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Sample records for adjoint difference method

  1. Ocean acoustic tomography from different receiver geometries using the adjoint method.

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongxiao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an ocean acoustic tomography inversion using the adjoint method in a shallow water environment is presented. The propagation model used is an implicit Crank-Nicolson finite difference parabolic equation solver with a non-local boundary condition. Unlike previous matched-field processing works using the complex pressure fields as the observations, here, the observed signals are the transmission losses. Based on the code tests of the tangent linear model, the adjoint model, and the gradient, the optimization problem is solved by a gradient-based minimization algorithm. The inversions are performed in numerical simulations for two geometries: one in which hydrophones are sparsely distributed in the horizontal direction, and another in which the hydrophones are distributed vertically. The spacing in both cases is well beyond the half-wavelength threshold at which beamforming could be used. To deal with the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, a linear differential regularization operator of the sound-speed profile is used to smooth the inversion results. The L-curve criterion is adopted to select the regularization parameter, and the optimal value can be easily determined at the elbow of the logarithms of the residual norm of the measured-predicted fields and the norm of the penalty function. PMID:26723329

  2. Double-difference adjoint seismic tomography

    Yuan, Yanhua O.; Simons, Frederik J.; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a `double-difference' method for the inversion for seismic wavespeed structure based on adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and model predictions at individual stations may arise from factors other than structural heterogeneity, such as errors in the assumed source-time function, inaccurate timings, and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate the corresponding nonuniqueness in the inverse problem, we construct differential measurements between stations, thereby reducing the influence of the source signature and systematic errors. We minimize the discrepancy between observations and simulations in terms of the differential measurements made on station pairs. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and in practice. We compare the sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relative (and thus higher-resolution) structural variations in areas close to the stations. Whereas in conventional tomography a measurement made on a single earthquake-station pair provides very limited structural information, in double-difference tomography one earthquake can actually resolve significant details of the structure. The double-difference methodology can be incorporated into the usual adjoint tomography workflow by simply pairing up all conventional measurements; the computational cost of the necessary adjoint simulations is largely unaffected. Rather than adding to the computational burden, the inversion of double-difference measurements merely modifies the construction of the adjoint sources for data assimilation.

  3. The adjoint equation method for constructing first integrals of difference equations

    A new method for finding first integrals of discrete equations is presented. It can be used for discrete equations which do not possess a variational (Lagrangian or Hamiltonian) formulation. The method is based on a newly established identity which links symmetries of the underlying discrete equations, solutions of the discrete adjoint equations and first integrals. The method is applied to an invariant mapping and to discretizations of second order and third order ordinary differential equations. In examples the set of independent first integrals makes it possible to find the general solution of the discrete equations. (paper)

  4. Double-difference adjoint seismic tomography

    Yuan, Yanhua O; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a `double-difference' method for the inversion for seismic wavespeed structure based on adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and model predictions at individual stations may arise from factors other than structural heterogeneity, such as errors in the assumed source-time function, inaccurate timings, and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate the corresponding nonuniqueness in the inverse problem, we construct differential measurements between stations, thereby reducing the influence of the source signature and systematic errors. We minimize the discrepancy between observations and simulations in terms of the differential measurements made on station pairs. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and in practice. We compare the sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relat...

  5. High Order Adjoint Derivatives using ESDIRK Methods for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    Capolei, Andrea; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    continuous adjoints . The high order integration scheme allows larger time steps and therefore faster solution times. We compare gradient computation by the continuous adjoint method to the discrete adjoint method and the finite-difference method. The methods are implemented for a two phase flow reservoir...... simulator. Computational experiments demonstrate that the accuracy of the sensitivities obtained by the adjoint methods are comparable to the accuracy obtained by the finite difference method. The continuous adjoint method is able to use a different time grid than the forward integration. Therefore, it can...

  6. Sensitivity analysis via reduced order adjoint method

    Notwithstanding the voluminous literature on adjoint sensitivity analysis, it has been generally dismissed by practitioners as cumbersome with limited value in realistic engineering models. This perception reflects two limitations about adjoint sensitivity analysis: a) its most effective application is limited to calculation of first-order variations; when higher order derivatives are required, it quickly becomes computationally inefficient; and b) the number of adjoint model evaluations depends on the number of responses, which renders it ineffective for multi-physics model where entire distributions, such as flux and power distribution, are often transferred between the various physics models. To overcome these challenges, this manuscript employs recent advances in reduced order modeling to re-cast the adjoint model equations into a form that renders its application to real reactor models practical. Past work applied reduced order modeling techniques to render reduction for general nonlinear high dimensional models by identifying mathematical subspaces, called active subspaces, that capture all dominant features of the model, including both linear and nonlinear variations. We demonstrate the application of these techniques to the calculation of first-order derivatives, or as commonly known sensitivity coefficients, for a fuel assembly model with many responses. We show that the computational cost becomes dependent on the physics model itself, via the so-called rank of the active subspace, rather than the number of responses or parameters. (author)

  7. A SYSTEMATIC FORMULATION OF THE CONTINUOUS ADJOINT METHOD APPLIED TO VISCOUS AERODYNAMIC DESIGN

    C. Castro*, C. Lozano**, F. Palacios*** and E. Zuazua****

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous adjoint approach to aerodynamic design for viscous compressible flows on unstructuredgrids is developed, and three important problems raised in the continuous adjoint literature are solved. First, using tools of shape deformation of boundary integrals a generic adjoint formulation is developed withindependence of the kind of mesh used. Then, a systematic way of reducing the 2nd order derivative terms which arise is presented which avoids the need of using higher order numerical solvers to obtain accurateapproximations of the 2nd order derivatives. And finally, the class of admissible optimization functionals isclarified. Several remarks are made concerning the longstanding discrete vs. continuous adjoint dichotomy, with the emphasis not on the advantages or disadvantages of each method, but rather on the well-posedness of the approaches. The accuracy of the sensitivity derivatives is assessed by comparison with finite-difference computations, and the validity of the overall methodology is illustrated with design examples under demanding subsonic conditions.

  8. Mesh-free adjoint methods for nonlinear filters

    Daum, Fred

    2005-09-01

    We apply a new industrial strength numerical approximation, called the "mesh-free adjoint method", to solve the nonlinear filtering problem. This algorithm exploits the smoothness of the problem, unlike particle filters, and hence we expect that mesh-free adjoints are superior to particle filters for many practical applications. The nonlinear filter problem is equivalent to solving the Fokker-Planck equation in real time. The key idea is to use a good adaptive non-uniform quantization of state space to approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. In particular, the adjoint method computes the location of the nodes in state space to minimize errors in the final answer. This use of an adjoint is analogous to optimal control algorithms, but it is more interesting. The adjoint method is also analogous to importance sampling in particle filters, but it is better for four reasons: (1) it exploits the smoothness of the problem; (2) it explicitly minimizes the errors in the relevant functional; (3) it explicitly models the dynamics in state space; and (4) it can be used to compute a corrected value for the desired functional using the residuals. We will attempt to make this paper accessible to normal engineers who do not have PDEs for breakfast.

  9. A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations

    Vishnampet, Ramanathan [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bodony, Daniel J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: jbfreund@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that

  10. STUDY ON THE ADJOINT METHOD IN DATA ASSIMILATION AND THE RELATED PROBLEMS

    吕咸青; 吴自库; 谷艺; 田纪伟

    2004-01-01

    It is not reasonable that one can only use the adjoint of model in data assimilation.The simulated numerical experiment shows that for the tidal model,the result of the adjoint of equation is almost the same as that of the adjoint of model:the averaged absolute difference of the amplitude between observations and simulation is less than 5.0 cm and that of the phase-lag is less than 5.0°.The results are both in good agreement with the observed M2 tide in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.For comparison,the traditional methods also have been used to simulate M2 tide in the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea.The initial guess values of the boundary conditions are given first,and then are adjusted to acquire the simulated results that are as close as possible to the observations.As the boundary conditions contain 72 values,which should be adjusted and how to adjust them can only be partially solved by adjusting them many times.The satisfied results are hard to acquire even gigantic efforts are done.Here,the automation of the treatment of the open boundary conditions is realized.The method is unique and superior to the traditional methods.It is emphasized that if the adjoint of equation is used,tedious and complicated mathematical deduction can be avoided.Therefore the adjoint of equation should attract much attention.

  11. Adjoint Formulation for an Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Method

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Murman, Scott M.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Many problems in aerodynamic design can be characterized by smooth and convex objective functions. This motivates the use of gradient-based algorithms, particularly for problems with a large number of design variables, to efficiently determine optimal shapes and configurations that maximize aerodynamic performance. Accurate and efficient computation of the gradient, however, remains a challenging task. In optimization problems where the number of design variables dominates the number of objectives and flow- dependent constraints, the cost of gradient computations can be significantly reduced by the use of the adjoint method. The problem of aerodynamic optimization using the adjoint method has been analyzed and validated for both structured and unstructured grids. The method has been applied to design problems governed by the potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes equations and can be subdivided into the continuous and discrete formulations. Giles and Pierce provide a detailed review of both approaches. Most implementations rely on grid-perturbation or mapping procedures during the gradient computation that explicitly couple changes in the surface shape to the volume grid. The solution of the adjoint equation is usually accomplished using the same scheme that solves the governing flow equations. Examples of such code reuse include multistage Runge-Kutta schemes coupled with multigrid, approximate-factorization, line-implicit Gauss-Seidel, and also preconditioned GMRES. The development of the adjoint method for aerodynamic optimization problems on Cartesian grids has been limited. In contrast to implementations on structured and unstructured grids, Cartesian grid methods decouple the surface discretization from the volume grid. This feature makes Cartesian methods well suited for the automated analysis of complex geometry problems, and consequently a promising approach to aerodynamic optimization. Melvin e t al. developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code

  12. The adjoint sensitivity method of global electromagnetic induction for CHAMP magnetic data

    Complete text of publication follows. Martinec and McCreadie (2004) developed a time-domain spectral-finite element approach for the forward modelling of electromagnetic induction vector data as measured by the CHAMP satellite. Here, we present a new method of computing the sensitivity of the CHAMP electromagnetic induction data on the Earth's mantle electrical conductivity, which we term the adjoint sensitivity method. The forward and adjoint initial boundary-value problems, both solved in the time domain, are identical, except for the specification of prescribed boundary conditions. The respective boundary-value data at the satellite's altitude are the X magnetic component measured by the CHAMP vector magnetometer along satellite tracks for the forward method and the difference between the measured and predicted Z magnetic component for the adjoint method. The squares of these differences summed up over all CHAMP tracks determine the misfit. The sensitivity of the CHAMP data, that is the partial derivatives of the misfit function with respect to mantle conductivity parameters, are then determined by the scalar product of the forward and adjoint solutions, multiplied by the gradient of the conductivity and integrated over all CHAMP tracks. Such exactly determined sensitivities are checked against numerical differentiation of the misfit, and very good agreement is obtained. The attractiveness of the adjoint method lies in the fact that the adjoint sensitivities are calculated for little cost, regardless of the number of conductivity parameters. However, since the adjoint solution proceeds backwards in time, the forward solution must be stored at each time step, leading to memory requirements that are linear with respect to the number of steps undertaken. Having determined the sensitivities, we apply the conjugate gradient method to infer 1-D and 2-D conductivity structures of the Earth based on the CHAMP residual time serie (after the subtraction of static field

  13. Integration of the adjoint gamma quantum transport equation by the Monte Carlo method

    Comparative description and analysis of the direct and adjoint algorithms of calculation of gamma-quantum transmission in shielding using the Monte Carlo method have been carried out. Adjoint estimations for a number of monoenergetic sources have been considered. A brief description of ''COMETA'' program for BESM-6 computer reazaling direct and adjoint algorithms is presented. The program is modular-constructed which allows to widen it the new module-units being joined. Results of solution by the adjoint branch of two analog problems as compared to the analytical data are presented. These results confirm high efficiency of ''COMETA'' program

  14. Use of adjoint methods in the probabilistic finite element approach to fracture mechanics

    Liu, Wing Kam; Besterfield, Glen; Lawrence, Mark; Belytschko, Ted

    1988-01-01

    The adjoint method approach to probabilistic finite element methods (PFEM) is presented. When the number of objective functions is small compared to the number of random variables, the adjoint method is far superior to the direct method in evaluating the objective function derivatives with respect to the random variables. The PFEM is extended to probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) using an element which has the near crack-tip singular strain field embedded. Since only two objective functions (i.e., mode I and II stress intensity factors) are needed for PFM, the adjoint method is well suited.

  15. Source attribution of particulate matter pollution over North China with the adjoint method

    We quantify the source contributions to surface PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) pollution over North China from January 2013 to 2015 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint with improved model horizontal resolution (1/4° × 5/16°) and aqueous-phase chemistry for sulfate production. The adjoint method attributes the PM2.5 pollution to emissions from different source sectors and chemical species at the model resolution. Wintertime surface PM2.5 over Beijing is contributed by emissions of organic carbon (27% of the total source contribution), anthropogenic fine dust (27%), and SO2 (14%), which are mainly from residential and industrial sources, followed by NH3 (13%) primarily from agricultural activities. About half of the Beijing pollution originates from sources outside of the city municipality. Adjoint analyses for other cities in North China all show significant regional pollution transport, supporting a joint regional control policy for effectively mitigating the PM2.5 air pollution. (letter)

  16. Source attribution of particulate matter pollution over North China with the adjoint method

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Licheng; Zhao, Yuanhong; Gong, Sunling; Zhang, Xiaoye; Henze, Daven K.; Capps, Shannon L.; Fu, Tzung-May; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Yuxuan

    2015-08-01

    We quantify the source contributions to surface PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) pollution over North China from January 2013 to 2015 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint with improved model horizontal resolution (1/4° × 5/16°) and aqueous-phase chemistry for sulfate production. The adjoint method attributes the PM2.5 pollution to emissions from different source sectors and chemical species at the model resolution. Wintertime surface PM2.5 over Beijing is contributed by emissions of organic carbon (27% of the total source contribution), anthropogenic fine dust (27%), and SO2 (14%), which are mainly from residential and industrial sources, followed by NH3 (13%) primarily from agricultural activities. About half of the Beijing pollution originates from sources outside of the city municipality. Adjoint analyses for other cities in North China all show significant regional pollution transport, supporting a joint regional control policy for effectively mitigating the PM2.5 air pollution.

  17. Adjoint transport methods for radiation-effects testing

    Adjoint transport has been exploited for some time for neutral particle calculations. For charged particles, however, production adjoint capability was not available until Morel developed the ability to solve coupled-photon-electron transport problems with production discrete ordinates codes. This represents a significant advance for many problems of interest, such as predicting bremsstrahlung yield from flash X-ray machines, internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP) for photons incident on printed circuit boards, shielding requirements for electron dosimetry, and dose enhancement from photon irradiation of printed circuit boards. The authors demonstrate here that adjoint photon-electron transport is at least an order of magnitude more efficient than forward transport for optimizing bremsstrahlung yield from flash X-ray machine converters. This problem is particularly interesting since adjoint transport provides a good approximation for a variable geometry in addition to a variable source, due to the highly forward-peaked nature of the electron scattering. Normally, neither forward nor adjoint transport is efficient for studying a variable-geometry problem

  18. A numerical adjoint parabolic equation (PE) method for tomography and geoacoustic inversion in shallow water

    Hermand, Jean-Pierre; Berrada, Mohamed; Meyer, Matthias; Asch, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Recently, an analytic adjoint-based method of optimal nonlocal boundary control has been proposed for inversion of a waveguide acoustic field using the wide-angle parabolic equation [Meyer and Hermand, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 2937-2948 (2005)]. In this paper a numerical extension of this approach is presented that allows the direct inversion for the geoacoustic parameters which are embedded in a spectral integral representation of the nonlocal boundary condition. The adjoint model is generated numerically and the inversion is carried out jointly across multiple frequencies. The paper further discusses the application of the numerical adjoint PE method for ocean acoustic tomography. To show the effectiveness of the implemented numerical adjoint, preliminary inversion results of water sound-speed profile and bottom acoustic properties will be shown for the YELLOW SHARK '94 experimental conditions.

  19. Adjoint Algorithm for CAD-Based Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Method

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Adjoint solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape optimization. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (geometric parameters that control the shape). More recently, emerging adjoint applications focus on the analysis problem, where the adjoint solution is used to drive mesh adaptation, as well as to provide estimates of functional error bounds and corrections. The attractive feature of this approach is that the mesh-adaptation procedure targets a specific functional, thereby localizing the mesh refinement and reducing computational cost. Our focus is on the development of adjoint-based optimization techniques for a Cartesian method with embedded boundaries.12 In contrast t o implementations on structured and unstructured grids, Cartesian methods decouple the surface discretization from the volume mesh. This feature makes Cartesian methods well suited for the automated analysis of complex geometry problems, and consequently a promising approach to aerodynamic optimization. Melvin et developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the Euler equations. In both approaches, a boundary condition is introduced to approximate the effects of the evolving surface shape that results in accurate gradient computation. Central to automated shape optimization algorithms is the issue of geometry modeling and control. The need to optimize complex, "real-life" geometry provides a strong incentive for the use of parametric-CAD systems within the optimization procedure. In previous work, we presented

  20. Comparison of three different methods of perturbing the potential vorticity field in mesoscale forecasts of Mediterranean heavy precipitation events: PV-gradient, PV-adjoint and PV-satellite

    Vich, M.; Romero, R.; Richard, E.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.

    2010-09-01

    Heavy precipitation events occur regularly in the western Mediterranean region. These events often have a high impact on the society due to economic and personal losses. The improvement of the mesoscale numerical forecasts of these events can be used to prevent or minimize their impact on the society. In previous studies, two ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) based on perturbing the model initial and boundary conditions were developed and tested for a collection of high-impact MEDEX cyclonic episodes. These EPSs perturb the initial and boundary potential vorticity (PV) field through a PV inversion algorithm. This technique ensures modifications of all the meteorological fields without compromising the mass-wind balance. One EPS introduces the perturbations along the zones of the three-dimensional PV structure presenting the local most intense values and gradients of the field (a semi-objective choice, PV-gradient), while the other perturbs the PV field over the MM5 adjoint model calculated sensitivity zones (an objective method, PV-adjoint). The PV perturbations are set from a PV error climatology (PVEC) that characterizes typical PV errors in the ECMWF forecasts, both in intensity and displacement. This intensity and displacement perturbation of the PV field is chosen randomly, while its location is given by the perturbation zones defined in each ensemble generation method. Encouraged by the good results obtained by these two EPSs that perturb the PV field, a new approach based on a manual perturbation of the PV field has been tested and compared with the previous results. This technique uses the satellite water vapor (WV) observations to guide the correction of initial PV structures. The correction of the PV field intents to improve the match between the PV distribution and the WV image, taking advantage of the relation between dark and bright features of WV images and PV anomalies, under some assumptions. Afterwards, the PV inversion algorithm is applied to run

  1. Reconstruction of ocean circulation from sparse data using the adjoint method: LGM and the present

    Kurahashi-Nakamura, T.; Losch, M. J.; Paul, A.; Mulitza, S.; Schulz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the behavior of the Earth's climate system under different conditions in the past is the basis for more robust projections of future climate. It is thought that the ocean circulation plays a very important role in the climate system, because it can greatly affect climate by dynamic-thermodynamic (as a medium of heat transport) and biogeochemical processes (by affecting the global carbon cycle). In this context, studying the period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is particularly promising, as it represents a climate state that is very different from today. Furthermore the LGM, compared to other paleoperiods, is characterized by a relatively good paleo-data coverage. Unfortunately, the ocean circulation during the LGM is still uncertain, with a range of climate models estimating both a stronger and a weaker formation rate of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) as compared to the present rate. Here, we present a project aiming at reducing this uncertainty by combining proxy data with a numerical ocean model using variational techniques. Our approach, the so-called adjoint method, employs a quadratic cost function of model-data differences weighted by their prior error estimates. We seek an optimal state estimate at the global minimum of the cost function by varying the independent control variables such as initial conditions (e.g. temperature), boundary conditions (e.g. surface winds, heat flux), or internal parameters (e.g. vertical diffusivity). The adjoint or dual model computes the gradient of the cost function with respect to these control variables and thus provides the information required by gradient descent algorithms. The gradients themselves provide valuable information about the sensitivity of the system to perturbations in the control variables. We use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (MITgcm) with a cubed-sphere grid system that avoids converging grid lines and pole singularities. This model code is

  2. Multi-objective optimization strategies using adjoint method and game theory in aerodynamics

    Zhili Tang

    2006-01-01

    There are currently three different game strategies originated in economics:(1) Cooperative games (Pareto front),(2)Competitive games (Nash game) and (3)Hierarchical games (Stackelberg game).Each game achieves different equilibria with different performance,and their players play different roles in the games.Here,we introduced game concept into aerodynamic design, and combined it with adjoint method to solve multicriteria aerodynamic optimization problems.The performance distinction of the equilibria of these three game strategies was investigated by numerical experiments.We computed Pareto front, Nash and Stackelberg equilibria of the same optimization problem with two conflicting and hierarchical targets under different parameterizations by using the deterministic optimization method.The numerical results show clearly that all the equilibria solutions are inferior to the Pareto front.Non-dominated Pareto front solutions are obtained,however the CPU cost to capture a set of solutions makes the Pareto front an expensive tool to the designer.

  3. Adaptive mesh refinement and adjoint methods in geophysics simulations

    Burstedde, Carsten

    2013-04-01

    required by human intervention and analysis. Specifying an objective functional that quantifies the misfit between the simulation outcome and known constraints and then minimizing it through numerical optimization can serve as an automated technique for parameter identification. As suggested by the similarity in formulation, the numerical algorithm is closely related to the one used for goal-oriented error estimation. One common point is that the so-called adjoint equation needs to be solved numerically. We will outline the derivation and implementation of these methods and discuss some of their pros and cons, supported by numerical results.

  4. Computing adjoint-weighted kinetics parameters in TRIPOLI-4® by the Iterated Fission Probability method

    Highlights: • We present a Monte Carlo method for computing the adjoint-weighted kinetics parameters via the IFP algorithm. • Extensive verification tests are performed on simple models. • Several validation tests are performed on the measured values of effective delayed neutron fraction and Rossi alpha. - Abstract: The analysis of neutron kinetics relies on the knowledge of adjoint-weighted kinetics parameters, which are key to safety issues in the context of transient or accidental reactor behavior. The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method allows the adjoint-weighted mean generation time and delayed neutron fraction to be computed within a Monte Carlo power iteration calculation. In this work we describe the specific features of the implementation of the IFP algorithm in the reference Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4® developed at CEA. Several verification and validation tests are discussed, and the impact of nuclear data libraries, IFP cycle length and inter-cycle correlations are analyzed in detail

  5. Assessing the Impact of Observations on Numerical Weather Forecasts Using the Adjoint Method

    Gelaro, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The adjoint of a data assimilation system provides a flexible and efficient tool for estimating observation impacts on short-range weather forecasts. The impacts of any or all observations can be estimated simultaneously based on a single execution of the adjoint system. The results can be easily aggregated according to data type, location, channel, etc., making this technique especially attractive for examining the impacts of new hyper-spectral satellite instruments and for conducting regular, even near-real time, monitoring of the entire observing system. This talk provides a general overview of the adjoint method, including the theoretical basis and practical implementation of the technique. Results are presented from the adjoint-based observation impact monitoring tool in NASA's GEOS-5 global atmospheric data assimilation and forecast system. When performed in conjunction with standard observing system experiments (OSEs), the adjoint results reveal both redundancies and dependencies between observing system impacts as observations are added or removed from the assimilation system. Understanding these dependencies may be important for optimizing the use of the current observational network and defining requirements for future observing systems

  6. Adjoint Parameter Sensitivity Analysis for the Hydrodynamic Lattice Boltzmann Method with Applications to Design Optimization

    Pingen, Georg; Evgrafov, Anton; Maute, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    We present an adjoint parameter sensitivity analysis formulation and solution strategy for the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The focus is on design optimization applications, in particular topology optimization. The lattice Boltzmann method is briefly described with an in-depth discussion of...... generalized geometry optimization formulation and derive the corresponding sensitivity analysis for the single relaxation LBM for both topology and shape optimization applications. Using numerical examples, we verify the accuracy of the analytical sensitivity analysis through a comparison with finite...... differences. In addition, we show that for fluidic topology optimization a scaled volume constraint should be used to obtain the desired "0-1" optimal solutions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Local-in-Time Adjoint-Based Method for Optimal Control/Design Optimization of Unsteady Compressible Flows

    Yamaleev, N. K.; Diskin, B.; Nielsen, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    .We study local-in-time adjoint-based methods for minimization of ow matching functionals subject to the 2-D unsteady compressible Euler equations. The key idea of the local-in-time method is to construct a very accurate approximation of the global-in-time adjoint equations and the corresponding sensitivity derivative by using only local information available on each time subinterval. In contrast to conventional time-dependent adjoint-based optimization methods which require backward-in-time integration of the adjoint equations over the entire time interval, the local-in-time method solves local adjoint equations sequentially over each time subinterval. Since each subinterval contains relatively few time steps, the storage cost of the local-in-time method is much lower than that of the global adjoint formulation, thus making the time-dependent optimization feasible for practical applications. The paper presents a detailed comparison of the local- and global-in-time adjoint-based methods for minimization of a tracking functional governed by the Euler equations describing the ow around a circular bump. Our numerical results show that the local-in-time method converges to the same optimal solution obtained with the global counterpart, while drastically reducing the memory cost as compared to the global-in-time adjoint formulation.

  8. On the Finite Volume Element Method for Self-Adjoint Parabolic Integrodifferential Equations

    Mohamed Bahaj; Anas Rachid

    2013-01-01

    Finite volume element schemes for non-self-adjoint parabolic integrodifferential equations are derived and stated. For the spatially discrete scheme, optimal-order error estimates in , , and , norms for are obtained. In this paper, we also study the lumped mass modification. Based on the Crank-Nicolson method, a time discretization scheme is discussed and related error estimates are derived.

  9. Method of tallying adjoint fluence and calculating kinetics parameters in Monte Carlo codes

    A method of using iterated fission probability to estimate the adjoint fluence during particles simulation, and using it as the weighting function to calculate kinetics parameters βeff and A in Monte Carlo codes, was introduced in this paper. Implements of this method in continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and multi-group Monte Carlo code MCMG are both elaborated. Verification results show that, with regardless additional computing cost, using this method, the adjoint fluence accounted by MCMG matches well with the result computed by ANISN, and the kinetics parameters calculated by MCNP agree very well with benchmarks. This method is proved to be reliable, and the function of calculating kinetics parameters in Monte Carlo codes is carried out effectively, which could be the basement for Monte Carlo codes' utility in the analysis of nuclear reactors' transient behavior. (authors)

  10. Active adjoint modeling method in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography for breast tumor.

    Zhu, Xiaozhang; Zhao, Zhiqin; Wang, Jinguo; Chen, Guoping; Liu, Qing Huo

    2014-07-01

    To improve the model-based inversion performance of microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography for breast tumor imaging, an active adjoint modeling (AAM) method is proposed. It aims to provide a more realistic breast acoustic model used for tumor inversion as the background by actively measuring and reconstructing the structural heterogeneity of human breast environment. It utilizes the reciprocity of acoustic sensors, and adapts the adjoint tomography method from seismic exploration. With the reconstructed acoustic model of breast environment, the performance of model-based inversion method such as time reversal mirror is improved significantly both in contrast and accuracy. To prove the advantage of AAM, a checkerboard pattern model and anatomical realistic breast models have been used in full wave numerical simulations. PMID:24956614

  11. Topology Optimization of Turbulent Fluid Flow with a Sensitive Porosity Adjoint Method (SPAM)

    Philippi, B

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive porosity adjoint method (SPAM) for optimizing the topology of fluid machines has been proposed. A sensitivity function with respect to the porosity has been developed. In the first step of the optimization process, porous media are introduced into the flow regime according to the sensitivity function. Then the optimized porous media are transformed to solid walls. The turbulent flow in porous media is accounted for by a modified eddy-viscosity based turbulence model. Its influence on the adjoint equations is nevertheless neglected, which refers to the so called frozen turbulence assumption. A test case of application in terms of the turbulent rough wall channel flow shows that a considerable reduction of the objective function can be obtained by this method. The transformation from porous media to solid walls may have important effect on the optimization results.

  12. Adjoint-based error estimation and mesh adaptation for the correction procedure via reconstruction method

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-08-01

    Adjoint-based mesh adaptive methods are capable of distributing computational resources to areas which are important for predicting an engineering output. In this paper, we develop an adjoint-based h-adaptation approach based on the high-order correction procedure via reconstruction formulation (CPR) to minimize the output or functional error. A dual-consistent CPR formulation of hyperbolic conservation laws is developed and its dual consistency is analyzed. Super-convergent functional and error estimate for the output with the CPR method are obtained. Factors affecting the dual consistency, such as the solution point distribution, correction functions, boundary conditions and the discretization approach for the non-linear flux divergence term, are studied. The presented method is then used to perform simulations for the 2D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with mesh adaptation driven by the adjoint-based error estimate. Several numerical examples demonstrate the ability of the presented method to dramatically reduce the computational cost comparing with uniform grid refinement.

  13. Solving Large-Scale Inverse Magnetostatic Problems using the Adjoint Method

    Bruckner, Florian; Wautischer, Gregor; Huber, Christian; Vogler, Christoph; Hinze, Michael; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for the reconstruction of the magnetization state within magnetic components is presented. The occurring inverse magnetostatic problem is solved by means of an adjoint approach, based on the Fredkin-Koehler method for the solution of the forward problem. Due to the use of hybrid FEM-BEM coupling combined with matrix compression techniques the resulting algorithm is well suited for large-scale problems. Furthermore the reconstruction of the magnetization state within a permanent magnet is demonstrated.

  14. Practical Aerodynamic Design Optimization Based on the Navier-Stokes Equations and a Discrete Adjoint Method

    Grossman, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    The technical details are summarized below: Compressible and incompressible versions of a three-dimensional unstructured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver have been differentiated and resulting derivatives have been verified by comparisons with finite differences and a complex-variable approach. In this implementation, the turbulence model is fully coupled with the flow equations in order to achieve this consistency. The accuracy demonstrated in the current work represents the first time that such an approach has been successfully implemented. The accuracy of a number of simplifying approximations to the linearizations of the residual have been examined. A first-order approximation to the dependent variables in both the adjoint and design equations has been investigated. The effects of a "frozen" eddy viscosity and the ramifications of neglecting some mesh sensitivity terms were also examined. It has been found that none of the approximations yielded derivatives of acceptable accuracy and were often of incorrect sign. However, numerical experiments indicate that an incomplete convergence of the adjoint system often yield sufficiently accurate derivatives, thereby significantly lowering the time required for computing sensitivity information. The convergence rate of the adjoint solver relative to the flow solver has been examined. Inviscid adjoint solutions typically require one to four times the cost of a flow solution, while for turbulent adjoint computations, this ratio can reach as high as eight to ten. Numerical experiments have shown that the adjoint solver can stall before converging the solution to machine accuracy, particularly for viscous cases. A possible remedy for this phenomenon would be to include the complete higher-order linearization in the preconditioning step, or to employ a simple form of mesh sequencing to obtain better approximations to the solution through the use of coarser meshes. . An efficient surface parameterization based

  15. First-arrival traveltime tomography for anisotropic media using the adjoint-state method

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2016-05-27

    Traveltime tomography using transmission data has been widely used for static corrections and for obtaining near-surface models for seismic depth imaging. More recently, it is also being used to build initial models for full-waveform inversion. The classic traveltime tomography approach based on ray tracing has difficulties in handling large data sets arising from current seismic acquisition surveys. Some of these difficulties can be addressed using the adjoint-state method, due to its low memory requirement and numerical efficiency. By coupling the gradient computation to nonlinear optimization, it avoids the need for explicit computation of the Fréchet derivative matrix. Furthermore, its cost is equivalent to twice the solution of the forward-modeling problem, irrespective of the size of the input data. The presence of anisotropy in the subsurface has been well established during the past few decades. The improved seismic images obtained by incorporating anisotropy into the seismic processing workflow justify the effort. However, previous literature on the adjoint-state method has only addressed the isotropic approximation of the subsurface. We have extended the adjoint-state technique for first-arrival traveltime tomography to vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media. Because δ is weakly resolvable from surface seismic alone, we have developed the mathematical framework and procedure to invert for vNMO and η. Our numerical tests on the VTI SEAM model demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to invert for near-surface model parameters and reveal the accuracy achievable by the algorithm.

  16. Adjoint-based deviational Monte Carlo methods for phonon transport calculations

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe M.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.

    2015-06-01

    In the field of linear transport, adjoint formulations exploit linearity to derive powerful reciprocity relations between a variety of quantities of interest. In this paper, we develop an adjoint formulation of the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonon transport. We use this formulation for accelerating deviational Monte Carlo simulations of complex, multiscale problems. Benefits include significant computational savings via direct variance reduction, or by enabling formulations which allow more efficient use of computational resources, such as formulations which provide high resolution in a particular phase-space dimension (e.g., spectral). We show that the proposed adjoint-based methods are particularly well suited to problems involving a wide range of length scales (e.g., nanometers to hundreds of microns) and lead to computational methods that can calculate quantities of interest with a cost that is independent of the system characteristic length scale, thus removing the traditional stiffness of kinetic descriptions. Applications to problems of current interest, such as simulation of transient thermoreflectance experiments or spectrally resolved calculation of the effective thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials, are presented and discussed in detail.

  17. Methods of Monte Carlo biasing using two-dimensional discrete ordinates adjoint flux

    Tang, J.S.; Stevens, P.N.; Hoffman, T.J.

    1976-06-01

    Methods of biasing three-dimensional deep penetration Monte Carlo calculations using importance functions obtained from a two-dimensional discrete ordinates adjoint calculation have been developed. The important distinction was made between the applications of the point value and the event value to alter the random walk in Monte Carlo analysis of radiation transport. The biasing techniques developed are the angular probability biasing which alters the collision kernel using the point value as the importance function and the path length biasing which alters the transport kernel using the event value as the importance function. Source location biasings using the step importance function and the scalar adjoint flux obtained from the two-dimensional discrete ordinates adjoint calculation were also investigated. The effects of the biasing techniques to Monte Carlo calculations have been investigated for neutron transport through a thick concrete shield with a penetrating duct. Source location biasing, angular probability biasing, and path length biasing were employed individually and in various combinations. Results of the biased Monte Carlo calculations were compared with the standard Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates calculations.

  18. Continuous-Energy Adjoint Flux and Perturbation Calculation using the Iterated Fission Probability Method in Monte Carlo Code TRIPOLI-4® and Underlying Applications

    Truchet, G.; Leconte, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Santamarina, A.; Malvagi, F.

    2014-06-01

    Pile-oscillation experiments are performed in the MINERVE reactor at the CEA Cadarache to improve nuclear data accuracy. In order to precisely calculate small reactivity variations (TRIPOLI-4® by using the eigenvalue difference method. This "direct" method has shown limitations in the evaluation of very small reactivity effects because it needs to reach a very small variance associated to the reactivity in both states. To answer this problem, it has been decided to implement the exact perturbation theory in TRIPOLI-4® and, consequently, to calculate a continuous-energy adjoint flux. The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method was chosen because it has shown great results in some other Monte Carlo codes. The IFP method uses a forward calculation to compute the adjoint flux, and consequently, it does not rely on complex code modifications but on the physical definition of the adjoint flux as a phase-space neutron importance. In the first part of this paper, the IFP method implemented in TRIPOLI-4® is described. To illustrate the effciency of the method, several adjoint fluxes are calculated and compared with their equivalent obtained by the deterministic code APOLLO-2. The new implementation can calculate angular adjoint flux. In the second part, a procedure to carry out an exact perturbation calculation is described. A single cell benchmark has been used to test the accuracy of the method, compared with the "direct" estimation of the perturbation. Once again the method based on the IFP shows good agreement for a calculation time far more inferior to the "direct" method. The main advantage of the method is that the relative accuracy of the reactivity variation does not depend on the magnitude of the variation itself, which allows us to calculate very small reactivity perturbations with high precision. Other applications of this perturbation method are presented and tested like the calculation of exact kinetic parameters (βeff, Λeff) or sensitivity parameters.

  19. Reentry-Vehicle Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Adjoint Method and CAD Geometry

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A DJOINT solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (e.g., geometric parameters that control the shape). Classic aerodynamic applications of gradient-based optimization include the design of cruise configurations for transonic and supersonic flow, as well as the design of high-lift systems. are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric computer-aided design (CAD). In previous work on Cartesian adjoint solvers, Melvin et al. developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the two-dimensional Euler equations using a ghost-cell method to enforce the wall boundary conditions. In Refs. 18 and 19, we presented an accurate and efficient algorithm for the solution of the adjoint Euler equations discretized on Cartesian meshes with embedded, cut-cell boundaries. Novel aspects of the algorithm were the computation of surface shape sensitivities for triangulations based on parametric-CAD models and the linearization of the coupling between the surface triangulation and the cut-cells. The accuracy of the gradient computation was verified using several three-dimensional test cases, which included design

  20. An Evaluation of the Adjoint Flux Using the Collision Probability Method for the Hybrid Monte Carlo Radiation Shielding Analysis

    It is noted that the analog Monte Carlo method has low calculation efficiency at deep penetration problems such as radiation shielding analysis. In order to increase the calculation efficiency, variance reduction techniques have been introduced and applied for the shielding calculation. To optimize the variance reduction technique, the hybrid Monte Carlo method was introduced. For the determination of the parameters using the hybrid Monte Carlo method, the adjoint flux should be calculated by the deterministic methods. In this study, the collision probability method is applied to calculate adjoint flux. The solution of integration transport equation in the collision probability method is modified to calculate the adjoint flux approximately even for complex and arbitrary geometries. For the calculation, C++ program is developed. By using the calculated adjoint flux, importance parameters of each cell in shielding material are determined and used for variance reduction of transport calculation. In order to evaluate calculation efficiency with the proposed method, shielding calculations are performed with MCNPX 2.7. In this study, a method to calculate the adjoint flux in using the Monte Carlo variance reduction was proposed to improve Monte Carlo calculation efficiency of thick shielding problem. The importance parameter for each cell of shielding material is determined by calculating adjoint flux with the modified collision probability method. In order to calculate adjoint flux with the proposed method, C++ program is developed. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently increase the FOM of transport calculation. It is expected that the proposed method can be utilize for the calculation efficiency in thick shielding calculation

  1. Development of an adjoint sensitivity method for site characterization, uncertainty analysis, and code calibration/validation

    Lu, A.H.

    1991-09-01

    The adjoint method is applied to groundwater flow-mass transport coupled equations in variably saturated media. The sensitivity coefficients derived by this method can be calculated by a single execution for each performance measure regardless of the number of parameters in question. The method provides an efficient and effective way to rank the importance of the parameters, so that data collection can be guided in support of site characterization programs. The developed code will facilitate the sensitivity/uncertainty analysis in both model prediction and model calibration/validation. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Development of an adjoint sensitivity method for site characterization, uncertainty analysis, and code calibration/validation

    The adjoint method is applied to groundwater flow-mass transport coupled equations in variably saturated media. The sensitivity coefficients derived by this method can be calculated by a single execution for each performance measure regardless of the number of parameters in question. The method provides an efficient and effective way to rank the importance of the parameters, so that data collection can be guided in support of site characterization programs. The developed code will facilitate the sensitivity/uncertainty analysis in both model prediction and model calibration/validation. 13 refs., 1 tab

  3. Adjoint code generator

    CHENG Qiang; CAO JianWen; WANG Bin; ZHANG HaiBin

    2009-01-01

    The adjoint code generator (ADG) is developed to produce the adjoint codes, which are used to analytically calculate gradients and the Hessian-vector products with the costs independent of the number of the independent variables. Different from other automatic differentiation tools, the implementation of ADG has advantages of using the least program behavior decomposition method and several static dependence analysis techniques. In this paper we first address the concerned concepts and fundamentals, and then introduce the functionality and the features of ADG. In particular, we also discuss the design architecture of ADG and implementation details including the recomputation and storing strategy and several techniques for code optimization. Some experimental results in several applications are presented at the end.

  4. The Adjoint Method Formulation for an Inverse Problem in the Generalized Black-Scholes Model

    PIERRE NGNEPIEBA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A general framework is developed to treat optimal control problems for a generalized Black-Scholes model, which is used for option pricing. The volatility function is retrieved from a set of market observations. The optimal volatility function is found by minimizing the cost functional measuring the discrepancy between the model solution (pricing and the observed market price, via the unconstrained minimization algorithm of the quasi-Newton limited memory type. The gradient is computed via the adjoint method. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on an European call option.

  5. Adjoint Sensitivity Computations for an Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Mesh Method and CAD Geometry

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis,Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Cartesian-mesh methods are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. Our goal is to combine the automation capabilities of Cartesian methods with an eficient computation of design sensitivities. We address this issue using the adjoint method, where the computational cost of the design sensitivities, or objective function gradients, is esseutially indepeudent of the number of design variables. In previous work, we presented an accurate and efficient algorithm for the solution of the adjoint Euler equations discretized on Cartesian meshes with embedded, cut-cell boundaries. Novel aspects of the algorithm included the computation of surface shape sensitivities for triangulations based on parametric-CAD models and the linearization of the coupling between the surface triangulation and the cut-cells. The objective of the present work is to extend our adjoint formulation to problems involving general shape changes. Central to this development is the computation of volume-mesh sensitivities to obtain a reliable approximation of the objective finction gradient. Motivated by the success of mesh-perturbation schemes commonly used in body-fitted unstructured formulations, we propose an approach based on a local linearization of a mesh-perturbation scheme similar to the spring analogy. This approach circumvents most of the difficulties that arise due to non-smooth changes in the cut-cell layer as the boundary shape evolves and provides a consistent approximation tot he exact gradient of the discretized abjective function. A detailed gradient accurace study is presented to verify our approach

  6. Aerodynamic Optimization of the Nose Shape of a Train Using the Adjoint Method

    Jorge Munoz-Paniagua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjoint method is used in this paper for the aerodynamic optimization of the nose shape of a train. This method has been extensively applied in aircraft or ground vehicle aerodynamic optimization, but is still in progress in train aerodynamics. Here we consider this innovative optimization method and present its application to reduce the aerodynamic drag when the train is subjected to front wind. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, highlighting the requirements, limitations and capabilities of it. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the aerodynamic drag in a short number of solver calls is aimed as well. The independence of the computational cost with respect to the number of design variables that define the optimal candidate is stressed as the most interesting characteristic of the adjoint method. This behavior permits a more complete modification of the shape of the train nose because the number of design variables is not a constraint anymore. The information obtained from the sensitivity field permits determining the regions of the geometry where a small modification of the nose shape might introduce a larger improvement of the train performance. A good agreement between this information and the successive geometry modifications is observed here.

