It has been established that the mortars, obtained from such mixtures, have the requisite average density, the water retention capacity more than 95 %, high homogeneity and high strength characteristics. The application of the proposed mixtures enables to reduce the construction material costs and to improve the energy efficiency of the fencing structures.

  16. Hydrogen Effect on Nanomechanical Properties of the Nitrided Steel

    Barnoush, Afrooz; Asgari, Masoud; Johnsen, Roy; Hoel, Rune

    2013-02-01

    In situ electrochemical nanoindentation is used to examine the effect of electrochemically charged hydrogen on mechanical properties of the nitride layer on low-alloy 2.25Cr-1Mo martensitic structural steel. By application of this method, we were able to trace the changes in the mechanical properties due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen to different depths within the compound and diffusion layers. The results clearly show that the hydrogen charging of the nitriding layer can soften the layer and reduce the hardness within both the compound and the diffusion layers. The effect is completely reversible and by removal of the hydrogen, the hardness recovers to its original value. The reduction in hardness of the nitride layer does not correlate to the nitrogen concentration, but it seems to be influenced by the microstructure and residual stress within the compound and diffusion layers. Findings show that nitriding can be a promising way to control the hydrogen embrittlement of the tempered martensitic steels.

  17. 5 CFR 9701.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    2010-01-01

    ... other relevant factors. (b) DHS may, after coordination with OPM, determine the effective date of newly set or adjusted band rate ranges. Unless DHS determines that a different effective date is needed for operational reasons, these adjustments will become effective on or about the date of the annual...

  18. The effect of magnetic layer thickness on magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires

    Almasi-Kashi, M., E-mail: almac@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazani, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kheyri, F.; Jafari-Khamse, E. [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires were ac-pulse electrodeposited into the anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization technique. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the distinct layers with a relatively high contrast. A highly pure layer (∼99%) was achieved by tuning the proper ions ratio and optimizing the off-time between pulses of each layer in the single electrodeposition bath. Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires with 38 nm diameter were obtained. The effect of reducing the Fe layer thickness on the magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires was investigated. It was seen that reducing the Fe layer thickness, thereby variation of rode- to disc-like multilayer nanowires, caused to rotate the magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular to the wires axis. - Highlights: • Changing off-time and ac voltage enables control in segments of multilayer nanowire. • As TEM images show thickness of alternative layers was adjustable by pulse numbers. • A new technique was introduced to grow compositionally-modulated multilayer nanowire. • Two distinct Fe and Cu diffraction peaks indicates formation of two distinct phases. • Identical coercivity in IP and OOP configurations ascribed vanishing shape anisotropy.

  19. The effect of magnetic layer thickness on magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires

    Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires were ac-pulse electrodeposited into the anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization technique. Transmission electron microscopy images showed the distinct layers with a relatively high contrast. A highly pure layer (∼99%) was achieved by tuning the proper ions ratio and optimizing the off-time between pulses of each layer in the single electrodeposition bath. Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires with 38 nm diameter were obtained. The effect of reducing the Fe layer thickness on the magnetic properties of Fe/Cu multilayer nanowires was investigated. It was seen that reducing the Fe layer thickness, thereby variation of rode- to disc-like multilayer nanowires, caused to rotate the magnetic easy axis from parallel to perpendicular to the wires axis. - Highlights: • Changing off-time and ac voltage enables control in segments of multilayer nanowire. • As TEM images show thickness of alternative layers was adjustable by pulse numbers. • A new technique was introduced to grow compositionally-modulated multilayer nanowire. • Two distinct Fe and Cu diffraction peaks indicates formation of two distinct phases. • Identical coercivity in IP and OOP configurations ascribed vanishing shape anisotropy

  20. 75 FR 30060 - China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation Policies on the U...

    2010-05-28

    ... COMMISSION China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation Policies on the U.S... investigation No. 332-519, China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation...: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for Measuring the Effects...

  1. Metric-adjusted skew information

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a...... bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 < p = 2 of the WYD-information is a special case of...... (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  2. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  3. Climatology of stratocumulus cloud morphologies: microphysical properties and radiative effects

    A. Muhlbauer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An artificial neural network cloud classification scheme is combined with A-Train observations to characterize the physical properties and radiative effects of marine low clouds based on their morphology and type of mesoscale cellular convection (MCC on a global scale. The cloud morphological categories are (i organized closed MCC, (ii organized open MCC and (iii cellular but disorganized MCC. Global distributions of the frequency of occurrence of MCC types show clear regional signatures. Organized closed and open MCCs are most frequently found in subtropical regions and in mid-latitude storm tracks of both hemispheres. Cellular but disorganized MCC are the predominant type of marine low clouds in regions with warmer sea surface temperature such as in the tropics and trade wind zones. All MCC types exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle. The physical properties of MCCs such as cloud fraction, radar reflectivity, drizzle rates and cloud top heights as well as the radiative effects of MCCs are found highly variable and a function of the type of MCC. On a global scale, the cloud fraction is largest for closed MCC with mean cloud fractions of about 90% whereas cloud fractions of open and cellular but disorganized MCC are only about 51% and 40%, respectively. Probability density functions (PDFs of cloud fractions are heavily skewed and exhibit modest regional variability. PDFs of column maximum radar reflectivities and inferred cloud base drizzle rates indicate fundamental differences in the cloud and precipitation characteristics of different MCC types. Similarly, the radiative effects of MCCs differ substantially from each other in terms of shortwave reflectance and transmissivity. These differences highlight the importance of low cloud morphologies and their associated cloudiness on the shortwave cloud forcing.

  4. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents) explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density) under different land...

  5. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance. PMID:27101840

  6. Effects of electron radiation on properties of PLA

    R. Malinowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper was to examine the effects of electron radiation on physicochemical properties of pristine poly(lactic acid (PLA, or polylactide, and of polylactide containing a selected crosslinking agent.Design/methodology/approach: Samples to be examined were prepared in granulated forms or as moulded pieces and then treated with the high-energy electron radiation (ca. 10 MeV. The methods of gel permeation chromatography (GPC, rheology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA were used to determine physicochemical properties of the samples. A humidity sensor was utilised to determine water vapour permeability.Findings: It has been found that PLA undergoes degradation upon the electron radiation. Triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC when introduced into polylactide causes plasticization of this polymer whereas irradiation of polylactide containing TAIC leads to crosslinking of PLA. Crosslinked PLA exhibits limited plastic flow or no flow at all and an elevated glass transition temperature. Water vapour permeability of a film made of PLA modified this way is much less than that of a film produced from original PLA.Research limitations/implications: Further studies of crosslinked PLA are advisable, especially assessment of the gelation degree, strength of the plasticized material, and biodegradation.Practical implications: Crosslinked PLA may be applied in practical processes, especially in thermoforming in which increased resistance of a material against deformation at elevated temperatures is required.Originality/value: Substantial influence of the electron radiation on properties of PLA was established. The material undergoes significant degradation upon even relatively small radiation doses. In order to crosslink PLA, TAIC in the amount of ca. 3 wt% and the electron radiation doses of up to ca. 60 kGy have to be applied.