  7. Parallelized Three-Dimensional Resistivity Inversion Using Finite Elements And Adjoint State Methods

    Schaa, Ralf; Gross, Lutz; Du Plessis, Jaco

    2015-04-01

    The resistivity method is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods, which employs one pair of electrodes to inject current into the ground and one or more pairs of electrodes to measure the electrical potential difference. The potential difference is a non-linear function of the subsurface resistivity distribution described by an elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) of the Poisson type. Inversion of measured potentials solves for the subsurface resistivity represented by PDE coefficients. With increasing advances in multichannel resistivity acquisition systems (systems with more than 60 channels and full waveform recording are now emerging), inversion software require efficient storage and solver algorithms. We developed the finite element solver Escript, which provides a user-friendly programming environment in Python to solve large-scale PDE-based problems (see https://launchpad.net/escript-finley). Using finite elements, highly irregular shaped geology and topography can readily be taken into account. For the 3D resistivity problem, we have implemented the secondary potential approach, where the PDE is decomposed into a primary potential caused by the source current and the secondary potential caused by changes in subsurface resistivity. The primary potential is calculated analytically, and the boundary value problem for the secondary potential is solved using nodal finite elements. This approach removes the singularity caused by the source currents and provides more accurate 3D resistivity models. To solve the inversion problem we apply a 'first optimize then discretize' approach using the quasi-Newton scheme in form of the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) method (see Gross & Kemp 2013). The evaluation of the cost function requires the solution of the secondary potential PDE for each source current and the solution of the corresponding adjoint-state PDE for the cost function gradients with respect to the subsurface

  8. Source attribution of PM2.5 pollution over North China using the adjoint method

    Zhang, L.; Liu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Conventional methods for source attribution of air pollution are based on measurement statistics (such as Positive Matrix Factorization) or sensitivity simulations with a chemical transport model (CTM). These methods generally ignore the nonlinear chemistry associated with the pollution formation or require unaffordable computational time. Here we use the adjoint of GEOS-Chem CTM at 0.25x0.3125 degree resolution to examine the sources contributing to the PM2.5 pollution over North China in winter 2013. We improved the model sulfate simulation by implementing the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) by nitrogen dioxide. The adjoint results provide detailed source information at the model underlying grid resolution including source types and sectors. We show that PM2.5 pollution over Beijing and Baoding (Hebei) in winter was largely contributed by the large-scale residential and industrial burnings, and ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture activities. Nearly half of pollution was transported from outside of the city domains, and accumulated over 2-3 days. We also show under the current emission conditions, the PM2.5 concentrations over North China are more sensitive to NH3 emissions than NOx and SO2 emissions.

  9. A finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method for solution of the advection-dispersion equation

    Healy, R.W.; Russell, T.F.

    1993-01-01

    Test results demonstrate that the finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method (FVELLAM) outperforms standard finite-difference methods for solute transport problems that are dominated by advection. FVELLAM systematically conserves mass globally with all types of boundary conditions. Integrated finite differences, instead of finite elements, are used to approximate the governing equation. This approach, in conjunction with a forward tracking scheme, greatly facilitates mass conservation. The mass storage integral is numerically evaluated at the current time level, and quadrature points are then tracked forward in time to the next level. Forward tracking permits straightforward treatment of inflow boundaries, thus avoiding the inherent problem in backtracking of characteristic lines intersecting inflow boundaries. FVELLAM extends previous results by obtaining mass conservation locally on Lagrangian space-time elements. -from Authors

  10. The method of rigged spaces in singular perturbation theory of self-adjoint operators

    Koshmanenko, Volodymyr; Koshmanenko, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents the newly developed method of rigged Hilbert spaces as a modern approach in singular perturbation theory. A key notion of this approach is the Lax-Berezansky triple of Hilbert spaces embedded one into another, which specifies the well-known Gelfand topological triple. All kinds of singular interactions described by potentials supported on small sets (like the Dirac δ-potentials, fractals, singular measures, high degree super-singular expressions) admit a rigorous treatment only in terms of the equipped spaces and their scales. The main idea of the method is to use singular perturbations to change inner products in the starting rigged space, and the construction of the perturbed operator by the Berezansky canonical isomorphism (which connects the positive and negative spaces from a new rigged triplet). The approach combines three powerful tools of functional analysis based on the Birman-Krein-Vishik theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators, the theory of singular quadra...

  11. Discrete SLn-connections and self-adjoint difference operators on 2-dimensional manifolds

    The programme of discretization of famous completely integrable systems and associated linear operators was launched in the 1990s. In particular, the properties of second-order difference operators on triangulated manifolds and equilateral triangular lattices have been studied by Novikov and Dynnikov since 1996. This study included Laplace transformations, new discretizations of complex analysis, and new discretizations of GLn-connections on triangulated n-dimensional manifolds. A general theory of discrete GLn-connections 'of rank one' has been developed (see the Introduction for definitions). The problem of distinguishing the subclass of SLn-connections (and unimodular SLn± -connections, which satisfy detA = ±1) has not been solved. In the present paper it is shown that these connections play an important role (which is similar to the role of magnetic fields in the continuous case) in the theory of self-adjoint Schrödinger difference operators on equilateral triangular lattices in ℝ2. In Appendix 1 a complete characterization is given of unimodular SLn± -connections of rank 1 for all n > 1, thus correcting a mistake (it was wrongly claimed that they reduce to a canonical connection for n > 2). With the help of a communication from Korepanov, a complete clarification is provided of how the classical theory of electrical circuits and star-triangle transformations is connected with the discrete Laplace transformations on triangular lattices. Bibliography: 29 titles

  12. Recent advances in the spectral green's function method for monoenergetic slab-geometry fixed-source adjoint transport problems in S{sub N} formulation

    Curbelo, Jesus P.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: jperez@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional; Hernandez, Carlos R.G., E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2015-07-01

    The spectral Green's function (SGF) method is a numerical method that is free of spatial truncation errors for slab-geometry fixed-source discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) adjoint problems. The method is based on the standard spatially discretized adjoint S{sub N} balance equations and a nonstandard adjoint auxiliary equation expressing the node-average adjoint angular flux, in each discretization node, as a weighted combination of the node-edge outgoing adjoint fluxes. The auxiliary equation contains parameters which act as Green's functions for the cell-average adjoint angular flux. These parameters are determined by means of a spectral analysis which yields the local general solution of the S{sub N} equations within each node of the discretization grid. In this work a number of advances in the SGF adjoint method are presented: the method is extended to adjoint S{sub N} problems considering linearly anisotropic scattering and non-zero prescribed boundary conditions for the forward source-detector problem. Numerical results to typical model problems are considered to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the o offered method. (author)

  13. Recent advances in the spectral green's function method for monoenergetic slab-geometry fixed-source adjoint transport problems in SN formulation

    The spectral Green's function (SGF) method is a numerical method that is free of spatial truncation errors for slab-geometry fixed-source discrete ordinates (SN) adjoint problems. The method is based on the standard spatially discretized adjoint SN balance equations and a nonstandard adjoint auxiliary equation expressing the node-average adjoint angular flux, in each discretization node, as a weighted combination of the node-edge outgoing adjoint fluxes. The auxiliary equation contains parameters which act as Green's functions for the cell-average adjoint angular flux. These parameters are determined by means of a spectral analysis which yields the local general solution of the SN equations within each node of the discretization grid. In this work a number of advances in the SGF adjoint method are presented: the method is extended to adjoint SN problems considering linearly anisotropic scattering and non-zero prescribed boundary conditions for the forward source-detector problem. Numerical results to typical model problems are considered to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the o offered method. (author)

  14. Comparison of Evolutionary (Genetic) Algorithm and Adjoint Methods for Multi-Objective Viscous Airfoil Optimizations

    Pulliam, T. H.; Nemec, M.; Holst, T.; Zingg, D. W.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comparison between an Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and an Adjoint-Gradient (AG) Method applied to a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code for airfoil design is presented. Both approaches use a common function evaluation code, the steady-state explicit part of the code,ARC2D. The parameterization of the design space is a common B-spline approach for an airfoil surface, which together with a common griding approach, restricts the AG and EA to the same design space. Results are presented for a class of viscous transonic airfoils in which the optimization tradeoff between drag minimization as one objective and lift maximization as another, produces the multi-objective design space. Comparisons are made for efficiency, accuracy and design consistency.

  15. Adjoint problem in duct acoustics and its reciprocity to forward problem by the Time Domain Wave Packet method

    Kocaogul, Ibrahim; Hu, Fang; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    Radiation of acoustic waves at all frequencies can be obtained by Time Domain Wave Packet (TDWP) method in a single time domain computation. Other benefit of the TDWP method is that it makes possible the separation of acoustic and instability wave in the shear flow. The TDWP method is also particularly useful for computations in the ducted or waveguide environments where incident wave modes can be imposed cleanly without a potentially long transient period. The adjoint equations for the linearized Euler equations are formulated for the Cartesian coordinates. Analytical solution for adjoint equations is derived by using Green's function in 2D and 3D. The derivation of reciprocal relations is presented for closed and open ducts. The adjoint equations are then solved numerically in reversed time by the TDWP method. Reciprocal relation between the duct mode amplitudes and far field point sources in the presence of the exhaust shear flow is computed and confirmed numerically. Applications of the adjoint problem to closed and open ducts are also presented.

  16. New optimality criteria methods - Forcing uniqueness of the adjoint strains by corner-rounding at constraint intersections

    Rozvany, G. I. N.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.

    1992-01-01

    In new, iterative continuum-based optimality criteria (COC) methods, the strain in the adjoint structure becomes non-unique if the number of active local constraints is greater than the number of design variables for an element. This brief note discusses the use of smooth envelope functions (SEFs) in overcoming economically computational problems caused by the above non-uniqueness.

  17. An investigation of the adjoint method for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning using Monte Carlo transport

    A relatively new technique for achieving the right dose to the right tissue, is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, a megavoltage x-ray beam is rotated around a patient, and the intensity and shape of the beam is modulated as a function of source position and patient anatomy. The relationship between beam-let intensity and patient dose can be expressed under a matrix form where the matrix Dij represents the dose delivered to voxel i by beam-let j per unit fluence. The Dij influence matrix is the key element that enables this approach. In this regard, sensitivity theory lends itself in a natural way to the process of computing beam weights for treatment planning. The solution of the adjoint form of the Boltzmann equation is an adjoint function that describes the importance of particles throughout the system in contributing to the detector response. In this case, adjoint methods can provide the sensitivity of the dose at a single point in the patient with respect to all points in the source field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using the adjoint method and Monte Carlo transport for radiation therapy treatment planning

  18. Solution of the advection-dispersion equation by a finite-volume eulerian-lagrangian local adjoint method

    Healy, R.W.; Russell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    A finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian local adjoint method for solution of the advection-dispersion equation is developed and discussed. The method is mass conservative and can solve advection-dominated ground-water solute-transport problems accurately and efficiently. An integrated finite-difference approach is used in the method. A key component of the method is that the integral representing the mass-storage term is evaluated numerically at the current time level. Integration points, and the mass associated with these points, are then forward tracked up to the next time level. The number of integration points required to reach a specified level of accuracy is problem dependent and increases as the sharpness of the simulated solute front increases. Integration points are generally equally spaced within each grid cell. For problems involving variable coefficients it has been found to be advantageous to include additional integration points at strategic locations in each well. These locations are determined by backtracking. Forward tracking of boundary fluxes by the method alleviates problems that are encountered in the backtracking approaches of most characteristic methods. A test problem is used to illustrate that the new method offers substantial advantages over other numerical methods for a wide range of problems.

  19. A New Method for Computing Three-Dimensional Capture Fraction in Heterogeneous Regional Systems using the MODFLOW Adjoint Code

    Clemo, T. M.; Ramarao, B.; Kelly, V. A.; Lavenue, M.

    2011-12-01

    Capture is a measure of the impact of groundwater pumping upon groundwater and surface water systems. The computation of capture through analytical or numerical methods has been the subject of articles in the literature for several decades (Bredehoeft et al., 1982). Most recently Leake et al. (2010) described a systematic way to produce capture maps in three-dimensional systems using a numerical perturbation approach in which capture from streams was computed using unit rate pumping at many locations within a MODFLOW model. The Leake et al. (2010) method advances the current state of computing capture. A limitation stems from the computational demand required by the perturbation approach wherein days or weeks of computational time might be required to obtain a robust measure of capture. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute capture in three-dimensional systems based upon adjoint states. The efficiency of the adjoint method will enable uncertainty analysis to be conducted on capture calculations. The USGS and INTERA have collaborated to extend the MODFLOW Adjoint code (Clemo, 2007) to include stream-aquifer interaction and have applied it to one of the examples used in Leake et al. (2010), the San Pedro Basin MODFLOW model. With five layers and 140,800 grid blocks per layer, the San Pedro Basin model, provided an ideal example data set to compare the capture computed from the perturbation and the adjoint methods. The capture fraction map produced from the perturbation method for the San Pedro Basin model required significant computational time to compute and therefore the locations for the pumping wells were limited to 1530 locations in layer 4. The 1530 direct simulations of capture require approximately 76 CPU hours. Had capture been simulated in each grid block in each layer, as is done in the adjoint method, the CPU time would have been on the order of 4 years. The MODFLOW-Adjoint produced the capture fraction map of the San Pedro Basin model

  20. The adjoint sensitivity method. A contribution to the code uncertainty evaluation

    The application of the ASM (Adjoint Sensitivity Method) to thermohydraulic codes, is examined. The advantage of the method is to be very few CPU time consuming in comparison with usual approach requiring one complete code run per sensitivity determination. The mathematical aspects of the problem are first described, and the applicability of the method of the functional-type response of a thermalhydraulic model is demonstrated. On a simple example of non linear hyperbolic equation (Burgers equation) the problem has been analyzed. It is shown that the formalism used in the literature treating this subject is not appropriate. A new mathematical formalism circumventing the problem is proposed. For the discretized form of the problem, two methods are possible: the Continuous ASM and the Discrete ASM. The equivalence of both methods is demonstrated; nevertheless only the DASM constitutes a practical solution for thermalhydraulic codes. The application of the DASM to the thermalhydraulic safety code CATHARE is then presented for two examples. They demonstrate that ASM constitutes an efficient tool for the analysis of code sensitivity. (authors) 7 figs., 5 tabs., 8 refs

  1. The adjoint sensitivity method, a contribution to the code uncertainty evaluation

    The application of the ASM (Adjoint Sensitivity Method) to thermohydraulic codes, is examined. The advantage of the method is to be very few CPU time consuming in comparison with usual approach requiring one complete code run per sensitivity determination. The mathematical aspects of the problem are first described, and the applicability of the method of the functional-type response of a thermalhydraulic model is demonstrated. On a simple example of non linear hyperbolic equation (Burgers equation) the problem has been analyzed. It is shown that the formalism used in the literature treating this subject is not appropriate. A new mathematical formalism circumventing the problem is proposed. For the discretized form of the problem, two methods are possible: the Continuous ASM and the Discrete ASM. The equivalence of both methods is demonstrated; nevertheless only the DASM constitutes a practical solution for thermalhydraulic codes. The application of the DASM to the thermalhydraulic safety code CATHARE is then presented for two examples. They demonstrate that ASM constitutes an efficient tool for the analysis of code sensitivity. (authors) 7 figs., 5 tabs., 8 refs

  2. Globally Conservative, Hybrid Self-Adjoint Angular Flux and Least-Squares Method Compatible with Void

    Laboure, Vincent M; Wang, Yaqi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a method for the second-order form of the transport equation that is both globally conservative and compatible with voids, using Continuous Finite Element Methods (CFEM). The main idea is to use the Least-Squares (LS) form of the transport equation in the void regions and the Self-Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) form elsewhere. While the SAAF formulation is globally conservative, the LS formulation need a correction in void. The price to pay for this fix is the loss of symmetry of the bilinear form. We first derive this Conservative LS (CLS) formulation in void. Second we combine the SAAF and CLS forms and end up with an hybrid SAAF-CLS method, having the desired properties. We show that extending the theory to near-void regions is a minor complication and can be done without affecting the global conservation of the scheme. Being angular discretization agnostic, this method can be applied to both discrete ordinates (SN) and spherical harmonics (PN) methods. However, since a globally conse...

  3. Simplification process of safety assessment model for engineered barrier system by using adjoint sensitivity analysis method

    Sensitivity analyses for mass transport model in porous media were performed by using adjoint method. The mass transport model employed is to evaluate the performance of engineered barrier of shallow land disposal, assuming that water flows through a cylinder packed with sand. In this model instantaneous sorption equilibrium between liquid and solid phases is assumed and two types of boundary conditions which represent the nuclide release from waste package, i.e. solubility-limited case and constant leaching case, are considered. From the sensitivity analysis, it was shown that the effect of longitudinal dispersion on performance measure is very small and calculated normalized sensitivity is in the order 10-4∼10-3 around the most probable value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This suggests that the term of longitudinal dispersion can be removed from the original model. In this case analytical solution is easily introduced for two boundary conditions respectively to evaluate the performance measure of the barrier system. These simplified models, in fact, gives larger estimate of the nuclide release from the engineered barrier system than that calculated from the model considering the longitudinal dispersion. They are acceptable from the standpoint of conservatism of safety assessment. (author)

  4. A three-dimensional finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method (ELLAM) for solute-transport modeling

    Heberton, C.I.; Russell, T.F.; Konikow, L.F.; Hornberger, G.Z.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the U.S. Geological Survey Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method (ELLAM) algorithm that solves an integral form of the solute-transport equation, incorporating an implicit-in-time difference approximation for the dispersive and sink terms. Like the algorithm in the original version of the U.S. Geological Survey MOC3D transport model, ELLAM uses a method of characteristics approach to solve the transport equation on the basis of the velocity field. The ELLAM algorithm, however, is based on an integral formulation of conservation of mass and uses appropriate numerical techniques to obtain global conservation of mass. The implicit procedure eliminates several stability criteria required for an explicit formulation. Consequently, ELLAM allows large transport time increments to be used. ELLAM can produce qualitatively good results using a small number of transport time steps. A description of the ELLAM numerical method, the data-input requirements and output options, and the results of simulator testing and evaluation are presented. The ELLAM algorithm was evaluated for the same set of problems used to test and evaluate Version 1 and Version 2 of MOC3D. These test results indicate that ELLAM offers a viable alternative to the explicit and implicit solvers in MOC3D. Its use is desirable when mass balance is imperative or a fast, qualitative model result is needed. Although accurate solutions can be generated using ELLAM, its efficiency relative to the two previously documented solution algorithms is problem dependent.

  5. The development of three-dimensional adjoint method for flow control with blowing in convergent-divergent nozzle flows

    Sikarwar, Nidhi

    multiple experiments or numerical simulations. Alternatively an inverse design method can be used. An adjoint optimization method can be used to achieve the optimum blowing rate. It is shown that the method works for both geometry optimization and active control of the flow in order to deflect the flow in desirable ways. An adjoint optimization method is described. It is used to determine the blowing distribution in the diverging section of a convergent-divergent nozzle that gives a desired pressure distribution in the nozzle. Both the direct and adjoint problems and their associated boundary conditions are developed. The adjoint method is used to determine the blowing distribution required to minimize the shock strength in the nozzle to achieve a known target pressure and to achieve close to an ideally expanded flow pressure. A multi-block structured solver is developed to calculate the flow solution and associated adjoint variables. Two and three-dimensional calculations are performed for internal and external of the nozzle domains. A two step MacCormack scheme based on predictor- corrector technique is was used for some calculations. The four and five stage Runge-Kutta schemes are also used to artificially march in time. A modified Runge-Kutta scheme is used to accelerate the convergence to a steady state. Second order artificial dissipation has been added to stabilize the calculations. The steepest decent method has been used for the optimization of the blowing velocity after the gradients of the cost function with respect to the blowing velocity are calculated using adjoint method. Several examples are given of the optimization of blowing using the adjoint method.

  6. The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat the cancerous tissue. With radiotherapy, the x-ray source is usually located at a distance of about 1-meter from the patient and focused on the treatment area. For brachytherapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal placement of the radioactive sources, which delivers the prescribed dose to the disease tissue while simultaneously sparing (reducing) the dose to sensitive tissue and organs. For external beam radiation therapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal direction and intensity of beam, which provides complete coverage of the tumor region with the prescribed dose while simultaneously avoiding sensitive tissue areas. For both therapy methods, the optimal treatment plan is one in which the diseased tissue has been treated with the prescribed dose and dose to the sensitive tissue and organs has been kept to a minimum

  7. The adjoint method of data assimilation used operationally for shelf circulation

    Griffin, David A.; Thompson, Keith R.

    1996-02-01

    A real-time shelf circulation model with data assimilation has been successfully used, possibly for the first time, on the outer Nova Scotian Shelf. The adjoint method was used to infer the time histories of flows across the four open boundaries of a 60 km × 60 km shallow-water equation model of Western Bank. The aim was to hindcast and nowcast currents over the bank so that a patch of water (initially 15 km in diameter) could be resampled over a 3-week period as part of a study of the early life history of Atlantic cod. Observations available in near real time for assimilation were from 14 drifting buoys, 2 telemetering moored current meters, the ship's acoustic Doppler current profiler and the local wind. For the postcruise hindcasts presented here, data from two bottom pressure gauges and two more current meters are also available. The experiment was successful, and the patch was sampled over a 19-day period that included two intense storms. In this paper we (1) document the model and how the data are assimilated, (2) present and discuss the observations, (3) demonstrate that the interpolative skill of the model exceeds that of simpler schemes that use just the current velocity data, and (4) provide examples of how particle tracking with the model enables asynoptically acquired data to be displayed as synoptic maps, greatly facilitating both underway cruise planning and postcruise data analysis. An interesting feature of the circulation on the bank was a nearly stationary eddy atop the bank crest. Larvae within the eddy were retained on the bank in a favorable environment until the onset of the storms. The variable integrity of the eddy may contribute to fluctuations of year-class success.

  8. The forward and adjoint sensitivity methods of glacial isostatic adjustment: Existence, uniqueness and time-differencing scheme

    Martinec, Zdenek; Sasgen, Ingo; Velimsky, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    In this study, two new methods for computing the sensitivity of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) forward solution with respect to the Earth's mantle viscosity are presented: the forward sensitivity method (FSM) and the adjoint sensitivity method (ASM). These advanced formal methods are based on the time-domain,spectral-finite element method for modelling the GIA response of laterally heterogeneous earth models developed by Martinec (2000). There are many similarities between the forward method and the FSM and ASM for a general physical system. However, in the case of GIA, there are also important differences between the forward and sensitivity methods. The analysis carried out in this study results in the following findings. First, the forward method of GIA is unconditionally solvable, regardless of whether or not a combined ice and ocean-water load contains the first-degree spherical harmonics. This is also the case for the FSM, however, the ASM must in addition be supplemented by nine conditions on the misfit between the given GIA-related data and the forward model predictions to guarantee the existence of a solution. This constrains the definition of data least-squares misfit. Second, the forward method of GIA implements an ocean load as a free boundary-value function over an ocean area with a free geometry. That is, an ocean load and the shape of ocean, the so-called ocean function, are being sought, in addition to deformation and gravity-increment fields, by solving the forward method. The FSM and ASM also apply the adjoint ocean load as a free boundary-value function, but instead over an ocean area with the fixed geometry given by the ocean function determined by the forward method. In other words, a boundary-value problem for the forward method of GIA is free with respect to determining (i) the boundary-value data over an ocean area and (ii) the ocean function itself, while the boundary-value problems for the FSM and ASM are free only with respect to

  9. Airfoil design using a coupled euler and integral boundary layer method with adjoint based sensitivities

    Edwards, S.; Reuther, J.; Chattot, J. J.

    The objective of this paper is to present a control theory approach for the design of airfoils in the presence of viscous compressible flows. A coupled system of the integral boundary layer and the Euler equations is solved to provide rapid flow simulations. An adjoint approach consistent with the complete coupled state equations is employed to obtain the sensitivities needed to drive a numerical optimization algorithm. Design to a target pressure distribution is demonstrated on an RAE 2822 airfoil at transonic speeds.

  10. U.S. Department Of Energy's nuclear engineering education research: highlights of recent and current research-III. 8. Adjoint Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    .5 Gy; the upper limits for sensitive structure (SS) and normal tissue (NT) were 1.4 and 1.8 Gy, respectively. The linear programming (LP) model may have advantages over the nonlinear programming (NLP) case. The LP model raises 100% of TU to the prescribed dose, raises a smaller percentage of SS to its tolerance dose, and does not overdose NT. However, the LP plan creates a significant 'hot spot' within TU by raising 40% of TU above the prescribed dose. In choosing between the plans, one would have to weigh the clinical consequences of tumor hot spots with the clinical implications that come with the different sparing characteristics of the two plans. This investigation demonstrated that for a simple geometric model, adjoint Monte Carlo methods can be used as the basis for inverse radiation therapy treatment planning. By using flux-to-dose conversion factors as adjoint sources, it is possible to develop an influence matrix that provides the sensitivity of the dose at a single point in the patient to all points in the treatment source field. These data may be used to determine an optimized set of treatment beams

  11. Adjoint methods for electromagnetic shape optimization of the low-loss cavity for the International Linear Collider

    We formulate the problem of designing the low-loss cavity for the International Linear Collider (ILC) as an electromagnetic shape optimization problem involving a Maxwell eigenvalue problem. The objective is to maximize the stored energy of a trapped mode in the end cell while maintaining a specified frequency corresponding to the accelerating mode. A continuous adjoint method is presented for computation of the design gradient of the objective and constraint. The gradients are used within a nonlinear optimization scheme to compute the optimal shape for a simplified model of the ILC in a small multiple of the cost of solving the Maxwell eigenvalue problem

  12. Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth's atmosphere. - Highlights: • Blueprint for 3D remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface. • Procedure for adjusting thousands of parameters with millions of data

  13. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis of reduced atomic systems using generalized Langevin equation for lattice structures

    An efficient adjoint design sensitivity analysis method is developed for reduced atomic systems. A reduced atomic system and the adjoint system are constructed in a locally confined region, utilizing generalized Langevin equation (GLE) for periodic lattice structures. Due to the translational symmetry of lattice structures, the size of time history kernel function that accounts for the boundary effects of the reduced atomic systems could be reduced to a single atom’s degrees of freedom. For the problems of highly nonlinear design variables, the finite difference method is impractical for its inefficiency and inaccuracy. However, the adjoint method is very efficient regardless of the number of design variables since one additional time integration is required for the adjoint GLE. Through numerical examples, the derived adjoint sensitivity turns out to be accurate and efficient through the comparison with finite difference sensitivity

  14. Mimetic finite difference method

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

  15. Self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators

    Much, Albert [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    We consider deformations of unbounded operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. By using the Kato-Rellich theorem, we show that unbounded self-adjoint deformed operators are self-adjoint if they satisfy a certain condition. This condition proves itself to be necessary for the oscillatory integral to be well-defined. Moreover, different proofs are given for self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators in the context of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

  16. Convergence of a semi-discretization scheme for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation: A new approach with the adjoint method

    Cagnetti, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    We consider a numerical scheme for the one dimensional time dependent Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the periodic setting. This scheme consists in a semi-discretization using monotone approximations of the Hamiltonian in the spacial variable. From classical viscosity solution theory, these schemes are known to converge. In this paper we present a new approach to the study of the rate of convergence of the approximations based on the nonlinear adjoint method recently introduced by L.C. Evans. We estimate the rate of convergence for convex Hamiltonians and recover the O(h) convergence rate in terms of the L∞ norm and O(h) in terms of the L1 norm, where h is the size of the spacial grid. We discuss also possible generalizations to higher dimensional problems and present several other additional estimates. The special case of quadratic Hamiltonians is considered in detail in the end of the paper. © 2013 IMACS.

  17. Quantifying the loss of information in source attribution problems using the adjoint method in global models of atmospheric chemical transport

    Santillana, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    It is of crucial importance to be able to identify the location of atmospheric pollution sources in our planet. Global models of atmospheric transport in combination with diverse Earth observing systems are a natural choice to achieve this goal. It is shown that the ability to successfully reconstruct the location and magnitude of an instantaneous source in global chemical transport models (CTMs) decreases rapidly as a function of the time interval between the pollution release and the observation time. A simple way to quantitatively characterize this phenomenon is proposed based on the effective -undesired- numerical diffusion present in current Eulerian CTMs and verified using idealized numerical experiments. The approach presented consists of using the adjoint-based optimization method in a state-of-the-art CTM, GEOS-Chem, to reconstruct the location and magnitude of a realistic pollution plume for multiple time scales. The findings obtained from these numerical experiments suggest a time scale of 2 days a...

  18. A novel concept for scheduling and effect assessment of soft-kill against an antiship missile based on the adjoint method

    Weiss, M.; Vermeulen, A.; Bos, J.; Bucco, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Adjoint Method is a well establised tool for assessement of guidance loops in conceptual design studies. It allows one to perform quick assessments of the performance both in deterministic settings, to determine a nominal or average miss distance, and in stochastic settings, to determine the sta

  19. Efficient forward and adjoint calculations of normal mode spectra in laterally heterogeneous earth models using an iterative direct solution method

    Al-Attar, D.; Woodhouse, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    Normal mode spectra provide a valuable data set for global seismic tomography, and, notably, are amongst the few geophysical observables that are sensitive to lateral variations in density structure within the Earth. Nonetheless, the effects of lateral density variations on mode spectra are rather subtle. In order, therefore, to reliably determine density variations with in the earth, it is necessary to make use of sufficiently accurate methods for calculating synthetic mode spectra. In particular, recent work has highlighted the need to perform 'full-coupling calculations' that take into account the interaction of large numbers of spherical earth multiplets. However, present methods for performing such full-coupling calculations require diagonalization of large coupling matrices, and so become computationally inefficient as the number of coupled modes is increased. In order to perform full-coupling calculations more efficiently, we describe a new implementation of the direct solution method for calculating synthetic spectra in laterally heterogeneous earth models. This approach is based on the solution of the inhomogeneous mode coupling equations in the frequency domain, and does not require the diagonalization of large matrices. Early implementations of the direct solution method used LU-decomposition to solve the mode coupling equations. However, as the number of coupled modes is increased, this method becomes impractically slow. To circumvent this problem, we solve the mode coupling equations iteratively using the preconditioned biconjugate gradient algorithm. We present a number of numerical tests to display the accuracy and efficiency of this method for performing large full-coupling calculations. In addition, we describe a frequency-domain formulation of the adjoint method for the calculation of Frechet kernels that show the sensitivity of normal mode observations to variations in earth structure. The calculation of such Frechet kernels involves one solution

  20. Sensitivity of temporal moments calculated by the adjoint-state method and joint inversing of head and tracer data

    Cirpka, Olaf A.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    Including tracer data into geostatistically based methods of inverse modeling is computationally very costly when all concentration measurements are used and the sensitivities of many observations are calculated by the direct differentiation approach. Harvey and Gorelick (Water Resour Res 1995;31(7):1615-26) have suggested the use of the first temporal moment instead of the complete concentration record at a point. We derive a computationally efficient adjoint-state method for the sensitivities of the temporal moments that require the solution of the steady-state flow equation and two steady-state transport equations for the forward problem and the same number of equations for each first-moment measurement. The efficiency of the method makes it feasible to evaluate the sensitivity matrix many times in large domains. We incorporate our approach for the calculation of sensitivities in the quasi-linear geostatistical method of inversing ("iterative cokriging"). The application to an artificial example of a tracer introduced into an injection well shows good convergence behavior when both head and first-moment data are used for inversing, whereas inversing of arrival times alone is less stable.

  1. Seismic imaging: From classical to adjoint tomography

    Liu, Q.; Gu, Y. J.

    2012-09-01

    Seismic tomography has been a vital tool in probing the Earth's internal structure and enhancing our knowledge of dynamical processes in the Earth's crust and mantle. While various tomographic techniques differ in data types utilized (e.g., body vs. surface waves), data sensitivity (ray vs. finite-frequency approximations), and choices of model parameterization and regularization, most global mantle tomographic models agree well at long wavelengths, owing to the presence and typical dimensions of cold subducted oceanic lithospheres and hot, ascending mantle plumes (e.g., in central Pacific and Africa). Structures at relatively small length scales remain controversial, though, as will be discussed in this paper, they are becoming increasingly resolvable with the fast expanding global and regional seismic networks and improved forward modeling and inversion techniques. This review paper aims to provide an overview of classical tomography methods, key debates pertaining to the resolution of mantle tomographic models, as well as to highlight recent theoretical and computational advances in forward-modeling methods that spearheaded the developments in accurate computation of sensitivity kernels and adjoint tomography. The first part of the paper is devoted to traditional traveltime and waveform tomography. While these approaches established a firm foundation for global and regional seismic tomography, data coverage and the use of approximate sensitivity kernels remained as key limiting factors in the resolution of the targeted structures. In comparison to classical tomography, adjoint tomography takes advantage of full 3D numerical simulations in forward modeling and, in many ways, revolutionizes the seismic imaging of heterogeneous structures with strong velocity contrasts. For this reason, this review provides details of the implementation, resolution and potential challenges of adjoint tomography. Further discussions of techniques that are presently popular in

  2. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  3. EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

    Many numerical methods use characteristic analysis to accommodate the advective component of transport. uch characteristic methods include Eulerian-Lagrangian methods (ELM), modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and operator splitting methods. eneralization of characteristic...

  4. AN EULERIAN-LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHOD FOR THE ADVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATION

    Many numerical methods use characteristic analysis to accommodate the advective component of transport. Such characteristic methods include Eulerian-Lagrangian methods (ELM), modified method of characteristics (MMOC), and operator splitting methods. A generalization of characteri...

  5. Adjoint P1 equations solution for neutron slowing down

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. The direct and adjoint neutron fluxes resulting from the solution of P1 equations were used to three different weighting processes, to obtain the macrogroup macroscopic cross sections. It was found out noticeable differences among them. (author)

  6. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation

  7. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation.

  8. Solution of the advection-dispersion equation in two dimensions by a finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method

    Healy, R.W.; Russell, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    We extend the finite-volume Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method (FVELLAM) for solution of the advection-dispersion equation to two dimensions. The method can conserve mass globally and is not limited by restrictions on the size of the grid Peclet or Courant number. Therefore, it is well suited for solution of advection-dominated ground-water solute transport problems. In test problem comparisons with standard finite differences, FVELLAM is able to attain accurate solutions on much coarser space and time grids. On fine grids, the accuracy of the two methods is comparable. A critical aspect of FVELLAM (and all other ELLAMs) is evaluation of the mass storage integral from the preceding time level. In FVELLAM this may be accomplished with either a forward or backtracking approach. The forward tracking approach conserves mass globally and is the preferred approach. The backtracking approach is less computationally intensive, but not globally mass conservative. Boundary terms are systematically represented as integrals in space and time which are evaluated by a common integration scheme in conjunction with forward tracking through time. Unlike the one-dimensional case, local mass conservation cannot be guaranteed, so slight oscillations in concentration can develop, particularly in the vicinity of inflow or outflow boundaries. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Accounting for propagation outside of the model boundaries in regional full waveform inversion based on adjoint methods

    Masson, Y.; Pierre, C.; Romanowicz, B. A.; French, S. W.; Yuan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Yuan et al. (2013) developed a 3D radially anisotropic shear wave model of North America (NA) upper mantle based on full waveform tomography, combining teleseismic and regional distance data sampling the NA. In this model, synthetic seismograms associated with regional events (i.e. events located inside in the region imaged NA) were computed exactly using the Spectral Element method (Cupillard et al., 2012), while, synthetic seismograms associated with teleseismic events were performed approximately using non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Both the regional and the teleseismic dataset have been inverted using approximate sensitivity kernels based upon normal mode theory. Our objective is to improve our current model and to build the next generation model of NA by introducing new methodological developments (Masson et al., 2014) that allow us to compute exact synthetic seismograms as well as adjoint sensitivity kernels associated with teleseismic events, using mostly regional computations of wave propagation. The principle of the method is to substitute a teleseismic source (i.e. an earthquake) by an "equivalent" set of seismic sources acting on the boundaries of the region to be imaged that is producing exactly the same wavefield. Computing the equivalent set of sources associated with each one of the teleseismic events requires a few global simulations of the seismic wavefield that can be done once for all, prior to the regional inversion. Then, the regional full waveform inversion can be preformed using regional simulations only. We present a 3D model of NA demonstrating the advantages of the proposed method.

  10. Adjoint of Pair Frames

    Fereydooni, Abolhassan; Safapour, Ahmad; Rahimi , Asghar

    2012-01-01

    The concept of (p,q)-pair frames is generalized to (l,l^*)-pair frames. Adjoint (conjugate) of a pair frames for dual space of a Banach space is introduced and some conditions for the existence of adjoint (conjugate) of pair frames are presented.

  11. Development of one-energy group, two-dimensional, frequency dependent detector adjoint function based on the nodal method

    One-energy group, two-dimensional computer code was developed to calculate the response of a detector to a vibrating absorber in a reactor core. A concept of local/global components, based on the frequency dependent detector adjoint function, and a nodalization technique were utilized. The frequency dependent detector adjoint functions presented by complex equations were expanded into real and imaginary parts. In the nodalization technique, the flux is expanded into polynomials about the center point of each node. The phase angle and the magnitude of the one-energy group detector adjoint function were calculated for a detector located in the center of a 200x200 cm reactor using a two-dimensional nodalization technique, the computer code EXTERMINATOR, and the analytical solution. The purpose of this research was to investigate the applicability of a polynomial nodal model technique to the calculations of the real and the imaginary parts of the detector adjoint function for one-energy group two-dimensional polynomial nodal model technique. From the results as discussed earlier, it is concluded that the nodal model technique can be used to calculate the detector adjoint function and the phase angle. Using the computer code developed for nodal model technique, the magnitude of one energy group frequency dependent detector adjoint function and the phase angle were calculated for the detector located in the center of a 200x200 cm homogenous reactor. The real part of the detector adjoint function was compared with the results obtained from the EXTERMINATOR computer code as well as the analytical solution based on a double sine series expansion using the classical Green's Function solution. The values were found to be less than 1% greater at 20 cm away from the source region and about 3% greater closer to the source compared to the values obtained from the analytical solution and the EXTERMINATOR code. The currents at the node interface matched within 1% of the average

  12. Investigation of the adjoint-state method for ultrasound computed tomography: a numerical and experimental study

    Anis, Fatima; Lou, Yang; Conjusteau, André; Su, Richard; Oruganti, Tanmayi; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we investigate a novel reconstruction method for laser-induced ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) breast imaging that circumvents limitations of existing methods that rely on ray-tracing. There is currently great interest in developing hybrid imaging systems that combine optoacoustic tomography (OAT) and USCT. There are two primary motivations for this: (1) the speed-of-sound (SOS) distribution reconstructed by USCT can provide complementary diagnostic information; and (2) the reconstructed SOS distribution can be incorporated in the OAT reconstruction algorithm to improve OAT image quality. However, image reconstruction in USCT remains challenging. The majority of existing approaches for USCT breast imaging involve ray-tracing to establish the imaging operator. This process is cumbersome and can lead to inaccuracies in the reconstructed SOS images in the presence of multiple ray-paths and/or shadow zones. To circumvent these problems, we implemented a partial differential equation-based Eulerian approach to USCT that was proposed in the mathematics literature but never investigated for medical imaging applications. This method operates by directly inverting the Eikonal equation without ray-tracing. A numerical implementation of this method was developed and compared to existing reconstruction methods for USCT breast imaging. We demonstrated the ability of the new method to reconstruct SOS maps from TOF data obtained by a hybrid OAT/USCT imager built by our team.

  13. High Order Adjoint Derivatives using ESDIRK Methods for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    Capolei, Andrea; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    In production optimization, computation of the gradients is the computationally expensive step. We improve the computational efficiency of such algorithms by improving the gradient computation using high-order ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta) temporal integration methods and...

  14. Investigation of a continuous adjoint-based optimization procedure for aeroacoustic control of plane jets

    Highlights: ► Successful noise control of a 2D-planejet with DNS resolution and a 3D-planejet with LES-resolution using adjoint method. ► Validation of gradient-information obtained with the continuous-adjoint approach, by comparing gradient with finite differences. ► Extension of control-interval with the receding horizon algorithm. - Abstract: A control optimization technique using the continuous adjoint of the compressible Navier–Stokes equations is implemented for aeroacoustic optimization of plane jet flows. The purpose of the adjoint equations is to provide sensitivity information, which is afterwards used in a gradient-based minimization of a prescribed cost functional, designed to describe the far-field sound pressure level (SPL). The objective of the present paper is to demonstrate the ability to reduce the sound in the near far-field of plane jets. Furthermore, as the continuous adjoint approach can become inaccurate, due to inconsistencies between the continuous and the discretized system, the accuracy of the continuous adjoint approach is investigated. The considered cases exhibit a nozzle exit Reynolds number of Rejet = ρujetD/μ = 2000 and a Mach number of Mjet = 0.9, performed using two-dimensional direct numerical simulation and three-dimensional large-eddy simulation, respectively. A comparison of the obtained gradient via adjoint and finite differences is presented and it is shown, that in order to obtain reliable gradient directions, the length of the optimization time needs to be restricted. Furthermore, a receding horizon optimization for the two-dimensional plane jet simulation is used to obtain a sound reduction over much longer time intervals. The influence of different formulations of the viscosity in the adjoint equations is finally investigated.

  15. Full-3D waveform tomography of Southern California crustal structure by using earthquake recordings and ambient noise Green's functions based on adjoint and scattering-integral methods

    Lee, E.; Chen, P.; Jordan, T. H.; Maechling, P. J.; Denolle, M.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    We apply a unified methodology for seismic waveform analysis and inversions to Southern California. To automate the waveform selection processes, we developed a semi-automatic seismic waveform analysis algorithm for full-wave earthquake source parameters and tomographic inversions. The algorithm is based on continuous wavelet transforms, a topological watershed method, and a set of user-adjustable criteria to select usable waveform windows for full-wave inversions. The algorithm takes advantages of time-frequency representations of seismograms and is able to separate seismic phases in both time and frequency domains. The selected wave packet pairs between observed and synthetic waveforms are then used for extracting frequency-dependent phase and amplitude misfit measurements, which are used in our seismic source and structural inversions. Our full-wave waveform tomography uses the 3D SCEC Community Velocity Model Version 4.0 as initial model, a staggered-grid finite-difference code to simulate seismic wave propagations. The sensitivity (Fréchet) kernels are calculated based on the scattering integral and adjoint methods to iteratively improve the model. We use both earthquake recordings and ambient noise Green's functions, stacking of station-to-station correlations of ambient seismic noise, in our full-3D waveform tomographic inversions. To reduce errors of earthquake sources, the epicenters and source parameters of earthquakes used in our tomographic inversion are inverted by our full-wave CMT inversion method. Our current model shows many features that relate to the geological structures at shallow depth and contrasting velocity values across faults. The velocity perturbations could up to 45% with respect to the initial model in some regions and relate to some structures that do not exist in the initial model, such as southern Great Valley. The earthquake waveform misfits reduce over 70% and the ambient noise Green's function group velocity delay time variance

  16. Comparison of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4dVar assimilation of the hydrographic and velocity observations in the Adriatic Sea

    Yaremchuk, Max; Martin, Paul; Koch, Andrey; Beattie, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4-dimensional variational (4dVar) data assimilation techniques is compared in application to the hydrographic surveys and velocity observations collected in the Adriatic Sea in 2006. Assimilating the data into the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) has shown that both methods deliver similar reduction of the cost function and demonstrate comparable forecast skill at approximately the same computational expense. The obtained optimal states were, however, significantly different in terms of distance from the background state: application of the adjoint method resulted in a 30-40% larger departure, mostly due to the excessive level of ageostrophic motions in the southern basin of the Sea that was not covered by observations.

  17. Generalized uncertainty principle and self-adjoint operators

    Balasubramanian, Venkat, E-mail: vbalasu8@uwo.ca [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Vagenas, Elias C., E-mail: elias.vagenas@ku.edu.kw [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

    2015-09-15

    In this work we explore the self-adjointness of the GUP-modified momentum and Hamiltonian operators over different domains. In particular, we utilize the theorem by von-Neumann for symmetric operators in order to determine whether the momentum and Hamiltonian operators are self-adjoint or not, or they have self-adjoint extensions over the given domain. In addition, a simple example of the Hamiltonian operator describing a particle in a box is given. The solutions of the boundary conditions that describe the self-adjoint extensions of the specific Hamiltonian operator are obtained.