  7. The Effect of Cold Work on Properties of Alloy 617

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    Alloy 617 is approved for non-nuclear construction in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and Section VIII, but is not currently qualified for nuclear use in ASME Code Section III. A draft Code Case was submitted in 1992 to qualify the alloy for nuclear service but efforts were stopped before the approval process was completed.1 Renewed interest in high temperature nuclear reactors has resulted in a new effort to qualify Alloy 617 for use in nuclear pressure vessels. The mechanical and physical properties of Alloy 617 were extensively characterized for the VHTR programs in the 1980’s and incorporated into the 1992 draft Code Case. Recently, the properties of modern heats of the alloy that incorporate an additional processing step, electro-slag re-melting, have been characterized both to confirm that the properties of contemporary material are consistent with those in the historical record and to increase the available database. A number of potential issues that were identified as requiring further consideration prior to the withdrawal of the 1992 Code Case are also being re-examined in the current R&D program. Code Cases are again being developed to allow use of Alloy 617 for nuclear design within the rules of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In general the Code defines two temperature ranges for nuclear design with austenitic and nickel based alloys. Below 427°C (800°F) time dependent behavior is not considered, while above this temperature creep and creep-fatigue are considered to be the dominant life-limiting deformation modes. There is a corresponding differentiation in the treatment of the potential for effects associated with cold work. Below 427°C the principal issue is the relationship between the level of cold work and the propensity for stress corrosion cracking and above that temperature the primary concern is the impact of cold work on creep-rupture behavior.

  8. Hydride effect on the tensile properties of HANA-4 alloy

    KAERI has developed some Zr-based new alloys, called HANA alloys, for high burn-up fuel cladding material. The sample specimens of HANA cladding tube material showed good performance in corrosion and creep properties at the irradiation test in Halden test reactor up to 10GW/MtU as well as the un-irradiation tests. Zirconium alloys has been used as nuclear fuel cladding material because they have satisfactory mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. It was reported that zirconium alloys responded abnormally in mechanical behavior over a certain temperature and strain rates. For example, the embrittlement of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-1.5Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr) alloy can be increased over 227 ∼ 427 .deg. C due to dynamic strain aging(DSA). The change of mechanical properties of HANA-4(Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr) alloy from DSA was already studied from room temperature to 500 .deg. C when its specimens had been tested with the strain rate of 1.67x10-2/s and 8.33x10-5/s. When a zirconium alloy is used in a nuclear reactor, hydrides form in it from not only external hydrogen sources such as waterside corrosion, dissolved hydrogen in coolant, water radiolysis but also internal sources such as hydrogen content in fuel pellets and moisture absorbed by the uranium dioxide fuel pellet. Hydrogen embrittlement of zirconium alloys has been extensively studied because hydrides may act as a sudden failure at very low strain. For low and medium hydrogen content, the hydrides crack during tensile loading and accelerate the ductile fracture process. To study the effect of hydride on the mechanical properties of HANA-4 cladding tube which had been finally heat-treated at 470 .deg. C, this research was done with tensile tests as an extension of the prior study

  9. Reduction of Acute Inflammatory Effects of Fumed Silica Nanoparticles in the Lung by Adjusting Silanol Display through Calcination and Metal Doping.

    Sun, Bingbing; Pokhrel, Suman; Dunphy, Darren R; Zhang, Haiyuan; Ji, Zhaoxia; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dong, Juyao; Li, Ruibin; Mädler, Lutz; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2015-09-22

    The production of pyrogenic (fumed) silica is increasing worldwide at a 7% annual growth rate, including expanded use in food, pharmaceuticals, and other industrial products. Synthetic amorphous silica, including fumed silica, has been generally recognized as safe for use in food products by the Food and Drug Administration. However, emerging evidence from experimental studies now suggests that fumed silica could be hazardous due to its siloxane ring structure, high silanol density, and "string-of-pearl-like" aggregate structure, which could combine to cause membrane disruption, generation of reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory effects, and liver fibrosis. Based on this structure-activity analysis (SAA), we investigated whether calcination and rehydration of fumed silica changes its hazard potential in the lung due to an effect on silanol density display. This analysis demonstrated that the accompanying change in surface reactivity could indeed impact cytokine production in macrophages and acute inflammation in the lung, in a manner that is dependent on siloxane ring reconstruction. Confirmation of this SAA in vivo, prompted us to consider safer design of fumed silica properties by titanium and aluminum doping (0-7%), using flame spray pyrolysis. Detailed characterization revealed that increased Ti and Al doping could reduce surface silanol density and expression of three-membered siloxane rings, leading to dose-dependent reduction in hydroxyl radical generation, membrane perturbation, potassium efflux, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells. The reduction of NLRP3 inflammasome activation was also confirmed in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Ti doping, and to a lesser extent Al doping, also ameliorated acute pulmonary inflammation, demonstrating the possibility of a safer design approach for fumed silica, should that be required for specific use circumstances. PMID:26200133

  10. The multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution and its application in forensic genetics to adjust for subpopulation effects using the θ-correction

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the construction of a multivariate generalisation of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. An example from forensic genetics in the statistical analysis of DNA mixtures motivates the study of this multivariate extension. In forensic genetics, adjustment of the match......-correction can be incorporated in Bayesian networks to make efficient computations by modifying the Markov structure of Cowell et al. (2015). By numerical examples, we show how the θ-correction incorporated in the multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution affects the weight of evidence....

  11. Analysis of the Effect on Elevator Running by Adjusting the Car Weight%浅析轿厢自重对电梯运行的影响

    詹沛枝; 陈淦波

    2013-01-01

    The influence on the main safety components selection and elevator running by adjusting the car weight was analyzed,and the hidden danger of the changing car weight was summarized. At last,some recommendations about the car weight were concluded.%分析了轿厢自重对电梯各主要安全部件的选型和整机运行的影响,总结了轿厢自重的改变可能导致的安全隐患,最后提出关于轿厢自重的一些建议。

  12. THE EFFECT OF TRANSGLUTAMINASE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF YOGURT

    Iuliana Aprodu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological characteristics of yogurts obtained from milk treated with transglutaminase prior to fermentation with Streptococus theromophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. A set of 36 experiments were carried out to test the influence of various enzyme concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.04%, different setting temperatures (35, 40 and 45 oC, and setting time (60, 90 and 120 min. The cross-linking of milk proteins influenced the post-acidification process as well as the stability of the yogurt samples. The enzymatic treatment of milk allowed avoiding the syneresis phenomena during yogurt storage at 4 oC; the water holding capacity during centrifugation was also improved. Concerning the rheological properties, the apparent viscosity of yogurt increased by increasing the enzyme concentration and the setting time for the entire tested domain of shear rates. The results indicate that transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking is an effective tool for improving functional properties of yogurt.

  13. The effects of body properties on sand-swimming

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Koehler, Stephan; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Numerous animals locomote effectively within sand, yet few studies have investigated how body properties and kinematics contribute to subsurface performance. We compare the movement strategies of two desert dwelling subsurface sand-swimmers exhibiting disparate body forms: the long-slender limbless shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis) and the relatively shorter sandfish lizard (S. scincus). Both animals ``swim'' subsurface using a head-to-tail propagating wave of body curvature. We use a previously developed granular resistive force theory to successfully predict locomotion of performance of both animals; the agreement with theory implies that both animal's swim within a self-generated frictional fluid. We use theory to show that the snake's shape (body length to body radius ratio), low friction and undulatory gait are close to optimal for sand-swimming. In contrast, we find that the sandfish's shape and higher friction are farther from optimal and prevent the sandfish from achieving the same performance as the shovel-nosed snake during sand-swimming. However, the sandfish's kinematics allows it to operate at the highest performance possible given its body properties. NSF PoLS

  14. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  15. Effect of fiber types on relevant properties of porous asphalt

    WU Shao-peng; LIU Gang; MO Lian-tong; CHEN Zheng; YE Qun-shan

    2006-01-01

    The research was conducted to evaluate the effects of cellulose and polyester fibers on the properties of porous asphalt mixes,using the tests of draindown,abrasion,volumetric properties,rutting,and moisture damage. Images of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray computerized tomography were adopted to identify the microstructure of the fiber and inner stone skeleton of porous asphalt. The influence of rutting parameter (G*/sinδ) of asphalt modified by different fibers on the rutting resistance of the mixes was investigated. Based upon Mohr-Coulomb theory,the cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the mixes were derived from both indirect tension and unconfined compression strength. The experimental results indicate that fibers mainly stabilize asphalt binder and thicken asphalt film around aggregates. Furthermore,they result in the improved mechanical strength of porous asphalt mixes at high temperature slightly. From comparison analysis,cellulose fibers appear to perform better than polyester fibers in porous asphalt mixes.

  16. Effect of Precuring Warming on Mechanical Properties of Restorative Composites

    Kareem Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of prepolymerization warming on composites' mechanical properties, three composites were evaluated: Clearfil Majesty (CM (Kuraray, Z-100 (3M/ESPE, and Light-Core (LC (Bisco. Specimens were prepared from each composite at room temperature as control and 2 higher temperatures (37∘C and 54∘C to test surface hardness (SH, compressive strength (CS, and diametral tensile strength (DTS. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. Results revealed that prewarming CM and Z100 specimens significantly improved their SH mean values (P<0.05. Prewarming also improved mean CS values of Z100 specimens (P<0.05. Furthermore, DTS mean value of CM prepared at 52∘ was significantly higher than that of room temperature specimens (P<0.05. KHN, CS, and DTS mean values varied significantly among the three composites. In conclusion, Prewarming significantly enhanced surface hardness of 2 composites. Prewarming also improved bulk properties of the composites; however, this improvement was significant in only some of the tested materials.

  17. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS

    Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

    2009-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

  18. Generation-X mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William

    2009-08-01

    Generation-X is being studied as an extremely high resolution, very large area grazing incidence x-ray telescope. Under a NASA Advanced Mission Concepts Study, we have developed a technology plan designed to lead to the 0.1 arcsec (HPD) resolution adjustable optics with 50 square meters of effective area necessary to meet Generation-X requirements. We describe our plan in detail. In addition, we report on our development activities of adjustable grazing incidence optics via the fabrication of bimorph mirrors. We have successfully deposited thin-film piezo-electric material on the back surface of thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors. We also report on initial finite element modeling of adjustable grazing incidence mirrors; in particular, we examine the impact of how the mirrors are supported - the boundary conditions - on the deformations which can be achieved.

  19. Materials for coal gasification effects of environment on properties

    1979-12-01

    Although this testing program is incomplete, it is possible to reach a few tentative conclusions concerning the suitability of some of the candidate alloys for structural applications in coal gasification environments. The high cobalt alloys clearly showed the best stress-rupture strengths at 1800F in CGA. At 1200 and 1500F, several alloys show reasonable stress-rupture strengths in CGA. The tensile test results obtained to date indicate no major problems, although CGA exposures do have a detrimental effect on ductilities for a number of the alloys and weldments tested. The very low room-temperature impact energies of some of the alloys and the general degradation in impact properties with extend elevated-temperature exposures are also causes for concern.

  20. Effect of pressure on the phonon properties of europium chalcogenides

    U K Sakalle; P K Jha; S P Sanyal

    2000-06-01

    Lattice vibrational properties of europium chalcogenides have been investigated at high pressure by using a simple lattice dynamical model theory viz. the three-body force rigid ion model (TRIM) which includes long range three-body interaction arising due to charge transfer effects. The dispersion curves for the four Eu-chalcogenides agree reasonably well with the available experimental data. Variation of LO, TO, LA and TA phonons with pressure have also been studied at the symmetry points of the brillouin zone (BZ) for Euchalcogenides for the first time by using a lattice dynamical model theory. We have also calculated the one phonon density of states and compared them with the first order Raman scattering results. The calculation of one phonon density of states for Eu-chalcogenides has also been extended up to the phase transition pressure. We observed a pronounced shift in phonon spectrum as pressure is increased.

  1. Effect of aging on properties of pressure vessel steels

    Manganese-molybdenum-nickel steels are used in nuclear pressure vessels operating at temperatures up to 3500C. The effects of thermal ageing in the temperature range 300-5500C for durations up to 2 x 104 h have been studied in conventionally quenched and tempered and simulated heat-affected-zone (HAZ) microstructural conditions. Quantitative fractography and Auger spectroscopy have been used to relate changes in mechanical properties with changes in fracture mode and grain boundary chemistry. Aging increases the ductile-brittle transition temperature by an amount dependent on material, prior heat treatment, aging temperature and time. Embrittlement is associated with segregation of phosphorus to grain boundaries and is modelled using McLean's approach to equilibrium segregation

  2. Analytical fuel property effects, small combustors, phase 1

    Cohen, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nonstandard aviation fuels on a typical small gas turbine combustor was analyzed. The T700/CT7 engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. Higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity for the current T700 combustor which serves as a baseline were anticipated. It is, therefore, predicted that out of specification smoke visibility and higher than normal shell temperatures will exist when using NASA ERBS fuels with a consequence of severe reduction in cyclic life. Three new designs are proposed to compensate for the deficiencies expected with the existing design. They have emerged as the best of the eight originally proposed redesigns or combinations thereof. After the five choices that were originally made by NASA on the basis of competing performance factors, General Electric narrowed the field to the three proposed.

  3. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  4. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 oC, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature.

  5. Effect of proton irradiation on electrophysical properties of MIS structures

    Effect of proton irradiation on Si-SiO2-Al MIS-structure electrophysical properties degradation due to SiO2 film hydrogen absorption has been studied. It was found that MIS-structure charge degradation under irradiation with protons of energy range 150-500 keV is mainly controlled by increasing the surface state density. The operating conditions of high-field electron injection from silicon providing the same changes of MIS-structure charge state like after proton irradiation have been established. It is shown that formation of electron traps with 10-16-10-18 cm2 capture cross-section takes place in the bulk of SiO2 films under proton irradiation. Density of these traps is increased when proton irradiation fluence and number of protons absorbed in SiO2 film increase

  6. Effects of Factors on Open-End Rotor Yarn Properties

    Gözde BUHARALI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Open-end rotor spinning system, which was begun to be used commercially during late 1960s, is now used as successfully as the conventional ring spinning system. Thanks to open-end rotor yarn spinning machines are very suitable to automation and have high production speeds, use of these machines have increased permanently and today open-end rotor yarn spinning in the world has a share of about 30%. In open-end rotor spinning system yarn properties and production are effected from three main parameters. They are material, sliver preparing process and machine parameters. In this system which manufacture with very high-speed and uses a high-tech, parameters must be selected carefully to ensure best yarn quality with high performance in yarn production

  7. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties.

    Tambone, F; Scaglia, B; Scotti, S; Adani, F

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas. PMID:21664812

  8. Thermoluminescence dosimetric properties and effective atomic numbers of window glass

    Highlights: • The TL properties of window glass were investigated. • The obtained results is potentially a good candidate for retrospective dosimetry. • The effective atomic number are close to human biological tissues. - Abstract: This work presents the main thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric characteristics of commercial Thai transparent window glass. The amorphous structure of window glass was investigated by XRD. The glow curve revealed a peak (Tm) at 235 °C. The thermoluminescence response of window glass was studied after irradiation with photons in the absorb dose range of 0–14.05 mGy, which is of interest for the personal protection level of dosimetry. A linear response was obtained after both the first irradiation and the second irradiation. The minimum detectable dose of window glass was 0.15 mGy. The effective atomic number of window glass as a function of photon energy was calculated. The obtained results for the effective atomic number showed that it is very close to that of human biological tissues (Zeff = 6.7–8.4 at studied energy)

  9. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  10. Effects of surfactant on properties of MIM feedstock

    LI Yi-min; LIU Xiang-quan; LUO Feng-hua; YUE Jian-ling

    2007-01-01

    Effects of the surfactant for improving the properties of MIM feedstock were investigated. Feedstocks were prepared by 17-4PH stainless steel(SS) powder and paraffin wax-based binder containing different contents of stearic acid(SA) as the surfactant. The viscosity of the feedstock decreases significantly when the SA is added. Besides, the wetting angle of the binder against the 17-4PH SS powder decreases greatly and the critical solid loading increases with the adding of the SA. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) analysis was used to prove the interaction between the SA and the 17-4PH SS powder. Chemical bonding is found on the surface of 17-4PH SS powder after mixing and it helps a lot to enhance the interacting force between the binder and the powder. Then an adsorbing model was adopted to estimate the least content of the surfactant that formed a monolayer adsorption on the mono-sized spherical powder (with smooth surface). The least content of the surfactant is calculated to be 0.19%. Whereas, the experiments indicate that about 5% is the optimal value to improve the properties of the feedstock. The reason may come from two aspects: firstly, the powders used in current experiment are not all mono-sized spheres and the coarse surface of the powder has a great effect on the adsorptive capacity of the powder; secondly, multilayer adsorption is likely to occur on the powder surface, which will also increase the adsorptive capacity.