  18. Adjoint functors in graph theory

    Foniok, Jan; Tardif, Claude

    2013-01-01

    We survey some uses of adjoint functors in graph theory pertaining to colourings, complexity reductions, multiplicativity, circular colourings and tree duality. The exposition of these applications through adjoint functors unifies the presentation to some extent, and also raises interesting questions.

  19. U.S. Department Of Energy's nuclear engineering education research: highlights of recent and current research-I. 5. Optimization Treatment Planning for Interstitial Brachytherapy Using the Adjoint Transport Method

    Permanent radioactive seed implantation (interstitial brachytherapy) is becoming the preferred method of treating prostate cancers. The main goal of the treatment is to deliver a conformal dose to the tumor while simultaneously minimizing the dose to the normal tissue and sensitive tissue structures. The treatment plan determines the number of seeds, their embedded positions, and the dose delivered to the tissue by photons emitted from the seeds. This study adopts the adjoint method to calculate dose and mixed integer programming (MIP) to optimize the dose to regions of interest for the permanent implantation of 125I radioactive source seeds for prostate cancers. DANTSYS, a discrete ordinates transport code, is utilized to compute the adjoint flux at all fine meshes (voxels) within a geometric model of the prostate image taken by a Transrectal Ultrasound probe. A broad 3-group-photon cross-section library was generated from the lowest three energy groups of the FENDL-2 42-group cross-section library. The first group spans the energy range 20 to 30 keV in which the photons emitted by 125I lie. The second and third groups span the energy ranges 10 to 20 keV and 1 to 10 keV, respectively. The flux-to-dose rate conversion factors for the broad 3-group-photon library are computed using the methodology described in Ref. 2. These factors are used as the adjoint source for the adjoint calculations. The adjoint flux obtained is then used to compute the absorbed dose rate in the regions of interest. The MIP solver is used to optimize seed placements for the treatment plan. MIP is well suited for the optimization problem of brachytherapy because the binary integer variable can represent yes/no decisions as to the placement or non-placement of seeds. The prescribed dose Dp to the tumor in our study is 150 Gy.We set the lower dose constraint, lDtu, for the tumor and the upper dose constraints, uDur and uDno, for the urethra and the normal tissue. The objective function we

  20. Building the Tangent and Adjoint codes of the Ocean General Circulation Model OPA with the Automatic Differentiation tool TAPENADE

    Tber, Moulay Hicham; Vidard, Arthur; Dauvergne, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The ocean general circulation model OPA is developed by the LODYC team at Paris VI university. OPA has recently undergone a major rewriting, migrating to FORTRAN95, and its adjoint code needs to be rebuilt. For earlier versions, the adjoint of OPA was written by hand at a high development cost. We use the Automatic Differentiation tool TAPENADE to build mechanicaly the tangent and adjoint codes of OPA. We validate the differentiated codes by comparison with divided differences, and also with an identical twin experiment. We apply state-of-the-art methods to improve the performance of the adjoint code. In particular we implement the Griewank and Walther's binomial checkpointing algorithm which gives us an optimal trade-off between time and memory consumption. We apply a specific strategy to differentiate the iterative linear solver that comes from the implicit time stepping scheme

  1. An Application of the Adjoint Method to a Statistical-Dynamical Tropical-Cyclone Prediction Model (SD-90) Ⅱ: Real Tropical Cyclone Cases

    2006-01-01

    In the first paper in this series, a variational data assimilation of ideal tropical cyclone (TC) tracks was performed for the statistical-dynamical prediction model SD-90 by the adjoint method, and a prediction of TC tracks was made with good accuracy for tracks containing no sharp turns. In the present paper, the cases of real TC tracks are studied. Due to the complexity of TC motion, attention is paid to the diagnostic research of TC motion. First, five TC tracks are studied. Using the data of each entire TC track, by the adjoint method, five TC tracks are fitted well, and the forces acting on the TCs are retrieved. For a given TC, the distribution of the resultant of the retrieved force and Coriolis force well matches the corresponding TC track, i.e., when a TC turns, the resultant of the retrieved force and Coriolis force acts as a centripetal force, which means that the TC indeed moves like a particle; in particular, for TC 9911, the clockwise looping motion is also fitted well. And the distribution of the resultant appears to be periodic in some cases. Then, the present method is carried out for a portion of the track data for TC 9804, which indicates that when the amount of data for a TC track is sufficient, the algorithm is stable. And finally, the same algorithm is implemented for TCs with a double-eyewall structure, namely Bilis (2000) and Winnie (1997),and the results prove the applicability of the algorithm to TCs with complicated mesoscale structures if the TC track data are obtained every three hours.

  2. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  3. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  4. A reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    The adjoint method has been used very often for variational data assimilation. The computational cost to run the adjoint model often exceeds several original model runs and the method needs significant programming efforts to implement the adjoint model code. The work proposed here is variational data assimilation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which avoids the implementation of the adjoint of the tangent linear approximation of the original nonlinear model. An ensemble of the forward model simulations is used to determine the approximation of the covariance matrix and only the dominant eigenvectors of this matrix are used to define a model subspace. The adjoint of the tangent linear model is replaced by the reduced adjoint based on this reduced space. Thus the adjoint model is run in reduced space with negligible computational cost. Once the gradient is obtained in reduced space it is projected back in full space and the minimization process is carried in full space. In the paper the reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation is introduced. The characteristics and performance of the method are illustrated with a number of data assimilation experiments in a ground water subsurface contaminant model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Normal and adjoint integral and integrodifferential neutron transport equations. Pt. 2

    Using the simplifying hypotheses of the integrodifferential Boltzmann equations of neutron transport, given in JEN 334 report, several integral equations, and theirs adjoint ones, are obtained. Relations between the different normal and adjoint eigenfunctions are established and, in particular, proceeding from the integrodifferential Boltzmann equation it's found out the relation between the solutions of the adjoint equation of its integral one, and the solutions of the integral equation of its adjoint one (author)

  6. Adjoint-consistent formulations of slip models for coupled electroosmotic flow systems

    Garg, Vikram V

    2014-09-27

    Background Models based on the Helmholtz `slip\\' approximation are often used for the simulation of electroosmotic flows. The objectives of this paper are to construct adjoint-consistent formulations of such models, and to develop adjoint-based numerical tools for adaptive mesh refinement and parameter sensitivity analysis. Methods We show that the direct formulation of the `slip\\' model is adjoint inconsistent, and leads to an ill-posed adjoint problem. We propose a modified formulation of the coupled `slip\\' model, which is shown to be well-posed, and therefore automatically adjoint-consistent. Results Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the computation and use of the adjoint solution in two-dimensional microfluidics problems. Conclusions An adjoint-consistent formulation for Helmholtz `slip\\' models of electroosmotic flows has been proposed. This formulation provides adjoint solutions that can be reliably used for mesh refinement and sensitivity analysis.

  7. An adjoint based method for the inversion of the Juno and Cassini gravity measurements into wind fields

    Galanti, Eli

    2016-01-01

    During 2016-17 the Juno and Cassini spacecraft will both perform close eccentric orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, obtaining high-precision gravity measurements for these planets. This data will be used to estimate the depth of the observed surface flows on these planets. All models to date, relating the winds to the gravity field, have been in the forward direction, thus allowing only calculation of the gravity field from given wind models. However, there is a need to do the inverse problem since the new observations will be of the gravity field. Here, an inverse dynamical model, is developed to relate the expected measurable gravity field, to perturbations of the density and wind fields, and therefore to the observed cloud-level winds. In order to invert the gravity field into the 3D circulation, an adjoint model is constructed for the dynamical model, thus allowing backward integration. This tool is used for examination of various scenarios, simulating cases in which the depth of the wind depends...

  8. Measurement of adjoint flux at the RB reactor

    The adjoint flux is of the great importance for determination of kinetic parameters of nuclear reactor (ρ, l and βeff) and for the interpretation of experiments with reactivity perturbations. In experimental reactor physics there are a few methods for the adjoint flux measurements. The method of reactivity perturbations with adequate samples is used for thermal reactors. According to the theory of reactivity perturbations the reactivity change due to sample of thermal neutrons absorbing material is proportional to product of flux and adjoint flux of thermal neutrons (Φ2(r)Φ=2(r)). The reactivity change due to fissionable nuclide is proportional to product of thermal neutron flux and adjoint flux of fast neutrons (Φ2(r)Φ=2(r)). The axial distribution of adjoint flux is determined by reactivity measurements and measurements of axial distribution of thermal neutron flux. Thi results of this measurement will be used for interpretation of other experiments with reactivity perturbations at the RB reactor

  9. ADGEN: ADjoint GENerator for computer models

    This paper presents the development of a FORTRAN compiler and an associated supporting software library called ADGEN. ADGEN reads FORTRAN models as input and produces and enhanced version of the input model. The enhanced version reproduces the original model calculations but also has the capability to calculate derivatives of model results of interest with respect to any and all of the model data and input parameters. The method for calculating the derivatives and sensitivities is the adjoint method. Partial derivatives are calculated analytically using computer calculus and saved as elements of an adjoint matrix on direct assess storage. The total derivatives are calculated by solving an appropriate adjoint equation. ADGEN is applied to a major computer model of interest to the Low-Level Waste Community, the PRESTO-II model. PRESTO-II sample problem results reveal that ADGEN correctly calculates derivatives of response of interest with respect to 300 parameters. The execution time to create the adjoint matrix is a factor of 45 times the execution time of the reference sample problem. Once this matrix is determined, the derivatives with respect to 3000 parameters are calculated in a factor of 6.8 that of the reference model for each response of interest. For a single 3000 for determining these derivatives by parameter perturbations. The automation of the implementation of the adjoint technique for calculating derivatives and sensitivities eliminates the costly and manpower-intensive task of direct hand-implementation by reprogramming and thus makes the powerful adjoint technique more amenable for use in sensitivity analysis of existing models. 20 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. Adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of fixed-energy secondary radiation

    Fixed energy secondary generation for adjoint Monte Carlo methods constitutes certain difficulties because of zero probability of reaching fixed value from continuous distribution. This paper proposes a possible approach to adjoint Monte Carlo simulation with fixed energy secondary radiation which does not contain any simplifying restriction. This approach uses the introduced before generalized particle concept developed for description of mixed-type radiation transport and allows adjoint Monte Carlo simulation of such processes. It treats particle type as additional discrete coordinate and always considers only one particle even for the interactions with many particles outgoing from the collision. The adjoint fixed energy secondary radiation simulation is performed as local energy estimator through the intermediate state with fixed energy. The proposed algorithm is tested on the example of coupled gamma/electron/positron transport with generation of annihilation radiation. Forward and adjoint simulation according to generalized particle concept show statistically similar results. (orig.)

  11. An Adjoint-based Method for the Inversion of the Juno and Cassini Gravity Measurements into Wind Fields

    Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai

    2016-04-01

    During 2016-17, the Juno and Cassini spacecraft will both perform close eccentric orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, obtaining high-precision gravity measurements for these planets. These data will be used to estimate the depth of the observed surface flows on these planets. All models to date, relating the winds to the gravity field, have been in the forward direction, thus only allowing the calculation of the gravity field from given wind models. However, there is a need to do the inverse problem since the new observations will be of the gravity field. Here, an inverse dynamical model is developed to relate the expected measurable gravity field, to perturbations of the density and wind fields, and therefore to the observed cloud-level winds. In order to invert the gravity field into the 3D circulation, an adjoint model is constructed for the dynamical model, thus allowing backward integration. This tool is used for the examination of various scenarios, simulating cases in which the depth of the wind depends on latitude. We show that it is possible to use the gravity measurements to derive the depth of the winds, both on Jupiter and Saturn, also taking into account measurement errors. Calculating the solution uncertainties, we show that the wind depth can be determined more precisely in the low-to-mid-latitudes. In addition, the gravitational moments are found to be particularly sensitive to flows at the equatorial intermediate depths. Therefore, we expect that if deep winds exist on these planets they will have a measurable signature by Juno and Cassini.

  12. Fully automatic adjoints: a robust and efficient mechanism for generating adjoint ocean models

    Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.; Rognes, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of generating and maintaining adjoint models is sufficiently difficult that typically only the most advanced and well-resourced community ocean models achieve it. There are two current technologies which each suffer from their own limitations. Algorithmic differentiation, also called automatic differentiation, is employed by models such as the MITGCM [2] and the Alfred Wegener Institute model FESOM [3]. This technique is very difficult to apply to existing code, and requires a major initial investment to prepare the code for automatic adjoint generation. AD tools may also have difficulty with code employing modern software constructs such as derived data types. An alternative is to formulate the adjoint differential equation and to discretise this separately. This approach, known as the continuous adjoint and employed in ROMS [4], has the disadvantage that two different model code bases must be maintained and manually kept synchronised as the model develops. The discretisation of the continuous adjoint is not automatically consistent with that of the forward model, producing an additional source of error. The alternative presented here is to formulate the flow model in the high level language UFL (Unified Form Language) and to automatically generate the model using the software of the FEniCS project. In this approach it is the high level code specification which is differentiated, a task very similar to the formulation of the continuous adjoint [5]. However since the forward and adjoint models are generated automatically, the difficulty of maintaining them vanishes and the software engineering process is therefore robust. The scheduling and execution of the adjoint model, including the application of an appropriate checkpointing strategy is managed by libadjoint [1]. In contrast to the conventional algorithmic differentiation description of a model as a series of primitive mathematical operations, libadjoint employs a new abstraction of the simulation

  13. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-pol...

  14. An improved method for estimation of Jupiter's gravity field using the Juno expected measurements, a trajectory estimation model, and an adjoint based thermal wind model

    Galanti, E.; Finocchiaro, S.; Kaspi, Y.; Iess, L.

    2013-12-01

    The upcoming high precision measurements of the Juno flybys around Jupiter, have the potential of improving the estimation of Jupiter's gravity field. The analysis of the Juno Doppler data will provide a very accurate reconstruction of spacial gravity variations, but these measurements will be over a limited latitudinal and longitudinal range. In order to deduce the full gravity field of Jupiter, additional information needs to be incorporated into the analysis, especially with regards to the Jovian wind structure and its depth at high latitudes. In this work we propose a new iterative method for the estimation of the Jupiter gravity field, using the Juno expected measurements, a trajectory estimation model, and an adjoint based inverse thermal wind model. Beginning with an artificial gravitational field, the trajectory estimation model together with an optimization procedure is used to obtain an initial solution of the gravitational moments. As upper limit constraints, the model applies the gravity harmonics obtained from a thermal wind model in which the winds are assumed to penetrate barotropicaly along the direction of the spin axis. The solution from the trajectory model is then used as an initial guess for the thermal wind model, and together with an adjoint optimization method, the optimal penetration depth of the winds is computed. As a final step, the gravity harmonics solution from the thermal wind model is given back to the trajectory model, along with an uncertainties estimate, to be used as constraints for a new calculation of the gravity field. We test this method for several cases, some with zonal harmonics only, and some with the full gravity field including longitudinal variations that include the tesseral harmonics as well. The results show that using this method some of the gravitational moments are fitted better to the 'observed' ones, mainly due to the fact that the thermal wind model is taking into consideration the wind structure and depth

  15. An Analysis on the Calculation Efficiency of the Responses Caused by the Biased Adjoint Fluxes in Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation

    Khuat, Quang Huy; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This technique is known as Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) method and it is implemented in SCALE code system. In the CADIS method, adjoint transport equation has to be solved to determine deterministic importance functions. Using the CADIS method, a problem was noted that the biased adjoint flux estimated by deterministic methods can affect the calculation efficiency and error. The biases of adjoint function are caused by the methodology, calculation strategy, tolerance of result calculated by the deterministic method and inaccurate multi-group cross section libraries. In this paper, a study to analyze the influence of the biased adjoint functions into Monte Carlo computational efficiency is pursued. In this study, a method to estimate the calculation efficiency was proposed for applying the biased adjoint fluxes in the CADIS approach. For a benchmark problem, the responses and FOMs using SCALE code system were evaluated as applying the adjoint fluxes. The results show that the biased adjoint fluxes significantly affects the calculation efficiencies.

  16. Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Maps for the Nearshore

    Orzech, Mark; Veeramony, Jay; Ngodock, Hans

    2013-04-01

    The wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) solves the spectral action balance equation to produce nearshore wave forecasts and climatologies. It is widely used by the coastal modeling community and is part of a variety of coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere model systems. A variational data assimilation system (Orzech et al., 2013) has recently been developed for SWAN and is presently being transitioned to operational use by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. This system is built around a numerical adjoint to the fully nonlinear, nonstationary SWAN code. When provided with measured or artificial "observed" spectral wave data at a location of interest on a given nearshore bathymetry, the adjoint can compute the degree to which spectral energy levels at other locations are correlated with - or "sensitive" to - variations in the observed spectrum. Adjoint output may be used to construct a sensitivity map for the entire domain, tracking correlations of spectral energy throughout the grid. When access is denied to the actual locations of interest, sensitivity maps can be used to determine optimal alternate locations for data collection by identifying regions of greatest sensitivity in the mapped domain. The present study investigates the properties of adjoint-generated sensitivity maps for nearshore wave spectra. The adjoint and forward SWAN models are first used in an idealized test case at Duck, NC, USA, to demonstrate the system's effectiveness at optimizing forecasts of shallow water wave spectra for an inaccessible surf-zone location. Then a series of simulations is conducted for a variety of different initializing conditions, to examine the effects of seasonal changes in wave climate, errors in bathymetry, and variations in size and shape of the inaccessible region of interest. Model skill is quantified using two methods: (1) a more traditional correlation of observed and modeled spectral statistics such as significant wave height, and (2) a recently developed RMS

  17. NON-SELF-ADJOINT GRAPHS

    Hussein, A.; Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 367, č. 4 (2015), s. 2921-2957. ISSN 0002-9947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Laplacians on metric graphs * non-self-adjoint boundary conditions * similarity transforms to self-adjoint operators * Riesz basis Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2014

  18. Application of sensitivity analysis to a simplified coupled neutronic thermal-hydraulics transient in a fast reactor using Adjoint techniques

    In this paper a method to perform sensitivity analysis for a simplified multi-physics problem is presented. The method is based on the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure which is used to apply first order perturbation theory to linear and nonlinear problems using adjoint techniques. The multi-physics problem considered includes a neutronic, a thermo-kinetics, and a thermal-hydraulics part and it is used to model the time dependent behavior of a sodium cooled fast reactor. The adjoint procedure is applied to calculate the sensitivity coefficients with respect to the kinetic parameters of the problem for two reference transients using two different model responses, the results obtained are then compared with the values given by a direct sampling of the forward nonlinear problem. Our first results show that, thanks to modern numerical techniques, the procedure is relatively easy to implement and provides good estimation for most perturbations, making the method appealing for more detailed problems. (author)

  19. Fast Correlation Greeks by Adjoint Algorithmic Differentiation

    Luca Capriotti; Mike Giles

    2010-01-01

    We show how Adjoint Algorithmic Differentiation (AAD) allows an extremely efficient calculation of correlation Risk of option prices computed with Monte Carlo simulations. A key point in the construction is the use of binning to simultaneously achieve computational efficiency and accurate confidence intervals. We illustrate the method for a copula-based Monte Carlo computation of claims written on a basket of underlying assets, and we test it numerically for Portfolio Default Options. For any...

  20. Effective freeness of adjoint line bundles

    Heier, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    In this note we establish a new Fujita-type effective bound for the base point freeness of adjoint line bundles on a compact complex projective manifold of complex dimension $n$. The bound we obtain (approximately) differs from the linear bound conjectured by Fujita only by a factor of the cube root of $n$. As an application, a new effective statement for pluricanonical embeddings is derived.

  1. Inflow and initial conditions for direct numerical simulation based on adjoint data assimilation

    Gronskis, A; Heitz, D.; Mémin, E.

    2011-01-01

    A method for generating inflow conditions for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing flows is presented. The proposed method is based on variational data assimilation and adjoint-based optimization. The estimation is conducted through an iterative process involving a forward integration of a given dynamical model followed by a backward integration of an adjoint system defined by the adjoint of the discrete scheme associated to the dynamical system. The ap...

  2. Unsteady adjoint of pressure loss for a fundamental transonic turbine vane

    Talnikar, Chaitanya; Laskowski, Gregory M

    2015-01-01

    High fidelity simulations, e.g., large eddy simulation are often needed for accurately predicting pressure losses due to wake mixing in turbomachinery applications. An unsteady adjoint of such high fidelity simulations is useful for design optimization in these aerodynamic applications. In this paper we present unsteady adjoint solutions using a large eddy simulation model for a vane from VKI using aerothermal objectives. The unsteady adjoint method is effective in capturing the gradient for a short time interval aerothermal objective, whereas the method provides diverging gradients for long time-averaged thermal objectives. As the boundary layer on the suction side near the trailing edge of the vane is turbulent, it poses a challenge for the adjoint solver. The chaotic dynamics cause the adjoint solution to diverge exponentially from the trailing edge region when solved backwards in time. This results in the corruption of the sensitivities obtained from the adjoint solutions. An energy analysis of the unstea...

  3. On the preconditioning conjugate gradient method for the solution of 9-point elliptic difference equations

    Mazhar, Zeka; Daoud, D.S; Subaşı, Deniz

    1994-01-01

    The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) method is implemented to solve the system with 9 diagonal entries generated from a 9-point finite difference approximation of the self-adjoint elliptic partial differential equation using an incomplete matrix decomposition. A simpler matrix decomposition for such a linear system is also proposed with a main advantage that it preserves the symmetry of the original matrix, and is easy to implement. Results of the numerical experiments and comparison w...

  4. Adjoint-based Gradient Estimation Using the Space-time Solutions of Unknown Conservation Law Simulations

    Chen, Han

    2016-01-01

    Many control applications can be formulated as optimization constrained by conservation laws. Such optimization can be efficiently solved by gradient-based methods, where the gradient is obtained through the adjoint method. Traditionally, the adjoint method has not been able to be implemented in "gray-box" conservation law simulations. In gray-box simulations, the analytical and numerical form of the conservation law is unknown, but the space-time solution of relevant flow quantities is available. Without the adjoint gradient, optimization can be challenging for problems with many control variables. However, much information about the gray-box simulation is contained in its space-time solution, which motivates us to estimate the adjoint gradient by leveraging the space-time solution. This article considers a type of gray-box simulations where the flux function is partially unknown. A method is introduced to estimate the adjoint gradient at a cost independent of the number of control variables. The method firs...

  5. Adjoint Functors and Representation Dimensions

    Chang Chang XI

    2006-01-01

    We study the global dimensions of the coherent functors over two categories that are linked by a pair of adjoint functors. This idea is then exploited to compare the representation dimensions of two algebras. In particular, we show that if an Artin algebra is switched from the other, then they have the same representation dimension.

  6. Adjoint-based Optimal Flow Control for Compressible DNS

    Otero, J Javier; Sandberg, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    A novel adjoint-based framework oriented to optimal flow control in compressible direct numerical simulations is presented. Also, a new formulation of the adjoint characteristic boundary conditions is introduced, which enhances the stability of the adjoint simulations. The flow configuration chosen as a case study consists of a two dimensional open cavity flow with aspect ratio $L/H=3$ and Reynolds number $Re=5000$. This flow configuration is of particular interest, as the turbulent and chaotic nature of separated flows pushes the adjoint approach to its limit. The target of the flow actuation, defined as cost, is the reduction of the pressure fluctuations at the sensor location. To exploit the advantages of the adjoint method, a large number of control parameters is used. The control consists of an actuating sub-domain where a two-dimensional body force is applied at every point within the sub-volume. This results in a total of $2.256 \\cdot 10^6$ control parameters. The final actuation achieved a successful ...

  7. Technical Note: Adjoint formulation of the TOMCAT atmospheric transport scheme in the Eulerian backtracking framework (RETRO-TOM

    P. E. Haines

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the formulation of an adjoint to the transport component of the chemistry transport model TOMCAT is described and implemented in a new model RETRO-TOM. The Eulerian backtracking method is used, allowing the forward advection scheme (Prather's second-order moments, to be efficiently exploited in the backward adjoint calculations. Prather's scheme is shown to be time-symmetric suggesting the possibility of high accuracy. To attain this accuracy, however, it is necessary to make a careful treatment of the "density inconsistency" problem inherent to offline transport models. The results are verified using a series of test experiments. These demonstrate the high accuracy of RETRO-TOM when compared with direct forward sensitivity calculations, at least for problems in which flux-limiters in the advection scheme are not required. RETRO-TOM therefore combines the flexibility and stability of a "finite difference of adjoint" formulation with the accuracy of an "adjoint of finite difference" formulation.

  8. A Posteriori Analysis for Hydrodynamic Simulations Using Adjoint Methodologies

    Woodward, C S; Estep, D; Sandelin, J; Wang, H

    2009-02-26

    This report contains results of analysis done during an FY08 feasibility study investigating the use of adjoint methodologies for a posteriori error estimation for hydrodynamics simulations. We developed an approach to adjoint analysis for these systems through use of modified equations and viscosity solutions. Targeting first the 1D Burgers equation, we include a verification of the adjoint operator for the modified equation for the Lax-Friedrichs scheme, then derivations of an a posteriori error analysis for a finite difference scheme and a discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to this problem. We include some numerical results showing the use of the error estimate. Lastly, we develop a computable a posteriori error estimate for the MAC scheme applied to stationary Navier-Stokes.

  9. Singular Potentials in Quantum Mechanics and Ambiguity in the Self-Adjoint Hamiltonian

    Tamás Fülöp

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available For a class of singular potentials, including the Coulomb potential (in three and less dimensions and $V(x = g/x^2$ with the coefficient $g$ in a certain range ($x$ being a space coordinate in one or more dimensions, the corresponding Schrödinger operator is not automatically self-adjoint on its natural domain. Such operators admit more than one self-adjoint domain, and the spectrum and all physical consequences depend seriously on the self-adjoint version chosen. The article discusses how the self-adjoint domains can be identified in terms of a boundary condition for the asymptotic behaviour of the wave functions around the singularity, and what physical differences emerge for different self-adjoint versions of the Hamiltonian. The paper reviews and interprets known results, with the intention to provide a practical guide for all those interested in how to approach these ambiguous situations.

  10. An Adjoint-Based Adaptive Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Song, Hajoon

    2013-10-01

    A new hybrid ensemble Kalman filter/four-dimensional variational data assimilation (EnKF/4D-VAR) approach is introduced to mitigate background covariance limitations in the EnKF. The work is based on the adaptive EnKF (AEnKF) method, which bears a strong resemblance to the hybrid EnKF/three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-VAR) method. In the AEnKF, the representativeness of the EnKF ensemble is regularly enhanced with new members generated after back projection of the EnKF analysis residuals to state space using a 3D-VAR [or optimal interpolation (OI)] scheme with a preselected background covariance matrix. The idea here is to reformulate the transformation of the residuals as a 4D-VAR problem, constraining the new member with model dynamics and the previous observations. This should provide more information for the estimation of the new member and reduce dependence of the AEnKF on the assumed stationary background covariance matrix. This is done by integrating the analysis residuals backward in time with the adjoint model. Numerical experiments are performed with the Lorenz-96 model under different scenarios to test the new approach and to evaluate its performance with respect to the EnKF and the hybrid EnKF/3D-VAR. The new method leads to the least root-mean-square estimation errors as long as the linear assumption guaranteeing the stability of the adjoint model holds. It is also found to be less sensitive to choices of the assimilation system inputs and parameters.

  11. Approximate nonlinear self-adjointness and approximate conservation laws

    In this paper, approximate nonlinear self-adjointness for perturbed PDEs is introduced and its properties are studied. Consequently, approximate conservation laws which cannot be obtained by the approximate Noether theorem are constructed by means of the method. As an application, a class of perturbed nonlinear wave equations is considered to illustrate the effectiveness. (paper)

  12. MS S4.03.002 - Adjoint-Based Design for Configuration Shaping

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses a method of inverse design for low sonic boom using adjoint-based gradient computations. It outlines a method for shaping a configuration in order to match a prescribed near-field signature.

  13. Adjoint Weighted Kinetics Parameter Estimation in the Monte Carlo Wielandt Calculations

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In order to eliminate this huge memory consumption in the current adjoint estimation method, we have developed a new method in which the pedigree of a single history is utilized by applying the MC Wielandt method. The Wielandt method allows the estimations of the adjoint flux and adjoint-weighted parameters within a single cycle neutron simulations. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated in the kinetics parameter estimations for an infinite homogeneous two-group problem and the Godiva facility. We have developed an efficient algorithm for the adjoint-weighted kinetics parameter estimation in the MC Wielandt calculations which can significantly reduce the memory usage. From the numerical applications, it is demonstrated that the new method can predict the kinetics parameters with great accuracy.

  14. Efficient estimation of adjoint-weighted kinetics parameters in the Monte Carlo Wielandt calculations

    The effective delayed neutron fraction, βeff, and the prompt neutron generation time, Λ, in the point kinetics equation are weighted by the adjoint flux to improve the accuracy of the reactivity estimate. Recently the Monte Carlo (MC) kinetics parameter estimation methods by using the adjoint flux calculated in the MC forward simulations have been developed and successfully applied for reactor analyses. However these adjoint estimation methods based on the cycle-by-cycle genealogical table require a huge memory size to store the pedigree hierarchy. In this paper, we present a new adjoint estimation method in which the pedigree of a single history is utilized by applying the MC Wielandt method. The algorithm of the new method is derived and its effectiveness is demonstrated in the kinetics parameter estimations for infinite homogeneous two-group problems and critical facilities. (author)

  15. Self-Adjoint Extension of Symmetric Maps

    Friedel, H. N.

    2011-01-01

    A densely-defined symmetric linear map from/to a real Hilbert space extends to a self-adjoint map. Extension is expressed via Riesz representation. For a case including Friedrichs extension of a strongly monotone map, self-adjoint extension is unique, and equals closure of the given map.

  16. Estimation of Adjoint-Weighted Kinetics Parameters in Monte Carlo Wieland Calculations

    The effective delayed neutron fraction, βeff, and the prompt neutron generation time, Λ, in the point kinetics equation are weighted by the adjoint flux to improve the accuracy of the reactivity estimate. Recently the Monte Carlo (MC) kinetics parameter estimation methods by using the self-consistent adjoint flux calculated in the MC forward simulations have been developed and successfully applied for the research reactor analyses. However these adjoint estimation methods based on the cycle-by-cycle genealogical table require a huge memory size to store the pedigree hierarchy. In this paper, we present a new adjoint estimation in which the pedigree of a single history is utilized by applying the MC Wielandt method. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated in the kinetics parameter estimations for infinite homogeneous two-group problems and the Godiva critical facility

  17. Estimation of Adjoint-Weighted Kinetics Parameters in Monte Carlo Wieland Calculations

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Shim, Hyung Jin [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction, β{sub eff}, and the prompt neutron generation time, Λ, in the point kinetics equation are weighted by the adjoint flux to improve the accuracy of the reactivity estimate. Recently the Monte Carlo (MC) kinetics parameter estimation methods by using the self-consistent adjoint flux calculated in the MC forward simulations have been developed and successfully applied for the research reactor analyses. However these adjoint estimation methods based on the cycle-by-cycle genealogical table require a huge memory size to store the pedigree hierarchy. In this paper, we present a new adjoint estimation in which the pedigree of a single history is utilized by applying the MC Wielandt method. The effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated in the kinetics parameter estimations for infinite homogeneous two-group problems and the Godiva critical facility.

  18. Adjoint tomography of the southern California crust.

    Tape, Carl; Liu, Qinya; Maggi, Alessia; Tromp, Jeroen

    2009-08-21

    Using an inversion strategy based on adjoint methods, we developed a three-dimensional seismological model of the southern California crust. The resulting model involved 16 tomographic iterations, which required 6800 wavefield simulations and a total of 0.8 million central processing unit hours. The new crustal model reveals strong heterogeneity, including local changes of +/-30% with respect to the initial three-dimensional model provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. The model illuminates shallow features such as sedimentary basins and compositional contrasts across faults. It also reveals crustal features at depth that aid in the tectonic reconstruction of southern California, such as subduction-captured oceanic crustal fragments. The new model enables more realistic and accurate assessments of seismic hazard. PMID:19696349

  19. Adjoint Fokker-Planck equation and runaway electron dynamics

    Liu, Chang; Brennan, Dylan P.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Boozer, Allen H. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The adjoint Fokker-Planck equation method is applied to study the runaway probability function and the expected slowing-down time for highly relativistic runaway electrons, including the loss of energy due to synchrotron radiation. In direct correspondence to Monte Carlo simulation methods, the runaway probability function has a smooth transition across the runaway separatrix, which can be attributed to effect of the pitch angle scattering term in the kinetic equation. However, for the same numerical accuracy, the adjoint method is more efficient than the Monte Carlo method. The expected slowing-down time gives a novel method to estimate the runaway current decay time in experiments. A new result from this work is that the decay rate of high energy electrons is very slow when E is close to the critical electric field. This effect contributes further to a hysteresis previously found in the runaway electron population.

  20. An Adjoint-Based Analysis of the Sampling Footprints of Tall Tower, Aircraft and Potential Future Lidar Observations of CO2

    Andrews, Arlyn; Kawa, Randy; Zhu, Zhengxin; Burris, John; Abshire, Jim

    2004-01-01

    A detailed mechanistic understanding of the sources and sinks of CO2 will be required to reliably predict future CO2 levels and climate. A commonly used technique for deriving information about CO2 exchange with surface reservoirs is to solve an 'inverse problem', where CO2 observations are used with an atmospheric transport model to find the optimal distribution of sources and sinks. Synthesis inversion methods are powerful tools for addressing this question, but the results are disturbingly sensitive to the details of the calculation. Studies done using different atmospheric transport models and combinations of surface station data have produced substantially different distributions of surface fluxes. Adjoint methods are now being developed that will more effectively incorporate diverse datasets in estimates of surface fluxes of CO2. In an adjoint framework, it will be possible to combine CO2 concentration data from longterm surface and aircraft monitoring stations with data from intensive field campaigns and with proposed future satellite observations. We have recently developed an adjoint for the GSFC 3-D Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model (PCTM). Here, we will present results from a PCTM Adjoint study comparing the sampling footprints of tall tower, aircraft and potential future lidar observations of CO2. The vertical resolution and extent of the profiles and the observation frequency will be considered for several sites in North America.

  1. Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle

    Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.

  2. GPU-accelerated adjoint algorithmic differentiation

    Gremse, Felix; Höfter, Andreas; Razik, Lukas; Kiessling, Fabian; Naumann, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Many scientific problems such as classifier training or medical image reconstruction can be expressed as minimization of differentiable real-valued cost functions and solved with iterative gradient-based methods. Adjoint algorithmic differentiation (AAD) enables automated computation of gradients of such cost functions implemented as computer programs. To backpropagate adjoint derivatives, excessive memory is potentially required to store the intermediate partial derivatives on a dedicated data structure, referred to as the "tape". Parallelization is difficult because threads need to synchronize their accesses during taping and backpropagation. This situation is aggravated for many-core architectures, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), because of the large number of light-weight threads and the limited memory size in general as well as per thread. We show how these limitations can be mediated if the cost function is expressed using GPU-accelerated vector and matrix operations which are recognized as intrinsic functions by our AAD software. We compare this approach with naive and vectorized implementations for CPUs. We use four increasingly complex cost functions to evaluate the performance with respect to memory consumption and gradient computation times. Using vectorization, CPU and GPU memory consumption could be substantially reduced compared to the naive reference implementation, in some cases even by an order of complexity. The vectorization allowed usage of optimized parallel libraries during forward and reverse passes which resulted in high speedups for the vectorized CPU version compared to the naive reference implementation. The GPU version achieved an additional speedup of 7.5 ± 4.4, showing that the processing power of GPUs can be utilized for AAD using this concept. Furthermore, we show how this software can be systematically extended for more complex problems such as nonlinear absorption reconstruction for fluorescence-mediated tomography.

  3. Efficient parameter estimation in 2D transport models based on an adjoint formalism

    An adjoint based optimization procedure is elaborated to estimate transport coefficients for plasma edge models based on a limited set of known profiles at different locations. It is shown that a set of adjoint equations can accurately determine all sensitivities towards transport coefficients at once. A proof of principle is provided on a simple geometry. The methodology is subsequently applied to assess whether a simple edge model can be tuned toward full B2-EIRENE profiles for a JET-configuration. (paper)

  4. Radiation source reconstruction with known geometry and materials using the adjoint

    We present a method to estimate an unknown isotropic source distribution, in space and energy, using detector measurements when the geometry and material composition are known. The estimated source distribution minimizes the difference between the measured and computed responses of detectors located at a selected number of points within the domain. In typical methods, a forward flux calculation is performed for each source guess in an iterative process. In contrast, we use the adjoint flux to compute the responses. Potential applications of the proposed method include determining the distribution of radio-contaminants following a nuclear event, monitoring the flow of radioactive fluids in pipes to determine hold-up locations, and retroactive reconstruction of radiation fields using workers' detectors' readings. After presenting the method, we describe a numerical test problem to demonstrate the preliminary viability of the method. As expected, using the adjoint flux reduces the number of transport solves to be proportional to the number of detector measurements, in contrast to methods using the forward flux that require a typically larger number proportional to the number of spatial mesh cells. (author)

  5. Accurate adjoint design sensitivities for nano metal optics.

    Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-09-01

    We present a method for obtaining accurate numerical design sensitivities for metal-optical nanostructures. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis, long used in fluid mechanics and mechanical engineering for both optimization and structural analysis, is beginning to be used for nano-optics design, but it fails for sharp-cornered metal structures because the numerical error in electromagnetic simulations of metal structures is highest at sharp corners. These locations feature strong field enhancement and contribute strongly to design sensitivities. By using high-accuracy FEM calculations and rounding sharp features to a finite radius of curvature we obtain highly-accurate design sensitivities for 3D metal devices. To provide a bridge to the existing literature on adjoint methods in other fields, we derive the sensitivity equations for Maxwell's equations in the PDE framework widely used in fluid mechanics. PMID:26368483

  6. Adjoint equation of ADS sub-critical reactor

    Compared with the critical reactor, the distributions of source neutron and fission neutron are asymmetric inside ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system) sub-critical reactor, as well as the importance function is different. The multigroup-diffusion approximation was used to simplify the steady-state transport equation into multigroup equation. Then an adjoint equation normalized by the power of reactor core and an importance function associated with the relative power were derived. The physical significance of neutron importance in the sub-critical reactor was also derived. Finally, two different expressions of multiplication factor for sub-critical reactor with external neutron source were derived based on steady-state adjoint equations. (authors)

  7. Optimization of a neutron detector design using adjoint transport simulation

    Yi, C.; Manalo, K.; Huang, M.; Chin, M.; Edgar, C.; Applegate, S.; Sjoden, G. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Gilhouse Boggs Bldg., 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A synthetic aperture approach has been developed and investigated for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection in vehicles passing a checkpoint at highway speeds. SNM is postulated to be stored in a moving vehicle and detector assemblies are placed on the road-side or in chambers embedded below the road surface. Neutron and gamma spectral awareness is important for the detector assembly design besides high efficiencies, so that different SNMs can be detected and identified with various possible shielding settings. The detector assembly design is composed of a CsI gamma-ray detector block and five neutron detector blocks, with peak efficiencies targeting different energy ranges determined by adjoint simulations. In this study, formulations are derived using adjoint transport simulations to estimate detector efficiencies. The formulations is applied to investigate several neutron detector designs for Block IV, which has its peak efficiency in the thermal range, and Block V, designed to maximize the total neutron counts over the entire energy spectrum. Other Blocks detect different neutron energies. All five neutron detector blocks and the gamma-ray block are assembled in both MCNP and deterministic simulation models, with detector responses calculated to validate the fully assembled design using a 30-group library. The simulation results show that the 30-group library, collapsed from an 80-group library using an adjoint-weighting approach with the YGROUP code, significantly reduced the computational cost while maintaining accuracy. (authors)

  8. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis for reactor accident codes

    This paper summarizes a recently completed study that identified and investigated the difficulties and limitations of applying first-order adjoint sensitivity methods to reactor accident codes. The work extends earlier adjoint sensitivity formulations and applications to consider problem/model discontinuities in a general fashion, provide for response (R) formulations required by reactor safety applications, and provide a scheme for accurately handling extremely time-sensitive reactor accident responses. The scheme involves partitioning (dividing) the model into submodels (with spearate defining equations and initial conditions) at the location of discontinuity. Successful partitioning moves the problem dependence on the discontinuity location from the whole model system equations to the initial conditions of the second submodel

  9. Use of adjoint transport solutions for inverse problems

    Inverse problems represent a third major class of transport problems (after criticality-type problems and shielding-type problems). For the purpose of discussion here, an inverse problem is defined to be one in which a medium of interest emits some particular type of radiation, either spontaneously or when exposed to some other type of radiation. From a knowledge of the emitted radiation characteristics, one wishes to infer something about the medium that emits the detected radiation. An important example of a practical inverse problem is the geophysical logging of geological formations to determine the presence of minerals or hydrocarbons in the vicinity of a borehole. Proposals have also been made to detect hidden explosives by these methods. For a complete understanding of the apparatus used to solve inverse problems, it is important to know the characteristic interrogation distance of the method. Phrased more precisely, What is the relative contribution to the detector signal due to radiation particles emitted by different elements of volume in the medium being interrogated? As shown in the paper, it is possible to address this question with a computational procedure that utilizes adjoint transport solutions

  10. Coupling of MASH-MORSE Adjoint Leakages with Space- and Time-Dependent Plume Radiation Sources

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-04-20

    reduce computational times. The second source calculation uses a point kernel like method to calculate directional fluences at points surrounding user-specified detector and structure locations and folds those fluences with MASH-MORSE adjoint leakages to calculate free-field and shielded fluences and dose rates and the indicated protection factors. Both source calculation methods were tested for determining dose rates at specified locations within a two-story concrete building. For two early time steps, results from the second method are 50 to 60% higher than those from the first method, but the protection factors differ by only a few percent. This indicates that the free-field and shielded fluence spectra are similar and differ mainly in magnitude. Other comparisons were made, and from the comparisons there was a perceived underprediction by TORT. That underprediction can be attributed to the coarse mesh and quadrature used in the calculations. The second method, while not rigorously correct, requires much less computer time for a reasonably good estimate of the shielded dose rates within a structure.

  11. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  12. Application of adjoint operators to neural learning

    Barhen, J.; Toomarian, N.; Gulati, S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for the efficient analytical computation of such parameters of the neural architecture as synaptic weights and neural gain is presented as a single solution of a set of adjoint equations. The learning model discussed concentrates on the adiabatic approximation only. A problem of interest is represented by a system of N coupled equations, and then adjoint operators are introduced. A neural network is formalized as an adaptive dynamical system whose temporal evolution is governed by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. An approach based on the minimization of a constrained neuromorphic energylike function is applied, and the complete learning dynamics are obtained as a result of the calculations.

  13. Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification with MCNP

    Seifried, Jeffrey E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This work serves to quantify the instantaneous uncertainties in neutron transport simulations born from nuclear data and statistical counting uncertainties. Perturbation and adjoint theories are used to derive implicit sensitivity expressions. These expressions are transformed into forms that are convenient for construction with MCNP6, creating the ability to perform adjoint-based uncertainty quantification with MCNP6. These new tools are exercised on the depleted-uranium hybrid LIFE blanket, quantifying its sensitivities and uncertainties to important figures of merit. Overall, these uncertainty estimates are small (< 2%). Having quantified the sensitivities and uncertainties, physical understanding of the system is gained and some confidence in the simulation is acquired.