  11. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  12. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  13. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  14. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  15. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  16. Effect of metal accumulation on optical properties of mosses

    Complete text of publication follows. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy is known to be a powerful tool to detect plant stress and is applied to investigate the effect of metal stress on mosses. Scopelophila cataractae is reported to be a Cu-accumulating moss. Nevertheless, the mechanism of Cu accumulation remains unclear. This is the same for S. ligulata, which is known to be a Fe-accumulating moss. The color of S. cataractae is deep green, deeper than those of other common mosses. Hence, its color must reflect the structure and photoreaction related to Cu accumulated. However, the photoabsorption and PL have not been studied for S. cataractae, as well as for S. ligulata. Even for mosses spectral data are limited. In this study, to understand the effect of metal accumulation on optical properties of S. cataractae and S. ligulata, PL and absorption spectra of these two and other common mosses were measured. We found that the PL intensity of chlorophyll for S. cataractae increases remarkably after moistening whereas for the other mosses the increase is very low; this remarkable increase in PL intensity is suggested to be characteristic of S. cataractae. Correspondingly, it is assumed that there is a difference between chlorophyll in S. cataractae and in the other mosses. To clarify this point, absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from the mosses were measured and compared. The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll extracted from S. cataractae agreed with those from other mosses, revealing that S. cataractae has chlorophyll common to those of other mosses. On the other hand, the chlorophyll concentration in S. cataractae was higher than those in other mosses. This may be due to the effect of Cu accumulated in S. cataractae. On the contrary, we found that the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll extracted from S. ligulata differs from those of the other mosses. This indicates that the composition of pigments including chlorophyll, the structures of these pigments

  17. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  18. 乡村景观格局热效应及其调控机制%Thermal Effect and Adjusting Mechanism of Rural Landscape Patterns

    史久西; 邓劲松; 王小明; 骆成方; 裘鑫灿

    2011-01-01

    A thermal effect of landscape patterns from 50 villages within a 220 km2 plain region in northern Shaoxing,Zhejiang Province was studied based on Quickbird and ETM images data. A total 45 landscape pattern indices (LPI) from 5 land-use types of patches were calculated, and the quantity relationship among LPI and between LPI and environment brightness temperature (EBT) were analyzed. The result showed that in the core area (built-up area) of villages, there was a close linear relationship between LPI and BET; and the correlation was evidently affected by the patch area. the 45 LPI could be classified into 6 groups, i.e. fragmentation indices, coverage indices, shape indices, core area size, indices of 100 m wide buffer ring around core area and others, of which the index type of fragmentation, coverage of dominant patches and whole landscape had more significant correlations with BET. Contribution of landscape patterns indices to environment temperature, up to around 25 % of total, was not able to be ignored in village built-up area with complex landscape structure. Two empirical models were established (R2 > 0. 9 ) referring to 2 groups of LPI for predicting and adjusting the EBT being selected out too. Analysis result with the models and indices showed that the villages with high density in patch edges, large amount, small size and even disperse of patches, narrow shape in core area and buildings but rounded shape in green-water tent to reduce environment temperature. In the areas composed of core area respectively plus 100 m, 200 m and 300 m buffer ring( + 100 m, +200 m, +300 n buffer), the leading EBT index turned into greenwater coverage. The + 100 m buffer was the best scale for studies on thermal effect of landscape patterns.%利用Quickbird和ETM影像对浙江省绍兴县北部平原220 km2区域内50个村庄景观格局热效应进行研究.通过5种地类斑块共45个景观指数之间、景观指数与环境亮温之间的数量关系分析表

  19. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A series

  20. [Membranotropic effect of some triterpene glycosides possessing immunostimulating properties].

    Lee, I A; Popov, A M; Kostetskiĭ, E Ia; Sanina, N M; Mazeĭka, A N; Boguslavskiĭ, V M

    2008-01-01

    The peculiarities of the interaction between cell membrane lipids and triterpene glycosides from holothurians Apostichopus japonicus S. and Cucumaria japonica (holotoxin A1 and cucumarioside A2-2, respectively) were studied in comparison with plant saponins from Quillaja saponaria, known as hemolytic, adjuvant, and structure-forming components of immunostimulating complexes. Similar to Quillaja saponins, the sea glycosides, holotoxin A1 and cucumarioside A2-2 were shown to possess a high hemolytic activity (2.6 and 3 microg/ml, respectively) and sterol-depending membranotropic effect mediated by the formation of nonbilayer sterol-lipid-glycoside complexes. At the same time, cucumarioside A2-2 bound exogenic cholesterol only in the presence of membrane lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine or monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, in contrast to Quillaja saponins and holotoxin A1, which bound cholesterol in the molar ratios 1:2 and 1:8, respectively. Moreover, in all cases, tree-component complexes containing cholesterol, lipid, and glycoside exhibited a lower hemolytic activity compared with two-component sterol-glycoside complexes. It was concluded that the hydrophobic medium of cell membranes performs a potentiative role in the effective interaction between triterpene glycosides and "sterol receptors". A method for decreasing the toxicity of membranotropic holothurian glycosides possessing the immunomodulating properties was suggested. PMID:18634319

  1. The Effect of Material Properties on Dynamo Generation in Planets

    Vilim, Ryan

    2015-10-01

    In this thesis I use a three dimensional numerical dynamo model to explore the effect of novel material properties and core states on magnetic field generation in the planet Mercury, and in rocky extra-solar planets. In the first part of this work I focus on the recent evidence of pressure induced metallisation in materials which commonly comprise planetary mantles. In this scenario the materials which make up the lower mantle of a planet conduct electricity with a conductivity similar to that of iron. I show that a metallised mantle changes the way in which magnetic field is generated by providing a new source of magnetic shear between the fluid outer core and the solid mantle. I then show that this has the effect of making planetary magnetic fields more difficult to observe from Earth. The second and third parts of this work focus on the planet Mercury. First, I incorporate recent evidence of buoyancy sources mid-way through Mercury's liquid core (known as "snow zones") to show that they can explain the weak observed magnetic field of Mercury. In a second project on Mercury I test whether recent evidence of a dense solid layer at the top of Mercury's core, attributed to a solid, electrically conducting layer of FeS, could help explain Mercury's weak magnetic field. I find that the addition of this layer causes the dynamo to generate a strong, dipolar magnetic field, which does not match the observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft.