  14. Two-dimensional QCD with matter in the adjoint representation: What does it teach us?

    We analyse the highly excited states in QCD2 (Nc→∞) with adjoint matter by using such general methods as dispersion relations, duality and unitarity. We find the Hagedorn-like spectrum ρ(m) ∝m-aexp (βH m) where the parameters βH and a can be expressed in terms of the asymptotics of the matrix elements fn{k} ∝ left angle 0 vertical stroke Tr(anti ΨΨ)k vertical stroke nk right angle. We argue that the asymptotical values fn{k} do not depend on k (after appropriate normalization). Thus, we obtain βH=(2/π)√(π/g2Nc) and a=-3/2 in the case of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation. The Hagedorn temperature is the limiting temperature in this case. We also argue that the chiral condensate left angle 0 vertical stroke Tr(anti ΨΨ) vertical stroke 0 right angle is not zero in the model. Contrary to the 't Hooft model, this condensate does not break down any continuous symmetries and can not be considered as an order parameter. Thus, no Goldstone boson appears as a consequence of the condensation. We also discuss a few apparently different but actually tightly related problems: master field, condensate, wee partons and constituent quark model in the light-cone framework. (orig.)

  15. Adjoint Based A Posteriori Analysis of Multiscale Mortar Discretizations with Multinumerics

    Tavener, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we derive a posteriori error estimates for linear functionals of the solution to an elliptic problem discretized using a multiscale nonoverlapping domain decomposition method. The error estimates are based on the solution of an appropriately defined adjoint problem. We present a general framework that allows us to consider both primal and mixed formulations of the forward and adjoint problems within each subdomain. The primal subdomains are discretized using either an interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method or a continuous Galerkin method with weakly imposed Dirichlet conditions. The mixed subdomains are discretized using Raviart- Thomas mixed finite elements. The a posteriori error estimate also accounts for the errors due to adjoint-inconsistent subdomain discretizations. The coupling between the subdomain discretizations is achieved via a mortar space. We show that the numerical discretization error can be broken down into subdomain and mortar components which may be used to drive adaptive refinement.Copyright © by SIAM.

  16. Aerosols Processes in the CMAQ Adjoint

    Turner, M.; Henze, D.; Hakami, A.; Zhao, S.; Resler, Jaroslav; Carmichael, G.; Stanier, C.; Baek, J.; Saide, P.; Sandu, A.; Russel, A.; Jeong, G.; Nenes, A.; Capps, S.; Percell, P.; Pinder, R.; Napelenok, S.; Pye, H.; Bash, J.; Chai, T.; Byun, D

    Davis: Air Quality Research Center, 2011. [IAMA 2011. International Aerosol Modeling Algorithms Conference /3./. Davis, 30.11.2011-02.12.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : air pollution * adjoint * aerosols Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://dl.dropbox.com/u/41967626/IAMApresent/TURNER.pdf

  17. Fine resolution modeling with CMAQ-adjoint

    Resler, Jaroslav; Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel

    Chapel Hill : CMAS, 2010. [Annual CMAS Conference /9./. 11.10.2010-13.10.2010, Chapel Hill] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1A4/107/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : CMAQ * adjoint * MPI * parallel efficiency Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.cmascenter.org/conference/2010/agenda.cfm

  18. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio;

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound the...

  19. Adjoint accuracy for the full-Stokes ice flow model: limits to the transmission of basal friction variability to the surface

    Martin, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the numerical assessment of the accuracy of an adjoint-based gradient in the perspective of variational data assimilation and parameter identification in glaciology. Using noisy synthetic data, we quantify the ability to identify the friction coefficient for such methods with a non-linear friction law. The exact adjoint problem is solved, based on second order numerical schemes, and a comparison with the so called "self-adjoint" approximation, neglecting the viscosity dependency to the velocity (leading to an incorrect gradient), common in glaciology, is carried out. For data with a noise of $1\\%$, a lower bound of identifiable wavelengths of $10$ ice thicknesses in the friction coefficient is established, when using the exact adjoint method, while the "self-adjoint" method is limited, even for lower noise, to a minimum of $20$ ice thicknesses wavelengths. The second order exact gradient method therefore provides robustness and reliability for the parameter identification process. In othe...

  20. Study on Anti-inflammatory Effect and Adjoint Toxical and Side Effects of Different Extract from Fructus Bruceae%鸦胆子不同组分抗炎与伴随毒副作用研究

    杨倩; 吕莉莉; 张丽美; 孙蓉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To offer experimental basement for the elucidation of dependablity between "toxicity-efficacy" by researching the adjoint toxical and side effects of anti-inflammatory effect of water and alcohol extract from Fructus Bruceae. Methods The model of ear swelling by croton oil and granuloma by agar were made and model mice were administrated with water and alcohol extract from Fructus Bruceae of high, middle and low dosage 3/7 days continually. The activities of serum ALT, AST and contents of Cr, BUN were detected while the ratio of liver and kidney to body was measured. Results Both ear swelling by croton oil and granuloma by agar can be inhibited by multiple intragastric administration of water and alcohol extract from Fructus Bruceae. The swelling depressive rate of water extract was higher than that of alcohol extract and showed a well "dose-effect" relationship. The activities of serum ALT, AST and ratio of liver to body showed little change, but both the contents of Cr and BUN and ratio of kidney to body increased significantly with doses and time. Conclusion Both water and alcohol extract from Fructus Bruceae at effective dosage could efficiently inhibit acute and chronic inflammation. At the same time some toxical and side effects can be caused to kidney, however, the occurrence mechanism of its toxical and side effects still need further study.%目的 对鸦胆子水提、醇提组分发挥抗炎药效剂量下出现的伴随毒副作用进行观察与研究,为阐明其"毒性-功效"相关性提供实验依据.方法 建立小鼠巴豆油耳肿胀模型和琼脂肉芽肿模型,并分别给小鼠灌胃高、中、低不同剂量的鸦胆子水提、醇提组分连续3天和7天,末次给药后取血检测血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)活性及肌Of(Cr)、尿素氮(BUN)含量变化并取肝、肾称重计算脏体比值.结果 连续多次给小鼠灌胃药效剂量的鸦胆子水提和醇提组分均可明

  1. Running coupling in SU(2) with two adjoint fermions

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Rummukainen, Kari; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    We study SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge group on the lattice. Using clover improved Wilson fermion action with hypercubic truncated stout smearing we perform simulations at larger coupling than earlier. We measure the evolution of the coupling constant using the Schr\\"odinger functional method. Extrapolating our lattice results to the continuum, we confirm the existence of a fixed point in the interval 2.2 $\\lesssim $ $g^{*2}$ $\\lesssim $ 3. We also measure the anomalous dimension and find its value at the fixed point is 0.18 $\\lesssim $ $\\gamma^*$ $\\lesssim $ 0.23.

  2. Adjoint Monte Carlo techniques and codes for organ dose calculations

    Adjoint Monte Carlo simulations can be effectively used for the estimation of doses in small targets when the sources are extended in large volumes or surfaces. The main features of two computer codes for calculating doses at free points or in organs of an anthropomorphic phantom are described. In the first program (REBEL-3) natural gamma-emitting sources are contained in the walls of a dwelling room; in the second one (POKER-CAMP) the user can specify arbitrary gamma sources with different spatial distributions in the environment: in (or on the surface of) the ground and in the air. 3 figures

  3. Utilisation de sources et d'adjoints dragon pour les calculs TRIPOLI

    Camand, Corentin

    Numerical simulation is an essential part of reactor physics in order to understand the behaviour of neutrons inside and outside nuclear reactors. The objective is to solve the neutron transport equation in order to know the neutron flux and the interactions between neutrons and materials. We use neutronic simulation codes in order to solve this equation for criticallity problem, where we have a neutron multiplying environment, and shielding problems. There are two different types of numerical simulation techniques. Deterministic methods solve directly the transport equation using some approximations. The energy domain is divided in regions called groups, we use a spatial mesh for the geometry treatment, transport operator may also be simplified. Those approximations invole an inherent error. However these methods provide high computation time performances. Monte Carlo or stochastic methods follow explicitly a large number of neutrons as they travel through materials minimizing approximations. Continuous-energy and multigroup treatment are both available. Quantities calculated are random variables to which are associated statistical error called standard deviations. We have to simulate a very large number of neutrons if we want the calculation to converge and the results to be precise enough. As a matter of fact, computation time of these methods can be excessively large and represent their main weakness. The objective of this study is to set up a chaining method from a deterministic code to a Monte Carlo code, in order to improve the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations performed by the code TRIPOLI. We want to use datas calculated by the deterministic code DRAGON and use them in TRIPOLI. We will develop two methods. The first one will calculate source distribution in DRAGON and implement them in TRIPOLI as initial sources of a criticallity calculation. The objective is to accelerate the convergence of the neutrons sources, and save the first batches that are

  4. Inverting Juno Gravity Field Measurements into the Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter - a Study Using a Dynamical Model and Its Adjoint Counterpart

    Galanti, E.; Kaspi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In approximately two years Juno will perform close flybys of Jupiter, obtaining a high precision gravity spectrum for the planet. This data can potentially be used to estimate the depth of the observed flows on the Jupiter. Here, we propose a new methodology for the inversion of the gravity data into into the full three-dimensional flow on Jupiter. Using the adjoint method we construct an inverse model for a dynamical model in which the gravity field is calculated from the observed surface wind, thus allowing its backward integration, from the gravity field to the wind. Given a gravity field, the adjoint based model finds the atmospheric dynamics that can explain best the gravity field (minimum difference). The dynamical model is set up to allow either zonal flow only, or a full horizontal flow in both zonal and meridional directions based on the observed cloud-level wind. In addition, dynamical perturbations resulting from the the non-spherical shape of the planet are accounted for. The dynamical model, together with its adjoint counterpart, are used for examination of various scenarios, including cases in which the depth of the wind depend on latitudinal position.We show that given the expected sensitivities of Juno, it is possible to use the gravity measurements to derive the depth of the wind on Jupiter. This holds for a large range of zonal wind possible penetration depths, from 100km to 10,000km, and for winds depth that vary with latitude. This method proves to be useful also when incorporating the full horizontal flow, and thus taking into account gravity perturbations that vary with longitude. We show that our adjoint based inversion method allows not only to estimate the depth of the circulation, but allows via iterations with the spacecraft trajectory estimation model to improve the inferred gravity field.

  5. An adjoint-based approach for finding invariant solutions of Navier-Stokes equations

    Farazmand, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    We consider the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions and time-independent forcing. For this type of flow, we derive adjoint equations whose trajectories converge asymptotically to the equilibrium and traveling wave solutions of the Navier--Stokes equations. Using the adjoint equations, arbitrary initial conditions evolve to the vicinity of a (relative) equilibrium at which point a few Newton-type iterations yield the desired (relative) equilibrium solution. We apply this adjoint-based method to a chaotic two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow. A convergence rate of 100% is observed, leading to the discovery of 21 new steady state and traveling wave solutions at Reynolds number Re=40. Some of the new invariant solutions have spatially localized structures that were previously believed to only exist on domains with large aspect ratios. We show that one of the newly found steady state solutions underpins the temporal intermittencies, i.e., high energy dissipation episodes of the flo...

  6. Adjoint optimization of natural convection problems: differentially heated cavity

    Saglietti, Clio; Schlatter, Philipp; Monokrousos, Antonios; Henningson, Dan S.

    2016-06-01

    Optimization of natural convection-driven flows may provide significant improvements to the performance of cooling devices, but a theoretical investigation of such flows has been rarely done. The present paper illustrates an efficient gradient-based optimization method for analyzing such systems. We consider numerically the natural convection-driven flow in a differentially heated cavity with three Prandtl numbers (Pr=0.15{-}7 ) at super-critical conditions. All results and implementations were done with the spectral element code Nek5000. The flow is analyzed using linear direct and adjoint computations about a nonlinear base flow, extracting in particular optimal initial conditions using power iteration and the solution of the full adjoint direct eigenproblem. The cost function for both temperature and velocity is based on the kinetic energy and the concept of entransy, which yields a quadratic functional. Results are presented as a function of Prandtl number, time horizons and weights between kinetic energy and entransy. In particular, it is shown that the maximum transient growth is achieved at time horizons on the order of 5 time units for all cases, whereas for larger time horizons the adjoint mode is recovered as optimal initial condition. For smaller time horizons, the influence of the weights leads either to a concentric temperature distribution or to an initial condition pattern that opposes the mean shear and grows according to the Orr mechanism. For specific cases, it could also been shown that the computation of optimal initial conditions leads to a degenerate problem, with a potential loss of symmetry. In these situations, it turns out that any initial condition lying in a specific span of the eigenfunctions will yield exactly the same transient amplification. As a consequence, the power iteration converges very slowly and fails to extract all possible optimal initial conditions. According to the authors' knowledge, this behavior is illustrated here

  7. Tracking influential haze source areas in North China using an adjoint model, GRAPES-CUACE

    An, X. Q.; Zhai, S. X.; Jin, M.; Gong, S. L.; Wang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Based upon the adjoint theory, the adjoint of the aerosol module in the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) was developed and tested for its correctness. Through statistic comparison, BC (black carbon aerosol) concentrations simulated by GRAPES-CUACE were generally consistent with observations from Nanjiao (one urban observation station) and Shangdianzi (one rural observation station) stations. To track the most influential emission-sources regions and the most influential time intervals for the high BC concentration during the simulation period, the adjoint model was adopted to simulate the sensitivity of average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) with respect to BC emission amount over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions were selected based on administrative division and sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint model was used to quantify the effects of emission-sources reduction in different time intervals over different regions by one independent simulation. Effects of different emission reduction strategies based on adjoint sensitivity information show that the more influential regions (regions with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions, and the influence effectiveness of sensitivity-oriented regions was greater than the administrative divisions. The influence of emissions on the objective function decreases sharply approximately for the pollutants emitted 17-18 h ago in this episode. Therefore, controlling critical emission regions during critical time intervals on the basis of adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative specified regions during an experiential time period.

  8. Solar wind reconstruction from magnetosheath data using an adjoint approach

    Nabert, C.; Othmer, C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Glassmeier, K.H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik; Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Goettingen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present a new method to reconstruct solar wind conditions from spacecraft data taken during magnetosheath passages, which can be used to support, e.g., magnetospheric models. The unknown parameters of the solar wind are used as boundary conditions of an MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) magnetosheath model. The boundary conditions are varied until the spacecraft data matches the model predictions. The matching process is performed using a gradient-based minimization of the misfit between data and model. To achieve this time-consuming procedure, we introduce the adjoint of the magnetosheath model, which allows efficient calculation of the gradients. An automatic differentiation tool is used to generate the adjoint source code of the model. The reconstruction method is applied to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) data to calculate the solar wind conditions during spacecraft magnetosheath transitions. The results are compared to actual solar wind data. This allows validation of our reconstruction method and indicates the limitations of the MHD magnetosheath model used.

  9. Solar wind reconstruction from magnetosheath data using an adjoint approach

    We present a new method to reconstruct solar wind conditions from spacecraft data taken during magnetosheath passages, which can be used to support, e.g., magnetospheric models. The unknown parameters of the solar wind are used as boundary conditions of an MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) magnetosheath model. The boundary conditions are varied until the spacecraft data matches the model predictions. The matching process is performed using a gradient-based minimization of the misfit between data and model. To achieve this time-consuming procedure, we introduce the adjoint of the magnetosheath model, which allows efficient calculation of the gradients. An automatic differentiation tool is used to generate the adjoint source code of the model. The reconstruction method is applied to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) data to calculate the solar wind conditions during spacecraft magnetosheath transitions. The results are compared to actual solar wind data. This allows validation of our reconstruction method and indicates the limitations of the MHD magnetosheath model used.

  10. Firm Analysis by Different Methods

    Píbilová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    This Diploma Thesis deals with an analysis of the company made by selected methods. External environment of the company is analysed using PESTLE analysis and Porter’s five-factor model. The internal environment is analysed by means of Kralicek Quick test and Fundamental analysis. SWOT analysis represents opportunities and threats of the external environment with the strengths and weaknesses of the company. The proposal of betterment of the company’s economic management is designed on the basi...

  11. Chiral transition of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    Capdevilla, R.M. [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Doff, A., E-mail: agomes@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Natale, A.A., E-mail: natale@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-170 Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-20

    The chiral symmetry breaking transition of quarks in the fundamental and adjoint representation is studied in a model where the gap equation contains two contributions, one containing a confining propagator and another corresponding to the exchange of one-dressed dynamically massive gluons. When quarks are in the fundamental representation the confinement effect dominates the chiral symmetry breaking while the gluon exchange is suppressed due to the dynamical gluon mass effect in the propagator and in the coupling constant. In this case the chiral and deconfinement transition temperatures are approximately the same. For quarks in the adjoint representation, due to the larger Casimir eigenvalue, the gluon exchange is operative and the chiral transition happens at a larger temperature than the deconfinement one.

  12. Chiral transition of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    The chiral symmetry breaking transition of quarks in the fundamental and adjoint representation is studied in a model where the gap equation contains two contributions, one containing a confining propagator and another corresponding to the exchange of one-dressed dynamically massive gluons. When quarks are in the fundamental representation the confinement effect dominates the chiral symmetry breaking while the gluon exchange is suppressed due to the dynamical gluon mass effect in the propagator and in the coupling constant. In this case the chiral and deconfinement transition temperatures are approximately the same. For quarks in the adjoint representation, due to the larger Casimir eigenvalue, the gluon exchange is operative and the chiral transition happens at a larger temperature than the deconfinement one

  13. Solution of the self-adjoint radiative transfer equation on hybrid computer systems

    Gasilov, V. A.; Kuchugov, P. A.; Olkhovskaya, O. G.; Chetverushkin, B. N.

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for simulating three-dimensional radiative energy transfer for the use in the software designed for the predictive simulation of plasma with high energy density on parallel computers is proposed. A highly scalable algorithm that takes into account the angular dependence of the radiation intensity and is free of the ray effect is developed based on the solution of a second-order equation with a self-adjoint operator. A distinctive feature of this algorithm is a preliminary transformation of rotation to eliminate mixed derivatives with respect to the spatial variables, simplify the structure of the difference operator, and accelerate the convergence of the iterative solution of the equation. It is shown that the proposed method correctly reproduces the limiting cases—isotropic radiation and the directed radiation with a δ-shaped angular distribution.

  14. Chiral transition of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    Capdevilla, R. M.; Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The chiral symmetry breaking transition of quarks in the fundamental and adjoint representation is studied in a model where the gap equation contains two contributions, one containing a confining propagator and another corresponding to the exchange of one-dressed dynamically massive gluons. When quarks are in the fundamental representation the confinement effect dominates the chiral symmetry breaking while the gluon exchange is suppressed due to the dynamical gluon mass effect in the propagat...

  15. SPECTRAL RELATIVE ABSORPTION DIFFERENCE METHOD

    Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-17

    When analyzing field data, the uncertainty in the background continuum emission produces the majority of error in the final gamma-source analysis. The background emission typically dominates an observed spectrum in terms of counts and is highly variable spatially and temporally. The majority of the spectral shape of the background continuum is produced by combinations of cosmic rays, {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, and {sup 220}Rn, and the continuum is similar in shape to the 15%-20% level for most field observations. However, the goal of spectroscopy analysis is to pick up subtle peaks (<%5) upon this large background. Because the continuum is falling off as energy increases, peak detection algorithms must first define the background surrounding the peak. This definition is difficult when the range of background shapes is considered. The full spectral template matching algorithms are heavily weighted to solving for the background continuum as it produces significant counts over much of the energy range. The most appropriate background mitigation technique is to take a separate background observation without the source of interest. But, it is frequently not possible to record a background observation in the exact location before (or after) a source has been detected. Thus, one uses approximate backgrounds that rely on spatially nearby locations or similar environments. Since the error in many field observations is dominated by the background, a technique that is less sensitive to the background would be quite beneficial. We report the result of an initial investigation into a novel observation scheme for gamma-emission detection in high background environments. Employing low resolution, NaI, detectors, we examine the different between the direct emission and the 'spectral-shadow' that the gamma emission produces when passed through a thin absorber. For this detection scheme to be competitive, it is required to count and analyze individual gamma-events. We describe

  16. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    Al-Hashimi, M. H.; Salman, M.; Shalaby, A.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2013-10-01

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant.

  17. Supersymmetric Descendants of Self-Adjointly Extended Quantum Mechanical Hamiltonians

    Al-Hashimi, M H; Shalaby, A; Wiese, U -J

    2013-01-01

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant.

  18. Limitations of Adjoint-Based Optimization for Separated Flows

    Otero, J. Javier; Sharma, Ati; Sandberg, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Cabin noise is generated by the transmission of turbulent pressure fluctuations through a vibrating panel and can lead to fatigue. In the present study, we model this problem by using DNS to simulate the flow separating off a backward facing step and interacting with a plate downstream of the step. An adjoint formulation of the full compressible Navier-Stokes equations with varying viscosity is used to calculate the optimal control required to minimize the fluid-structure-acoustic interaction with the plate. To achieve noise reduction, a cost function in wavenumber space is chosen to minimize the excitation of the lower structural modes of the structure. To ensure the validity of time-averaged cost functions, it is essential that the time horizon is long enough to be a representative sample of the statistical behaviour of the flow field. The results from the current study show how this scenario is not always feasible for separated flows, because the chaotic behaviour of turbulence surpasses the ability of adjoint-based methods to compute time-dependent sensitivities of the flow.

  19. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  20. On the essential self-adjointness of generalized Schroedinger operators

    We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the generalized Schroedinger operator to be essentially self-adjoint in L2(Ω; rhodx), under general assumptions on rho and for arbitrary domains Ω in Rsup(n). In particular, if rho is strictly positive and locally Lipschitz continuous on Ω = Rsup(n), then A is essentially self-adjoint. We also give examples of non-essential self-adjointness and a complete discussion of the one-dimensional case. These results have applications to the problem of the essential self-adjointness of quantum Hamiltonians and to the uniqueness problem of Markov processes. (orig./WL)

  1. The Schroedinger differential operator and intrinsic self adjointness

    An attempt is made to establish a hermitization procedure for rendering any linear differential operator to be intrinsically self adjoint, independently of any prescribed representation. This is accomplished by introducing an associate differential operator, which is simply a linear combination of all the individual ordinary differential operators belonging to the adjoint of the given linear differential operator, that satisfies the criterion of intrinsic self adjointness. It turns out that the associate differential operator is capable of generating an infinite set of hermitized versions of any arbitrary linear differential operator. Both momentum and kinetic energy differential operators that belong to the Schroedinger wave equation are rendered self adjoint. (author)

  2. Coupling of Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences

    A computer code, DRC3, has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences in order to solve a special category of geometrically-complex deep penetration shielding problems. The code extends the capabilities of earlier methods that coupled Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with two-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences. The problems involve the calculation of fluences and responses in a perturbation to an otherwise simple two- or three-dimensional radiation field. In general, the perturbation complicates the geometry such that it cannot be modeled exactly using any of the discrete ordinates geometry options and thus a direct discrete ordinates solution is not possible. Also, the calculation of radiation transport from the source to the perturbation involves deep penetration. One approach to solving such problems is to perform the calculations in three steps: (1) a forward discrete ordinates calculation, (2) a localized adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, and (3) a coupling of forward fluences from the first calculation with adjoint leakages from the second calculation to obtain the response of interest (fluence, dose, etc.). A description of this approach is presented along with results from test problems used to verify the method. The test problems that were selected could also be solved directly by the discrete ordinates method. The good agreement between the DRC3 results and the direct-solution results verify the correctness of DRC3

  3. Coupling of Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences

    Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.; Simpson, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    A computer code, DRC3, has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences in order to solve a special category of geometrically-complex deep penetration shielding problems. The code extends the capabilities of earlier methods that coupled Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with two-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences. The problems involve the calculation of fluences and responses in a perturbation to an otherwise simple two- or three-dimensional radiation field. In general, the perturbation complicates the geometry such that it cannot be modeled exactly using any of the discrete ordinates geometry options and thus a direct discrete ordinates solution is not possible. Also, the calculation of radiation transport from the source to the perturbation involves deep penetration. One approach to solving such problems is to perform the calculations in three steps: (1) a forward discrete ordinates calculation, (2) a localized adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, and (3) a coupling of forward fluences from the first calculation with adjoint leakages from the second calculation to obtain the response of interest (fluence, dose, etc.). A description of this approach is presented along with results from test problems used to verify the method. The test problems that were selected could also be solved directly by the discrete ordinates method. The good agreement between the DRC3 results and the direct-solution results verify the correctness of DRC3.

  4. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  5. ELEMENT FUNCTIONS OF DISCRETE OPERATOR DIFFERENCE METHOD

    田中旭; 唐立民; 刘正兴

    2002-01-01

    The discrete scheme called discrete operator difference for differential equations was given. Several difference elements for plate bending problems and plane problems were given. By investigating these elements, the ability of the discrete forms expressing to the element functions was talked about. In discrete operator difference method, the displacements of the elements can be reproduced exactly in the discrete forms whether the displacements are conforming or not. According to this point, discrete operator difference method is a method with good performance.

  6. Local Volatility Calibration Using An Adjoint Proxy

    Gabriel TURINICI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We document the calibration of the local volatility in a framework similar to Coleman, Li and Verma. The quality of a surface is assessed through a functional to be optimized; the specificity of the approach is to separate the optimization (performed with any suitable optimization algorithm from the computation of the functional where we use an adjoint (as in L. Jiang et. al. to obtain an approximation; moreover our main calibration variable is the implied volatility (the procedure can also accommodate the Greeks. The procedure performs well on benchmarks from the literature and on FOREX data.

  7. Symmetries of linearized gravity from adjoint operators

    Aksteiner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Using a covariant formulation it is shown that the Teukolsky equation and the Teukolsky-Starobinsky identities for spin-1 and linearized gravity on a vacuum type D background are self-adjoint. This fact is used to construct symmetry operators for each of the four cases. We find both irreducible second order symmetry operators for spin-1, a known fourth order, and a new sixth order symmetry operator for linearized gravity. The results are connected to Hertz and Debye potentials and to the separability of the Teukolsky equation.

  8. Development of CO2 inversion system based on the adjoint of the global coupled transport model

    Belikov, Dmitry; Maksyutov, Shamil; Chevallier, Frederic; Kaminski, Thomas; Ganshin, Alexander; Blessing, Simon

    2014-05-01

    We present the development of an inverse modeling system employing an adjoint of the global coupled transport model consisting of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Eulerian transport model (TM) and the Lagrangian plume diffusion model (LPDM) FLEXPART. NIES TM is a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model, which solves the continuity equation for a number of atmospheric tracers on a grid spanning the entire globe. Spatial discretization is based on a reduced latitude-longitude grid and a hybrid sigma-isentropic coordinate in the vertical. NIES TM uses a horizontal resolution of 2.5°×2.5°. However, to resolve synoptic-scale tracer distributions and to have the ability to optimize fluxes at resolutions of 0.5° and higher we coupled NIES TM with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART. The Lagrangian component of the forward and adjoint models uses precalculated responses of the observed concentration to the surface fluxes and 3-D concentrations field simulated with the FLEXPART model. NIES TM and FLEXPART are driven by JRA-25/JCDAS reanalysis dataset. Construction of the adjoint of the Lagrangian part is less complicated, as LPDMs calculate the sensitivity of measurements to the surrounding emissions field by tracking a large number of "particles" backwards in time. Developing of the adjoint to Eulerian part was performed with automatic differentiation tool the Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran (TAF) software (http://www.FastOpt.com). This method leads to the discrete adjoint of NIES TM. The main advantage of the discrete adjoint is that the resulting gradients of the numerical cost function are exact, even for nonlinear algorithms. The overall advantages of our method are that: 1. No code modification of Lagrangian model is required, making it applicable to combination of global NIES TM and any Lagrangian model; 2. Once run, the Lagrangian output can be applied to any chemically neutral gas; 3. High-resolution results can be obtained over

  9. Adjoint Fokker-Planck equation and runaway electron dynamics

    Liu, Chang; Boozer, Allen H; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    A new method to obtain the runaway probability and the expected slowing-down time for runaway electrons is developed, by solving the adjoint Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. The runaway probability function has a smooth transition at the runaway separatrix, which can be attributed to the effect of the pitch angle scattering term in the kinetic equation. The expected slowing-down time gives a new way to estimate the runaway current decay time in experiments. The result shows that the decay rate of high energy electron is very slow when E is close to the critical electric field, which helps elucidate the hysteresis effect seen in the runaway electron population. Given the same numerical accuracy, the new method is more efficient than the Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Using adjoint-based optimization to study wing flexibility in flapping flight

    Wei, Mingjun; Xu, Min; Dong, Haibo

    2014-11-01

    In the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects, it is important to understand the impact of wing flexibility/deformation on aerodynamic performance. However, the large control space from the complexity of wing deformation and kinematics makes usual parametric study very difficult or sometimes impossible. Since the adjoint-based approach for sensitivity study and optimization strategy is a process with its cost independent of the number of input parameters, it becomes an attractive approach in our study. Traditionally, adjoint equation and sensitivity are derived in a fluid domain with fixed solid boundaries. Moving boundary is only allowed when its motion is not part of control effort. Otherwise, the derivation becomes either problematic or too complex to be feasible. Using non-cylindrical calculus to deal with boundary deformation solves this problem in a very simple and still mathematically rigorous manner. Thus, it allows to apply adjoint-based optimization in the study of flapping wing flexibility. We applied the ``improved'' adjoint-based method to study the flexibility of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flapping wings, where the flapping trajectory and deformation are described by either model functions or real data from the flight of dragonflies. Supported by AFOSR.

  11. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    Al-Hashimi, M.H., E-mail: hashimi@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Salman, M., E-mail: msalman@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Shalaby, A., E-mail: amshalab@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Physics, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha 2713 (Qatar); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Egypt); Wiese, U.-J., E-mail: wiese@itp.unibe.ch [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition.

  12. Self-adjointness of the Gaffney Laplacian on Vector Bundles

    We study the Gaffney Laplacian on a vector bundle equipped with a compatible metric and connection over a Riemannian manifold that is possibly geodesically incomplete. Under the hypothesis that the Cauchy boundary is polar, we demonstrate the self-adjointness of this Laplacian. Furthermore, we show that negligible boundary is a necessary and sufficient condition for the self-adjointness of this operator

  13. Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians

    We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition

  14. Self-adjointness of the Gaffney Laplacian on Vector Bundles

    Bandara, Lashi, E-mail: lashi.bandara@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Mathematical Sciences (Sweden); Milatovic, Ognjen, E-mail: omilatov@unf.edu [University of North Florida, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We study the Gaffney Laplacian on a vector bundle equipped with a compatible metric and connection over a Riemannian manifold that is possibly geodesically incomplete. Under the hypothesis that the Cauchy boundary is polar, we demonstrate the self-adjointness of this Laplacian. Furthermore, we show that negligible boundary is a necessary and sufficient condition for the self-adjointness of this operator.

  15. Construction of the adjoint MIT ocean general circulation model and application to Atlantic heat transport sensitivity

    Marotzke, Jochem; Giering, Ralf; Zhang, Kate Q.; Stammer, Detlef; Hill, Chris; Lee, Tong

    1999-12-01

    We first describe the principles and practical considerations behind the computer generation of the adjoint to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ocean general circulation model (GCM) using R. Giering's software tool Tangent-Linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC). The TAMC's recipe for (FORTRAN-) line-by-line generation of adjoint code is explained by interpreting an adjoint model strictly as the operator that gives the sensitivity of the output of a model to its input. Then, the sensitivity of 1993 annual mean heat transport across 29°N in the Atlantic, to the hydrography on January 1, 1993, is calculated from a global solution of the GCM. The "kinematic sensitivity" to initial temperature variations is isolated, showing how the latter would influence heat transport if they did not affect the density and hence the flow. Over 1 year the heat transport at 29°N is influenced kinematically from regions up to 20° upstream in the western boundary current and up to 5° upstream in the interior. In contrast, the dynamical influences of initial temperature (and salinity) perturbations spread from as far as the rim of the Labrador Sea to the 29°N section along the western boundary. The sensitivities calculated with the adjoint compare excellently to those from a perturbation calculation with the dynamical model. Perturbations in initial interior salinity influence meridional overturning and heat transport when they have propagated to the western boundary and can thus influence the integrated east-west density difference. Our results support the notion that boundary monitoring of meridional mass and heat transports is feasible.

  16. On Cultural Differences and Translation Methods

    Hongmei Sun

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays translation is regarded essentially as a cross-cultural communication, and cultural differences pose major barriers in translating. After a brief overview of cultural differences in translation, this paper mainly explores foreignizing and domesticating methods in dealing with cultural differences and those possible factors affecting the choice of them.

  17. The Adjoint Monte Carlo - a viable option for efficient radiotherapy treatment planning

    In cancer therapy using collimated beams of photons, the radiation oncologist must determine a set of beams that delivers the required dose to each point in the tumor and minimizes the risk of damage to the healthy tissue and vital organs. Currently, the oncologist determines these beams iteratively, by using a sequence of dose calculations using approximate numerical methods. In this paper, a more accurate and potentially faster approach, based on the Adjoint Monte Carlo method, is presented (authors)

  18. Accurate Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing

    Persson, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Stock options are priced numerically using space- and time-adaptive finite difference methods. European options on one and several underlying assets are considered. These are priced with adaptive numerical algorithms including a second order method and a more accurate method. For American options we use the adaptive technique to price options on one stock with and without stochastic volatility. In all these methods emphasis is put on the control of errors to fulfill predefined tolerance level...

  19. On the wavelet optimized finite difference method

    Jameson, Leland

    1994-01-01

    When one considers the effect in the physical space, Daubechies-based wavelet methods are equivalent to finite difference methods with grid refinement in regions of the domain where small scale structure exists. Adding a wavelet basis function at a given scale and location where one has a correspondingly large wavelet coefficient is, essentially, equivalent to adding a grid point, or two, at the same location and at a grid density which corresponds to the wavelet scale. This paper introduces a wavelet optimized finite difference method which is equivalent to a wavelet method in its multiresolution approach but which does not suffer from difficulties with nonlinear terms and boundary conditions, since all calculations are done in the physical space. With this method one can obtain an arbitrarily good approximation to a conservative difference method for solving nonlinear conservation laws.

  20. Gauge Mediation Models with Adjoint Messengers

    Gogoladze, Ilia; Shafi, Qaisar; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of models in the framework of gauge mediation supersymmetry breaking where the messenger fields transform in the adjoint representation of the Standard Model gauge symmetry. To avoid unacceptably light right-handed sleptons in the spectrum we introduce a non-zero U(1)_B-L D-term. This leads to an additional contribution to the soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms which makes the right-handed slepton masses compatible with the current experimental bounds. We show that in this framework the observed 125 GeV Higgs boson mass can be accommodated with the sleptons accessible at the LHC, while the squarks and gluinos lie in the multi-TeV range. We also discuss the issue of the fine-tuning and show that the desired relic dark matter abundance can also be accommodated.

  1. On the formulation of sea-ice models. Part 2: Lessons from multi-year adjoint sea-ice export sensitivities through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Heimbach, Patick; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Losch, Martin; Campin, Jean-Michel; Hill, Chris

    The adjoint of an ocean general circulation model is at the heart of the ocean state estimation system of the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) project. As part of an ongoing effort to extend ECCO to a coupled ocean/sea-ice estimation system, a dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice model has been developed for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). One key requirement is the ability to generate, by means of automatic differentiation (AD), tangent linear (TLM) and adjoint (ADM) model code for the coupled MITgcm ocean/sea-ice system. This second part of a two-part paper describes aspects of the adjoint model. The adjoint ocean and sea-ice model is used to calculate transient sensitivities of solid (ice and snow) freshwater export through Lancaster Sound in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). The adjoint state provides a complementary view of the dynamics. In particular, the transient, multi-year sensitivity patterns reflect dominant pathways and propagation timescales through the CAA as resolved by the model, thus shedding light on causal relationships, in the model, across the Archipelago. The computational cost of inferring such causal relationships from forward model diagnostics alone would be prohibitive. The role of the exact model trajectory around which the adjoint is calculated (and therefore of the exactness of the adjoint) is exposed through calculations using free-slip vs no-slip lateral boundary conditions. Effective ice thickness, sea surface temperature, and precipitation sensitivities, are discussed in detail as examples of the coupled sea-ice/ocean and atmospheric forcing control space. To test the reliability of the adjoint, finite-difference perturbation experiments were performed for each of these elements and the cost perturbations were compared to those "predicted" by the adjoint. Overall, remarkable qualitative and quantitative agreement is found. In particular, the adjoint correctly

  2. Difference equations by differential equation methods

    Hydon, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Most well-known solution techniques for differential equations exploit symmetry in some form. Systematic methods have been developed for finding and using symmetries, first integrals and conservation laws of a given differential equation. Here the author explains how to extend these powerful methods to difference equations, greatly increasing the range of solvable problems. Beginning with an introduction to elementary solution methods, the book gives readers a clear explanation of exact techniques for ordinary and partial difference equations. The informal presentation is suitable for anyone who is familiar with standard differential equation methods. No prior knowledge of difference equations or symmetry is assumed. The author uses worked examples to help readers grasp new concepts easily. There are 120 exercises of varying difficulty and suggestions for further reading. The book goes to the cutting edge of research; its many new ideas and methods make it a valuable reference for researchers in the field.

  3. Time-dependent problems and difference methods

    Gustafsson, Bertil; Oliger, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . fills a considerable gap in the numerical analysis literature by providing a self-contained treatment . . . this is an important work written in a clear style . . . warmly recommended to any graduate student or researcher in the field of the numerical solution of partial differential equations."" -SIAM Review Time-Dependent Problems and Difference Methods, Second Edition continues to provide guidance for the analysis of difference methods for computing approximate solutions to partial differential equations for time-de

  4. Adjoint gradient-based approach for aerodynamic optimization of transport aircraft

    Ilic, Caslav

    2013-01-01

    Aerodynamic design of transport aircraft has been steadily improved over past several decades, to the point where today highly-detailed shape control is needed to achieve further improvements. Aircraft manufacturers are therefore increasingly looking into formal optimization methods, driving high-fidelity CFD analysis of finely-parametrized candidate designs. We present an adjoint gradient-based approach for maximizing the aerodynamic performance index relevant to cruise-climb mission segment...

  5. Adjoint Monte Carlo calculation of charged plasma particle flux to wall

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes an adjoint/reverse Monte Carlo method to calculate the flux of charged plasma particles to the wall of e.g. a tokamak. Two applications are described: a fusion product activation probe and a neutral beam injection prompt loss measurement with a fast ion loss diagnostic. In both cases, the collisions of the particles with the background plasma can be omitted.

  6. Hilbert-Schmidt Inner Product for an Adjoint Representation of the Quantum Algebra U⌣Q(SU2)

    Fakhri, Hossein; Nouraddini, Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    The Jordan-Schwinger realization of quantum algebra U⌣q(su2) is used to construct the irreducible submodule Tl of the adjoint representation in two different bases. The two bases are known as types of irreducible tensor operators of rank l which are related to each other by the involution map. The bases of the submodules are equipped with q-analogues of the Hilbert-Schmidt inner product and it is also shown that the adjoint representation corresponding to one of those submodules is a *-representation.

  7. A PNJL Model for Adjoint Fermions with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Ogilvie, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on QCD-like theories has shown that the addition of adjoint fermions obeying periodic boundary conditions to gauge theories on $R^{3}\\times S^{1}$ can lead to a restoration of center symmetry and confinement for sufficiently small circumference $L$ of $S^{1}$. At small $L$, perturbation theory may be used reliably to compute the effective potential for the Polyakov loop $P$ in the compact direction. Periodic adjoint fermions act in opposition to the gauge fields, which by themselv...

  8. Development of an adjoint model of GRAPES-CUACE and its application in tracking influential haze source areas in north China

    An, Xing Qin; Xian Zhai, Shi; Jin, Min; Gong, Sunling; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol adjoint module of the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) is constructed based on the adjoint theory. This includes the development and validation of the tangent linear and the adjoint models of the three parts involved in the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol module: CAM (Canadian Aerosol Module), interface programs that connect GRAPES and CUACE, and the aerosol transport processes that are embedded in GRAPES. Meanwhile, strict mathematical validation schemes for the tangent linear and the adjoint models are implemented for all input variables. After each part of the module and the assembled tangent linear and adjoint models is verified, the adjoint model of the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol is developed and used in a black carbon (BC) receptor-source sensitivity analysis to track influential haze source areas in north China. The sensitivity of the average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) is calculated with respect to the BC amount emitted over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions are selected based on the administrative division or the sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint sensitivity results are then used to quantify the effect of reducing the emission sources at different time intervals over different regions. It is indicated that the more influential regions (with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions. Instead, the influence per unit area of the sensitivity selected regions is greater. Therefore, controlling the most influential regions during critical time intervals based on the results of the adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative regions during an experimental time period.

  9. Neural Network Training by Integration of Adjoint Systems of Equations Forward in Time

    Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories exploits the concepts of adjoint operators to enable computation of the gradient of an objective functional with respect to the various parameters of the network architecture in a highly efficient manner. Specifically. it combines the advantage of dramatic reductions in computational complexity inherent in adjoint methods with the ability to solve two adjoint systems of equations together forward in time. Not only is a large amount of computation and storage saved. but the handling of real-time applications becomes also possible. The invention has been applied it to two examples of representative complexity which have recently been analyzed in the open literature and demonstrated that a circular trajectory can be learned in approximately 200 iterations compared to the 12000 reported in the literature. A figure eight trajectory was achieved in under 500 iterations compared to 20000 previously required. Tbc trajectories computed using our new method are much closer to the target trajectories than was reported in previous studies.

  10. Adjoint-based linear analysis in reduced-order thermo-acoustic models

    Magri, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the linear theory of adjoint equations as applied to thermo-acoustics. The purpose is to describe the mathematical foundations of adjoint equations for linear sensitivity analysis of thermo-acoustic systems, recently developed by Magri and Juniper (J. Fluid Mech. (2013), vol. 719, pp. 183--202). This method is applied pedagogically to a damped oscillator, for which analytical solutions are available, and then for an electrically heated Rijke tube with a mean-flow temperature discontinuity induced by the compact heat source. Passive devices that most affect the growth rate / frequency of the electrical Rijke-tube system are presented, including a discussion about the effect of modelling the mean-flow temperature discontinuity.

  11. Weyl theorems for the polluted set of self-adjoint operators in Galerkin approximations

    Boulton, Lyonell; Lewin, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a self-adjoint operator on a separable Hilbert space H and let (L_n) be a sequence of finite dimensional subspaces of the domain of A, approximating H in the large n limit. Denote by A_n the compression of A to L_n. In general the spectrum of A is only a subset of the limit of the spectra of A_n and the latter might differ from the former in a non-trivial "polluted set". In this paper we show that this polluted set is determined by the existence of particular Weyl sequences of singular type. This characterization allows us to identify verifiable conditions on self-adjoint perturbations B, ensuring that the polluted set of B is identical to that of A. The results reported are illustrated by means of several canonical examples and they reveal the many subtleties involved in the systematic study of spectral pollution.

  12. Self-adjoint elliptic operators with boundary conditions on not closed hypersurfaces

    Mantile, Andrea; Posilicano, Andrea; Sini, Mourad

    2016-07-01

    The theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is used to construct self-adjoint realizations of a second-order elliptic differential operator on Rn with linear boundary conditions on (a relatively open part of) a compact hypersurface. Our approach allows to obtain Kreĭn-like resolvent formulae where the reference operator coincides with the "free" operator with domain H2 (Rn); this provides an useful tool for the scattering problem from a hypersurface. Concrete examples of this construction are developed in connection with the standard boundary conditions, Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, δ and δ‧-type, assigned either on a (n - 1) dimensional compact boundary Γ = ∂ Ω or on a relatively open part Σ ⊂ Γ. Schatten-von Neumann estimates for the difference of the powers of resolvents of the free and the perturbed operators are also proven; these give existence and completeness of the wave operators of the associated scattering systems.

  13. Adjoint Airfoil Optimization of Darrieus-Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Fuchs, Roman; Nordborg, Henrik

    2012-11-01

    We present the feasibility of using an adjoint solver to optimize the torque of a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). We start with a 2D cross section of a symmetrical airfoil and restrict us to low solidity ratios to minimize blade vortex interactions. The adjoint solver of the ANSYS FLUENT software package computes the sensitivities of airfoil surface forces based on a steady flow field. Hence, we find the torque of a full revolution using a weighted average of the sensitivities at different wind speeds and angles of attack. The weights are computed analytically, and the range of angles of attack is given by the tip speed ratio. Then the airfoil geometry is evolved, and the proposed methodology is evaluated by transient simulations.

  14. Maintenance Approaches for Different Production Methods

    Mungani, Dzivhuluwani Simon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various production methods are used in industry to manufacture or produce a variety of products needed by industry and consumers. The nature of a product determines which production method is most suitable or cost-effective. A continuous process is typically used to produce large volumes of liquids or gases. Batch processing is often used for small volumes, such as pharmaceutical products. This paper discusses a research project to determine the relationship between maintenance approaches and production methods. A survey was done to determine to what extent three maintenance approaches reliability-centred maintenance (RCM, total productive maintenance (TPM, and business-centred maintenance (BCM are used for three different processing methods (continuous process, batch process, and a production line method.

  15. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L;

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using...... 99 subjects aged 65-87years from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all...... correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. The exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused...

  16. Fuzzy logic controller using different inference methods

    In this paper the design of fuzzy controllers by using different inference methods is introduced. Configuration of the fuzzy controllers includes a general rule-base which is a collection of fuzzy PI or PD rules, the triangular fuzzy data model and a centre of gravity defuzzification algorithm. The generalized modus ponens (GMP) is used with the minimum operator of the triangular norm. Under the sup-min inference rule, six fuzzy implication operators are employed to calculate the fuzzy look-up tables for each rule base. The performance is tested in simulated systems with MATLAB/SIMULINK. Results show the effects of using the fuzzy controllers with different inference methods and applied to different test processes

  17. Adjoint based optimal control of partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media with applications to CO2 sequestration in underground reservoirs

    Simon, Moritz

    2014-11-14

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. With the target of optimizing CO2 sequestration in underground reservoirs, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. Our objective is to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, while time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system, formulate the optimal control problem and derive the continuous adjoint equations. For the discretization we apply a variant of the so-called BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method that we further stabilize by a periodic averaging feature to reduce oscillations. The timestep-wise Lagrange function of the control problem is implemented as a variational form in Sundance, a toolbox for rapid development of parallel FE simulations, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. We discuss the BOX method and our implementation in Sundance. The MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT, using limited-memory BFGS updates for approximating second derivatives. Finally, we present and discuss different types of optimal control results.

  18. Deterministic adjoint transport applications for He-3 neutron detector design

    This work focuses on the determination of predicted neutron detector response accomplished using neutron importance derived from an adjoint discrete ordinates (SN) transport calculation. A hypothetical detector apparatus, intended to detect fast neutrons, was modeled using He-3 tubes with graphite moderation using the PENTRANTM 3-D multi-group discrete ordinates parallel transport code system. The detector geometry was modeled using z-axis symmetry and discretized into 30,280 3-D Cartesian cells. The material spatial mesh was generated using the PENMSHTM code in the PENTRAN system. The 47-group BUGLE-96 neutron cross section library was used for construction of macroscopic neutron cross sections. Results from an S8 angular quadrature using P3 anisotropy are presented. An adjoint transport source was established in the model using group dependent He-3 response cross sections. Each He-3 tube contained an adjoint source aliased to group He-3 absorption cross sections to permit assessment of detector performance. The spectrally dependent detector response from neutron capture in He-3 tubes from an arbitrary source can, therefore, be readily determined. This response comes from the complete integral of the actual source strength weighted by the adjoint function at the source location for any source distribution scenario. For selected neutron energies, an equivalent forward MCNP Monte Carlo model was used to demonstrate good agreement with the detector response determined from the adjoint calculation. The graphite used in this design has a large impact on detector performance due to the increasing sensitivity inherent in He-3 gas as neutrons thermalize. Computational adjoint results presented here predict a fast neutron detector design that yields efficiencies between 30 and 50% for neutron energies below 3 keV, and up to 30% efficiencies for neutron energies between 3 keV and 1 MeV. Overall, the methodology applied here highlights the elegant nature of an adjoint

  19. Adjoint-based uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis for reactor depletion calculations

    Stripling, Hayes Franklin

    Depletion calculations for nuclear reactors model the dynamic coupling between the material composition and neutron flux and help predict reactor performance and safety characteristics. In order to be trusted as reliable predictive tools and inputs to licensing and operational decisions, the simulations must include an accurate and holistic quantification of errors and uncertainties in its outputs. Uncertainty quantification is a formidable challenge in large, realistic reactor models because of the large number of unknowns and myriad sources of uncertainty and error. We present a framework for performing efficient uncertainty quantification in depletion problems using an adjoint approach, with emphasis on high-fidelity calculations using advanced massively parallel computing architectures. This approach calls for a solution to two systems of equations: (a) the forward, engineering system that models the reactor, and (b) the adjoint system, which is mathematically related to but different from the forward system. We use the solutions of these systems to produce sensitivity and error estimates at a cost that does not grow rapidly with the number of uncertain inputs. We present the framework in a general fashion and apply it to both the source-driven and k-eigenvalue forms of the depletion equations. We describe the implementation and verification of solvers for the forward and ad- joint equations in the PDT code, and we test the algorithms on realistic reactor analysis problems. We demonstrate a new approach for reducing the memory and I/O demands on the host machine, which can be overwhelming for typical adjoint algorithms. Our conclusion is that adjoint depletion calculations using full transport solutions are not only computationally tractable, they are the most attractive option for performing uncertainty quantification on high-fidelity reactor analysis problems.

  20. An adjoint-based approach for finding invariant solutions of Navier–Stokes equations

    Farazmand, M.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions and time-independent forcing. For this type of flow, we derive adjoint equations whose trajectories converge asymptotically to the equilibrium and traveling wave solutions of the Navier--Stokes equations. Using the adjoint equations, arbitrary initial conditions evolve to the vicinity of a (relative) equilibrium at which point a few Newton-type iterations yield the desired (relative) equilibrium solution. We apply this adjoint-based method to a chaotic two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow. A convergence rate of 100% is observed, leading to the discovery of 21 new steady state and traveling wave solutions at Reynolds number Re=40. Some of the new invariant solutions have spatially localized structures that were previously believed to only exist on domains with large aspect ratios. We show that one of the newly found steady state solutions underpins the temporal intermittencies, i.e., high energy dissipation episodes of the flow. More precisely, it is shown that each intermittent episode of a generic turbulent trajectory corresponds to its close passage to this equilibrium solution.

  1. Top-Down Inversion of Aerosol Emissions through Adjoint Integration of Satellite Radiance and GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Model

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Henze, D. K.; Qu, W.; Kopacz, M.

    2012-12-01

    The knowledge of aerosol emissions from both natural and anthropogenic sources are needed to study the impacts of tropospheric aerosol on atmospheric composition, climate, and human health, but large uncertainties persist in quantifying the aerosol sources with the current bottom-up methods. This study presents a new top-down approach that spatially constrains the amount of aerosol emissions from satellite (MODIS) observed reflectance with the adjoint of a chemistry transport model (GEOS-Chem). We apply this technique with a one-month case study (April 2008) over the East Asia. The bottom-up estimated sulfate-nitrate-ammonium precursors, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), and nitrogen oxides (NOx), all from INTEX-B 2006 inventory, emissions of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) from Bond-2007 inventory, and mineral dust simulated from DEAD dust mobilization scheme, are spatially optimized from the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint constrained by the aerosol optical depth (AOD) that are derived from MODIS reflectance with the GEOS-Chem aerosol single scattering properties. The adjoint inverse modeling for the study period yields notable decreases in anthropogenic aerosol emissions over China: 436 Gg (33.5%) for SO2, 378 Gg (34.5%) for NH3, 319 (18.8%) for NOx, 10 Gg (9.1%) for BC, and 30 Gg (15.0%) for OC. The total amount of the mineral dust emission is reduced by 56.4% from the DEAD mobilization module which simulates dust production of 19020 Gg. Sub-regional adjustments are significant and directions of changes are spatially different. The model simulation with optimized aerosol emissions shows much better agreement with independent observations from sun-spectrophotometer observed AOD from AERONET, MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) AOD, OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 and SO2 columns, and surface aerosol concentrations measured over both anthropogenic pollution and dust source regions. Assuming the used bottom-up anthropogenic

  2. Perception Differences in Punishment Methods against Child

    Kaya, Ahsen; Aktas, Ekin O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Potentially, all children have the risk of encountering with the ill-treatment of adults. In Turkey, discipline oriented punishment behaviors are social problems because of their traditional acceptability. In this study, the comparison of punishment methods both physical and emotional, which parents and teachers state to apply on their children/students and which the children states, assessment of perception differences were presented.  By using randomized cluster sampling, it was ch...

  3. The Complex-Step-Finite-Difference method

    Abreu, Rafael; Stich, Daniel; Morales, Jose

    2015-07-01

    We introduce the Complex-Step-Finite-Difference method (CSFDM) as a generalization of the well-known Finite-Difference method (FDM) for solving the acoustic and elastic wave equations. We have found a direct relationship between modelling the second-order wave equation by the FDM and the first-order wave equation by the CSFDM in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D acoustic media. We present the numerical methodology in order to apply the introduced CSFDM and show an example for wave propagation in simple homogeneous and heterogeneous models. The CSFDM may be implemented as an extension into pre-existing numerical techniques in order to obtain fourth- or sixth-order accurate results with compact three time-level stencils. We compare advantages of imposing various types of initial motion conditions of the CSFDM and demonstrate its higher-order accuracy under the same computational cost and dispersion-dissipation properties. The introduced method can be naturally extended to solve different partial differential equations arising in other fields of science and engineering.

  4. Measurements and Terminology of Different Measure Methods

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan; ZHANG Wen-bin

    2005-01-01

    Body measuring is very important for garment sizing and pattern making. In this paper, we study the difference of the landmarks between the traditional method and 3D scanner and we also select the 19 circumference measurements,29 height and length measurements, 18 breadth and depth measurements and 3 other measurements, which are quite important in fashion body measuring, to compare the terminology of them in these two measuring method. 3D scanners seem better than the traditional method on these aspects, which are the number of measurements, speed,privacy and data accuracy, but they are limited on measuring posture. And there is no uniform standard for the scanners and the definitions of the measurements in the scanners are diversified.

  5. Implementation of Generalized Adjoint Equation Solver for DeCART

    In this paper, the generalized adjoint solver based on the generalized perturbation theory is implemented on DeCART and the verification calculations were carried out. As the results, the adjoint flux for the general response coincides with the reference solution and it is expected that the solver could produce the parameters for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Recently, MUSAD (Modules of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART) was developed for the uncertainty analysis of PMR200 core and the fundamental adjoint solver was implemented into DeCART. However, the application of the code was limited to the uncertainty to the multiplication factor, keff, because it was based on the classical perturbation theory. For the uncertainty analysis to the general response as like the power density, it is necessary to develop the analysis module based on the generalized perturbation theory and it needs the generalized adjoint solutions from DeCART. In this paper, the generalized adjoint solver is implemented on DeCART and the calculation results are compared with the results by TSUNAMI of SCALE 6.1

  6. Implementation of Generalized Adjoint Equation Solver for DeCART

    Han, Tae Young; Cho, Jin Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the generalized adjoint solver based on the generalized perturbation theory is implemented on DeCART and the verification calculations were carried out. As the results, the adjoint flux for the general response coincides with the reference solution and it is expected that the solver could produce the parameters for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Recently, MUSAD (Modules of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART) was developed for the uncertainty analysis of PMR200 core and the fundamental adjoint solver was implemented into DeCART. However, the application of the code was limited to the uncertainty to the multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, because it was based on the classical perturbation theory. For the uncertainty analysis to the general response as like the power density, it is necessary to develop the analysis module based on the generalized perturbation theory and it needs the generalized adjoint solutions from DeCART. In this paper, the generalized adjoint solver is implemented on DeCART and the calculation results are compared with the results by TSUNAMI of SCALE 6.1.

  7. Anelastic sensitivity kernels with parsimonious storage for adjoint tomography and full waveform inversion

    Komatitsch, Dimitri; Bozdag, Ebru; de Andrade, Elliott Sales; Peter, Daniel B; Liu, Qinya; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a technique to compute exact anelastic sensitivity kernels in the time domain using parsimonious disk storage. The method is based on a reordering of the time loop of time-domain forward/adjoint wave propagation solvers combined with the use of a memory buffer. It avoids instabilities that occur when time-reversing dissipative wave propagation simulations. The total number of required time steps is unchanged compared to usual acoustic or elastic approaches. The cost is reduced by a factor of 4/3 compared to the case in which anelasticity is partially accounted for by accommodating the effects of physical dispersion. We validate our technique by performing a test in which we compare the $K_\\alpha$ sensitivity kernel to the exact kernel obtained by saving the entire forward calculation. This benchmark confirms that our approach is also exact. We illustrate the importance of including full attenuation in the calculation of sensitivity kernels by showing significant differences with physical-dispersi...

  8. Evaluation of toothbrush disinfection via different methods

    Adil BASMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of using a dishwasher or different chemical agents, including 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, a mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, and 50% white vinegar, for toothbrush disinfection. Sixty volunteers were divided into five experimental groups and one control group (n = 10. Participants brushed their teeth using toothbrushes with standard bristles, and they disinfected the toothbrushes according to instructed methods. Bacterial contamination of the toothbrushes was compared between the experimental groups and the control group. Data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Duncan's multiple range tests, with 95% confidence intervals for multiple comparisons. Bacterial contamination of toothbrushes from individuals in the experimental groups differed from those in the control group (p < 0.05. The most effective method for elimination of all tested bacterial species was 50% white vinegar, followed in order by 2% NaOCl, mouthrinse containing essential oils and alcohol, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, dishwasher use, and tap water (control. The results of this study show that the most effective method for disinfecting toothbrushes was submersion in 50% white vinegar, which is cost-effective, easy to access, and appropriate for household use.

  9. Learning phacoemulsification. Results of different teaching methods.

    Hennig Albrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the learning curves of three eye surgeons converting from sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification using different teaching methods. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR as a per-operative complication and visual outcome of the first 100 operations were analysed. The PCR rate was 4% and 15% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively. Likewise, an uncorrected visual acuity of > or = 6/18 on the first postoperative day was seen in 62 (62% of patients and in 22 (22% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively.

  10. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Owens, W. Brechner

    2013-07-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1˜2 months.

  11. State estimates and forecasts of the loop current in the Gulf of Mexico using the MITgcm and its adjoint

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    An ocean state estimate has been developed for the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model and its adjoint. The estimate has been tested by forecasting loop current (LC) evolution and eddy shedding in the GoM. The adjoint (or four-dimensional variational) method was used to match the model evolution to observations by adjusting model temperature and salinity initial conditions, open boundary conditions, and atmospheric forcing fields. The model was fit to satellite-derived along-track sea surface height, separated into temporal mean and anomalies, and gridded sea surface temperature for 2 month periods. The optimized state at the end of the assimilation period was used to initialize the forecast for 2 months. Forecasts explore practical LC predictability and provide a cross-validation test of the state estimate by comparing it to independent future observations. The model forecast was tested for several LC eddy separation events, including Eddy Franklin in May 2010 during the deepwater horizon oil spill disaster in the GoM. The forecast used monthly climatological open boundary conditions, atmospheric forcing, and run-off fluxes. The model performance was evaluated by computing model-observation root-mean-square difference (rmsd) during both the hindcast and forecast periods. The rmsd metrics for the forecast generally outperformed persistence (keeping the initial state fixed) and reference (forecast initialized using assimilated Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model 1/12° global analysis) model simulations during LC eddy separation events for a period of 1̃2 months.

  12. SUPERSTABILITY OF ADJOINTABLE MAPPINGS ON HILBERT C*-MODULES

    Mohammad Sal Moslehian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We define the notion of $varphi$-perturbation of a densely definedadjointable mapping and prove that any such mapping $f$ betweenHilbert ${mathcal A}$-modules over a fixed $C^*$-algebra ${mathcalA}$ with densely defined corresponding mapping $g$ is ${mathcalA}$-linear and adjointable in the classical sense with adjoint $g$.If both $f$ and $g$ are everywhere defined then they are bounded.Our work concerns with the concept of {sc Hyers--Ulam--Rassias} stability originated from the {sc Th.~M.~Rassias}' stability theorem that appeared in his paper [{it On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces}, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., {f 72} (1978, 297--300]. We also indicate complementary results in the case where the {sc Hilbert} $C^*$-modules admit non-adjointable $C^*$-linear appings

  13. Automatic differentiation, tangent linear models, and (pseudo) adjoints

    Bischof, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides a brief introduction to automatic differentiation and relates it to the tangent linear model and adjoint approaches commonly used in meteorology. After a brief review of the forward and reverse mode of automatic differentiation, the ADIFOR automatic differentiation tool is introduced, and initial results of a sensitivity-enhanced version of the MM5 PSU/NCAR mesoscale weather model are presented. We also present a novel approach to the computation of gradients that uses a reverse mode approach at the time loop level and a forward mode approach at every time step. The resulting ``pseudoadjoint`` shares the characteristic of an adjoint code that the ratio of gradient to function evaluation does not depend on the number of independent variables. In contrast to a true adjoint approach, however, the nonlinearity of the model plays no role in the complexity of the derivative code.

  14. Difference methods for stiff delay differential equations

    Delay differential equations of the form y'(t) = f(y(t), z(t)), where z(t) = [y1(α1(y(t))),..., y/sub n/(α/sub n/(y(t)))]/sup T/ and α/sub i/(y(t)) less than or equal to t, arise in many scientific and engineering fields when transport lags and propagation times are physically significant in a dynamic process. Difference methods for approximating the solution of stiff delay systems require special stability properties that are generalizations of those employed for stiff ordinary differential equations. By use of the model equation y'(t) = py(t) + qy(t-1), with complex p and q, the definitions of A-stability, A( )-stability, and stiff stability have been generalize to delay equations. For linear multistep difference formulas, these properties extend directly from ordinary to delay equations. This straight forward extension is not true for implicit Runge-Kutta methods, as illustrated by the midpoint formula, which is A-stable for ordinary equations, but not for delay equations. A computer code for stiff delay equations was developed using the BDF. 24 figures, 5 tables

  15. Evaluating different methods of microarray data normalization

    Ferreira Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the development of DNA hybridization microarray technologies, nowadays it is possible to simultaneously assess the expression levels of thousands to tens of thousands of genes. Quantitative comparison of microarrays uncovers distinct patterns of gene expression, which define different cellular phenotypes or cellular responses to drugs. Due to technical biases, normalization of the intensity levels is a pre-requisite to performing further statistical analyses. Therefore, choosing a suitable approach for normalization can be critical, deserving judicious consideration. Results Here, we considered three commonly used normalization approaches, namely: Loess, Splines and Wavelets, and two non-parametric regression methods, which have yet to be used for normalization, namely, the Kernel smoothing and Support Vector Regression. The results obtained were compared using artificial microarray data and benchmark studies. The results indicate that the Support Vector Regression is the most robust to outliers and that Kernel is the worst normalization technique, while no practical differences were observed between Loess, Splines and Wavelets. Conclusion In face of our results, the Support Vector Regression is favored for microarray normalization due to its superiority when compared to the other methods for its robustness in estimating the normalization curve.

  16. Efficient discretization in finite difference method

    Rozos, Evangelos; Koussis, Antonis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Finite difference method (FDM) is a plausible and simple method for solving partial differential equations. The standard practice is to use an orthogonal discretization to form algebraic approximate formulations of the derivatives of the unknown function and a grid, much like raster maps, to represent the properties of the function domain. For example, for the solution of the groundwater flow equation, a raster map is required for the characterization of the discretization cells (flow cell, no-flow cell, boundary cell, etc.), and two raster maps are required for the hydraulic conductivity and the storage coefficient. Unfortunately, this simple approach to describe the topology comes along with the known disadvantages of the FDM (rough representation of the geometry of the boundaries, wasted computational resources in the unavoidable expansion of the grid refinement in all cells of the same column and row, etc.). To overcome these disadvantages, Hunt has suggested an alternative approach to describe the topology, the use of an array of neighbours. This limits the need for discretization nodes only for the representation of the boundary conditions and the flow domain. Furthermore, the geometry of the boundaries is described more accurately using a vector representation. Most importantly, graded meshes can be employed, which are capable of restricting grid refinement only in the areas of interest (e.g. regions where hydraulic head varies rapidly, locations of pumping wells, etc.). In this study, we test the Hunt approach against MODFLOW, a well established finite difference model, and the Finite Volume Method with Simplified Integration (FVMSI). The results of this comparison are examined and critically discussed.

  17. Searching for Standard Model Adjoint Scalars with Diboson Resonance Signatures

    Carpenter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    We explore the phenomenology of scalar fields in the adjoint representation of SM gauge groups. We write a general set of dimension 5 effective operators in which SM adjoint scalars couple to pairs of standard model bosons. Using these effective operators, we explore new possible decay channels of a scalar color octet into a gluon and a Z boson/ gluon and a photon. We recast several analyses from Run I of the LHC to find constraints on an a scalar octet decaying into these channels, and we project the discovery potential of color octets in our gluon+photon channel for the 14 TeV run of LHC.

  18. The application of the gradient-based adjoint multi-point optimization of single and double shock control bumps for transonic airfoils

    Mazaheri, K.; Nejati, A.; Chaharlang Kiani, K.; Taheri, R.

    2015-08-01

    A shock control bump (SCB) is a flow control method which uses local small deformations in a flexible wing surface to considerably reduce the strength of shock waves and the resulting wave drag in transonic flows. Most of the reported research is devoted to optimization in a single flow condition. Here, we have used a multi-point adjoint optimization scheme to optimize shape and location of the SCB. Practically, this introduces transonic airfoils equipped with the SCB which are simultaneously optimized for different off-design transonic flight conditions. Here, we use this optimization algorithm to enhance and optimize the performance of SCBs in two benchmark airfoils, i.e., RAE-2822 and NACA-64A010, over a wide range of off-design Mach numbers. All results are compared with the usual single-point optimization. We use numerical simulation of the turbulent viscous flow and a gradient-based adjoint algorithm to find the optimum location and shape of the SCB. We show that the application of SCBs may increase the aerodynamic performance of an RAE-2822 airfoil by 21.9 and by 22.8 % for a NACA-64A010 airfoil compared to the no-bump design in a particular flight condition. We have also investigated the simultaneous usage of two bumps for the upper and the lower surfaces of the airfoil. This has resulted in a 26.1 % improvement for the RAE-2822 compared to the clean airfoil in one flight condition.

  19. Fundamental differences between SPH and grid methods

    Agertz, O; Stadel, J; Potter, D; Miniati, F; Read, J; Mayer, L; Gawryszczak, A; Kravtsov, A; Monaghan, J; Nordlund, A; Pearce, F; Quilis, V; Rudd, D; Springel, V; Stone, J; Tasker, E; Teyssier, R; Wadsley, J; Walder, R; Agertz, Oscar; Moore, Ben; Stadel, Joachim; Potter, Doug; Miniati, Francesco; Read, Justin; Mayer, Lucio; Gawryszczak, Artur; Kravtsov, Andrey; Monaghan, Joe; Nordlund, Ake; Pearce, Frazer; Quilis, Vincent; Rudd, Douglas; Springel, Volker; Stone, James; Tasker, Elizabeth; Teyssier, Romain; Wadsley, James; Walder, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    We have carried out a hydrodynamical code comparison study of interacting multiphase fluids. The two commonly used techniques of grid and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) show striking differences in their ability to model processes that are fundamentally important across many areas of astrophysics. Whilst Eulerian grid based methods are able to resolve and treat important dynamical instabilities, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor, these processes are poorly or not at all resolved by existing SPH techniques. We show that the reason for this is that SPH, at least in its standard implementation, introduces spurious pressure forces on particles in regions where there are steep density gradients. This results in a boundary gap of the size of the SPH smoothing kernel over which information is not transferred.

  20. On self-adjointness of singular Floquet Hamiltonians

    Duclos, Pierre; Jensen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Schrödinger equations with time-dependent interactions are studied. We investigate how to define the Floquet Hamiltonian as a self-adjoint operator, when the interaction is singular in time or space. Using these results we establish the existence of a bounded propagator, by applying a result given...

  1. Large-volume results in SU(2) with adjoint fermions

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Lucini, Biagio; Pica, Claudio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio; Roman, Sabin

    2013-01-01

    Taming finite-volume effects is a crucial ingredient in order to identify the existence of IR fixed points. We present the latest results from our numerical simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with 2 Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation on large volumes. We compare with previous results, and...

  2. The Adjoint of the CMAQ Aqueous Chemistry Module

    Baek, J.; Stanier, C.; Saide, P.; Carmichael, G.; Henze, D.; Turner, M.; Zhao, S.; Hakami, A.; Resler, Jaroslav; Sandu, A.; Russell, A. P.; Jeong, G.; Nenes, A.; Capps, S.; Percell, P.; Pinder, R.; Napelenok, S.; Bash, J.; Chai, T.; Byun, D

    Chapel Hill : CMAS, 2012. s. 91-92. [Annual CMAS Conference /11./. Chapel Hill, 15.10.2012-17.10.2012] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : air pollution * adjoint * aqueous chemistry Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.cmascenter.org/conference/2012/agenda.cfm

  3. Adjoint electron-photon transport Monte Carlo calculations with ITS

    A general adjoint coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code for solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation has recently been created. It is a modified version of ITS 3.0, a coupled electronphoton Monte Carlo code that has world-wide distribution. The applicability of the new code to radiation-interaction problems of the type found in space environments is demonstrated

  4. Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint"

    Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...

  5. Non-self-adjoint hamiltonians defined by Riesz bases

    Bagarello, F., E-mail: fabio.bagarello@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell' Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, I-90128 Palermo, Italy and INFN, Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Inoue, A., E-mail: a-inoue@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Mathematics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Trapani, C., E-mail: camillo.trapani@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Palermo, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    We discuss some features of non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians with real discrete simple spectrum under the assumption that the eigenvectors form a Riesz basis of Hilbert space. Among other things, we give conditions under which these Hamiltonians can be factorized in terms of generalized lowering and raising operators.

  6. Beryllium Wipe Sampling (differing methods - differing exposure potentials)

    Kerr, Kent

    2005-03-09

    This research compared three wipe sampling techniques currently used to test for beryllium contamination on room and equipment surfaces in Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling without a wetting agent, with water-moistened wipe materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Analysis indicated that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed about twice as much beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes, which removed about twice as much residue as dry wipes. Criteria at 10 CFR 850.30 and .31 were established on unspecified wipe sampling method(s). The results of this study reveal a need to identify criteria-setting method and equivalency factors. As facilities change wipe sampling methods among the three compared in this study, these results may be useful for approximate correlations. Accurate decontamination decision-making depends on the selection of appropriate wetting agents for the types of residues and surfaces. Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced removal efficiency such as methanol when surface contamination includes oil mist residue.

  7. Adjoint free four-dimensional variational data assimilation for a storm surge model of the German North Sea

    Zheng, Xiangyang; Mayerle, Roberto; Xing, Qianguo; Fernández Jaramillo, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a data assimilation scheme based on the adjoint free Four-Dimensional Variational(4DVar) method is applied to an existing storm surge model of the German North Sea. To avoid the need of an adjoint model, an ensemble-like method to explicitly represent the linear tangent equation is adopted. Results of twin experiments have shown that the method is able to recover the contaminated low dimension model parameters to their true values. The data assimilation scheme was applied to a severe storm surge event which occurred in the North Sea in December 5, 2013. By adjusting wind drag coefficient, the predictive ability of the model increased significantly. Preliminary experiments have shown that an increase in the predictive ability is attained by narrowing the data assimilation time window.

  8. Adjoint sensitivity of global cloud droplet number to aerosol and dynamical parameters

    V. A. Karydis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of the adjoint of a comprehensive cloud droplet formation parameterization for use in aerosol-cloud-climate interaction studies. The adjoint efficiently and accurately calculates the sensitivity of cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC to all parameterization inputs (e.g., updraft velocity, water uptake coefficient, aerosol number and hygroscopicity with a single execution. The adjoint is then integrated within three dimensional (3-D aerosol modeling frameworks to quantify the sensitivity of CDNC formation globally to each parameter. Sensitivities are computed for year-long executions of the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI Chemical Transport Model (CTM, using wind fields computed with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS Global Circulation Model (GCM II', and the GEOS-Chem CTM, driven by meteorological input from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO. We find that over polluted (pristine areas, CDNC is more sensitive to updraft velocity and uptake coefficient (aerosol number and hygroscopicity. Over the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, addition of anthropogenic or biomass burning aerosol is predicted to increase CDNC in contrast to coarse-mode sea salt which tends to decrease CDNC. Over the Southern Oceans, CDNC is most sensitive to sea salt, which is the main aerosol component of the region. Globally, CDNC is predicted to be less sensitive to changes in the hygroscopicity of the aerosols than in their concentration with the exception of dust where CDNC is very sensitive to particle hydrophilicity over arid areas. Regionally, the sensitivities differ considerably between the two frameworks and quantitatively reveal why the models differ considerably in their indirect forcing estimates.

  9. Examination of Observation Impacts derived from OSEs and Adjoint Models

    Gelaro, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    With the adjoint of a data assimilation system, the impact of any or all assimilated observations on measures of forecast skill can be estimated accurately and efficiently. The approach allows aggregation of results in terms of individual data types, channels or locations, all computed simultaneously. In this study, adjoint-based estimates of observation impact are compared with results from standard observing system experiments (OSEs) in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) GEOS-5 system. The two approaches are shown to provide unique, but complimentary, information. Used together, they reveal both redundancies and dependencies between observing system impacts as observations are added or removed. Understanding these dependencies poses a major challenge for optimizing the use of the current observational network and defining requirements for future observing systems.

  10. Refined topological vertex, cylindric partitions and U(1) adjoint theory

    We study the partition function of the compactified 5D U(1) gauge theory (in the Ω-background) with a single adjoint hypermultiplet, calculated using the refined topological vertex. We show that this partition function is an example a periodic Schur process and is a refinement of the generating function of cylindric plane partitions. The size of the cylinder is given by the mass of adjoint hypermultiplet and the parameters of the Ω-background. We also show that this partition function can be written as a trace of operators which are generalizations of vertex operators studied by Carlsson and Okounkov. In the last part of the paper we describe a way to obtain (q,t) identities using the refined topological vertex.

  11. A comparison between different segmentation methods

    Ni, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Upland heather moors are of vital importance in terms of economic and aesthetic values. A satisfying segmentation method is required to help the following classification thus helping land managers to make decisions about their management. This project focuses on object-based segmentation and four approaches: multiresolution segmentation of eCognition Professional 4.0, along with edge-based segmentation, marker controlled segmentation and efficient graph-based segmentation of python. They were...

  12. Abstract Level Parallelization of Finite Difference Methods

    Edwin Vollebregt

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A formalism is proposed for describing finite difference calculations in an abstract way. The formalism consists of index sets and stencils, for characterizing the structure of sets of data items and interactions between data items (“neighbouring relations”. The formalism provides a means for lifting programming to a more abstract level. This simplifies the tasks of performance analysis and verification of correctness, and opens the way for automaticcode generation. The notation is particularly useful in parallelization, for the systematic construction of parallel programs in a process/channel programming paradigm (e.g., message passing. This is important because message passing, unfortunately, still is the only approach that leads to acceptable performance for many more unstructured or irregular problems on parallel computers that have non-uniform memory access times. It will be shown that the use of index sets and stencils greatly simplifies the determination of which data must be exchanged between different computing processes.

  13. A comparison of adjoint and data-centric verification techniques.

    Wildey, Timothy Michael; Cyr, Eric Christopher; Shadid, John Nicolas; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Smith, Thomas Michael

    2013-03-01

    This document summarizes the results from a level 3 milestone study within the CASL VUQ effort. We compare the adjoint-based a posteriori error estimation approach with a recent variant of a data-centric verification technique. We provide a brief overview of each technique and then we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. We use Drekar::CFD to produce numerical results for steady-state Navier Stokes and SARANS approximations. 3

  14. Adjoint-Based Design of Rotors Using the Navier-Stokes Equations in a Noninertial Reference Frame

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Jones, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of rotorcraft flowfields using an adjoint method generally requires a time-dependent implementation of the equations. The current study examines an intermediate approach in which a subset of rotor flowfields are cast as steady problems in a noninertial reference frame. This technique permits the use of an existing steady-state adjoint formulation with minor modifications to perform sensitivity analyses. The formulation is valid for isolated rigid rotors in hover or where the freestream velocity is aligned with the axis of rotation. Discrete consistency of the implementation is demonstrated by using comparisons with a complex-variable technique, and a number of single- and multipoint optimizations for the rotorcraft figure of merit function are shown for varying blade collective angles. Design trends are shown to remain consistent as the grid is refined.

  15. A generalized albedo option for forward and adjoint Monte Carlo calculations

    The advisability of using the albedo procedure for the Monte Carlo solution of deep-penetration shielding problems which have ducts and other penetrations is investigated. It is generally accepted that the use of albedo data can dramatically improve the computational efficiency of certain Monte Carlo calculations - however the accuracy of these results may be unacceptable because of lost information during the albedo event and serious errors in the available differential albedo data. This study was done to evaluate and appropriate modify the MORSE/BREESE package, to develop new methods for generating the required albedo data, and to extend the adjoint capability to the albedo-modified calculations. The major modifications include an option to save for further use information that would be lost at the albedo event, an option to displace the emergent point during an albedo event, and an option to read spatially-dependent albedo data for both forward and adjoint calculations - which includes the emergent point as a new random variable to be selected during an albedo reflection event. The theoretical basis for using TORT-generated forward albedo information to produce adjuncton albedos is derived

  16. Adjoint sensitivity theory for steady-state ground-water flow

    In this study, adjoint sensitivity theory is developed for equations of two-dimensional steady-state flow in a confined aquifer. Both the primary flow equation and the adjoint sensitivity equation are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. The developed computer code is used to investigate the regional flow parameters of the Leadville Formation of the Paradox Basin in Utah and the Wolcamp carbonate/sandstone aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin in the Texas Panhandle. Two performance measures are evaluated, local heads and velocity in the vicinity of potential high-level nuclear waste repositories. The results illustrate the sensitivity of calculated local heads to the boundary conditions. Local velocity-related performance measures are more sensitive to hydraulic conductivities. The uncertainty in the performance measure is a function of the parameter sensitivity, parameter variance and the correlation between parameters. Given a parameter covariance matrix, the uncertainty of the performance measure can be calculated. Although no results are presented here, the implications of uncertainty calculations for the two studies are discussed. 18 references, 25 figures

  17. Self-Adjoint Extensions of the Pauli Equation in the Presence of a Magnetic Monopole

    Karat, Edwin R.; Schulz, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the Hamiltonian for a nonrelativistic electron with spin in the presence of an abelian magnetic monopole and note that it is not self-adjoint in the lowest two angular momentum modes. We then use von Neumann's theory of self-adjoint extensions to construct a self-adjoint operator with the same functional form. In general, this operator will have eigenstates in which the lowest two angular momentum modes mix, thereby removing conservation of angular momentum. However, consistency wi...

  18. Seeking Energy System Pathways to Reduce Ozone Damage to Ecosystems through Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis

    Capps, S. L.; Pinder, R. W.; Loughlin, D. H.; Bash, J. O.; Turner, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Percell, P.; Zhao, S.; Russell, M. G.; Hakami, A.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) affects the productivity of ecosystems in addition to degrading human health. Concentrations of this pollutant are significantly influenced by precursor gas emissions, many of which emanate from energy production and use processes. Energy system optimization models could inform policy decisions that are intended to reduce these harmful effects if the contribution of precursor gas emissions to human health and ecosystem degradation could be elucidated. Nevertheless, determining the degree to which precursor gas emissions harm ecosystems and human health is challenging because of the photochemical production of ozone and the distinct mechanisms by which ozone causes harm to different crops, tree species, and humans. Here, the adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is employed to efficiently calculate the relative influences of ozone precursor gas emissions on ecosystem and human health degradation, which informs an energy system optimization. Specifically, for the summer of 2007 the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model adjoint is used to calculate the location- and sector-specific influences of precursor gas emissions on potential productivity losses for the major crops and sensitive tree species as well as human mortality attributable to chronic ozone exposure in the continental U.S. The atmospheric concentrations are evaluated with 12-km horizontal resolution with crop production and timber biomass data gridded similarly. These location-specific factors inform the energy production and use technologies selected in the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) model.

  19. Efficient Adjoint Computation of Hybrid Systems of Differential Algebraic Equations with Applications in Power Systems

    Abhyankar, Shrirang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Anitescu, Mihai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Hong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Sensitivity analysis is an important tool to describe power system dynamic behavior in response to parameter variations. It is a central component in preventive and corrective control applications. The existing approaches for sensitivity calculations, namely, finite-difference and forward sensitivity analysis, require a computational effort that increases linearly with the number of sensitivity parameters. In this work, we investigate, implement, and test a discrete adjoint sensitivity approach whose computational effort is effectively independent of the number of sensitivity parameters. The proposed approach is highly efficient for calculating trajectory sensitivities of larger systems and is consistent, within machine precision, with the function whose sensitivity we are seeking. This is an essential feature for use in optimization applications. Moreover, our approach includes a consistent treatment of systems with switching, such as DC exciters, by deriving and implementing the adjoint jump conditions that arise from state and time-dependent discontinuities. The accuracy and the computational efficiency of the proposed approach are demonstrated in comparison with the forward sensitivity analysis approach.

  20. An eddy-permitting, dynamically consistent adjoint-based assimilation system for the tropical Pacific: Hindcast experiments in 2000

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-03-02

    An eddy-permitting adjoint-based assimilation system has been implemented to estimate the state of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The system uses the Massachusetts Institute of Technology\\'s general circulation model and its adjoint. The adjoint method is used to adjust the model to observations by controlling the initial temperature and salinity; temperature, salinity, and horizontal velocities at the open boundaries; and surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and freshwater. The model is constrained with most of the available data sets in the tropical Pacific, including Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean, ARGO, expendable bathythermograph, and satellite SST and sea surface height data, and climatologies. Results of hindcast experiments in 2000 suggest that the iterated adjoint-based descent is able to significantly improve the model consistency with the multivariate data sets, providing a dynamically consistent realization of the tropical Pacific circulation that generally matches the observations to within specified errors. The estimated model state is evaluated both by comparisons with observations and by checking the controls, the momentum balances, and the representation of small-scale features that were not well sampled by the observations used in the assimilation. As part of these checks, the estimated controls are smoothed and applied in independent model runs to check that small changes in the controls do not greatly change the model hindcast. This is a simple ensemble-based uncertainty analysis. In addition, the original and smoothed controls are applied to a version of the model with doubled horizontal resolution resulting in a broadly similar “downscaled” hindcast, showing that the adjustments are not tuned to a single configuration (meaning resolution, topography, and parameter settings). The time-evolving model state and the adjusted controls should be useful for analysis or to supply the forcing, initial, and boundary conditions for runs of other models.

  1. Including the adjoint model of the moist physics in the 4D-Var in NASA's GEOS-5 Global Circulation Model

    Holdaway, D. R.; Errico, R.

    2011-12-01

    perturbation to the state vector is only changed slightly it implies strong underlying non-linearity. Since the adjoint can be constructed from the model Jacobians it is possible to parametrize the Jacobians themselves and avoid the need to write separate simplified physics schemes, a potentially highly arduous task. However in order to parametrize the Jacobians requires that they exhibit sufficiently simple structures and that those structures are broadly similar for different locations involving convection. Further the Jacobians must yield numerically stable tangent linear and adjoint models. The NASA GEOS-5 GCM employs the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme for the convection. Here the Jacobians of the RAS scheme are presented and it is shown that structure in the RAS scheme is sufficiently simple and linear that the Jacobian parametrization approach can be adopted. Some novel techniques for the parametrization of the Jacobians are presents and some preliminary performance and convergence results are presented for a 1D-Var case.

  2. DIF3D 8.0/VARIANT8.0, 2-D 3-D Multigroup Diffusion/Transport Theory Nodal and Finite Difference Solver, Variational Method

    1 - Description of program or function: DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source and criticality (concentration search) problems in 1-, 2- and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and region-wise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, up-scattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated. The DIF3D8.0/VARIANT8.0 release differs from the previous DIF3D7.0 release in that it includes a significantly expanded set of solution techniques using variational nodal methods. DIF3D's nodal option solves the multigroup steady state neutron diffusion equation in two- and three-dimensional hexagonal and cartesian geometries and solves the transport equation in two-and three-dimensional cartesian geometries. Eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source and criticality (concentration) search problems are permitted as are anisotropic diffusion coefficients. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and region-wise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, up-scattering and for finite difference option only internal black boundary conditions are also treated. VARIANT solves the multigroup steady-state neutron diffusion and transport equations in two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries using variational nodal methods. The transport approximations involve complete spherical harmonic expansions up to order P5. Eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, gamma heating, and criticality (concentration) search problems are permitted. Anisotropic scattering is treated, and although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, up-scattering options are also included. Related and Auxiliary Programs: DIF3D reads and writes the standard interface files specified by the Committee on Computer Code

  3. Self-adjoint dirac equation for a fuzzy potential representation

    In the present paper, the dependent-, as well as the independent-variables that belong to a self-adjointed relativistic scattering equation, are properly transformed, for a fuzzy potential representation of Woods and Saxon type, with the purpose of being amenable to analytic solutions. This has been accomplished, in terms of hypergeometric functions that can be analytically continued before-and after-the boundary separating the interior from the exterior. Studies of these analytic solutions about the singular points are performed and the corresponding asymptotic behavior is investigated. The corresponding scattering matrix is extracted, where the resonance energy Eigen-values can be identified

  4. Bimetric Gravity From Adjoint Frame Field In Four Dimensions

    Guo, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We provide a novel model of gravity by using adjoint frame fields in four dimensions. It has a natural interpretation as a gravitational theory of a complex metric field, which describes interactions between two real metrics. The classical solutions establish three appealing features. The spherical symmetric black hole solution has an additional hair, which includes the Schwarzschild solution as a special case. The de Sitter solution is realized without introducing a cosmological constant. The constant flat background breaks the Lorentz invariance spontaneously, although the Lorentz breaking effect can be localized to the second metric while the first metric still respects the Lorentz invariance.