  2. Constraining the surface properties of effective Skyrme interactions

    Jodon, R; Bennaceur, K; Meyer, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to identify a scheme for the determination of the surface energy coefficient a_surf that offers the best compromise between robustness, precision, and numerical efficiency; second, to analyze the correlation between values for a_surf and the characteristic energies of the fission barrier of Pu240; and third, to lay out a procedure how the deformation properties of the Skyrme energy density functional (EDF) can be constrained during the parameter fit. There are several frequently used possibilities to define and calculate the surface energy coefficient a_surf of effective interactions. The most direct access is provided by the model system of semi-infinite nuclear matter, but a_surf can also be extracted from the systematics of binding energies of finite nuclei. Calculations can be carried out either self-consistently (HF), which incorporates quantal shell effects, or in one of the semi-classical Extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) or Modified Thomas-Fermi (MTF) approxima...

  3. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo

    Wanchart PREECHATIWONG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  4. Supportive relationships within ongoing families: cross-lagged effects between components of support and adjustment in parents and young adult children.

    Lanz, M; Tagliabue, S

    2014-12-01

    Italy is the first country in which the phenomenon of cohabitation of parents and young adult children was examined. From the earliest studies, it seemed clear that the transition to adulthood occurs within the family of origin: indeed, the successful outcome of this transition depends on the quality of family relationships. Using the Social Relations Model, this study examines the importance of the components of support within family relationships during the transition of young adults from university to job contexts (Kenny & La Voie, 1984). The cross-lagged influence among the components of perceived support and the adjustment of family members has also been investigated. Findings show that family components of support are significant for perception in both parents and young adults. Furthermore, cross-lagged models reveal different results for parents than for young adults. Discussion of results regarding the transition to adulthood and family theory is provided. PMID:25154544

  5. Toxicity-adjusted dose (TAD) administration of chemotherapy: Effect of baseline and nadir neutrophil count in patients with breast, ovarian, and lung cancer?

    Carus, Andreas; Donskov, Frede; Gebski, Val;

    2011-01-01

    Background: In some solid cancers a survival benefit has been observed for patients who had chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The prognostic impact of baseline and nadir blood neutrophils was assessed in the present study. Methods: Data on patients with breast cancer st.I-IV, ovarian cancer st.......Survival data were updated 2010. Results: A total of 819 patients were identified, comprising 507 patients with breast cancer, 118 patients with ovarian cancer, 115 patients with NSCLC and 79 patients with SCLC. Median survival for ovarian cancer patients obtaining nadir neutropenia below 2.0 x 109/l was 56...... months. In contrast, median survival for ovarian cancer patients who had nadir neutropenia above 2.0 was 27 months. In a multivariate analysis, adjusting for well-known prognostic features, nadir neutropenia below 2.0 was statistically significant (HR 1.73;p=0.03). In patients with NSCLC, baseline...

  6. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  7. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.

  8. EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE MULTINUTRIENT SOURCES ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Vanessa Martins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current high price of potassium chloride and the dependence of Brazil on imported materials to supply the domestic demand call for studies evaluating the efficiency of alternative sources of nutrients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of silicate rock powder and a manganese mining by-product, and secondary materials originated from these two materials, on soil chemical properties and on brachiaria production. This greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico - Oxisol. The alternative nutrient sources were: verdete, verdete treated with NH4OH, phonolite, ultramafic rock, mining waste and the proportion of 75 % of these K fertilizers and 25 % lime. Mixtures containing 25 % of lime were heated at 800 ºC for 1 h. These sources were applied at rates of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 K2O, and incubated for 45 days. The mixtures of heated silicate rocks with lime promoted higher increases in soil pH in decreasing order: ultramafic rock>verdete>phonolite>mining waste. Applying the mining waste-lime mixture increased soil exchangeable K, and available P when ultramafic rock was incorporated. When ultramafic rock was applied, the release of Ca2+ increased significantly. Mining subproduct released the highest amount of Zn2+ and Mn2+ to the soil. The application of alternative sources of K, with variable chemical composition, altered the nutrient availability and soil chemical properties, improving mainly plant development and K plant uptake, and are important nutrient sources.

  9. Effects of fly ash fineness on the mechanical properties of concrete

    Şemsi Yazici; Hasan Şahan Arel

    2012-06-01

    The present study reviews the effects of fly ash fineness on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concretes. A fly ash of lignite origin with Blaine fineness of 2351 cm2/g was ground in a ball mill. As a consequence of the grinding process, fly ashes with fineness of 3849 cm2/g and 5239 cm2/g were obtained. Fly ashes with three different fineness were used instead of cement of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% and ten different types of concrete mixture were produced. In the concrete mixtures, the dosage of binder and water/cement ratio were fixed at 350 kg/m3 and 0.50, respectively. Slump values for the concretes were adjusted to be 100 ± 20 mm. Cubic samples were cast with edges of 100 mm. The specimens were cured in water at 20° C. At the end of curing process, compressive and splitting tensile strengths of the concrete samples were determined at 7, 28, 56, 90, 120 and 180 days. It was observed that compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concretes was affected by fineness of fly ash in short-and long-terms. It was found that compressive and tensile strength of the concretes increased as fly ash fineness increased. It was concluded that Blaine fineness value should be above 3849 cm2/g fineness of fly ash to have positive impact on mechanical properties of concrete. The effects of fly ash fineness on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concretes were remarkably seen in the fly ash with FAC code with fineness of 5235 cm2/g.

  10. Capital and Portfolio Risk under the Solvency Regulation Supervision Analysis of Partial Adjustment Model based on Property-liability Companies%偿付能力监管下韵资本与组合风险——基于产险公司局部联立调整模型的分析

    王丽珍; 李秀芳

    2012-01-01

    Ever since 2007, capital and stock increases trend m insurance compamc~ o~ ,~ , the required capital size are expanding, and also the frequency of capital increasing is improving. Although the ap- pearance of this phenomenon is inevitable, owing to the costliness and scarcity of capital, insurance industry and China Insurance Regulatory Commission all have paid more attention to the upsurge about capital. Furthermore, if the insurance companies can' t raise capital timely, they will not operate normally, and then it is bound to endanger social stability and the interest of insurance consumers. So it is meaningful to study the capital under the solvency regulation supervision and the special development stage. The capital is applicable to withstand unexpected loss, in this sense, the adjustment of capital is corresponding with risk level. Thus, we combine capital with risk to re- search the development of china' s property-liability companies. According to the research paradigm of banking studies about capital structure and portfolio risk, we employ partial adjustment model to the insurance area. Through the panel data of 34 Property-Liability insurance companies, this paper conduct the Three-stage least square ( 3 SLS) procedure to estimate a simultaneous equations model and examines the impact of capital determina- tion and portfolio risk under solvency regulation. In addition to this, we also consider the other factors, such as the structure of lines, the scale of asset, the reinsurance ratio, the return of asset under the research framework. Based on this, robustness tests with two broad heading including five types subsamples also present consistent results. Our key findings include four aspects. First of all, we find that capitalized insurers increase capital faster than under- capitalized insurers, which is different from the condition of American. This result implies that, on account of the rapid development of insurance industry currently, insurance

  11. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  12. Prediction of formulation effects on dermal absorption of topically applied ectoparasiticides dosed in vitro on canine and porcine skin using a mixture-adjusted quantitative structure permeability relationship.