  5. Inverse Modeling of Emissions using the CMAQ Adjoint Model

    Resler, Jaroslav; Eben, Kryštof; Juruš, Pavel; Krč, Pavel

    Chapel Hill : CMAS, 2008, s. 1-5. [Annual CMAS Conference /7./. Chapel Hill (US), 06.10.2008-08.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300414; GA MŽP SP/1A4/107/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : 4DVar * data assimilation * inverse modelling * emission * CMAQ adjoint * tropospheric column of NO2 * satellite instruments * GOME2 * OMI Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.cmascenter.org/conference/2008/agenda.cfm

  6. Large-N reduction with adjoint Wilson fermions

    Bringoltz, Barak; Sharpe, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the large-N behavior of SU(N) lattice gauge theories with adjoint fermions by studying volume-reduced models, as pioneered by Eguchi and Kawai. We perform simulations on a single-site lattice for Nf = 1 and Nf = 2 Wilson Dirac fermions with values of N up to 53. We show for both values of Nf that in the large-N limit there is a finite region, containing both light and heavy fermions, of unbroken center symmetry where the theory exhibits volume independence. Using large-N reduction we attempt to calculate physical quantities such as the string tension and meson masses.

  7. Scattering theory for self-adjoint extensions

    In this paper a new approach is suggested to the construction of a wide class of exactly solvable quantum-mechanical models of scattering, quantum-mechanical models of solids and an exactly solvable quantum-stochastical model. For most of the models the spectral analysis is performed in an explicit form, for many body problems it is reduced to one-dimensional integral equations. The construction of all models is based on a new version of extension theory, which uses the boundary forms for abstract operators. This version gives a simple and general method to join the pair of operators, one of them abstract, and the other one differential. The solvability of these models is based on Krein's formula for quasiresolvents

  8. On the Norm Convergence of the Self-Adjoint Trotter–Kato Product Formula with Error Bound

    Takashi Ichinose; Hideo Tamura

    2002-02-01

    The norm convergence of the Trotter–Kato product formula with error bound is shown for the semigroup generated by that operator sum of two nonnegative self-adjoint operators and which is self-adjoint.

  9. On rational R-matrices with adjoint SU(n) symmetry

    Stronks, Laurens; Schuricht, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Using the representation theory of Yangians we construct the rational R-matrix which takes values in the adjoint representation of SU(n). From this we derive an integrable SU(n) spin chain with lattice spins transforming under the adjoint representation. However, the resulting Hamiltonian is found to be non-Hermitian.

  10. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  11. Adjoint $SU(5)$ GUT model with $T_{7}$ flavor symmetry

    Arbeláez, Carolina; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Iván

    2015-01-01

    We propose an adjoint $SU(5)$ GUT model with a $T_{7}$ family symmetry and an extra $Z_{2}\\otimes Z_{2}^{\\prime }\\otimes Z_{3}\\otimes Z_{4}\\otimes Z_{12}$ discrete group, that successfully describes the prevailing Standard Model (SM) fermion mass and mixing pattern. The observed hierarchy of the charged fermion masses and the quark mixing angles arises from the $Z_{3}\\otimes Z_{4}\\otimes Z_{12}$ symmetry breaking, which occurs near the GUT scale. The light active neutrino masses are generated by type I and type III seesaw mechanisms mediated by the fermionic $SU(5)$ singlet and the adjoint $\\mathbf{24}$-plet. The model predicts the effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay to be $m_{\\beta \\beta }=$ 4 and 50 meV for the normal and the inverted neutrino spectrum, respectively. We construct several benchmark scenarios, which lead to $SU(5)$ gauge coupling unification and are compatible with the known phenomenological constraints originating from the lightness of neutrinos, prot...

  12. Towards adjoint-based inversion for rheological parameters in nonlinear viscous mantle flow

    Worthen, Jennifer; Stadler, Georg; Petra, Noemi; Gurnis, Michael; Ghattas, Omar

    2014-09-01

    We address the problem of inferring mantle rheological parameter fields from surface velocity observations and instantaneous nonlinear mantle flow models. We formulate this inverse problem as an infinite-dimensional nonlinear least squares optimization problem governed by nonlinear Stokes equations. We provide expressions for the gradient of the cost functional of this optimization problem with respect to two spatially-varying rheological parameter fields: the viscosity prefactor and the exponent of the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. Adjoint (linearized) Stokes equations, which are characterized by a 4th order anisotropic viscosity tensor, facilitates efficient computation of the gradient. A quasi-Newton method for the solution of this optimization problem is presented, which requires the repeated solution of both nonlinear forward Stokes and linearized adjoint Stokes equations. For the solution of the nonlinear Stokes equations, we find that Newton’s method is significantly more efficient than a Picard fixed point method. Spectral analysis of the inverse operator given by the Hessian of the optimization problem reveals that the numerical eigenvalues collapse rapidly to zero, suggesting a high degree of ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To overcome this ill-posedness, we employ Tikhonov regularization (favoring smooth parameter fields) or total variation (TV) regularization (favoring piecewise-smooth parameter fields). Solution of two- and three-dimensional finite element-based model inverse problems show that a constant parameter in the constitutive law can be recovered well from surface velocity observations. Inverting for a spatially-varying parameter field leads to its reasonable recovery, in particular close to the surface. When inferring two spatially varying parameter fields, only an effective viscosity field and the total viscous dissipation are recoverable. Finally, a model of a subducting plate shows that a localized weak zone at the

  13. On the Self-adjointness of the Product Operators of Two mth-Order Differential Operators on [0, +∞)

    Jian Ye AN; Jiong SUN

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the self-adjointness of the product of two mth-order differential operators on [0, +∞) is studied. By means of the construction theory of self-adjoint operators and matrix computation, we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition to ensure that the product operator is self-adjoint, which extends the results in the second order case.

  14. SO(N) Higgs problem with adjoint + vector representations and non-linear potentials

    Using the recently devised geometrical method, we analyze the quartic Higgs potential for SO(N) adjoint + vector representations. The minimum energy solutions are found to correspond to maxi-maximal little groups, but not all such groups are used. However, in the complete orbit space (including invariants not employed in the Higgs potential) we find that their strata have somewhat equal geometrical status of being low dimensional singular subspaces, i.e., cusps, edge curves, two-dimensional surfaces, etc. We also consider simple scalar potentials which are nonlinear with respect to orbit parameters and show that the directional extremum often, though not always, remains monotonic in orbit parameters within the orbit space and consequently the absolute extremum is likely to occur on the most protrudent portions of the orbit space boundary. Thus we clarify the range of validity of the Michel-Radicati conjecture and the Gell-Mann-Slansky conjecture. (orig.)

  15. Mixed Methods and Action Research: similar or different?

    WIŚNIEWSKA, DANUTA

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to analyse and compare ELT studies grounded solely in mixed methods and ELT action research studies based on a mixed methods approach in order to identify to what degree action research studies combining different methods in a single study comply with the principles of rigorous mixed methods study.

  16. Phase diagram of SU(2) with 2 flavors of dynamical adjoint quarks

    Catterall, Simon; Sannino, Francesco; Schneible, Joe

    2008-01-01

    We report on numerical simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of light dynamical quarks in the adjoint of the gauge group. The dynamics of this theory is thought to be very different from QCD -- the theory exhibiting conformal or near conformal behavior in the infrared. We make a high resolution survey of the phase diagram of this model in the plane of the bare coupling and quark mass on lattices of size 8^3 \\times 16. Our simulations reveal a line of first order phase transitions extending from beta=0 to beta=beta_c \\sim 2.0. For beta > beta_c the line is no longer first order but continues as the locus of minimum meson mass. For beta > 2.0 we observe the critical pion and rho masses to be light, independent of bare coupling and approximately degenerate. We discuss possible interpretations of these observations and corresponding continuum limits.

  17. Phase diagram of SU(2) with 2 flavors of dynamical adjoint quarks

    We report on numerical simulations of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of light dynamical quarks in the adjoint of the gauge group. The dynamics of this theory is thought to be very different from QCD-the theory exhibiting conformal or near conformal behavior in the infrared. We make a high resolution survey of the phase diagram of this model in the plane of the bare coupling and quark mass on lattices of size 83 x 16. Our simulations reveal a line of first order phase transitions extending from β = 0 to β = βc ∼ 2.0. For β > βc the phase boundary is no longer first order but continues as the locus of minimum meson mass. For β > βc we observe the pion and rho masses along the phase boundary to be light, independent of bare coupling and approximately degenerate. We discuss possible interpretations of these observations and corresponding continuum limits.

  18. Methods Comparison for Microsatellite Marker Development:Different Isolation Methods, Different Yield Efficiency

    ZHAN Aibin; BAO Zhenmin; HU Xiaoli; LU Wei; HU Jingjie

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite markers have become one kind of the most important molecular tools used in various researches. A large number of microsatellite markers are required for the whole genome survey in the fields of molecular ecology, quantitative genetics and genomics. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to select several versatile, low-cost, efficient and time- and labor-saving methods to develop a large panel of microsatellite markers. In this study, we used Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) as the target species to compare the efficiency of the five methods derived from three strategies for microsatellite marker development. The results showed that the strategy of constructing small insert genomic DNA library resulted in poor efficiency, while the microsatellite-enriched strategy highly improved the isolation efficiency. Although the mining public database strategy is time- and cost-saving, it is difficult to obtain a large number of microsatellite markers, mainly due to the limited sequence data of non-model species deposited in public databases. Based on the results in this study, we recommend two methods, microsatellite-enriched library construction method and FIASCO-colony hybridization method, for large-scale microsatellite marker development. Both methods were derived from the mi-crosatellite-enriched strategy. The experimental results obtained from Zhikong scallop also provide the reference for microsatellite marker development in other species with large genomes.

  19. Adjoint-tomography Inversion of the Small-scale Surface Sedimentary Structures: Key Methodological Aspects

    Kubina, Filip; Moczo, Peter; Kristek, Jozef; Michlik, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Adjoint tomography has proven an irreplaceable useful tool in exploring Earth's structure in the regional and global scales. It has not been widely applied for improving models of local surface sedimentary structures (LSSS) in numerical predictions of earthquake ground motion (EGM). Anomalous earthquake motions and corresponding damage in earthquakes are often due to site effects in local surface sedimentary basins. Because majority of world population is located atop surface sedimentary basins, it is important to predict EGM at these sites during future earthquakes. A major lesson learned from dedicated international tests focused on numerical prediction of EGM in LSSS is that it is hard to reach better agreement between data and synthetics without an improved structural model. If earthquake records are available for sites atop a LSSS it is natural to consider them for improving the structural model. Computationally efficient adjoint tomography might be a proper tool. A seismic wavefield in LSSS is relatively very complex due to diffractions, conversions, interference and often also resonant phenomena. In shallow basins, the first arrivals are not suitable for inversion due to almost vertical incidence and thus insufficient vertical resolution. Later wavefield consists mostly of local surface waves often without separated wave groups. Consequently, computed kernels are complicated and not suitable for inversion without pre-processing. The spatial complexity of a kernel can be dramatic in a typical situation with relatively low number of sources (local earthquakes) and surface receivers. This complexity can be simplified by directionally-dependent smoothing and spatially-dependent normalization that condition reasonable convergence. A multiscale approach seems necessary given the usual difference between the available and true models. Interestingly, only a successive inversion of μ and λ elastic moduli, and different scale sequences lead to good results.

  20. The efficiency of geophysical adjoint codes generated by automatic differentiation tools

    Vlasenko, A. V.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.

    2016-02-01

    The accuracy of numerical models that describe complex physical or chemical processes depends on the choice of model parameters. Estimating an optimal set of parameters by optimization algorithms requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the process of interest to model parameters. Typically the sensitivity computation involves differentiation of the model, which can be performed by applying algorithmic differentiation (AD) tools to the underlying numerical code. However, existing AD tools differ substantially in design, legibility and computational efficiency. In this study we show that, for geophysical data assimilation problems of varying complexity, the performance of adjoint codes generated by the existing AD tools (i) Open_AD, (ii) Tapenade, (iii) NAGWare and (iv) Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran (TAF) can be vastly different. Based on simple test problems, we evaluate the efficiency of each AD tool with respect to computational speed, accuracy of the adjoint, the efficiency of memory usage, and the capability of each AD tool to handle modern FORTRAN 90-95 elements such as structures and pointers, which are new elements that either combine groups of variables or provide aliases to memory addresses, respectively. We show that, while operator overloading tools are the only ones suitable for modern codes written in object-oriented programming languages, their computational efficiency lags behind source transformation by orders of magnitude, rendering the application of these modern tools to practical assimilation problems prohibitive. In contrast, the application of source transformation tools appears to be the most efficient choice, allowing handling even large geophysical data assimilation problems. However, they can only be applied to numerical models written in earlier generations of programming languages. Our study indicates that applying existing AD tools to realistic geophysical problems faces limitations that urgently need to be solved to allow the

  1. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    A strategy for a thermal site descriptive model of bedrock is under development at SKB. In the model different kinds of uncertainties exist. Some of these uncertainties are related to the potential errors in the methods used for determining thermal properties of rock. In two earlier investigations thermal properties of rock samples were analysed according to the TPS method (transient plane source). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the TPS method. For a comparison, the same samples have been measured at the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF), using different laboratory methods. In this later investigation, the thermal conductivity was determined using the divided-bar method and the specific heat capacity using a calorimetric method. The mean differences between the results of different methods are relatively low but the results of individual samples show large variations. The thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method gives for most samples slightly higher values, in average about 3%, than the TPS method. The specific heat capacity measured by the calorimetric method gives lower values, in average about 2%, than the TPS method. Consequently, the thermal diffusivity calculated from thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity gives higher values, in average about 6%, than the TPS method. Reasons for the differences are estimated mainly to be dependent on differences between the samples, errors in the temperature dependence of specific heat and in the transformation from volumetric to specific heat. The TPS measurements are performed using two pieces (sub-samples) of rock. Only one of these two sub-samples was measured using the divided bar method and the calorimetric method. Further, sample preparation involved changes in the size of some of the samples. The mean differences between the results of different methods are within the margins of error reported by the measuring laboratories. However, systematic errors in

  2. Investigation of Calculation Techniques of Finite Difference Method

    Audrius Krukonis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Finite difference method used for microstrip transmission line analysis is considered in this article. Paper mainly deals with iterative and bound matrix calculation techniques of finite difference method. Mathematical model for microstrip transmission line electrical potential calculations using both techniques is described. Results of characteristic impedance calculation using iterative and bound matrix techniques are presented and analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Calculation of radiation effects in solids by direct numerical solution of the adjoint transport equation

    The 'adjoint transport equation in its integro-differential form' is derived for the radiation damage produced by atoms injected into solids. We reduce it to the one-dimensional form and prepare it for a numerical solution by: --discretizing the continuous variables energy, space and direction, --replacing the partial differential quotients by finite differences and --evaluating the collision integral by a double sum. By a proper manipulation of this double sum the adjoint transport equation turns into a (very large) set of linear equations with tridiagonal matrix which can be solved by a special (simple and fast) algorithm. The solution of this set of linear equations contains complete information on a specified damage type (e.g. the energy deposited in a volume V) in terms of the function D(i,E,c,x) which gives the damage produced by all particles generated in a cascade initiated by a particle of type i starting at x with energy E in direction c. It is essential to remark that one calculation gives the damage function D for the complete ranges of the variables {i,E,c and x} (for numerical reasons of course on grid-points in the {E,c,x}-space). This is most useful to applications where a general source-distribution S(i,E,c,x) of particles is given by the experimental setup (e.g. beam-window and and target in proton accelerator work. The beam-protons along their path through the window--or target material generate recoil atoms by elastic collisions or nuclear reactions. These recoil atoms form the particle source S). The total damage produced then is eventually given by: D = (Σ)i ∫ ∫ ∫ S(i, E, c, x)*D(i, E, c, x)*dE*dc*dx A Fortran-77 program running on a PC-486 was written for the overall procedure and applied to some problems

  4. Infrared regime of SU(2) with one adjoint Dirac flavor

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Bennett, Ed; Bergner, Georg; Lucini, Biagio

    2015-06-01

    SU(2) gauge theory with one Dirac flavor in the adjoint representation is investigated on a lattice. Initial results for the gluonic and mesonic spectrum, static potential from Wilson and Polyakov loops, and the anomalous dimension of the fermionic condensate from the Dirac mode number are presented. The results found are not consistent with conventional confining behavior, pointing instead tentatively towards a theory lying within or very near the onset of the conformal window, with the anomalous dimension of the fermionic condensate in the range 0.9 ≲γ*≲0.95 . The implications of our work for building a viable theory of strongly interacting dynamics beyond the standard model are discussed.

  5. Conformal versus confining scenario in SU(2) with adjoint fermions

    The masses of the lowest-lying states in the meson and in the gluonic sector of an SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac flavors in the adjoint representation are measured on the lattice at a fixed value of the lattice coupling β=4/g02=2.25 for values of the bare fermion mass m0 that span a range between the quenched regime and the massless limit, and for various lattice volumes. Even for light constituent fermions the lightest glueballs are found to be lighter than the lightest mesons. Moreover, the string tension between two static fundamental sources strongly depends on the mass of the dynamical fermions and becomes of the order of the inverse squared lattice linear size before the chiral limit is reached. The implications of these findings for the phase of the theory in the massless limit are discussed and a strategy for discriminating between the (near-)conformal and the confining scenario is outlined.

  6. Nonlinear acceleration of a continuous finite element discretization of the self-adjoint angular flux form of the transport equation

    Nonlinear acceleration of a continuous finite element (CFE) discretization of the transport equation requires a modification of the transport solution in order to achieve local conservation, a condition used in nonlinear acceleration to define the stopping criterion. In this work we implement a coarse-mesh finite difference acceleration for a CFE discretization of the second-order self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) form of the transport equation and use a postprocessing to enforce local conservation. Numerical results are given for one-group source calculations of one-dimensional slabs. We also give a novel formal derivation of the boundary conditions for the SAAF. (authors)

  7. On the group classification and conservation laws of the self-adjoint first order evolution equations

    Freire, Igor Leite

    2010-01-01

    In this work we consider the problem on group classification and conservation laws of the general first order evolution equations. We obtain the subclasses of these general equations which are quasi-self-adjoint and self-adjoint. By using the recent Ibragimov's Theorem on conservation laws, we establish the conservation laws of the equations admiting self-adjoint equations. We illustrate our results applying them to the inviscid Burgers' equation. In particular an infinite number of new symmetries of these equations are found and their corresponding conservation laws are established.

  8. Quantum cosmology of scalar-tensor theories and self-adjointness

    Almeida, C R; Fabris, J C; Moniz, P V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the self-adjointness for the case of a quantum minisuperspace Hamiltonian retrieved from a Brans-Dicke (BD) action is investigated. Our matter content is presented in terms of a perfect fluid, onto which the Schutz's formalism will be applied. We use the von Neumann theorem and the similarity with the Laplacian operator in one of the variables to determine the cases where the Hamiltonian is self-adjoint and if it admits self-adjoint extensions. For the latter, we study which extension is physically more suitable.

  9. Adjoint Assimilation in Marine Ecosystem Models and an Example of Application

    XU Qing; LIU Yuguang; L(U) Xianqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at a review of the work carried out to date on the adjoint assimilation of data in marine ecosystem models since 1995. The structure and feature of the adjoint assimilation in marine ecosystem models are also introduced.To illustrate the application of the adjoint technique and its merits, a 4-variable ecosystem model coupled with a 3-D physical model is established for the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea. The chlorophyll concentration data derived from the SeaWiFS ocean colour data are assimilated in the model with the technique. Some results are briefly presented.

  10. THE EFFICIENCY EXAMINATION OF TEACHING OF DIFFERENT NORMALIZATION METHODS

    Márta Czenky

    2014-01-01

    Normalization is an important database design method, in the course of the teaching of data modeling the understanding and applying of this method cause problems for students the most. For improving the efficiency of learning normalization we looked for alternative normalization methods and introduced them into education. We made a survey among engineer students how efficient could they execute the normalization with different methods. We executed statistical and data mining exami...

  11. Question Categorization Using SVM Based on Different Term Weighting Methods

    Priyanka G Pillai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of Question Categorization based on four different term weighting methods. Term weighting methods such as tf*idf, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf and vrf together with SVM classifier were used for categorization. From the experiments conducted using both linear and nonlinear SVM, term weighting method iqf*qf*icf showed better performance in question categorization than other methods.

  12. Question Categorization Using SVM Based on Different Term Weighting Methods

    Priyanka G Pillai; Jayasree Narayanan

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of Question Categorization based on four different term weighting methods. Term weighting methods such as tf*idf, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf and vrf together with SVM classifier were used for categorization. From the experiments conducted using both linear and nonlinear SVM, term weighting method iqf*qf*icf showed better performance in question categorization than other methods.

  13. Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods

    Mishev, I.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.

  14. Explicit Finite Difference Methods for the Delay Pseudoparabolic Equations

    Amirali, I.; Amiraliyev, G. M.; Cakir, M; Cimen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in...

  15. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates by Finite Difference Method

    Mustafa Haluk SARAÇOĞLU; Yunus ÖZÇELİKÖRS

    2011-01-01

    In this study; deflection at the mid-point of laminated composite rectangular plate subjected to uniformly distributed load is investigated by finite difference method. Four edges of these plates are Navier SS-1 simplysupported. Classical theory of laminated composite plates formed by extending the classical plate theory is used. Differential equations about bending of plate were discreted by finite difference method and unknown displacements at the related nodes are calculated. As an example...

  16. THE EFFICIENCY EXAMINATION OF TEACHING OF DIFFERENT NORMALIZATION METHODS

    Márta Czenky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normalization is an important database design method, in the course of the teaching of data modeling the understanding and applying of this method cause problems for students the most. For improving the efficiency of learning normalization we looked for alternative normalization methods and introduced them into education. We made a survey among engineer students how efficient could they execute the normalization with different methods. We executed statistical and data mining examinations to decide whether any of the methods resulted significantly better solutions.

  17. Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.

    2004-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. A discussion on the Discontinuous Spectral Difference (SD) Method, locations of the unknowns and flux points and numerical results are also presented.

  18. Evaluation of Different Preservation and Storage Methods for Malassezia spp.

    Crespo, M.J.; Abarca, M L; Cabañes, F J

    2000-01-01

    Freezing at −80°C, lyophilization, preservation in distilled water, and storage in different culture media were performed in order to find a suitable method that allowed a prolonged storage of Malassezia spp. Freezing at −80°C was the only method successful at maintaining all species.

  19. A new method testing the orthogonality of different protecting groups.

    Ágoston, Károly; Ágoston, Ágnes; Dorgan, Colin R; Fügedi, Péter

    2015-12-11

    A new test was elaborated to identify a new set of orthogonal protecting groups. With the developed method eight different protecting groups were tested under various deprotection conditions and the complex reaction mixtures were analysed by HPLC. The developed method allows for quick identification of orthogonality using simple model structures. PMID:26580711

  20. THE COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF FUNCTIONAL SENSORI-MOTOR

    Nikolaeva E.I; Borisenkova E.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The research problem was to compare the results of preschool children distribution on functional sensori-motor asymmetry profiles, estimated by means of different methods. 161 children (4-7 years) were participants (87 girls and 74 boys). It is found out, that distribution of preschool children on profiles depends on a set of lateral parameters estimations methods and the result processing methods. It is possible to receive any variants of lateral phenotypes distribution for children by using...

  1. Variational characterizations for eigenfunctions of analytic self-adjoint operator functions

    Georgios Katsouleas; John Maroulas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider Rellich's diagonalization theorem for analytic self-adjoint operator functions and investigate variational principles for their eigenfunctions and interlacing statements. As an application, we present a characterization for the eigenvalues of hyperbolic operator polynomials.

  2. Self-adjoint extensions of the Pauli equation in the presence of a magnetic monopole

    Karat, E R; Karat, Edwin R; Schulz, Michael B

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the Hamiltonian for a nonrelativistic electron with spin in the presence of a magnetic monopole and note that it is not self-adjoint in the lowest two angular momentum modes. We then use von Neumann's theory of self-adjoint extensions to construct a self-adjoint operator with the same functional form. In general, this operator will have eigenstates in which the lowest two angular momentum modes mix, thereby removing conservation of angular momentum. Because the same effect occurs for a spinless particle with a sufficiently attractive inverse square potential, we also study this system. We use this simpler Hamiltonian to compare the eigenfunctions corresponding to a particular self-adjoint extension with the eigenfunctions satisfying a boundary condition consistent with probability conservation.

  3. Self-adjoint extensions of the Pauli equation in the presence of a magnetic monopole

    We discuss the Hamiltonian for a nonrelativistic electron with spin in the presence of an abelian magnetic monopole and note that it is not self-adjoint in the lowest two angular momentum modes. We then use von Neumann close-quote s theory of self-adjoint extensions to construct a self-adjoint operator with the same functional form. In general, this operator will have eigenstates in which the lowest two angular momentum modes mix, thereby removing conservation of angular momentum. However, consistency with the solutions of the Dirac equation limits the possibilities such that conservation of angular momentum is restored. Because the same effect occurs for a spinless particle with a sufficiently attractive inverse square potential, we also study this system. We use this simpler Hamiltonian to compare the eigenfunctions corresponding to a particular self-adjoint extension with the eigenfunctions satisfying a boundary condition consistent with probability conservation. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  4. Self-adjoint extensions of the Pauli equation in the presence of a magnetic monopole

    Karat, E.; Schulz, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We discuss the Hamiltonian for a nonrelativistic electron with spin in the presence of an abelian magnetic monopole and note that it is not self-adjoint in the lowest two angular momentum modes. We then use von Neumann{close_quote}s theory of self-adjoint extensions to construct a self-adjoint operator with the same functional form. In general, this operator will have eigenstates in which the lowest two angular momentum modes mix, thereby removing conservation of angular momentum. However, consistency with the solutions of the Dirac equation limits the possibilities such that conservation of angular momentum is restored. Because the same effect occurs for a spinless particle with a sufficiently attractive inverse square potential, we also study this system. We use this simpler Hamiltonian to compare the eigenfunctions corresponding to a particular self-adjoint extension with the eigenfunctions satisfying a boundary condition consistent with probability conservation. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. Explicit Finite Difference Methods for the Delay Pseudoparabolic Equations

    I. Amirali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in the discrete norm. Some numerical results confirming the expected behavior of the method are shown.

  6. Explicit finite difference methods for the delay pseudoparabolic equations.

    Amirali, I; Amiraliyev, G M; Cakir, M; Cimen, E

    2014-01-01

    Finite difference technique is applied to numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem for the semilinear delay Sobolev or pseudoparabolic equation. By the method of integral identities two-level difference scheme is constructed. For the time integration the implicit rule is being used. Based on the method of energy estimates the fully discrete scheme is shown to be absolutely stable and convergent of order two in space and of order one in time. The error estimates are obtained in the discrete norm. Some numerical results confirming the expected behavior of the method are shown. PMID:24688392

  7. Weighted $L^p$ estimates for the area integral associated to self-adjoint operators

    Gong, Ruming; Yan, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with some weighted norm inequalities for the so-called horizontal (i.e. involving time derivatives) area integrals associated to a non-negative self-adjoint operator satisfying a pointwise Gaussian estimate for its heat kernel, as well as the corresponding vertical (i.e. involving space derivatives) area integrals associated to a non-negative self-adjoint operator satisfying in addition a pointwise upper bounds for the gradient of the heat kernel. As applications, we...

  8. Self-adjoint Time Operator is the Rule for Discrete Semibounded Hamiltonians

    Galapon, E A

    2002-01-01

    We prove explicitly that to every discrete, semibounded Hamiltonian with constant degeneracy and with finite sum of the squares of the reciprocal of its eigenvalues and whose eigenvectors span the entire Hilbert space there exists a characteristic self-adjoint time operator which is canonically conjugate to the Hamiltonian in a dense subspace of the Hilbert space. Moreover, we show that each characteristic time operator generates an uncountable class of self- adjoint operators canonically conjugate with the same Hamiltonian.

  9. On the validity of tidal turbine array configurations obtained from steady-state adjoint optimisation

    Jacobs, Christian T.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Kramer, Stephan C; Funke, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the optimal amount of power from an array of tidal turbines requires an intricate understanding of tidal dynamics and the effects of turbine placement on the local and regional scale flow. Numerical models have contributed significantly towards this understanding, and more recently, adjoint-based modelling has been employed to optimise the positioning of the turbines in an array in an automated way and improve on simple, regular man-made configurations. Adjoint-based optimisation o...

  10. Self-adjointness and polarization of the fermionic vacuum in the background of nontrivial topology

    Singular configuration of an external static magnetic field in the form of a string polarizes vacuum in the secondly quantized theory on a plane which is orthogonal to the string axis. We consider the most general boundary conditions at the punctured singular point, which are compatible with the self-adjointness of the two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian. The dependence of the induced vacuum quantum numbers on the self-adjoint extension parameter and the flux of the string is determined

  11. Optimization of plate thickness using finite different method

    A finite difference numerical method of solving biharmonic equation is presented. The biharmonic equation and plate theory are used to solve a classical engineering problem involving the optimisation of plate thickness to minimise deformations and stresses in the plate. Matlab routines were developed to solve the resulting finite difference equations. The results from the finite difference method were compared with results obtained using ANSYS finite element formulation. Using the finite difference method, a plate thickness of 277 mm was obtained with a mesh size of 3 m and a plate thickness of 271 mm was obtained with a mesh size of 1 m., whiles using ANSYS finite element formulation, a plate thickness of 270 mm was obtained. The significance of these results is that, by using off-the-shelf general application tool and without resorting to expensive dedicated application tool, simple engineering problems could be solved. (au)

  12. A self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurement models

    Highlights: • Construction of a self-adjoint arrival time operator inspired by measurements. • Agreement with the strong measurement formula in the low momentum regime. • Review of self-adjoint and non-self-adjoint arrival time operators. • Discussion of the momentum operator on the half-line. • Discussion of the intuitive reasons obstructing self-adjointness. - Abstract: We introduce an arrival time operator which is self-adjoint and, unlike previously proposed arrival time operators, has a close link to simple measurement models. Its spectrum leads to an arrival time distribution which is a variant of the Kijowski distribution (a re-ordering of the current) in the large momentum regime but is proportional to the kinetic energy density in the small momentum regime, in agreement with measurement models. A brief derivation of the latter distribution is given. We make some simple observations about the physical reasons for self-adjointness, or its absence, in both arrival time operators and the momentum operator on the half-line and we also compare our operator with the dwell time operator

  13. Analysis of surface asperity flattening based on two different methods

    Li, Hejie; Öchsner, Andreas; Ni, Guowei; Wei, Dongbin; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2016-03-01

    The stress state is an important parameter in metal forming processes, which significantly influences the strain state and microstructure of products, affecting their surface qualities. In order to make the metal products have a good surface quality, the surface stress state must be optimised. In this study, two classical methods, the upper bound method and the crystal plasticity finite element method, were investigated. The differences between the two methods were discussed in regard to the model, the velocity field, and the strain field. Then the related surface roughness is deduced.

  14. Differential and difference equations a comparison of methods of solution

    Maximon, Leonard C

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering, presents a detailed comparison of the important methods of solution for linear differential and difference equations - variation of constants, reduction of order, Laplace transforms and generating functions - bringing out the similarities as well as the significant differences in the respective analyses. Equations of arbitrary order are studied, followed by a detailed analysis for equations of first and second order. Equations with polynomial coefficients are considered and explicit solutions for equations with linear coefficients are given, showing significant differences in the functional form of solutions of differential equations from those of difference equations. An alternative method of solution involving transformation of both the dependent and independent variables is given for both differential and difference equations. A comprehensive, detailed treatment of Green’s functions and the associat...

  15. Plumes, Hotspot & Slabs Imaged by Global Adjoint Tomography

    Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Lei, W.; Peter, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the "first generation" global adjoint tomography model based on 3D wave simulations, which is the result of 15 conjugate-gradient iterations with confined transverse isotropy to the upper mantle. Our starting model is the 3D mantle and crustal models S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) and Crust2.0 (Bassin et al. 2000), respectively. We take into account the full nonlinearity of wave propagation in numerical simulations including attenuation (both in forward and adjoint simulations), topography/bathymetry, etc., using the GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package. We invert for crust and mantle together without crustal corrections to avoid any bias in mantle structure. We started with an initial selection of 253 global CMT events within the magnitude range 5.8 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.0 with numerical simulations having resolution down to 27 s combining 30-s body and 60-s surface waves. After the 12th iteration we increased the resolution to 17 s, including higher-frequency body waves as well as going down to 45 s in surface-wave measurements. We run 180-min seismograms and assimilate all minor- and major-arc body and surface waves. Our 15th iteration model update shows a tantalisingly enhanced image of the Tahiti plume as well as various other plumes and hotspots, such as Caroline, Galapagos, Yellowstone, Erebus, etc. Furthermore, we see clear improvements in slab resolution along the Hellenic and Japan Arcs, as well as subduction along the East of Scotia Plate, which does not exist in the initial model. Point-spread function tests (Fichtner & Trampert 2011) suggest that we are close to the resolution of continental-scale studies in our global inversions and able to confidently map features, for instance, at the scale of the Yellowstone hotspot. This is a clear consequence of our multi-scale smoothing strategy, in which we define our smoothing operator as a function of the approximate Hessian kernel and smooth our gradients less wherever we have good ray coverage

  16. [Streptokinase: correlation between different methods of biological evaluation].

    Oliva, L M; Guagliardo, M V; Albertengo, M E

    1998-06-01

    A study was carried out to establish an appropriate method for streptokinase (SK) potency determination (biological assay) in order to fulfil the main function of the Instituto Nacional de Medicamentos respecting products marketed in Argentina. The potency of different commercial samples of SK was determined against the International Standard, and three internationally accepted methods were used for this purpose: fibrin plate, clot lysis and chromogenic method. The analysis of results suggests that the fibrin plate method is the least precise and reproducible. The clot lysis and chromogenic methods demonstrated great precision and reproducibility, giving a correlation coefficient of 0.99. It is concluded that both of these methods are best suited to determine potency of SK commercial products. PMID:9741232

  17. A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods

    Boris Radovanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap, stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily observations of Serbian stock market index values BELEX15 from April 2009 to April 2014. Thereby, considering the effects of potential changes in decisions according to variations in the sample length and purposes of the use, this paper introduces stability analysis which contains robustness testing of the different sample size and the different block length. Testing results indicate some changes in bootstrap method efficiencies when altering the sample size or the block length.

  18. Comparison of skin optical clearing by different drug delivery method

    Previous studies have shown that optical clearing techniques have great potential for optical diagnosis and therapy. In order to further discuss the effect by different drug delivery method, diffusion chambers were used to simulate in vivo physiological environment; and the optical clearing agents were acted on the surface of porcine skin, the saline was contacted with the dermal side (epidermal application). Then they were compared with the traditional method-samples immersed in the optical clearing agents (mainly dermal immersion). The transmission intensity of skin was monitored by an integrating sphere system. The changes in thickness were measured before and after experiments. The results showed that the optical clearing effect and the changes in thickness are not coincident under the two different methods. It indicates that the optical clearing effect and mechanism may relate to the drug delivery method.

  19. Comparison of skin optical clearing by different drug delivery method

    Mao, Z; Ge, X [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Sports University, Jinan, 250102 (China); Li, E, E-mail: mm73@163.com [Institute of Physical Education, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that optical clearing techniques have great potential for optical diagnosis and therapy. In order to further discuss the effect by different drug delivery method, diffusion chambers were used to simulate in vivo physiological environment; and the optical clearing agents were acted on the surface of porcine skin, the saline was contacted with the dermal side (epidermal application). Then they were compared with the traditional method-samples immersed in the optical clearing agents (mainly dermal immersion). The transmission intensity of skin was monitored by an integrating sphere system. The changes in thickness were measured before and after experiments. The results showed that the optical clearing effect and the changes in thickness are not coincident under the two different methods. It indicates that the optical clearing effect and mechanism may relate to the drug delivery method.

  20. STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS DIFFERENT EVALUATION METHODS IN PHARMACOLOGY

    Majagi Suneel Ishwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature review suggests the importance and the need of students’ feedback which may be used to effectively reform evaluation methods in medical sciences. The present study has been conducted to obtain student’s attitude (perception of towards different evaluation methods of pharmacology. The sample consisted of second phase M.B.B.S (n=108 students. Students answered 115 items/questions designed according to Likert’s five point (in agreement with items scale. These items/questions assessed student’s attitude (perception of towards different constituents of evaluation methods of pharmacology like sessional exams, traditional practical exams, objective structured practical exam (OSPE, MCQs, long essays, viva voce, pharmacy practical exercise, experimental pharmacology exercise etc in relation with various aspects of pharmacology subject like understanding, retention, learning clinical applications, mechanism of action of drugs, pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses, prescribing drugs etc. Results of the present study indicated the degree to which each evaluation method like sessional/preliminary theory exams, traditional practical exams and OSPE helps to elicit different constituents of pharmacology subject (ex: mechanism of action of drugs, therapeutic uses etc and the reason for the same is discussed. Similarly usefulness of different constituents of theory exams (MCQs, long essay etc and practical exams (spotters, pharmacy exercises etc towards eliciting the understanding pharmacology is revealed. Present study indicated the merits and demerits of different evaluation methods used in pharmacology. If any reformations/changes have to be incorporated in the evaluation methods, outcomes of this study will definitely help towards improving/modifying the evaluation methods of teaching and learning of pharmacology subject.

  1. Preliminary comparison of different reduction methods of graphene oxide

    Yu Shang; Dong Zhang; Yanyun Liu; Chao Guo

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a promising route to bulk produce graphene-based sheets. Different reduction processes result in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different properties. In this paper three reduction methods, chemical, thermal and electrochemical reduction, were compared on three aspects including morphology and structure, reduction degree and electrical conductivity by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and four-point probe conductivity measurement. Understanding the different characteristics of different RGO by preliminary comparison is helpful in tailoring the characteristics of graphene materials for diverse applications and developing a simple, green, and efficient method for the mass production of graphene.

  2. STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS DIFFERENT EVALUATION METHODS IN PHARMACOLOGY

    Majagi Suneel Ishwar; Hiremath S.V.; Torgal S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Literature review suggests the importance and the need of students’ feedback which may be used to effectively reform evaluation methods in medical sciences. The present study has been conducted to obtain student’s attitude (perception of) towards different evaluation methods of pharmacology. The sample consisted of second phase M.B.B.S (n=108) students. Students answered 115 items/questions designed according to Likert’s five point (in agreement with items) scale. These items/questions assess...

  3. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Milić Slavica; Lepojević Žika; Adamović Dušan; Mujić Ibrahim; Zeković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  4. A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods

    Boris Radovanov; Aleksandra Marcikić

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap), stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily ob...

  5. Estimation of citicoline sodium in tablets by difference spectrophotometric method

    Sagar Suman Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work deals with development and validation of a novel, precise, and accurate spectrophotometric method for the estimation of citicoline sodium (CTS in tablets. This spectrophotometric method is based on the principle that CTS shows two different forms that differs in the absorption spectra in basic and acidic medium. Materials and Methods: The present work was being carried out on Shimadzu 1800 Double Beam UV-visible spectrophotometer. Difference spectra were generated using 10 mm quartz cells over the range of 200-400 nm. Solvents used were 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M HCl. Results: The maxima and minima in the difference spectra of CTS were found to be 239 nm and 283 nm, respectively. Amplitude was calculated from the maxima and minima of spectrum. The drug follows linearity in the range of 1-50 μ/ml (R 2 = 0.999. The average % recovery from the tablet formulation was found to be 98.47%. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use: ICH Q2(R1 Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology guidelines. Conclusion: This method is simple and inexpensive. Hence it can be applied for determination of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  6. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  7. Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain Method in Nanophotonics

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra

    often indispensable. This thesis presents the development of rigorous finite-difference method, a very general tool to solve Maxwell’s equations in arbitrary geometries in three dimensions, with an emphasis on the frequency-domain formulation. Enhanced performance of the perfectly matched layers is...... obtained through free space squeezing technique, and nonuniform orthogonal grids are built to greatly improve the accuracy of simulations of highly heterogeneous nanostructures. Examples of the use of the finite-difference frequency-domain method in this thesis range from simulating localized modes in a...

  8. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates by Finite Difference Method

    Mustafa Haluk SARAÇOĞLU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; deflection at the mid-point of laminated composite rectangular plate subjected to uniformly distributed load is investigated by finite difference method. Four edges of these plates are Navier SS-1 simplysupported. Classical theory of laminated composite plates formed by extending the classical plate theory is used. Differential equations about bending of plate were discreted by finite difference method and unknown displacements at the related nodes are calculated. As an example; mid point dimensionless deflections of specially orhotropic, regular symmetric and regular antisymmetric composite laminated square plates under uniformly distributed load were examined.

  9. Performance of different detrending methods in turbulent flux estimation

    Donateo, Antonio; Cava, Daniela; Contini, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    The eddy covariance is the most direct, efficient and reliable method to measure the turbulent flux of a scalar (Baldocchi, 2003). Required conditions for high-quality eddy covariance measurements are amongst others stationarity of the measured data and a fully developed turbulence. The simplest method for obtaining the fluctuating components for covariance calculation according to Reynolds averaging rules under ideal stationary conditions is the so called mean removal method. However steady state conditions rarely exist in the atmosphere, because of the diurnal cycle, changes in meteorological conditions, or sensor drift. All these phenomena produce trends or low-frequency changes superimposed to the turbulent signal. Different methods for trend removal have been proposed in literature; however a general agreement on how separate low frequency perturbations from turbulence has not yet been reached. The most commonly applied methods are the linear detrending (Gash and Culf, 1996) and the high-pass filter, namely the moving average (Moncrieff et al., 2004). Moreover Vickers and Mahrt (2003) proposed a multi resolution decomposition method in order to select an appropriate time scale for mean removal as a function of atmospheric stability conditions. The present work investigates the performance of these different detrending methods in removing the low frequency contribution to the turbulent fluxes calculation, including also a spectral filter by a Fourier decomposition of the time series. The different methods have been applied to the calculation of the turbulent fluxes for different scalars (temperature, ultrafine particles number concentration, carbon dioxide and water vapour concentration). A comparison of the detrending methods will be performed also for different measurement site, namely a urban site, a suburban area, and a remote area in Antarctica. Moreover the performance of the moving average in detrending time series has been analyzed as a function of the

  10. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADCM, ADCP, ADCS values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (Pave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  11. Nonlinear self-adjointness, conservation laws, and the construction of solutions of partial differential equations using conservation laws

    The method of nonlinear self-adjointness, which was recently developed by the first author, gives a generalization of Noether's theorem. This new method significantly extends approaches to constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries, since it does not require the existence of a Lagrangian. In particular, it can be applied to any linear equations and any nonlinear equations that possess at least one local conservation law. The present paper provides a brief survey of results on conservation laws which have been obtained by this method and published mostly in recent preprints of the authors, along with a method for constructing exact solutions of systems of partial differential equations with the use of conservation laws. In most cases the solutions obtained by the method of conservation laws cannot be found as invariant or partially invariant solutions. Bibliography: 23 titles

  12. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of hydrodynamic stability in cyclonic flows

    Guzman Inigo, Juan; Juniper, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Cyclonic separators are used in a variety of industries to efficiently separate mixtures of fluid and solid phases by means of centrifugal forces and gravity. In certain circumstances, the vortex core of cyclonic flows is known to precess due to the instability of the flow, which leads to performance reductions. We aim to characterize the unsteadiness using linear stability analysis of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in a global framework. The system of equations, including the turbulence model, is linearised to obtain an eigenvalue problem. Unstable modes corresponding to the dynamics of the large structures of the turbulent flow are extracted. The analysis shows that the most unstable mode is a helical motion which develops around the axis of the flow. This result is in good agreement with LES and experimental analysis, suggesting the validity of the approach. Finally, an adjoint-based sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the regions of the flow that, when altered, have most influence on the frequency and growth-rate of the unstable eigenvalues.

  13. Adjoint sources, disconnected loops and other fruit of lattice QCD

    Foster, M S

    1998-01-01

    eta' meson mass in full QCD. We introduce related source pairs to minimise the variance of the disconnected loop operators that are employed. We are able to obtain estimates of the mass from a very modest number of gauge configurations and purely local operators. We did not observe any evidence of unquenching from the measurements obtained, though statistical noise dominated the signal in the region where definitive effects would be seen. We undertake a comprehensive study of the gluelump mass spectrum, exploring the spin structure of the state. We use five lattice spacings from which we extract continuum values for the state splittings, with high statistics employed at beta = 6.0. We conduct a low statistics study of a related and previously unexamined lattice state, which we term the adjoint meson. We find that this state is fractionally more massive than the gluelump on the lattices considered, with indications that the splitting is greater than the pion mass at beta = 6.0. We investigate a sum rule approa...

  14. Blind Image Seperation Using Forward Difference Method (FDM

    Jyothirmayi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, blind image separation is performed, exploiting the property of sparseness to representimages. A new sparse representation called forward difference method is proposed. It is known that most ofthe independent component analysis (ICA basis functions, extracted from images are sparse and givesunreliable sparseness measure. In the proposed method, the image mixture is first transformed to sparseimages. These images are divided into blocks and for each block the sparseness measure 0 norm isapplied. The block having the most sparseness is considered to determine the separation matrix. Theefficiency of the proposed method is compared with other sparse representation functions.

  15. Maxillary sinusitis - a comparative study of different imaging diagnosis methods

    We conducted prospective study comparing different methods (plain X-rays, computed tomography and ultrasonography mode-A) for the initial diagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. Twenty patients (40 maxillary sinuses) with a clinical history suggestive of sinusitis included in this study. The results were classified as abnormal or normal, using computed tomography as gold standard. The sensitivity for ultrasonography and plain X-rays was 84.6% and 69.2%, respectively. The specificity of both methods was 92.6%. This study suggests that ultrasonography can be used as a good follow-up method for patients with maxillary. sinusitis. (author)

  16. Validation of different soft tissue simulation methods for breast augmentation

    Roose, Liesbet; De Maerteleire, Wim; Mollemans, Wouter; Suetens, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Roose L., De Maerteleire W., Mollemans W., Suetens P., ''Validation of different soft tissue simulation methods for breast augmentation'', International congress series 19th international congress and exhibition on computer assisted radiology and surgery - CARS 2005, vol. 1281, pp. 485-490, June 22-25, 2005, Berlin, Germany.

  17. Immunoreactivity of 125I-papain labelled by different methods

    Three different methods of papain iodination (with chloramine-T, lactoperoxidase and conjugation with Bolton-Hunter reagent) have been compared. The highest yield of 125I-papain could be obtained using lactoperoxidase which enabled to achieve the highest immunoreactivity. 125I-papain, labelled this way, is suitable for the radioimmunoassay of papain. (author)

  18. The mimetic finite difference method for elliptic problems

    Veiga, Lourenço Beirão; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the theoretical and computational aspects of the mimetic finite difference method for a wide class of multidimensional elliptic problems, which includes diffusion, advection-diffusion, Stokes, elasticity, magnetostatics and plate bending problems. The modern mimetic discretization technology developed in part by the Authors allows one to solve these equations on unstructured polygonal, polyhedral and generalized polyhedral meshes. The book provides a practical guide for those scientists and engineers that are interested in the computational properties of the mimetic finite difference method such as the accuracy, stability, robustness, and efficiency. Many examples are provided to help the reader to understand and implement this method. This monograph also provides the essential background material and describes basic mathematical tools required to develop further the mimetic discretization technology and to extend it to various applications.

  19. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Caroline N. M. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC is a priority. Objective: To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Methods: Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1, point of minimum circumference (2; immediately above the iliac crest (3, umbilicus (4, one inch above the umbilicus (5, one centimeter above the umbilicus (6, smallest rib and (7 the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8. Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. Results: A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67% patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. Conclusion: The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  20. Modelling magnetic polarisation J 50 by different methods

    Two different methods for modelling the angular behaviour of magnetic polarisation at 5000 A/m (J 50) of electrical steels were evaluated and compared. Both methods are based upon crystallographic texture data. The texture of non-oriented electrical steels with silicon content ranging from 0.11 to 3%Si was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the first method, J 50 was correlated to the calculated value of the average anisotropy energy in each direction, using texture data. In the second method, the first three coefficients of the spherical harmonic series of the ODF and two experimental points were used to estimate the angular variation of J 50. The first method allows the estimation of J 50 for samples with different textures and Si contents using only the texture data, with no need of magnetic measurement, and this is advantageous, because texture data can be acquired with less than 2 g of material. The second method may give better adjust in some situations but besides the texture data, it requests magnetic measurements in at least two directions, for example, rolling and transverse directions

  1. Comparison of different methods for estimation of potential evapotranspiration

    Evapotranspiration can be estimated with different available methods. The aim of this research study to compare and evaluate the originally measured potential evapotranspiration from Class A pan with the Hargreaves equation, the Penman equation, the Penman-Montheith equation, and the FAO56 Penman-Monteith equation. The evaporation rate from pan recorded greater than stated methods. For each evapotranspiration method, results were compared against mean monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) from Pan data according to FAO (ET/sub o/=K/sub pan X E/sub pan)), from daily measured recorded data of the twenty-five years (1984-2008). On the basis of statistical analysis between the pan data and the FAO56- Penman-Monteith method are not considered to be very significant (=0.98) at 95% confidence and prediction intervals. All methods required accurate weather data for precise results, for the purpose of this study the past twenty five years data were analyzed and used including maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine duration and rainfall. Based on linear regression analysis results the FAO56 PMM ranked first (R/sup 2/=0.98) followed by Hergreaves method (R/sup 2/=0.96), Penman-Monteith method (R/sup 2/=0.94) and Penman method (=0.93). Obviously, using FAO56 Penman Monteith method with precise climatic variables for ET/sub o/ estimation is more reliable than the other alternative methods, Hergreaves is more simple and rely only on air temperatures data and can be used alternative of FAO56 Penman-Monteith method if other climatic data are missing or unreliable. (author)

  2. Comparison of Different Methods to identify wormhole attacks in MANETS

    S.Seethalakshmi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-organized network without a central coordinator that changes its topology frequently is called a MANET. Two faraway nodes in a MANET seem to give an impression that they are situated close to each other due to the presence of malicious nodes referred to as worm-hole nodes. Due to the dynamic change in topology finding route is very difficult. Some nodes misbehave as they participate in route establishment phase but refuse to forward the data packets to conserve their own energy. In this paper we are going to compare three different methods (PT method, WAP method, TWOACK method to detect misbehaving nodes. Simulation is carried through NS2 and the results of misbehaving nodes are compared and tabulated.

  3. Stabilized FE simulation of prototype thermal-hydraulics problems with integrated adjoint-based capabilities

    Shadid, J. N.; Smith, T. M.; Cyr, E. C.; Wildey, T. M.; Pawlowski, R. P.

    2016-09-01

    A critical aspect of applying modern computational solution methods to complex multiphysics systems of relevance to nuclear reactor modeling, is the assessment of the predictive capability of specific proposed mathematical models. In this respect the understanding of numerical error, the sensitivity of the solution to parameters associated with input data, boundary condition uncertainty, and mathematical models is critical. Additionally, the ability to evaluate and or approximate the model efficiently, to allow development of a reasonable level of statistical diagnostics of the mathematical model and the physical system, is of central importance. In this study we report on initial efforts to apply integrated adjoint-based computational analysis and automatic differentiation tools to begin to address these issues. The study is carried out in the context of a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes approximation to turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer using a particular spatial discretization based on implicit fully-coupled stabilized FE methods. Initial results are presented that show the promise of these computational techniques in the context of nuclear reactor relevant prototype thermal-hydraulics problems.

  4. The Consistency of a Bounded, Self-Adjoint Time Operator Canonically Conjugate to a Hamiltonian with Non-empty Point Spectrum

    Galapon, E A

    1999-01-01

    Pauli's well known theorem (W. Pauli, Hanbuch der Physik vol. 5/1, ed. S. Flugge, (1926) p.60) asserts that the existence of a self-adjoint time operator canonically conjugate to a given Hamiltonian implies that the time operator and the Hamitlonian posses completely continuous spectra spanning the entire real line. Thus the conclusion that there exists no self-adjoint time operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian with a spectrum which is a proper subspace of the real line. But we challenge this conclusion. We show rigourously the consitency of assuming a bounded, self-adjoint time operator conjugate to a Hamiltonian with an unbounded, or semibounded, or finitely countable point spectrum. Pauli implicitly assumed unconditionally that the domain of the Hamiltonian is invariant under the action of $U_\\beta=\\exp(-i\\beta T)$, where $T$ is the time operator, for arbitrary real number $\\betaA$. But we show that the $\\beta$'s are at most the differences of the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. And this happens, under some ...

  5. Back-transformation of treatment differences - an approximate method

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    -transformed estimated differences, and corresponding standard errors and 95% confidence intervals.Subjects/Methods:Based on data from two randomized controlled studies and an exemplary data set that had all previously been published, we evaluated our approximate procedure by comparing results for different approaches......Background/Objectives:Transformation of outcomes is frequently used in the analysis of studies in clinical nutrition. However, back-transformation of estimated treatment means and differences is complicated by the nonlinear nature of the transformations. It is not straightforward to obtain an...... estimated treatment difference that can be interpreted without any reference to the additional predictors included in the statistical model; and moreover, standard errors are not easily available. The aim of this work was to provide a generally applicable, yet operational procedure for obtaining back...

  6. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Nunes, Caroline N. M.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Farah, Elaine; Fusco, Daniéliso; Azevedo, Paula S.; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M., E-mail: lzornoff@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes.

  7. Comparison of different diagnostic methods in infants with Cholestasis

    Seyed Mohsen Dehghani; Mahmood Haghighat; Mohammad Hadi Imanieh; Bita Geramizadeh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate different methods in differentiating idiopathic neonatal hepatitis from biliary atresia.METHODS: Sixty-five infants with cholestatic jaundice and final diagnosis of idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia were studied prospectively from September 2003 to March 2006. A thorough history and physical examination were undertaken and the liver enzymes were examined. All cases underwent abdominal ultrasonography, hepatobiliary scintigraphy,and percutaneous liver biopsy. The accuracy, sensitivity,specificity and predictive values of these various methods were compared.RESULTS: There were 34 girls and 31 boys, among them 46 subjects had idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (age,61 ± 17 d) and 19 had biliary atresia (age, 64 ± 18 d).The mean age at onset of jaundice was significantly lower in cases of biliary atresia when compared to idiopathic neonatal hepatitis cases (9 ± 13 d vs 20 ± 21 d;P = 0.032). The diagnostic accuracy of different methods was as follows: liver biopsy, 96.9%; clinical evaluation,70.8%; ultrasonography, 69.2%; hepatobiliary scintigraphy, 58.5%; and liver enzymes, 50.8%.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that clinical evaluation by an experienced pediatric hepatologist and a biopsy of the liver are considered as the most reliable methods to differentiate idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia.

  8. Impact of Different Obesity Assessment Methods after Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Abdominal obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, identifying the best method for measuring waist circumference (WC) is a priority. To evaluate the eight methods of measuring WC in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as a predictor of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization. Prospective study of patients with ACS. The measurement of WC was performed by eight known methods: midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (1), point of minimum circumference (2); immediately above the iliac crest (3), umbilicus (4), one inch above the umbilicus (5), one centimeter above the umbilicus (6), smallest rib and (7) the point of greatest circumference around the waist (8). Complications included: angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, pericarditis and death. Logistic regression tests were used for predictive factors. A total of 55 patients were evaluated. During the hospitalization period, which corresponded on average to seven days, 37 (67%) patients had complications, with the exception of death, which was not observed in any of the cases. Of these complications, the only one that was associated with WC was angina, and with every cm of WC increase, the risk for angina increased from 7.5 to 9.9%, depending on the measurement site. It is noteworthy the fact that there was no difference between the different methods of measuring WC as a predictor of angina. The eight methods of measuring WC are also predictors of recurrent angina after acute coronary syndromes

  9. A Novel Method for Parallel Switching Power with Different Capacity

    Zhu Jun-jie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of parallel switching power with different capacity in a controllable current sharing method is presented in this paper. It achieves proportional current sharing and stable output DC voltage by using controllable current sharing modes which output assignable feedback signals to the paralleling buck DC-DC converters. The validity and effectiveness are verified through comprehensive experiments. Output voltage is at range of 8.0+-0.4V with energy transform efficiency of 80%. Moreover, controllable current sharing is established in a short time interval and it automatically recovers after removing the over current faults.

  10. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  11. Investigation of Wave Propagation in Different Dielectric Media by Using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD Method

    Md. Kamal Hossain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the wave propagation in free space and different dielectric material by using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method has been studied. Among various numerical methods Finite Difference Time Domain method is being used to study the time evolution behavior of electromagnetic field by solving the Maxwell’sequation in time domain. In this paper, FDTD method has been employed to study the wave propagation in free space and different dielectric materials. The wave equations are discretized in time and space as required by this FDTD method and leaf-frog algorithm is used to find the solution. We observed wave propagation for one and two dimensional cases. We also observed wave propagation through lossy medium for one dimensional case. For two dimensional cases the patterns of wave incident on rectangular dielectric slab, square metal, RCC pillar were observed. In order to visualize the wave propagation, the evaluation of the excitation at various locations of problem space is monitored. The numerical results agree with the propagation characteristics as expected.

  12. Modification of low-density lipoprotein by different radioiodination methods

    Scintigraphic imaging of radiolabeled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is an interesting tool for the understanding of its role in pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. Metabolism of native LDL shows quite different pattern and kinetics as compared to that of modified LDL which is not mediated by classical LDL-receptor and accumulates in atherosclerotic lesions to form lipid-laden foam cells. Therefore we were interested whether radiolabelling of LDL induces structural modifications. We performed the iodine labeling of LDL for scintigraphic imaging of atherosclerosis by three different methods: chloramine-T (A), iodine monochloride (B) and iodogen (C). The highest radiolabelling yield of 125I was obtained by the iodogen method (75.44±13.52%) and the lowest (49.01±12.74%) by iodine monochloride. Chloramine T showed a labeling yield of 62.82±6.17%. The stability of the tracer was very high with all the methods, persisting up to 6 h (98.83±1.2% - 91.38±4.7%, 15 min vs 6 h after labeling). For the first time we not only investigated the influence of radiolabelling on relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), but also various oxidation parameters such as baseline dienes (BD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), endogenous peroxides (POX) and oxidation resistance in the copper-mediated oxidation system (expressed as lag-time) were measured. Furthermore, oxidation- derived fragmentation of the lipoproteins was examined with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Data are expressed as % change compared to native LDL before radiolabeling. BD were reduced by 32% using the method (A), but increased by 33% and 47% with the monochloride (B) and iodogen method (C), respectively. The effect on lag-time was comparable for all the three methods, ranging from 25 to 36% reduction in lag-time. TBARS were strongly increased 5-7 fold by all the methods. REM was changed by all three methods. While by methods A and C we have found a moderate increase in REM by 1.75 and 2.0 fold

  13. Modification of low-density lipoprotein by different radioiodination methods

    Sobal, G. E-mail: grazyna.sobal@akh-wien.ac.at; Resch, U.; Sinzinger, H

    2004-04-01

    Scintigraphic imaging of radiolabeled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is an interesting tool for the understanding of its role in pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. Metabolism of native LDL shows quite different pattern and kinetics as compared to that of modified LDL which is not mediated by classical LDL-receptor and accumulates in atherosclerotic lesions to form lipid-laden foam cells. Therefore we were interested whether radiolabelling of LDL induces structural modifications. We performed the iodine labeling of LDL for scintigraphic imaging of atherosclerosis by three different methods: chloramine-T (A), iodine monochloride (B) and iodogen (C). The highest radiolabelling yield of {sup 125}I was obtained by the iodogen method (75.44{+-}13.52%) and the lowest (49.01{+-}12.74%) by iodine monochloride. Chloramine T showed a labeling yield of 62.82{+-}6.17%. The stability of the tracer was very high with all the methods, persisting up to 6 h (98.83{+-}1.2% - 91.38{+-}4.7%, 15 min vs 6 h after labeling). For the first time we not only investigated the influence of radiolabelling on relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), but also various oxidation parameters such as baseline dienes (BD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), endogenous peroxides (POX) and oxidation resistance in the copper-mediated oxidation system (expressed as lag-time) were measured. Furthermore, oxidation- derived fragmentation of the lipoproteins was examined with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Data are expressed as % change compared to native LDL before radiolabeling. BD were reduced by 32% using the method (A), but increased by 33% and 47% with the monochloride (B) and iodogen method (C), respectively. The effect on lag-time was comparable for all the three methods, ranging from 25 to 36% reduction in lag-time. TBARS were strongly increased 5-7 fold by all the methods. REM was changed by all three methods. While by methods A and C we have found a moderate increase in REM by 1.75 and 2

  14. Adjoint-based airfoil shape optimization in transonic flow

    Gramanzini, Joe-Ray

    The primary focus of this work is efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in transonic flow. Adjoint-based optimization techniques are employed on airfoil sections and evaluated in terms of computational accuracy as well as efficiency. This study examines two test cases proposed by the AIAA Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussion Group. The first is a two-dimensional, transonic, inviscid, non-lifting optimization of a Modified-NACA 0012 airfoil. The second is a two-dimensional, transonic, viscous optimization problem using a RAE 2822 airfoil. The FUN3D CFD code of NASA Langley Research Center is used as the ow solver for the gradient-based optimization cases. Two shape parameterization techniques are employed to study their effect and the number of design variables on the final optimized shape: Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD) and the BandAids free-form deformation technique. For the two airfoil cases, angle of attack is treated as a global design variable. The thickness and camber distributions are the local design variables for MASSOUD, and selected airfoil surface grid points are the local design variables for BandAids. Using the MASSOUD technique, a drag reduction of 72.14% is achieved for the NACA 0012 case, reducing the total number of drag counts from 473.91 to 130.59. Employing the BandAids technique yields a 78.67% drag reduction, from 473.91 to 99.98. The RAE 2822 case exhibited a drag reduction from 217.79 to 132.79 counts, a 39.05% decrease using BandAids.

  15. Using finite difference method to simulate casting thermal stress

    Liao Dunming; Zhang Bin; Zhou Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stress simulation can provide a scientific reference to eliminate defects such as crack, residual stress centralization and deformation etc., caused by thermal stress during casting solidification. To study the thermal stress distribution during casting process, a unilateral thermal-stress coupling model was employed to simulate 3D casting stress using Finite Difference Method (FDM), namely all the traditional thermal-elastic-plastic equations are numerically and differentially discre...

  16. Finite Difference Time Domain Method For Grating Structures

    Baida, F.I.; Belkhir, A.

    2012-01-01

    International audience The aim of this chapter is to present the principle of the FDTD method when applied to the resolution of Maxwell equations. Centered finite differences are used to approximate the value of both time and space derivatives that appear in these equations. The convergence criteria in addition to the boundary conditions (periodic or absorbing ones) are given. The special case of bi-periodic structures illuminated at oblique incidence is solved with the SFM (split field me...

  17. High Order Finite Difference Methods for Multiscale Complex Compressible Flows

    Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.

    2002-01-01

    The classical way of analyzing finite difference schemes for hyperbolic problems is to investigate as many as possible of the following points: (1) Linear stability for constant coefficients; (2) Linear stability for variable coefficients; (3) Non-linear stability; and (4) Stability at discontinuities. We will build a new numerical method, which satisfies all types of stability, by dealing with each of the points above step by step.

  18. Refinement of thermal imager minimum resolvable temperature difference calculating method

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Mykytenko, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Calculating methods, which accurately predict minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD), are of significant interest for many years. The article deals with improvement the accuracy of determining the thermal imaging system MRTD by elaboration the visual perception model. We suggest MRTD calculating algorithm, which is based on a reliable approximation of the human visual system modulation transfer function (MTF) proposed by N. Nill. There was obtained a new expression for the bandwidth evaluation, which is independent of angular size of the Foucault bar target.

  19. Passage to the Differences for the BDF's Methods

    Abdelouahab Salmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we give an improvement to the backward differentiation formula (BDF. We use a formula for the differences that permits us to determine the new coefficients αi^ and γi ^in function of the classical coefficients αi and γi of this method. Our proposed approach decreases the error and the cost of computation. Numerical results for concrete problems are given to support the theory.

  20. Efficiency Analysis and Comparison of Different Radon Progeny Measurement Methods

    Abdumomin Kadir; Lei Zhang; Qiuju Guo; Juncheng Liang

    2013-01-01

    Radon exposure to the public contributes more than half of all the radiation doses caused by natural radiation; accurate measurement of radon progeny is quite essential for the dose evaluation of radon exposure in environment. For the purpose of establishing a radon progeny standard and controlling measurement quality of commercial devices, it is quite important to analyze the efficiency of different measurement methods and determine which would be the most appropriate for radon progeny measu...

  1. Comparison of different methods of temperature measurement in children

    Pavlović Momčilo; Radlović Nedeljko; Leković Zoran; Berenji Karolina

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecessary investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006). In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body tempera...

  2. Multi-Dimensional Spectral Difference Method for Unstructured Grids

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. It combines the best features of structured and unstructured grid methods to attain computational efficiency and geometric flexibility; it utilizes the concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy; and it is based on the finite-difference formulation for simplicity. Universal reconstructions are obtained by distributing unknowns in a geometrically similar manner for all unstructured cells. Placements of the unknown and flux points with various order of accuracy are given for the line, triangular and tetrahedral elements. The data structure of the new method permits an optimum use of cache memory, resulting in further computational efficiency on modern computers. A new pointer system is developed that reduces memory requirements and simplifies programming for any order of accuracy. Numerical solutions are presented and compared with the exact solutions for wave propagation problems in both two and three dimensions to demonstrate the capability of the method. Excellent agreement has been found. The method is simpler and more efficient than previous discontinuous Galerkin and spectral volume methods for unstructured grids.

  3. Generalized adjoint consistent treatment of wall boundary conditions for compressible flows

    Hartmann, Ralf; Leicht, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we revisit the adjoint consistency analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with application to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and k- ω turbulence equations. Here, particular emphasis is laid on the discretization of wall boundary conditions. While previously only one specific combination of discretizations of wall boundary conditions and of aerodynamic force coefficients has been shown to give an adjoint consistent discretization, in this article we generalize this analysis and provide a discretization of the force coefficients for any consistent discretization of wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a related evaluation of the cp- and cf-distributions is required. The freedom gained in choosing the discretization of boundary conditions without loosing adjoint consistency is used to devise a new adjoint consistent discretization including numerical fluxes on the wall boundary which is more robust than the adjoint consistent discretization known up to now. While this work is presented in the framework of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, the insight gained is also applicable to (and thus valuable for) other discretization schemes. In particular, the discretization of integral quantities, like the drag, lift and moment coefficients, as well as the discretization of local quantities at the wall like surface pressure and skin friction should follow as closely as possible the discretization of the flow equations and boundary conditions at the wall boundary.

  4. Light Adjoint Quarks in the Instanton-Dyon Liquid Model IV

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the instanton-dyon liquid model with $N_f$ Majorana quark flavors in the adjoint representation of color $SU_c(2)$ at finite temperature. We briefly recall the index theorem on $S^1\\times R^3$ for twisted adjoint fermions in a BPS dyon background of arbitrary holonomy, and use the ADHM construction to explicit the adjoint anti-periodic zero modes. We use these results to derive the partition function of an interacting instanton-dyon ensemble with $N_f$ light and anti-periodic adjoint quarks. We develop the model in details by mapping the theory on a 3-dimensional quantum effective theory with adjoint quarks with manifest $SU(N_f)\\times Z_{4N_f}$ symmetry. Using a mean-field analysis at weak coupling and strong screening, we show that center symmetry requires the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, which is shown to only take place for $N_f=1$. For a sufficiently dense liquid, we find that the ground state is center symmetric and breaks spontaneously flavor symmetry through $SU(N_f)\\times Z_{4N...

  5. A Review on Different Virtual Learning Methods in Pharmacy Education

    Amin Noori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtual learning is a type of electronic learning system based on the web. It models traditional in- person learning by providing virtual access to classes, tests, homework, feedbacks and etc. Students and teachers can interact through chat rooms or other virtual environments. Web 2.0 services are usually used for this method. Internet audio-visual tools, multimedia systems, a disco CD-ROMs, videotapes, animation, video conferencing, and interactive phones can all be used to deliver data to the students. E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It is time saving with lower costs compared to traditional methods. It can be self-paced, it is suitable for distance learning and it is flexible. It is a great learning style for continuing education and students can independently solve their problems but it has its disadvantages too. Thereby, blended learning (combination of conventional and virtual education is being used worldwide and has improved knowledge, skills and confidence of pharmacy students.The aim of this study is to review, discuss and introduce different methods of virtual learning for pharmacy students.Google scholar, Pubmed and Scupus databases were searched for topics related to virtual, electronic and blended learning and different styles like computer simulators, virtual practice environment technology, virtual mentor, virtual patient, 3D simulators, etc. are discussed in this article.Our review on different studies on these areas shows that the students are highly satisfied withvirtual and blended types of learning.

  6. Introduction to finite-difference methods for numerical fluid dynamics

    Scannapieco, E.; Harlow, F.H.

    1995-09-01

    This work is intended to be a beginner`s exercise book for the study of basic finite-difference techniques in computational fluid dynamics. It is written for a student level ranging from high-school senior to university senior. Equations are derived from basic principles using algebra. Some discussion of partial-differential equations is included, but knowledge of calculus is not essential. The student is expected, however, to have some familiarity with the FORTRAN computer language, as the syntax of the computer codes themselves is not discussed. Topics examined in this work include: one-dimensional heat flow, one-dimensional compressible fluid flow, two-dimensional compressible fluid flow, and two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow with additions of the equations of heat flow and the {Kappa}-{epsilon} model for turbulence transport. Emphasis is placed on numerical instabilities and methods by which they can be avoided, techniques that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of finite-difference approximations, and the writing of the finite-difference codes themselves. Concepts introduced in this work include: flux and conservation, implicit and explicit methods, Lagrangian and Eulerian methods, shocks and rarefactions, donor-cell and cell-centered advective fluxes, compressible and incompressible fluids, the Boussinesq approximation for heat flow, Cartesian tensor notation, the Boussinesq approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor, and the modeling of transport equations. A glossary is provided which defines these and other terms.

  7. Computational electrodynamics the finite-difference time-domain method

    Taflove, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This extensively revised and expanded third edition of the Artech House bestseller, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, offers engineers the most up-to-date and definitive resource on this critical method for solving Maxwell's equations. The method helps practitioners design antennas, wireless communications devices, high-speed digital and microwave circuits, and integrated optical devices with unsurpassed efficiency. There has been considerable advancement in FDTD computational technology over the past few years, and the third edition brings professionals the very latest details with entirely new chapters on important techniques, major updates on key topics, and new discussions on emerging areas such as nanophotonics. What's more, to supplement the third edition, the authors have created a Web site with solutions to problems, downloadable graphics and videos, and updates, making this new edition the ideal textbook on the subject as well.

  8. Parallel finite-difference time-domain method

    Yu, Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FTDT) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. This book raises the FDTD method to the next level by empowering it with the vast capabilities of parallel computing. It shows engineers how to exploit the natural parallel properties of FDTD to improve the existing FDTD method and to efficiently solve more complex and large problem sets. Professionals learn how to apply open source software to develop parallel software and hardware to run FDTD in parallel for their projects. The book features hands-on examples that illustrate the power of parallel FDTD and presents practical strategies for carrying out parallel FDTD. This detailed resource provides instructions on downloading, installing, and setting up the required open source software on either Windows or Linux systems, and includes a handy tutorial on parallel programming.

  9. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  10. Comparative analysis of different methods for graphene nanoribbon synthesis

    Tošić Dragana D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are thin strips of graphene that have captured the interest of scientists due to their unique structure and promising applications in electronics. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of morphological properties of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by different methods. Various methods have been reported for graphene nanoribons synthesis. Lithography methods usually include electron-beam (e-beam lithography, atomic force microscopy (AFM lithography, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM lithography. Sonochemical and chemical methods exist as well, namely chemical vapour deposition (CVD and anisotropic etching. Graphene nanoribbons can also be fabricated from unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs. We propose a new highly efficient method for graphene nanoribbons production by gamma irradiation of graphene dispersed in cyclopentanone (CPO. Surface morphology of graphene nanoribbons was visualized with atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that dimensions of graphene nanoribbons are inversely proportional to applied gamma irradiation dose. It was established that the narrowest nanoribbons were 10-20 nm wide and 1 nm high with regular and smooth edges. In comparison to other synthesis methods, dimensions of graphene nanoribbons synthesized by gamma irradiation are slightly larger, but the yield of nanoribbons is much higher. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for structural analysis of graphene nanoribbons. Results of photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed for the first time that synthesized nanoribbons showed photoluminescence in the blue region of visible light in contrast to graphene nanoribbons synthesized by other methods. Based on disclosed facts, we believe that our synthesis method has good prospects for potential future mass production of graphene nanoribbons with uniform size, as well as for future investigations of carbon nanomaterials for

  11. One-loop Test of Free SU(N) Adjoint Model Holography

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Lal, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    We consider the holographic duality where the CFT side is given by $SU(N)$ adjoint free scalar field theory. Compared to the vector models, the set of single trace operators is immensely extended so that the corresponding AdS theory also contains infinitely many massive higher spin fields on top of the massless ones. We compute the one-loop vacuum energy of these AdS fields to test this duality at the subleading order in large $N$ expansion. The determination of the bulk vacuum energy requires a proper scheme to sum up the infinitely many contributions. For that, we develop a new method and apply it first to calculate the vacuum energies for the first few `Regge trajectories' in AdS$_4$ and AdS$_5$. In considering the full vacuum energy of AdS theory dual to a matrix model CFT, we find that there exist more than one available prescriptions for the one-loop vacuum energy. Taking a particular prescription, we determine the full vacuum energy of the AdS$_5$ theory, whereas the AdS$_4$ calculation still remains t...

  12. Arrayed waveguide grating using the finite difference beam propagation method

    Toledo, M. C. F.; Alayo, M. I.

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze by simulation the coupling effects occurring in Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) using the finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM). Conventional FD-BPM techniques do not immediately lend themselves to the analysis of large structures such as AWG. Cooper et al.1 introduced a description of the coupling between the interface of arrayed waveguides and star couplers using the numerically-assisted coupled-mode theory. However, when the arrayed waveguides are spatially close, such that, there is strong coupling between them, and coupled-mode theory is not adequate. On the other hand, Payne2 developed an exact eigenvalue equation for the super modes of a straight arrayed waveguide which involve a computational overhead. In this work, an integration of both methods is accomplished in order to describe the behavior of the propagation of light in guided curves. This new method is expected to reduce the necessary effort for simulation while also enabling the simulation of large and curved arrayed waveguides using a fully vectorial finite difference technique.

  13. Experience with Monte Carlo variance reduction using adjoint solutions in HYPER neutronics analysis

    The variance reduction techniques using adjoint solutions are applied to the Monte Carlo calculation of the HYPER(HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) core neutronics. The applied variance reduction techniques are the geometry splitting and the weight windows. The weight bounds and the cell importance needed for these techniques are generated from an adjoint discrete ordinate calculation by the two-dimensional TWODANT code. The flux distribution variances of the Monte Carlo calculations by these variance reduction techniques are compared with the results of the standard Monte Carlo calculations. It is shown that the variance reduction techniques using adjoint solutions to the HYPER core neutronics result in a decrease in the efficiency of the Monte Carlo calculation

  14. Automated derivation of the adjoint of high-level transient finite element programs

    Farrell, Patrick E; Funke, Simon F; Rognes, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the capability of automatically deriving the discrete adjoint and tangent linear models from a forward model written in the high-level FEniCS finite element computing environment. In contrast to developing a model directly in Fortran or C++, high-level systems allow the developer to express the variational problems to be solved in near-mathematical notation. As such, these systems have a key advantage: since the mathematical structure of the problem is preserved, they are more amenable to automated analysis and manipulation. Our approach to automated adjoint derivation relies on run-time annotation of the temporal structure of the model, and employs the same finite element form compiler to automatically generate the low-level code for the derived models. The approach requires only trivial changes to a large class of forward models, including complicated time-dependent nonlinear models. The adjoint model automatically employs optimal checkpointing schemes to mitigate storage requir...

  15. Finite difference methods for coupled flow interaction transport models

    Shelly McGee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding chemical transport in blood flow involves coupling the chemical transport process with flow equations describing the blood and plasma in the membrane wall. In this work, we consider a coupled two-dimensional model with transient Navier-Stokes equation to model the blood flow in the vessel and Darcy's flow to model the plasma flow through the vessel wall. The advection-diffusion equation is coupled with the velocities from the flows in the vessel and wall, respectively to model the transport of the chemical. The coupled chemical transport equations are discretized by the finite difference method and the resulting system is solved using the additive Schwarz method. Development of the model and related analytical and numerical results are presented in this work.

  16. Accurate finite difference methods for time-harmonic wave propagation

    Harari, Isaac; Turkel, Eli

    1994-01-01

    Finite difference methods for solving problems of time-harmonic acoustics are developed and analyzed. Multidimensional inhomogeneous problems with variable, possibly discontinuous, coefficients are considered, accounting for the effects of employing nonuniform grids. A weighted-average representation is less sensitive to transition in wave resolution (due to variable wave numbers or nonuniform grids) than the standard pointwise representation. Further enhancement in method performance is obtained by basing the stencils on generalizations of Pade approximation, or generalized definitions of the derivative, reducing spurious dispersion, anisotropy and reflection, and by improving the representation of source terms. The resulting schemes have fourth-order accurate local truncation error on uniform grids and third order in the nonuniform case. Guidelines for discretization pertaining to grid orientation and resolution are presented.

  17. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  18. Parallelization of the discrete transfer method: Two different approaches

    Novo, P.J.; Coelho, P.J.; Carvalho, M.G. [Technical Univ. of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1996-11-01

    Two different parallelization strategies of the discrete transfer method are presented and discussed. In one of them, the ray decomposition, each processor performs the calculations for the whole domain for a subset of radiation beams. In the other one, the domain decomposition, the domain is split up into subdomains and each processor performs all the calculations within each subdomain. Two radiation problems in two-dimensional square enclosures containing an emitting-absorbing medium were studied. It was concluded that efficiencies slightly above 90% are achievable with 16 processors by using the ray decomposition approach, while the efficiency of the domain decomposition approach drops very fast with the increase of the number of processors. The marked increase of the number of iterations with the increase of the number of processors is a shortcoming of the domain decomposition parallelization method, and places an upper limit on the maximum achievable efficiency.

  19. Assessment of disinfection of hospital surfaces using different monitoring methods

    Adriano Menis Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of cleaning/disinfection of surfaces of an Intensive Care Unit.METHOD: descriptive-exploratory study with quantitative approach conducted over the course of four weeks. Visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological indicators were used to indicate cleanliness/disinfection. Five surfaces (bed rails, bedside tables, infusion pumps, nurses' counter, and medical prescription table were assessed before and after the use of rubbing alcohol at 70% (w/v, totaling 160 samples for each method. Non-parametric tests were used considering statistically significant differences at p<0.05.RESULTS: after the cleaning/disinfection process, 87.5, 79.4 and 87.5% of the surfaces were considered clean using the visual inspection, bioluminescence adenosine triphosphate and microbiological analyses, respectively. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the disapproval rates after the cleaning process considering the three assessment methods; the visual inspection was the least reliable.CONCLUSION: the cleaning/disinfection method was efficient in reducing microbial load and organic matter of surfaces, however, these findings require further study to clarify aspects related to the efficiency of friction, its frequency, and whether or not there is association with other inputs to achieve improved results of the cleaning/disinfection process.

  20. Comparative analysis of different methods for image enhancement

    吴笑峰; 胡仕刚; 赵瑾; 李志明; 李劲; 唐志军; 席在芳

    2014-01-01

    Image enhancement technology plays a very important role to improve image quality in image processing. By enhancing some information and restraining other information selectively, it can improve image visual effect. The objective of this work is to implement the image enhancement to gray scale images using different techniques. After the fundamental methods of image enhancement processing are demonstrated, image enhancement algorithms based on space and frequency domains are systematically investigated and compared. The advantage and defect of the above-mentioned algorithms are analyzed. The algorithms of wavelet based image enhancement are also deduced and generalized. Wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) is a method for detecting the fractal dimension of a signal, it is well used for image enhancement. The image techniques are compared by using the mean (μ), standard deviation (s), mean square error (MSE) and PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio). A group of experimental results demonstrate that the image enhancement algorithm based on wavelet transform is effective for image de-noising and enhancement. Wavelet transform modulus maxima method is one of the best methods for image enhancement.

  1. Quantitative assessment of breast density: comparison of different methods

    Objective: To Compare different methods of quantitative breast density measurement. Methods: The study included sixty patients who underwent both mammography and breast MRI. The breast density was computed automatically on digital mammograms with R2 workstation, Two experienced radiologists read the mammograms and assessed the breast density with Wolfe and ACR classification respectively. Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCM) was used to assess breast density on MRI. Each assessment method was repeated after 2 weeks. Spearman and Pearson correlations of inter- and intrareader and intermodality were computed for density estimates. Results: Inter- and intrareader correlation of Wolfe classification were 0.74 and 0.65, and they were 0.74 and 0.82 for ACR classification respectively. Correlation between Wolfe and ACR classification was 0.77. High interreader correlation of 0.98 and intrareader correlation of 0.96 was observed with MR FCM measurement. And the correlation between digital mammograms and MRI was high in the assessment of breast density (r=0.81, P<0.01). Conclusion: High correlation of breast density estimates on digital mammograms and MRI FCM suggested the former could be used as a simple and accurate method. (authors)

  2. Comparison Study on the Performances of Finite Volume Method and Finite Difference Method

    Bo Yu(Brookhaven National Lab); Dongjie Wang; Xinyu Zhang; Wang Li; Renwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Vorticity-stream function method and MAC algorithm are adopted to systemically compare the finite volume method (FVM) and finite difference method (FDM) in this paper. Two typical problems—lid-driven flow and natural convection flow in a square cavity—are taken as examples to compare and analyze the calculation performances of FVM and FDM with variant mesh densities, discrete forms, and treatments of boundary condition. It is indicated that FVM is superior to FDM from the pe...

  3. Comparison of different Propagation Steps for the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Wittmann, Markus; Hager, Georg; Wellein, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Several possibilities exist to implement the propagation step of the lattice Boltzmann method. This paper describes common implementations which are compared according to the number of memory transfer operations they require per lattice node update. A memory bandwidth based performance model is then used to obtain an estimation of the maximal reachable performance on different machines. A subset of the discussed implementations of the propagation step were benchmarked on different Intel and AMD-based compute nodes using the framework of an existing flow solver which is specially adapted to simulate flow in porous media. Finally the estimated performance is compared to the measured one. As expected, the number of memory transfers has a significant impact on performance. Advanced approaches for the propagation step like "AA pattern" or "Esoteric Twist" require more implementation effort but sustain significantly better performance than non-naive straight forward implementations.

  4. The efficiency study of different purification methods for liquid scintillator

    Hu, Wei; Yu, Boxiang; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    JUNO is an experiment aimed at detecting neutrino mass hierarchy. The innermost part of the JUNO detector is formed by 20,000 tons of liquid scintillator which should have very low level of radioactive materials, such as 238U, 232Th, and 40K. Since the radioactive level of raw LAB(the solvent of LS)cannot reach so stringent requirements of JUNO, the purification for LAB plays an extremely important role in LS production. This article studies the efficiency of several different purification methods for LS, like distillation, water extraction and Al2O3 purification.

  5. Essential self-adjointness of translation-invariant quantum field models for arbitrary coupling constants

    The Hamiltonian of a system of quantum particles minimally coupled to a quantum field is considered for arbitrary coupling constants. The Hamiltonian has a translation invariant part. By means of functional integral representations the existence of an invariant domain under the action of the heat semigroup generated by a self-adjoint extension of the translation invariant part is shown. With a non-perturbative approach it is proved that the Hamiltonian is essentially self-adjoint on a domain. A typical example is the Pauli-Fierz model with spin 1/2 in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics for arbitrary coupling constants. (orig.)

  6. Bounds on variation of spectral subspaces under J-self-adjoint perturbations

    Albeverio, S.; Motovilov, A. K.; Shkalikov, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Let $A$ be a self-adjoint operator on a Hilbert space $\\fH$. Assume that the spectrum of $A$ consists of two disjoint components $\\sigma_0$ and $\\sigma_1$. Let $V$ be a bounded operator on $\\fH$, off-diagonal and $J$-self-adjoint with respect to the orthogonal decomposition $\\fH=\\fH_0\\oplus\\fH_1$ where $\\fH_0$ and $\\fH_1$ are the spectral subspaces of $A$ associated with the spectral sets $\\sigma_0$ and $\\sigma_1$, respectively. We find (optimal) conditions on $V$ guaranteeing that the pertur...

  7. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    MR Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.

  8. A method of clustering observers with different visual characteristics

    Evaluation of observer's image perception in medical images is important, and yet has not been performed because it is difficult to quantify visual characteristics. In the present study, we investigated the observer's image perception by clustering a group of 20 observers. Images of a contrast-detail (C-D) phantom, which had cylinders of 10 rows and 10 columns with different diameters and lengths, were acquired with an X-ray screen-film system with fixed exposure conditions. A group of 10 films were prepared for visual evaluations. Sixteen radiological technicians, three radiologists and one medical physicist participated in the observation test. All observers read the phantom radiographs on a transillumination image viewer with room lights off. The detectability was defined as the shortest length of the cylinders of which border the observers could recognize from the background, and was recorded using the number of columns. The detectability was calculated as the average of 10 readings for each observer, and plotted for different phantom diameter. The unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was adopted for clustering. The observers were clustered into two groups: one group selected objects with a demarcation from the vicinity, and the other group searched for the objects with their eyes constrained. This study showed a usefulness of the cluster method to select personnel with the similar perceptual predisposition when a C-D phantom was used in image quality control

  9. Difference methods for stiff delay differential equations. [DDESUB, in FORTRAN

    Roth, Mitchell G.

    1980-12-01

    Delay differential equations of the form y'(t) = f(y(t), z(t)), where z(t) = (y/sub 1/(..cap alpha../sub 1/(y(t))),..., y/sub n/(..cap alpha../sub n/(y(t))))/sup T/ and ..cap alpha../sub i/(y(t)) less than or equal to t, arise in many scientific and engineering fields when transport lags and propagation times are physically significant in a dynamic process. Difference methods for approximating the solution of stiff delay systems require special stability properties that are generalizations of those employed for stiff ordinary differential equations. By use of the model equation y'(t) = py(t) + qy(t-1), with complex p and q, the definitions of A-stability, A( )-stability, and stiff stability have been generalize to delay equations. For linear multistep difference formulas, these properties extend directly from ordinary to delay equations. This straight forward extension is not true for implicit Runge-Kutta methods, as illustrated by the midpoint formula, which is A-stable for ordinary equations, but not for delay equations. A computer code for stiff delay equations was developed using the BDF. 24 figures, 5 tables.