    Riviere, J E; Brooks, J D; Collard, W T; Deng, J; de Rose, G; Mahabir, S P; Merritt, D A; Marchiondo, A A

    2014-10-01

    Topical application of ectoparasiticides for flea and tick control is a major focus for product development in animal health. The objective of this work was to develop a quantitative structure permeability relationship (QSPeR) model sensitive to formulation effects for predicting absorption and skin deposition of five topically applied drugs administered in six vehicle combinations to porcine and canine skin in vitro. Saturated solutions (20 μL) of (14) C-labeled demiditraz, fipronil, permethrin, imidacloprid, or sisapronil were administered in single or binary (50:50 v/v) combinations of water, ethanol, and transcutol (6 formulations, n = 4-5 replicates per treatment) nonoccluded to 0.64 cm(2) disks of dermatomed pig or dog skin mounted in flow-through diffusion cells. Perfusate flux over 24 h and skin deposition at termination were determined. Permeability (logKp), absorption, and penetration endpoints were modeled using a four-term Abrahams and Martin (hydrogen-bond donor acidity and basicity, dipolarity/polarizability, and excess molar refractivity) linear free energy QSPeR equation with a mixture factor added to compensate for formulation ingredient interactions. Goodness of fit was judged by r(2) , cross-validation coefficient, coefficients (q(2) s), and Williams Plot to visualize the applicability domain. Formulation composition was the primary determinant of permeation. Compounds generally penetrated dog skin better than porcine skin. The vast majority of permeated penetrant was deposited within the dosed skin relative to transdermal flux, an attribute for ectoparasiticides. The best QSPeR logKp model for pig skin permeation (r(2) = 0.86, q(2) s = 0.85) included log octanol/water partition coefficient as the mixture factor, while for dogs (r(2) = 0.91, q(2) s = 0.90), it was log water solubility. These studies clearly showed that the permeation of topical ectoparasiticides could be well predicted using QSPeR models that account for both the physical

  13. Effect of Aggregate Gradation with Fuller Distribution on Properties of Sulfoaluminate Cement Concrete

    Gong, Chenchen; Jie ZHANG; Wang, Shoude; Zong, Wen; Lu, Lingchao

    2014-01-01

    Aggregate, the main ingredient of concrete, has a great effect on mechanical property and durability of concrete. Sulfoaluminate cement has lots of special properties such as high early-age compressive strength, fast hydration and setting rate, and hydration with slight swelling. But effect of aggregate gradation with Fuller distribution on properties of sulfoaluminate cement concrete was seldom studied. Hence, in this paper, experimental investigations on mechanical property and durability o...

  14. Critical properties of effective gauge theories for novel quantum fluids

    Smoergrav, Eivind

    2005-07-01

    Critical properties of U(1) symmetric gauge theories are studied in 2+1 dimensions, analytically through duality transformations and numerically through Monte Carlo simulations. Physical applications range from quantum phase transitions in two dimensional insulating materials to superfluid and superconducting properties of light atoms such as hydrogen under extreme pressure. A novel finite size scaling method, utilizing the third moment M{sub 3} of the action, is developed. Finite size scaling analysis of M{sub 3} yields the ratio (1 + alpha)/ny and 1/ny separately, so that critical exponents alpha and ny can be obtained independently without invoking hyperscaling. This thesis contains eight research papers and an introductory part covering some basic concepts and techniques. Paper 1: The novel M{sub 3} method is introduced and employed together with Monte Carlo simulations to study the compact Abelian Higgs model in the adjoint representation with q = 2. Paper 2: We study phase transitions in the compact Abelian Higgs model for fundamental charge q = 2; 3; 4; 5. Various other models are studied to benchmark the M{sub 3} method. Paper 3: This is a proceeding paper based on a talk given by F. S. Nogueira at the Aachen EPS HEP 2003 conference. A review of the results from Paper 1 and Paper 2 on the compact Abelian Higgs model together with some results on q = 1 obtained by F. S. Nogueira, H. Kleinert, and A. Sudboe is given. Paper 4: The effect of a Chern-Simons (CS) term in the phase structure of two Abelian gauge theories is studied. Paper 5: We study the critical properties of the N-component Ginzburg-Landau theory. Paper 6: We consider the vortices in the 2-component Ginzburg-Landau model in a finite but low magnetic field. The ground state is a lattice of co centered vortices in both order parameters. We find two novel phase transitions. i) A 'vortex sub-lattice melting' transition where vortices in the field with lowest phase stiffness (&apos

  15. Oligopoly games with nonlinear demand and cost functions: Two boundedly rational adjustment processes

    We consider a Cournot oligopoly game, where firms produce an homogenous good and the demand and cost functions are nonlinear. These features make the classical best reply solution difficult to be obtained, even if players have full information about their environment. We propose two different kinds of repeated games based on a lower degree of rationality of the firms, on a reduced information set and reduced computational capabilities. The first adjustment mechanism is called 'Local Monopolistic Approximation' (LMA). First firms get the correct local estimate of the demand function and then they use such estimate in a linear approximation of the demand function where the effects of the competitors' outputs are ignored. On the basis of this subjective demand function they solve their profit maximization problem. By using the second adjustment process, that belongs to a class of adaptive mechanisms known in the literature as 'Gradient Dynamics' (GD), firms do not solve any optimization problem, but they adjust their production in the direction indicated by their (correct) estimate of the marginal profit. Both these repeated games may converge to a Cournot-Nash equilibrium, i.e. to the equilibrium of the best reply dynamics. We compare the properties of the two different dynamical systems that describe the time evolution of the oligopoly games under the two adjustment mechanisms, and we analyze the conditions that lead to non-convergence and complex dynamic behaviors. The paper extends the results of other authors that consider similar adjustment processes assuming linear cost functions or linear demand functions

  16. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  17. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  18. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  19. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    ... may need to work to help with family finances. All of the changes that they face can ... 2000). Goal instability and adjustment to physical disability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2). 251-265. This ...

  20. Effect of pressure on the physical properties of magnetorheological fluids

    A. Spaggiari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, several applications of magnetorheological (MR fluids are present in the industrial world, nonetheless system requirements often needs better material properties. In technical literature a previous work shows that MR fluids exhibit a pressure dependency called squeeze strengthen effect. Since a lot of MR fluid based devices are rotary devices, this paper investigates the behaviour of MR fluids under pressure when a rotation is applied to shear the fluid. The system is designed in order to apply both the magnetic field and the pressure and follows a Design of Experiment approach. The experimental apparatus comprises a cylinder in which a piston is used both to apply the pressure and to shear the fluid. The magnetic circuit is designed to provide a nearly constant induction field in the MR fluid. The experimental apparatus measures the torque as a function of the variables considered and the yield shear stress is computed. The analysis of the results shows that there is a positive interaction between magnetic field and pressure, which enhances the MR fluid performances more than twice.

  1. Meteorological and aerosol effects on marine cloud microphysical properties

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Corrigan, C. E.; Roberts, G. C.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Wang, Z.; Wonaschütz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K. J.; Jonsson, H.; Toom, D.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation, cloud droplet distributions, and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets studies provided measurements in six case studies of cloud thermodynamic properties, initial particle number distribution and composition, and cloud drop distribution. In this study, we use simulations from a chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce observed cloud droplet distributions of the case studies. Four cases had subadiabatic lapse rates, resulting in fewer activated droplets, lower liquid water content, and higher cloud base height than an adiabatic lapse rate. A weighted ensemble of simulations that reflect measured variation in updraft velocity and cloud base height was used to reproduce observed droplet distributions. Simulations show that organic hygroscopicity in internally mixed cases causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (CR) (aerosol concentrations near the critical diameter (namely, polluted cases with a modal peak near 0.1 µm). Differences in simulated droplet spectral widths (k) caused larger differences in CR than organic hygroscopicity in cases with organic mass fractions of 60% or less for the cases shown. Finally, simulations from a numerical parameterization of cloud droplet activation suitable for general circulation models compared well with the ACP model, except under high organic mass fraction.

  2. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Properties of Porous Silicon.

    Olenych, Igor B; Aksimentyeva, Olena I; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Horbenko, Yulia Yu; Partyka, Maryan V; Luchechko, Andriy P; Yarytska, Lidia I

    2016-12-01

    We studied an effect of the graphene oxide (GO) layer on the optical and electrical properties of porous silicon (PS) in hybrid PS-GO structure created by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer and deposition of GO from water dispersion on PS. With the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was established that GO formed a thin film on the PS surface and is partly embedded in the pores of PS. A comparative analysis of the FTIR spectra for the PS and PS-GO structures confirms the passivation of the PS surface by the GO film. This film has a sufficient transparency for excitation and emission of photoluminescence (PL). Moreover, GO modifies PL spectrum of PS, shifting the PL maximum by 25 nm towards lower energies. GO deposition on the surface of the porous silicon leads to the change in the electrical parameters of PS in AC and DC modes. By means of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and impedance spectroscopy, it is shown that the impact of GO on electrical characteristics of PS manifests in reduced capacitance and lower internal resistance of hybrid structures. PMID:26831681

  3. Photophysical properties of novel picrate derivatives--solvent effect.

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Padmavathy, Manoharan; Perumal, Marimuthu Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded for some novel picrate derivatives derived from 3,3-dimethyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones and 3-benzyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one. The photophysical properties of the picrate derivatives were studied in several solvents, which include a wide range of apolar, polar and protic media. The observed lower fluorescence quantum yield may be due to an increase in the non-radiative deactivation rate constant. This is attributed due to the presence of increased electrostatic interaction between N-protonated piperidone ring and picryl anion ring so that the picryl anion ring lies perpendicular to the plane of the N-protonated piperidone ring i.e., non co-planarity. Such a geometrical change in the excited state leads to an important Stokes shift, reducing the reabsorption and reemission effects in the detected emission in highly concentrated solutions. The higher fluorescence quantum yield of the picrate derivatives are observed in polar media. PMID:21870074

  4. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Properties of Porous Silicon

    Olenych, Igor B.; Aksimentyeva, Olena I.; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S.; Horbenko, Yulia Yu.; Partyka, Maryan V.; Luchechko, Andriy P.; Yarytska, Lidia I.

    2016-02-01

    We studied an effect of the graphene oxide (GO) layer on the optical and electrical properties of porous silicon (PS) in hybrid PS-GO structure created by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer and deposition of GO from water dispersion on PS. With the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was established that GO formed a thin film on the PS surface and is partly embedded in the pores of PS. A comparative analysis of the FTIR spectra for the PS and PS-GO structures confirms the passivation of the PS surface by the GO film. This film has a sufficient transparency for excitation and emission of photoluminescence (PL). Moreover, GO modifies PL spectrum of PS, shifting the PL maximum by 25 nm towards lower energies. GO deposition on the surface of the porous silicon leads to the change in the electrical parameters of PS in AC and DC modes. By means of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and impedance spectroscopy, it is shown that the impact of GO on electrical characteristics of PS manifests in reduced capacitance and lower internal resistance of hybrid structures.

  5. Effect of additives on physicochemical properties in amorphous starch matrices.

    Liang, Jun; Wang, Simon; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-03-15

    The effect of the addition of non-reducing sugars or methylcellulose on the matrix physical properties and rate of non-enzymatic browning (NBR) between exogenous glucose+lysine in a starch-based glassy matrix were studied, using the methods of luminescence and FTIR. Amorphous starch-based matrices were formulated by rapidly dehydrating potato starch gel mixed with additives at weight ratios of 7:93 (additive:starch). Data on the phosphorescence emission energy and lifetime from erythrosin B dispersed in the matrices indicated that sugars decreased starch matrix mobility in a Tg-dependent manner, except for trehalose that interacted with starch in a unique mode, while methylcellulose, the additive with the highest Tg, increased the molecular mobility. Using FTIR, we found that methylcellulose decreased the strength of hydrogen bond network and sugars enhanced the hydrogen bond strength in the order: trehalose>maltitol>sucrose. Comparing those changes with the rate of NBR between exogenous glucose+lysine, we suggest that NBR rates are primarily influenced by matrix mobility, which is modulated by the hydrogen bond network, and interactions among components. PMID:25308673

  6. Effect of Nitrogen Impurity on Electronic Properties of Boron Nanotubes

    Sandeep Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time we present electronic band structure and density of states for nitrogen doped hexagonal ultrathin boron nanotubes in the framework of density functional theory. The considered models of nanotubes below 5 Å diameter are armchair (3,3, zigzag (5,0, and chiral (4,2. The impurity chosen for the study is nitrogen and concentration of impurity atoms is limited to two. The study reveals that (3,3 BNT retains its metallic nature after nitrogen doping. However, metallicity gets increased which is attributed by the excess electrons of nitrogen. Further, it also brings out that (5,0 BNT which is originally metal transforms into semiconductor after nitrogen interaction and the band gap at G point increases with the impurity. Moreover, the band gap of (4,2 BNT reduces significantly and turns into semimetal for nitrogen doping. Thus, the nitrogen impurity has the predominant effect on the electronic properties of BNTs and therefore can be regarded as suitable candidates for nanoelectronic and field emission devices.

  7. Charge Effects on Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Proteins

    Kappiyoor, Ravi; Balasubramanian, Ganesh; Dudek, Daniel; Puri, Ishwar

    2012-02-01

    Several biological molecules of nanoscale dimensions, such as elastin and resilin, are capable of performing diverse tasks with minimal energy loss. These molecules are efficient in that the ratio of energy output to energy consumed is very close to unity. This is in stark contrast to some of the best synthetic materials that have been created. For example, it is known that resilin found in dragonflies has a hysteresis loss of only 0.8% of the energy input while the best synthetic rubber made to date, polybutadiene, has a loss of roughly 20%.We simulate tensile tests of naturally occurring motifs found in resilin (a highly hydrophilic protein), as well as similar simulations found in reduced-polarity counterparts (i.e. the same motif with the charge on each individual atom set to half the natural value, the same motif with the charge on each individual atom set to zero, and a motif in which all the polar amino acids have been replaced with nonpolar amino acids). The results show a strong correlation between charge and extensibility. In order to further understand the effect of properties such as charge on the system, we will run simulations of elastomeric proteins such as resilin in different solvents.

  8. Effect of Olive Mill Wastewater Spreading on Soil Properties.

    Vella, Filomena M; Galli, Emanuela; Calandrelli, Roberto; Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna

    2016-07-01

    The effect of untreated olive mill wastewater (OMW) spreading on chemical and biological soil properties of two different fields located in Campania (Italy) was investigated. Fields were irrigated since 2003 with quantities of about 30 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1), a volume lower than the maximum limit of 80 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) established by Italian law. Results showed that the addition of OMW, even if repeated for many years, had little impact on pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, concentrations of main cations and polyphenolic content of both soil plots; moreover, microbial respiration was low during the winter time, but an increase was evident in the second sampling carried out in warm season. This study suggests that OMW, without pre-treatments, can be annually used for crops and tree irrigation. As a consequence, OMW should be a readily and inexpensive source of nutrients that could replace chemical fertilizers which are extensively employed in agricultural practices of Mediterranean countries. PMID:27209544

  9. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-06-01

    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding. PMID:25761231

  10. Effects of Surface Modification on the Dispersion Property of VGCF

    FU Yaqin; HAN Chunshao; NI Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    In view of the easy agglomeration issue of vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) and the poor interfacial adhesion between VGCF and matrix resin, two-step surface modification with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid was performed on VGCF. The surface structure and dispersion of VGCF before and after modification were tested and analyzed by XRD, TGA, FTIR, UV-visible spectrum and SEM. Moreover, VGCF/SMPU composites were prepared via a solution mixing method taking shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) as matrix, and the mechanical properties of the composites were also tested. The graphite crystal structure of VGCF showed very little change af-ter modification, the concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of VGCF was visibly in-creased, and the dispersion and dispersion stability of VGCF in organic solvent were also clearly improved. In the cross section of the VGCF/SMPU composites, the dispersion of VGCF in matrix and the VGCF-matrix interfacial adhesion observed through SEM were both enhanced to a certain extent after surface modification. The two-step surface modified VGCF had more obvious mechanical reinforcement effects on the composites than that of the pris-tine VGCF.

  11. Aging degradation of cast stainless steels: Effects on mechanical properties

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water operating conditions. Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 2900C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the tensile strength and decreases the impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus of the steels. Also, the ductile-to-brittle transition curve shifts to higher temperatures. The fracture toughness results are consistent with the Charpy-impact data, i.e., the relative reduction in J/sub IC/ is similar to the relative decrease in impact energy. The ferrite content and concentration of C in the steel have a strong effect on the overall process of low-temperature embrittlement. The low-carbon CF-3 steels are the most resistant and Mo-containing CF-8M steels are most susceptible to embrittlement. Weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundaries by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the kinetics and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M steels, particularly after aging at temperatures ≥4000C. The influence of N content and distribution of ferrite on loss of toughness are discussed. The data also indicate that existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 280 to 4500C, i.e., extrapolation of high-temperature data to reactor temperatures may not be valid for some compositions of cast stainless steel

  12. Effect of cold work on creep properties of Hastelloy XR

    Creep tests of Hastelloy XR, in 10%, 20% cold worked or solution treated condition, were made at 800 at 1000degC for times up to about 2000 ks in order to investigate the effect of cold work on creep properties. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Below 950degC, creep rupture strength of 10% cold worked Hastelloy XR is beyond the value of solution treated one within this experimental condition. 950degC and cold work of 10% are the highest values experienced in an intermediate heat exchanger of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR) under normal condition, respectively. (2) At 800 and 850degC, creep rupture time of 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is longer than that of solution treated one. However, the effect disappears above 900degC. At 950 and 1000degC, it becomes shorter than that of solution treated Hastelloy XR. (3) Rupture elongation and reduction of area of cold worked Hastelloy XR are smaller than those of solution treated one. While these values of 10% or 20% cold worked material are lowest at 900degC, they recover considerably at 1000degC. (4) Minimum creep rate, εm, of 10% or 20% cold worked Hastelloy XR is decreased by as much as a factor of 20 to 50 at 800 to 900degC. On the other hand, εm of 10% or 20% cold worked material is increased at 1000degC. (5) From the results of microstructure observation of ruptured specimens, decrease in creep rupture strength of cold worked Hastelloy XR is interpreted in terms of extensive recrystallization which occurs during creep at 1000degC. (author)

  13. The effects of precompression on properties of WC-Co

    Room temperature investigations have been carried out in order to quantify and explain the effects of cyclic precompression under non-uniform triaxial conditions on various mechanical and physical properties of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-6% Co) specimens. The short-rod specimens were interference-fitted in hardened steel rings and compressed cyclically for up to 200 cycles, to a maximum axial compressive stress ranging from 3,0 to 5,5 GPa. Precompression was found to increase the crack propagation resistance of the material by up to 60% depending on the prestressing conditions. The changes in the residual thermal stresses in both the WC and the Co phases of the material due to prestressing were determined by the two-tilt X-ray diffraction method. Precompression was found to decrease the residual tensile stresses in the Co phase and increase the residual compressive stresses in the WC phase, which correlated with the corresponding increase in the crack propagation resistance. The density and hardness of the specimens were not affected significantly by precompression. The changes observed in the residual stresses were interpreted by consideration of the morphology and deformation behaviour of the material (in particular the effect of the high stress concentrations existing at the points of contact between WC grains) with respect to the stress equilibrium in the material. The magnetic coercivity of the specimens was found to increase with increasing applied prestress and number of cycles up to a maximum and then decrease. The interpretation of these results was attempted in terms of the variable internal stress theory of coercivity developed by Neel, the changes in the irregular internal stresses in the cobalt and the deformation behaviour of the material

  14. Effects of temperature and Nickel content on magnetic properties of Ni-doped ZnO

    REN Lingling; JEUNG Won Young

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), Ni-doped ZnO materials, prepared by sol-gel method were investigated by measuring magnetization as functions of magnetic field.The Ni content affects the magnetic properties at low sintered temperature but it has few effects on the magnetic properties at high sintered temperature.The sintered temperature has great effects on the magnetic properties of Ni/ZnO at high original mole ratio of Ni/Zn while it has slight effects on the magnetic properties of Ni/ZnO at low original mole ratio of Ni/Zn whatever low or high sintered temperature.

  15. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  16. The multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution and its application in forensic genetics to adjust for subpopulation effects using the θ-correction.

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss the construction of a multivariate generalisation of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. An example from forensic genetics in the statistical analysis of DNA mixtures motivates the study of this multivariate extension. In forensic genetics, adjustment of the match probabilities due to remote ancestry in the population is often done using the so-called θ-correction. This correction increases the probability of observing multiple copies of rare alleles in a subpopulation and thereby reduces the weight of the evidence for rare genotypes. A recent publication by Cowell et al. (2015) showed elegantly how to use Bayesian networks for efficient computations of likelihood ratios in a forensic genetic context. However, their underlying population genetic model assumed independence of alleles, which is not realistic in real populations. We demonstrate how the so-called θ-correction can be incorporated in Bayesian networks to make efficient computations by modifying the Markov structure of Cowell et al. (2015). By numerical examples, we show how the θ-correction incorporated in the multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution affects the weight of evidence. PMID:26344785

  17. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    Rompel, O.; Janka, R.; May, M.S.; Lell, M.M.; Uder, M.; Hammon, M. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gloeckler, M.; Dittrich, S. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology; Cesnjevar, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  18. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  19. Boron nitride elastic and thermal properties. Irradiation effects

    The anisotropy of boron nitride (BN) and especially thermal and elastic properties were studied. Specific heat and thermal conductivity between 1.2 and 300K, thermal conductivity between 4 and 350K and elastic constants C33 and C44 were measured. BN was irradiated with electrons at 77K and with neutrons at 27K to determine properties after irradiation

  20. Effect of chain microstructure on physical properties of olefin copolymers

    Poon, Benjamin Chunman

    The effect of chain microstructure on various physical properties was studied in polyethylene and polypropylene copolymers. Adhesion of Ziegler-Natta (ZNPE) and metallocene (mPE) catalyzed ethylene-octene copolymers to polypropylene (PP) were studied by measuring the delamination toughness G of coextruded microlayers using the T-peel test. It was found that the heterogeneous ZNPE exhibited poor adhesion to polypropylene. It was proposed that the low molecular weight, highly branched ZNPE fractions migrate to the interface to form an amorphous layer. The homogeneous mPE with the same short chain branch content showed very high G. Blending ZNPE with an mPE increased G. Atomic force microscopy revealed that blending mPE into ZNPE reduced or eliminated the amorphous interfacial layer. It was hypothesized that mPE increased miscibility of low molecular weight, highly branched fractions of ZNPE and prevented their segregation at the interface. The solid state structure and properties of homogeneous propylene-octene copolymers were examined. Based on the combined observations from melting behavior, dynamic mechanical response, morphology with primarily atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and tensile deformation, a classification scheme with 4 distinct categories is proposed. The homopolymer with 60 wt% crystallinity constitutes Type IV. It is characterized by large alpha-positive spherulite. Copolymers with up to 5 mol% octene, with at least 35 wt% crystallinity, are classified as Type III. They crystallize as alpha-positive spherulites that are smaller than the homopolymer. Both Type IV and Type III materials exhibit thermoplastic behavior. Copolymers classified as Type II have between 5 and 10 mol% octene with crystallinity in the range of 20--35%. Type II materials have smaller impinging spherulites than Type III copolymers and they are negative. The materials in this category have plastomeric behavior. Type I copolymers have more than 10 mol% octene and less