  10. SIMULATION OF POLLUTANTS IN RIVER SYSTEMS USING FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD

    ZAHEER Iqbal; CUI Guang Bai

    2002-01-01

    This paper using finite difference scheme for the numerical solution of advection-dispersion equation develops a one-dimensional water quality model. The model algorithm has some modification over other steady state models including QUAL2E, which have been used steady state implementation of implicit backward-difference numerical scheme. The computer program in the developed model contains a special unsteady state implementation of four point implicit upwind numerical schemes using double sweep method. The superiority of this method in the modeling procedure results the simulation efficacy under simplified conditions of effluent discharge from point and non-point sources. The model is helpful for eye view assessment of degree of interaction between model variables for strategic planning purposes. The model has been applied for the water quality simulation of the Hanjiang River basin using flow computation model. Model simulation results have shown the pollutants prediction, dispersion and impact on the existing water quality.Model test shows the model validity comparing with other sophisticated models. Sensitivity analysis was performed to overview the most sensitive parameters followed by calibration and verification process.

  11. The Different Methods of Displacement Monitoring at Loading Tests of Bridges or Different Structures

    Kovačič Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By measuring the displacements and deformations at different structures we deal in the Faculty of Civil Engineering, transportation Engineering and Architecture in University of Maribor for about 20 years. At that time we measured over 600 structures. Most loading tests of bridges and Viaducts were made. The measurements of movements needed to be as precise and accurate as possible. To do that laboratory test of instruments were made to see which instrument gives us reliable results. Displacements can be determined by geodetic and physical methods, depends of the construction. The use of geodetic methods are still preferable. In the paper the measurements with the total station, the level and rotation level, photogrammetry and solutions on the field by physical methods with inductive transducers are presented. We need to measure displacements as quick as possible but efficiently because we can not repeat the measurements under the same conditions. Also the surveying on the bridge and in the lab with the comparison of methods is presented under the different hard terrain conditions - water beneath the construction, big height of the structure, unapproachability, large span structures.

  12. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local authorities measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m3 in 54 (54) single-family houses and 7 (7) flats, between 210 Bq/m3 and 400 Bq/m3 in 23 (18) single-family houses and 5 (6) flats, and higher than 400 Bq/m3 in 12 (18) single-family houses and 2 (1) flats. The study 1991 showed also that in about 40 % of the cases the radon concentration had increased by more than 30 % only a few years after reduction actions had been taken. In 19 dwellings the radon concentration was at least doubled. In no fewer than 38 dwellings the radon level has been over 400 Bq/m3 in at least one of the four measuring occasions. The change in radon concentrations was not specific to any given method but seemed to be evenly distributed over all of them. The investigation results showed the necessity for repeated measuring where counter measures have been taken. The causes for increasing radon levels have been made clear in all except 2-3 cases

  13. CHC program for calculation of the adjoint neutron cross sections on the basis of evaluated neutron data of the ENDF/B

    The features and the algorithm of the program to calculate adjoint neutron cross sections on the basis of the continuous energy neutron cross sections as well as energy and angular distributions are described. The calculated adjoint cross sections are intended for Monte Carlo investigation of the nonuniform adjoint Boltzmann equation. 16 refs

  14. Assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis: Variability of different methods

    Troelsen, Anders; Elmengaard, Brian; Soeballe, Kjeld (Orthopedic Research Unit, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)), e-mail: a_troelsen@hotmail.com; Roemer, Lone (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Kring, Soeren (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Aabenraa Hospital, Aabenraa (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Reliable assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis is crucial in young adults who may benefit from joint-preserving surgery. Purpose: To investigate the variability of different methods for diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Material and Methods: By each of four observers, two assessments were done by vision and two by angle construction. For both methods, the intra- and interobserver variability of center-edge and acetabular index angle assessment were analyzed. The observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis were assessed. All measures were compared to those made on computed tomography scan. Results: Intra- and interobserver variability of angle assessment was less when angles were drawn compared with assessment by vision, and the observers' ability to diagnose hip dysplasia improved when angles were drawn. Assessment of osteoarthritis in general showed poor agreement with findings on computed tomography scan. Conclusion: We recommend that angles always should be drawn for assessment of hip dysplasia on pelvic radiographs. Given the inherent variability of diagnostic assessment of hip dysplasia, a computed tomography scan could be considered in patients with relevant hip symptoms and a center-edge angle between 20 deg and 30 deg. Osteoarthritis should be assessed by measuring the joint space width or by classifying the Toennis grade as either 0-1 or 2-3

  15. Comparison of different methods for measuring thermal conductivities

    Two different methods for the measurement of the thermal conductivity have been applied to a glass (borosilicate) bulk sample. The first method was in the steady-state using an arrangement of gold wires on the sample to create a thermal gradient and to measure the temperatures locally. This allows one to calculate the in-plane thermal conductivity of the sample. The same wire arrangement was also used for a 3ω-measurement of the direction-independent bulk thermal conductivity. The 3ω-approach is based on periodical heating and a frequency dependent analysis of the temperature response. The results of both methods are in good agreement with each other for this isotropic material, if thermal and radiative losses are accounted for. Our results demonstrate that especially in the case of thin-film measurements, finite element analysis has to be applied to correct for heat losses due to geometry and radiation. In this fashion, the wire positions can be optimized in order to minimize measurement errors.

  16. Comparison of different methods for measuring thermal conductivities

    Hartung, D.; Gather, F.; Klar, P. J. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2012-06-26

    Two different methods for the measurement of the thermal conductivity have been applied to a glass (borosilicate) bulk sample. The first method was in the steady-state using an arrangement of gold wires on the sample to create a thermal gradient and to measure the temperatures locally. This allows one to calculate the in-plane thermal conductivity of the sample. The same wire arrangement was also used for a 3{omega}-measurement of the direction-independent bulk thermal conductivity. The 3{omega}-approach is based on periodical heating and a frequency dependent analysis of the temperature response. The results of both methods are in good agreement with each other for this isotropic material, if thermal and radiative losses are accounted for. Our results demonstrate that especially in the case of thin-film measurements, finite element analysis has to be applied to correct for heat losses due to geometry and radiation. In this fashion, the wire positions can be optimized in order to minimize measurement errors.

  17. Comparison of different surface quantitative analysis methods. Application to corium

    In case of a severe hypothetical accident in a pressurized water reactor, the reactor assembly melts partially or completely. The material formed, called corium, flows out and spreads at the bottom of the reactor. To limit and control the consequences of such an accident, the specifications of the O-U-Zr basic system must be known accurately. To achieve this goal, the corium mix was melted by electron bombardment at very high temperature (3000 K) followed by quenching of the ingot in the Isabel 1 evaporator. Metallographic analyses were then required to validate the thermodynamic databases set by the Thermo-Calc software. The study consists in defining an overall surface quantitative analysis method that is fast and reliable, in order to determine the overall corium composition. The analyzed ingot originated in a [U+Fe+Y+UO2+ZrO2) mix, with a total mass of 2253.7 grams. Several successive heating with average power were performed before a very brief plateau at very high temperature, so that the ingot was formed progressively and without any evaporation liable to modify its initial composition. The central zone of the ingot was then analyzed by qualitative and quantitative global surface methods, to yield the volume composition of the analyzed zone. Corium sample analysis happens to be very complex because of the variety and number of elements present, and also because of the presence of oxygen in a heavy element like the uranium based matrix. Three different global quantitative surface analysis methods were used: global EDS analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), with SEM, global WDS analysis (Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry) with EPMA, and coupling of image analysis with EDS or WDS point spectroscopic analyses. The difficulties encountered during the study arose from sample preparation (corium is very sensitive to oxidation), and the choice of acquisition parameters of the images and analyses. The corium sample studied consisted of two zones displaying very

  18. A finite-difference contrast source inversion method

    Abubakar, A.; Hu, W.; van den Berg, P. M.; Habashy, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present a contrast source inversion (CSI) algorithm using a finite-difference (FD) approach as its backbone for reconstructing the unknown material properties of inhomogeneous objects embedded in a known inhomogeneous background medium. Unlike the CSI method using the integral equation (IE) approach, the FD-CSI method can readily employ an arbitrary inhomogeneous medium as its background. The ability to use an inhomogeneous background medium has made this algorithm very suitable to be used in through-wall imaging and time-lapse inversion applications. Similar to the IE-CSI algorithm the unknown contrast sources and contrast function are updated alternately to reconstruct the unknown objects without requiring the solution of the full forward problem at each iteration step in the optimization process. The FD solver is formulated in the frequency domain and it is equipped with a perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary condition. The FD operator used in the FD-CSI method is only dependent on the background medium and the frequency of operation, thus it does not change throughout the inversion process. Therefore, at least for the two-dimensional (2D) configurations, where the size of the stiffness matrix is manageable, the FD stiffness matrix can be inverted using a non-iterative inversion matrix approach such as a Gauss elimination method for the sparse matrix. In this case, an LU decomposition needs to be done only once and can then be reused for multiple source positions and in successive iterations of the inversion. Numerical experiments show that this FD-CSI algorithm has an excellent performance for inverting inhomogeneous objects embedded in an inhomogeneous background medium.

  19. Estimation of water percolation by different methods using TDR

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge on water percolation into the soil in irrigated areas is fundamental for solving problems of drainage, pollution and the recharge of underground aquifers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percolation estimated by time-domain-reflectometry (TDR in a drainage lysimeter. We used Darcy's law with K(θ functions determined by field and laboratory methods and by the change in water storage in the soil profile at 16 points of moisture measurement at different time intervals. A sandy clay soil was saturated and covered with plastic sheet to prevent evaporation and an internal drainage trial in a drainage lysimeter was installed. The relationship between the observed and estimated percolation values was evaluated by linear regression analysis. The results suggest that percolation in the field or laboratory can be estimated based on continuous monitoring with TDR, and at short time intervals, of the variations in soil water storage. The precision and accuracy of this approach are similar to those of the lysimeter and it has advantages over the other evaluated methods, of which the most relevant are the possibility of estimating percolation in short time intervals and exemption from the predetermination of soil hydraulic properties such as water retention and hydraulic conductivity. The estimates obtained by the Darcy-Buckingham equation for percolation levels using function K(θ predicted by the method of Hillel et al. (1972 provided compatible water percolation estimates with those obtained in the lysimeter at time intervals greater than 1 h. The methods of Libardi et al. (1980, Sisson et al. (1980 and van Genuchten (1980 underestimated water percolation.

  20. PURE CULTURE METHOD: GIARDIA LAMBLIA FROM DIFFERENT STOOL SAMPLES

    H.A YOUSEFI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Giardiasis is one of the health problems in the world including Iran. To determine the biochemical and biological problems and also identification of various strains, it is essential to obtain pure culture and then mass production of Giardia lamblia. The goal of this study was to isolate this protozoa purely.
    Methods. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from 50 stool samples by use of floating of a four - layer of sucrose method. The cysts were transfered to an inducing solution. Subsequently, they were cultured in a modified culture medium (TYIS-33. Following excystation of trophozoite and its multiplication, the parasite was caltured and purified.
    Findings. Excitation of trophozoite was observed in 40 samples (80 percent from which 22 samples (55 percent yielded pure culture. The doubling time was approximately 13hr and the peak of parasite was observed between third and fourth days.
    Conclusion. The proliferation and growth rate of Giardia lamblia have enabled us to use this method widely. Cystein and ascorbic acid which are present in the induction solution, have a key role in excystation of trophozoite. Purification and passage of samples has facilitated the culture of this parasite in vitro. Therefore this method has yielded better results in comparison with other studies. This is probably due to a decrease in the amount of bovine bile or using different strains of Giardia lamblia in the present study.

  1. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  2. Deciphering Jupiter's complex flow dynamics using the upcoming Juno gravity measurements and an adjoint based dynamical model

    Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai

    2015-11-01

    , the flexibility of the adjoint method allows for a wide range of dynamical setups, so that when new observations and physical understanding will arise, these constraints could be easily implemented and used to better decipher Jupiter flow dynamics.

  3. Corrected diamond difference method for coupling from the method of characteristics to discrete ordinates

    A new SN formulation has been developed which is effective at preserving the behavior of a coupled fine-mesh transport solver on a coarse, pin homogenized Cartesian mesh. The method uses angle- and energy-dependent correction factors and a modified formulation for the diamond difference equations, called corrected diamond difference (CDD). An extension of the CDD method from previous work includes a new cross section correction step. It is shown that the new CDD approach is equivalent in two-dimensional problems in theory and practice. The CDD method is then applied to several three-dimensional benchmark cases using one-way 2-D/3-D coupling, and is shown to provide more accurate results as compared to the previous CDD formulation and diamond difference alone. (author)

  4. Wavelet Transform based Medical Image Fusion With different fusion methods

    Anjali Patil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes wavelet transform based image fusion algorithm, after studying the principles and characteristics of the discrete wavelet transform. Medical image fusion used to derive useful information from multimodality medical images. The idea is to improve the image content by fusing images like computer tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images, so as to provide more information to the doctor and clinical treatment planning system. This paper based on the wavelet transformation to fused the medical images. The wavelet based fusion algorithms used on medical images CT and MRI, This involve the fusion with MIN , MAX, MEAN method. Also the result is obtained. With more available multimodality medical images in clinical applications, the idea of combining images from different modalities become very important and medical image fusion has emerged as a new promising research field

  5. Removing efficiency of radon from water by different methods

    In this contribution problem of radon removing from water samples by different methods was tested. Lowest efficiency of deemanation was achieved at tossing of water from one vessel into the other. For increasing of efficiency deemanation of radon use of needle-bath principle was also used. Low efficiency deemanation was found at trapping of radon from sample of water by toluene (83 ± 5) %, too. Reversal highest efficiency deemanation of radon from water was reached at aerating by argon (95 ± 6)%. It is shown, that reduction of volume activity of radon in water under 0.1 Bq/dml-3 is big problem. Suppression of this limit will claim use of more completion and sophistic approaches. (author)

  6. Learning and retention of quantum concepts with different teaching methods

    Carl Wieman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning and on long-term retention. The cohort of students who had a very highly rated traditional lecturer scored 19% lower than the equivalent cohort that was taught using interactive engagement methods. However, the amount of retention was very high for both cohorts, showing only a few percent decrease in scores when retested 6 and 18 months after completion of the course and with no exposure to the material in the interim period. This high level of retention is in striking contrast to the retention measured for more factual learning from university courses and argues for the value of emphasizing conceptual learning.

  7. A parallel finite-difference method for computational aerodynamics

    A finite-difference scheme for solving complex three-dimensional aerodynamic flow on parallel-processing supercomputers is presented. The method consists of a basic flow solver with multigrid convergence acceleration, embedded grid refinements, and a zonal equation scheme. Multitasking and vectorization have been incorporated into the algorithm. Results obtained include multiprocessed flow simulations from the Cray X-MP and Cray-2. Speedups as high as 3.3 for the two-dimensional case and 3.5 for segments of the three-dimensional case have been achieved on the Cray-2. The entire solver attained a factor of 2.7 improvement over its unitasked version on the Cray-2. The performance of the parallel algorithm on each machine is analyzed. 14 refs

  8. Application of real, adjoint and bilinear weighting for collapsing group constants used in space neutron diffusion problems

    Conventional collapsing for group cross sections used in multigroup nuclear reactor calculations is usually performed using normal (real; direct) flux weighting. The application of more advanced collapsing procedures using in an appropriate manner real, adjoint and bilinear weighting was in the past restricted in general to fundamental mode problems. Although the principles have been published for more than ten years, there seems to exist little recent experience on the merits and possible difficulties of these improved procedures for multidimensional diffusion problems for practical purposes, e.g. in the nuclear design and analysis of large Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). The present work indicates the nature of the problems which could possibly be encountered in applying these procedures by tracing them back to the known close correspondence between group collapsing and synthesis methods. It tries to explain certain somewhat unusual features of the collapsed group constants obtained by adjoint and bilinear weighting and describes the experience gained in representative 1-dim. and 2-dim. test cases. It could be shown for criticality and perturbation calculations that in general it is advantageous to apply these improved collapsing methods if the necessary precautions are taken. Compared to the conventional collapsing procedures these improved procedures are especially useful for multidimensional problems because their application is well suited for that purpose. In the present study it could be proven that they are favorable with respect to computer time and storage needed due to the fact that the necessary number of coarse groups can be kept fairly small without deteriorating too much the accuracy and reliability of the coarse group results compared to reference results of corresponding fine group calculations with uncollapsed group constants. (orig.)

  9. Comparison between staggered grid finite difference method and stochastic method in simulating strong ground motions

    WANG Man-sheng; JIANG Hui; HU Yu-xian

    2005-01-01

    Strong ground motion of an earthquake is simulated by using both staggered grid finite difference method (FDM)and stochastic method, respectively. The acceleration time histories obtained from the both ways and their response spectra are compared. The result demonstrates that the former is adequate to simulate the low-frequency seismic wave; the latter is adequate to simulate the high-frequency seismic wave. Moreover, the result obtained from FDM can better reflect basin effects.

  10. Dynamic ultimate load analysis using a finite difference method

    The method of numerical integration is explained on a one-degree-of-freedom system. A generalization to systems with several degrees of freedom is given. The conditions for numerical stability and for getting a sufficient approximation to the exact solution of the differential equations are dealt with. Not only a time discretization but also a geometric discretization is necessary. This may be anticipated by a lumped-mass dynamic model, or, with continuous bodies, it could be performed, e.g., by a mesh pattern of finite coordinate differences. Examples are given for the numerical treatment especially of beams and plates. Starting from the corresponding differential equations describing a process of wave propagation, the rotational inertia of single beam or plate elements as well as the transverse shear deformations are included. By this numerical method of dynamic analysis suitable for computer programming, point-by-point time-history solutions are obtained for deterministic excitations and for material properties, both varying arbitrarily with time and space. Applications for practical dynamic problems of nuclear structural design taking into account a defined material ductility are discussed. (orig./HP)

  11. Fracture analysis of selected magnesium alloys after different testing methods

    L. Cížek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to extend a complex evaluation of magnesium alloys which requires very often knowledge mechanical properties. These properties are connected with microstructure that is influenced by metallurgical and technological factors and conditions of exploitation. Very important information for design and exploitation of these alloys is knowledge of fracture characteristics.Design/methodology/approach: Testing methods used magnesium alloys were based on tensile test and torsion test. The methods of the light microscopy and SEM for metallographic and fracture analyses of alloys after testing were used.Findings: Objective of this work consisted in determination of changes of mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of magnesium alloy in dependence on testing methods. Mg-Al alloy with graduate aluminium content as cast state and after heat treatment was used. It was confirmed that during heating at chosen temperatures there occurs partial dissolution of minority phases.Research limitations/implications: According to the alloys characteristic, the applied cooling rate and alloy additions seems to be a good compromise for mechanical properties and microstructures, nevertheless further tests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates and parameters of solution treatment process and aging process.Practical implications: The results may be utilized for a relation between plastic and strength properties of the investigated material in process of research and manufacturingOriginality/value: These results contribute to complex evaluation of properties magnesium alloys namely for explanation of fracture mechanism in changing condition of testing and exploitation. The results of this paper are determined for research workers deal by development new exploitations of magnesium alloys.

  12. Thermal properties of flax fiber scoured by different methods

    Zheng Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of flax roves untreated and treated were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravity analyzer (TGA in order to understand their thermal behavior in more detail and to evaluate the effect of scouring processing on the thermal behavior. Flax roves were treated with six kinds of methods including biological scouring, one bath, two bath, bleaching, alkali scouring and industry chemical scouring as standards. Results showed that all treatments improved thermal stability of flax roves. The results indicated that glass transition temperature (Tg decreased after scouring besides the sample by directly bleaching. It is more difficult to determine the endothermic peak of flax treated by chemical scouring in industry because it takes a very flat course. A distinct endothermic peak was observed for the untreated flax rove, while a distinct exothermic peak in different temperature interval was revealed for other four treated flax rove samples. For TGA analysis, thermal degradation of flax roves studied consists of three regions of the initial, main, and char decomposition, and the third stage consists of secondary weight loss and carbonization for flax roves with biological scouring, one-bath and two-bath. Besides, different residue left indicates that the bio-scoured flax roves are lost with volatile products and does not contribute to char formation. These results provide valuable preferences for mechanism and top value added application of bio-scouring in flax roves.

  13. A generalized adjoint framework for sensitivity and global error estimation in time-dependent nuclear reactor simulations

    Highlights: ► We develop an abstract framework for computing the adjoint to the neutron/nuclide burnup equations posed as a system of differential algebraic equations. ► We validate use of the adjoint for computing both sensitivity to uncertain inputs and for estimating global time discretization error. ► Flexibility of the framework is leveraged to add heat transfer physics and compute its adjoint without a reformulation of the adjoint system. ► Such flexibility is crucial for high performance computing applications. -- Abstract: We develop a general framework for computing the adjoint variable to nuclear engineering problems governed by a set of differential–algebraic equations (DAEs). The nuclear engineering community has a rich history of developing and applying adjoints for sensitivity calculations; many such formulations, however, are specific to a certain set of equations, variables, or solution techniques. Any change or addition to the physics model would require a reformulation of the adjoint problem and substantial difficulties in its software implementation. In this work we propose an abstract framework that allows for the modification and expansion of the governing equations, leverages the existing theory of adjoint formulation for DAEs, and results in adjoint equations that can be used to efficiently compute sensitivities for parametric uncertainty quantification. Moreover, as we justify theoretically and demonstrate numerically, the same framework can be used to estimate global time discretization error. We first motivate the framework and show that the coupled Bateman and transport equations, which govern the time-dependent neutronic behavior of a nuclear reactor, may be formulated as a DAE system with a power constraint. We then use a variational approach to develop the parameter-dependent adjoint framework and apply existing theory to give formulations for sensitivity and global time discretization error estimates using the adjoint

  14. Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition.

    Shiwakoti, Santosh; Poudyal, Shital; Saleh, Osama; Astatkie, Tess; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D

    2016-06-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant; its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and they contain essential oils. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0 - 2, 2 - 7, 7 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 45, 45 - 75, 75 - 105, and 105 - 135 min). Additionally, a non-stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non-stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77 - 19% of the total oil) and carvone (20 - 79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72 - 0.16%), trans-carveol (0.07 - 0.39%), and β-caryophyllene (0.07 - 0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil. PMID:27119969

  15. Repairability of Compomers with Different Methods of Surface Conditioning

    P.Samimi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering the cost and amount of time and also the quantity of tooth loss in the process of cavity preparation, repair of the restoration instead of itsreplacement would be much more efficient.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different methods of surface conditioning on the shear bond strength of repaired compomers.Materials and Methods: Sixty blocks of compomer were prepared in acrylic molds and then they were randomly divided into five groups of 12. Group I (control groupreceived no treatment. The remaining samples were immersed in 37 ºC distilled water for one week, then the surfaces were roughened with a coarse diamond bur. Samples ineach group were prepared by different surface treatment and conditioning: In group II specimens were conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid for 20s. Specimens in group III were etched with 10% polyacrylic acid for 20s. In group IV 1.23% acidulated phosphatefluoride was applied for 30s, and compomer surfaces were sandblasted with 50μm Al2O3 powder in group V. After the initial preparations, all groups were treated with silane and resin before bonding of the second mix of compomer. Shear forces were applied with a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 5mm/min. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests.Results: The mean shear bond strengths and standard deviations (in parentheses for groups I to V were 31.56(10.86, 20.02(5.49, 17.74(7.34, 19.31(4.31 and 27.7(6.33MPa, respectively. The mean bond strengths for Groups I and V were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.05.Conclusion: The results showed that among the surface treatments used in this study,sandblasting with alumina could be the best surface preparation method for repairing compomer restorations.

  16. Feynman's Operational Calculi: Spectral Theory for Noncommuting Self-adjoint Operators

    Jefferies, Brian [University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics (Australia)], E-mail: b.jefferies@unsw.edu.au; Johnson, Gerald W. [333 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: gjohnson@math.unl.edu; Nielsen, Lance [Creighton University, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: lnielsen@creighton.edu

    2007-02-15

    The spectral theorem for commuting self-adjoint operators along with the associated functional (or operational) calculus is among the most useful and beautiful results of analysis. It is well known that forming a functional calculus for noncommuting self-adjoint operators is far more problematic. The central result of this paper establishes a rich functional calculus for any finite number of noncommuting (i.e. not necessarily commuting) bounded, self-adjoint operators A{sub 1},..., A{sub n} and associated continuous Borel probability measures {mu}{sub 1}, ?, {mu}{sub n} on [0,1]. Fix A{sub 1},..., A{sub n}. Then each choice of an n-tuple ({mu}{sub 1},...,{mu}{sub n}) of measures determines one of Feynman's operational calculi acting on a certain Banach algebra of analytic functions even when A{sub 1}, ..., A{sub n} are just bounded linear operators on a Banach space. The Hilbert space setting along with self-adjointness allows us to extend the operational calculi well beyond the analytic functions. Using results and ideas drawn largely from the proof of our main theorem, we also establish a family of Trotter product type formulas suitable for Feynman's operational calculi.

  17. Application of non-self-adjoint operators for description of electronic excitations in metallic lithium

    Popov, A. V., E-mail: Popov.Barnaul@mail.ru [Polzunov Altai State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Metallic lithium is used to demonstrate the possibilities of applying non-self-adjoint operators for quantitative description of orbital excitations of electrons in crystals. It is shown that, the nonequilibrium distribution function can be calculated when solving the spectral problem; therefore, the kinetic properties of a material can also be described with the unified band theory.

  18. Möbius invariant BFKL equation for the adjoint representation in N=4 SUSY

    Fadin, V.S., E-mail: fadin@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of SD RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Fiore, R., E-mail: roberto.fiore@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Lipatov, L.N., E-mail: lipatov@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute and St. Petersburg State University, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Papa, A., E-mail: alessandro.papa@cs.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2013-09-01

    It is shown that in the next-to-leading approximation of N=4 SUSY the BFKL equation for two-gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group can be reduced to a form which is invariant under Möbius transformation in the momentum space. The corresponding similarity transformation of its integral kernel is constructed in an explicit way.

  19. On a class of non-self-adjoint periodic boundary value problems with discrete real spectrum

    Boulton, Lyonell; Levitin, Michael; Marletta, Marco

    2010-01-01

    In [arXiv:0801.0172] we examined a family of periodic Sturm-Liouville problems with boundary and interior singularities which are highly non-self-adjoint but have only real eigenvalues. We now establish Schatten class properties of the associated resolvent operator.

  20. Theory of Loops and Strings with Matter in the Adjoint Representation

    Maharana, Jnanadeva; Singh, Lambodhar P.

    1994-01-01

    We have presented canonical and path integral formulations of a theory of loops and closed strings with the matter field quanta transforming in the adjoint representation of the SU(N) gauge group. The physical processes arising out of the interactions of loops and closed strings are discussed.

  1. Adjoint sensitivity in PDE constrained least squares problems as a multiphysics problem

    Lahaye, D.; Mulckhuyse, W.F.W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for the implementation of an adjoint sensitivity formulation for least-squares partial differential equations constrained optimization problems exploiting a multiphysics finite elements package. The estimation of the diffusion coefficient

  2. Brane Configurations for Nonsupersymmetric Meta-Stable Vacua in SQCD with Adjoint Matter

    Ahn, C

    2006-01-01

    We present the configurations of intersecting branes in type IIA string theory corresponding to the meta-stable supersymmetry breaking vacua(hep-th/0608063) in the four-dimensional N}=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory coupled massive flavors with adjoint matter where the superpotential has three deformed terms.

  3. USING SESSION RPE TO MONITOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Alison D. Egan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare session rating of perceived exertion for different resistance training techniques in the squat exercise. These techniques included traditional resistance training, super slow, and maximal power training. Fourteen college-age women (Mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 years; height = 1.68 ± 0. 07 m completed three experimental trials in a randomized crossover design. The traditional resistance training protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squats using 80% of 1-RM. The super slow protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 55% of 1-RM. The maximal power protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 30% of 1-RM. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE measures were obtained following each set using Borg's CR-10 scale. In addition, a session RPE value was obtained 30 minutes following each exercise session. When comparing average RPE and session RPE, no significant difference was found. However, power training had significantly lower (p < 0.05 average and session RPE (4.50 ± 1.9 and 4.5 ± 2.1 compared to both super slow training (7.81 ± 1.75 and 7.43 ± 1.73 and traditional training (7.33 ± 1.52 and 7.13 ± 1.73. The results indicate that session RPE values are not significantly different from the more traditional methods of measuring RPE during exercise bouts. It does appear that the resistance training mode that is used results in differences in perceived exertion that does not relate directly to the loading that is used. Using session RPE provides practitioners with the same information about perceived exertion as the traditional RPE measures. Taking a single measure following a training session would appear to be much easier than using multiple measures of RPE throughout a resistance training workout. However, practitioners should also be aware that the RPE does not directly relate to the relative intensity used and appears to be dependent on the mode of resistance exercise that is used

  4. Different Methods for Prostate Biopsy and Biopsy Protocols

    Mahyar Ghafoori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate carcinoma is one of the most common"nmalignancies among men. Increasing mortality rates due"nto prostate carcinoma have been observed worldwide."nThis disease usually progresses imperceptibly, for this"nreason; screening programs aimed at early detection"nhave been developed. The prostate specific antigen"n(PSA test is among the best screening tools available"nin medicine today because it is recognized as the best"nmarker for its early detection."nIn case of abnormal rise in PSA, the patient usually"nrefers for prostate biopsy under the guide of trans"nrectal ultrasonography (TRUS. Different methods are"nrecognized for prostate biopsy that may be divided"ninto two main categories namely, systematic biopsy"nand targeted biopsy."nIn systematic biopsy we divide the prostate gland"nrandomly to different sections and obtain biopsy"nspecimens from each section.The protocol of systematic biopsy is different among"ndifferent institutions. The number of biopsy specimens"ncould be started from less than 6 to more than 20"nbiopsies in some institutions. Increasing the number"nof biopsy specimens increases the detection rate for"nprostate cancer increasing the complications such"nas post biopsy prostatitis and septicemia, which are"nthe most important, as well. In scheduling a biopsy"nprotocol with high number of biopsies it is preferred"nto hospitalize the patient and prescribe intravenous"nantibiotics."nTargeted biopsy of the prostate means obtaining biopsy"nspecimens from a pathologic lesion that is suspicious"nfor prostate cancer. Different modalities could be"nused for detecting prostate cancer within the prostate"ngland. Transrectal ultrasonography, ultrasonography"nwith the use of ultrasound contrast agents, MRI of the"nprostate with the use of endorectal coil, dynamic MR"nstudy with contrast agent, diffusion weighted imaging"nof the prostate and MR spectroscopy all could help"nin the detection of a suspicious tumoral mass in the

  5. Comparison of different methods of temperature measurement in children

    Pavlović Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The consequences of failing to notice fever in children can be serious. On the other hand, false positive reading can result in unnecessary investigation or diagnostic approach. The aim of this study was to compare different ways of body temperature measurement. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out on Pediatric Department of General Hospital in Subotica during 10 months (March-December 2006. In 263 children aged 1 month to 18 years of age, the body temperature was obtained from 4 measurement sites: tactile assessment, forehead and ear by electronic thermometer, rectal temperature in small children (up to 2 years of age or axillar temperature in older children by mercury thermometer. Tympanic thermometry was considered as a standard for fever detection. Results The sensitivity of rectal temperature to detect fever is 46.67%, while specificity is 92.19%. The sensitivity of fever detection by electronic thermometry on the forehead is lower according to rectal thermometry - 36.08%, while specificity is 95.18%. The lowest values of sensitivity are recorded in axillar thermometry (35.82%, specificity is 90.20%. The correlation coefficient is higher between tympanic and rectal temperature measurement (r=0.5076, p<0.0005, than between tympanic and forehead measurements (r=0.5076, p<0,0005, while the lowest was between tympanic and axillar measurement sites (r=0.4933, p<0.0005. Conclusions The results of our study and literature data show that the most accurate methods of thermometry are rectal measurement of body temperature in small children and tympanic thermometry in children over 2 years of age.

  6. Tunnels: different construction methods and its use for pipelines installation

    Mattos, Tales; Soares, Ana Cecilia; Assis, Slow de; Bolsonaro, Ralfo; Sanandres, Simon [Petroleo do Brasil S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In a continental dimensions country like Brazil, the pipeline modal faces the challenge of opening ROW's in the most different kind of soils with the most different geomorphology. To safely fulfill the pipeline construction demand, the ROW opening uses all techniques in earthworks and route definition and, where is necessary, no digging techniques like horizontal directional drilling, micro tunneling and also full size tunnels design for pipelines installation in high topography terrains to avoid geotechnical risks. PETROBRAS has already used the tunnel technique to cross higher terrains with great construction difficult, and mainly to make it pipeline maintenance and operation easier. For the GASBOL Project, in Aparados da Serra region and in GASYRG, in Bolivia, two tunnels were opened with approximately 700 meters and 2,000 meters each one. The GASBOL Project had the particularity of being a gallery with only one excavation face, finishing under the hill and from this point was drilled a vertical shaft was drilled until the top to install the pipeline section, while in GASYRG Project the tunnel had two excavation faces. Currently, two projects are under development with tunnels, one of then is the Caraguatatuba-Taubate gas pipeline (GASTAU), with a 5 km tunnel, with the same concepts of the GASBOL tunnel, with a gallery to be opened with the use of a TBM (Tunneling Boring Machine), and a shaft to the surface, and the gas pipeline Cabiunas-Reduc III (GASDUC III) project is under construction with a 3.7 km tunnel, like the GASYRG tunnel with two faces. This paper presents the main excavation tunneling methods, conventional and mechanized, presenting the most relevant characteristics from both and, in particular, the use of tunnels for pipelines installation. (author)

  7. New Retrieval Method Based on Relative Entropy for Language Modeling with Different Smoothing Methods

    Huo Hua; Liu Junqiang; Feng Boqin

    2006-01-01

    A language model for information retrieval is built by using a query language model to generate queries and a document language model to generate documents. The documents are ranked according to the relative entropies of estimated document language models with respect to the estimated query language model. Two popular and relatively efficient smoothing methods, the JelinekMercer method and the absolute discounting method, are used to smooth the document language model in estimation of the document language. A combined model composed of the feedback document language model and the collection language model is used to estimate the query model. A performacne comparison between the new retrieval method and the existing method with feedback is made,and the retrieval performances of the proposed method with the two different smoothing techniques are evaluated on three Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data sets. Experimental results show that the method is effective and performs better than the basic language modeling approach; moreover, the method using the Jelinek-Mercer technique performs better than that using the absolute discounting technique, and the perfomance is sensitive to the smoothing paramters.

  8. Fabrication of zirconia toughened alumina ceramics by different sintering methods

    A zirconia/alumina composition of 15 wt% ZrO2/85 wt% Al2O3 was fabricated from a powder mixture by uni-axial and cold isostatic pressing (CIPing). The uni-axially pressed powder compacts were hot pressed at 1600 deg C in a graphite die in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere. The CIPed pellets were sintered in air at 1600 deg C. Some of these pellets were hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) in a graphite furnace in an argon atmosphere at 100 MPa at 1500 deg C and 1600 deg C. The green CIPed pellets were sintered and HIPed (sinter/HIPed) in the same cycle by sintering at 1600 deg C followed by HIPing at the same temperature. The sinter + HIPed (1500 deg C) pellet had the highest relative density (>99%) with an open porosity of almost zero. It also had the lowest closed porosity. All the pellets had a relative density of > 98%, but the sintered pellets had the highest total porosity. The microstructure of the pellets examined by scanning electron microscopy confirmed these observations and also showed the zirconia phase was evenly distributed. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the pellets to contain tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia except for the sinter/HIPed pellet which contained monoclinic zirconia. The different sintering methods have given a greater understanding for microsturctural control and processing of zirconia toughened alumina. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  10. Aerosol Health Impact Source Attribution Studies with the CMAQ Adjoint Air Quality Model

    Turner, M. D.

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant consisting of a mixture of solid and liquid particles suspended in the atmosphere. Knowledge of the sources and distributions of PM2.5 is important for many reasons, two of which are that PM2.5 has an adverse effect on human health and also an effect on climate change. Recent studies have suggested that health benefits resulting from a unit decrease in black carbon (BC) are four to nine times larger than benefits resulting from an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. The goal of this thesis is to quantify the role of emissions from different sectors and different locations in governing the total health impacts, risk, and maximum individual risk of exposure to BC both nationally and regionally in the US. We develop and use the CMAQ adjoint model to quantify the role of emissions from all modeled sectors, times, and locations on premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC. From a national analysis, we find that damages resulting from anthropogenic emissions of BC are strongly correlated with population and premature death. However, we find little correlation between damages and emission magnitude, suggesting that controls on the largest emissions may not be the most efficient means of reducing damages resulting from BC emissions. Rather, the best proxy for locations with damaging BC emissions is locations where premature deaths occur. Onroad diesel and nonroad vehicle emissions are the largest contributors to premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC, while onroad gasoline emissions cause the highest deaths per amount emitted. Additionally, emissions in fall and winter contribute to more premature deaths (and more per amount emitted) than emissions in spring and summer. From a regional analysis, we find that emissions from outside each of six urban areas account for 7% to 27% of the premature deaths attributed to exposure to BC within the region. Within the region encompassing New York City and Philadelphia

  11. Forward and adjoint spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation using hardware accelerators

    Peter, Daniel; Videau, Brice; Pouget, Kevin; Komatitsch, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    Improving the resolution of tomographic images is crucial to answer important questions on the nature of Earth's subsurface structure and internal processes. Seismic tomography is the most prominent approach where seismic signals from ground-motion records are used to infer physical properties of internal structures such as compressional- and shear-wave speeds, anisotropy and attenuation. Recent advances in regional- and global-scale seismic inversions move towards full-waveform inversions which require accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media, providing access to the full 3D seismic wavefields. However, these numerical simulations are computationally very expensive and need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities for further improving the current state of knowledge. During recent years, many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) have been added to available large HPC systems. Such GPU-accelerated computing together with advances in multi-core central processing units (CPUs) can greatly accelerate scientific applications. There are mainly two possible choices of language support for GPU cards, the CUDA programming environment and OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted mainly by AMD graphic cards. In order to employ such hardware accelerators for seismic wave propagation simulations, we incorporated a code generation tool BOAST into an existing spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. This allows us to use meta-programming of computational kernels and generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages, running simulations on either CUDA or OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show here applications of forward and adjoint seismic wave propagation on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

  12. Adjoint-based Sensitivity Analysis for High-Energy Density Radiaitive Transfer using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    Humbird, Kelli D

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses are a vital component for predictive modeling in the sciences and engineering. The adjoint approach to sensitivity analysis requires solving a primary system of equations and a mathematically related set of adjoint equations. The information contained in the equations can be combined to produce sensitivity information in a computationally efficient manner. In this work, sensitivity analyses are performed on systems described by flux-limited radiative diffusion using the adjoint approach. The sensitivities computed are shown to agree with standard perturbation theory, and can be obtained in significantly less computational time.

  13. Generational differences of baccalaureate nursing students' preferred teaching methods and faculty use of teaching methods

    Delahoyde, Theresa

    Nursing education is experiencing a generational phenomenon with student enrollment spanning three generations. Classrooms of the 21st century include the occasional Baby Boomer and a large number of Generation X and Generation Y students. Each of these generations has its own unique set of characteristics that have been shaped by values, trends, behaviors, and events in society. These generational characteristics create vast opportunities to learn, as well as challenges. One such challenge is the use of teaching methods that are congruent with nursing student preferences. Although there is a wide range of studies conducted on student learning styles within the nursing education field, there is little research on the preferred teaching methods of nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to compare the preferred teaching methods of multi-generational baccalaureate nursing students with faculty use of teaching methods. The research study included 367 participants; 38 nursing faculty and 329 nursing students from five different colleges within the Midwest region. The results of the two-tailed t-test found four statistically significant findings between Generation X and Y students and their preferred teaching methods including; lecture, listening to the professor lecture versus working in groups; actively participating in group discussion; and the importance of participating in group assignments. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) found seventeen statistically significant findings between levels of students (freshmen/sophomores, juniors, & seniors) and their preferred teaching methods. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching method by students. Overall, the support for a variety of teaching methods was also found in the analysis of data.

  14. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    Justyna Kubicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exposed to its negative effects. Many types of waste material are a valuable source of secondary raw materials which are suitable for use by various industries. Examples of such materials are mining waste (flotation tailings, usually neutral to the environment, whose quantities produced in the process of exploitation of minerals is sizeable. The article compares different technological methods of mining waste disposal using AHP method and their environmental impact.

  15. Comparison of Urinary Total Proteins by Four Different Methods.

    Yalamati, Padma; Karra, Madhu Latha; Bhongir, Aparna V

    2016-10-01

    The total proteins in human urine have been compared by sulfosalicylic acid, sulfosalicylic acid with sodium sulphate and trichloroacetic acid methods with pyrogallol red molybdate method as there are no studies found quantifying imprecision and bias components. Fresh urine of 36 patients was analyzed by four methods. Imprecision and inaccuracy were determined by repeated analysis and method comparison studies using correlation plots, Bland and Altman, and Passing and Bablok regression analyses respectively. The coefficient of variation was 5.07 % for pyrogallol red molybdate; 6.84 % for sulfosalicylic acid; 3.97 % for sulfosalicylic acid with sodium sulphate and 5.93 % for trichloroacetic acid methods. Bland and Altman analysis showed a bias of 5.8, 1.7 and -5.4 for pyrogallol red molybdate versus sulfosalicylic acid, sulfosalicylic acid with sodium sulphate and trichloroacetic acid methods respectively. Passing and Bablok regression revealed a constant bias for pyrogallol red molybdate versus all turbidimetric methods but a proportional bias only with trichloroacetic acid method. Sulfosalicylic acid with sodium sulphate method is preferred to sulfosalicylic acid and trichloroacetic acid methods. PMID:27605745

  16. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  17. Characteristic of nanoparticles generated from different nano-powders by using different dispersion methods

    A standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train (RD), a vortex shaker (VS), and a SSPD (small-scale powder disperser) were used to investigate the emission characteristics of nano-powders, including nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2, primary diameter: 21 nm), nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO, primary diameter: 30–50 nm), and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2, primary diameter: 10–30 nm). A TSI SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer), a TSI APS (aerodynamic particle sizer), and a MSP MOUDI (micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor) were used to measure the number and mass distributions of generated particles. Significant differences in specific number and mass concentration or distributions were found among different methods and nano-powders with the most specific number and mass concentration and the smallest particles being generated by the most energetic SSPD, followed by VS and RD. Near uni-modal number or mass distributions were observed for the SSPD while bi-modal number or mass distributions existed for nano-powders except nano-SiO2 which also exhibited bimodal mass distributions. The 30-min average results showed that the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and number median diameter (NMD) of the SSPD ranged 1.1–2.1 μm and 166–261 nm, respectively, for all three nano-powders, which were smaller than those of the VS (MMAD: 3.3–6.0 μm and NMD: 156–462 nm), and the RD (MMAD: 5.2–11.2 μm and NMD: 198–479 nm). For nano-particles (electric mobility diameter < 100 nm), specific mass concentrations were nearly negligible for all three nano-powders and test methods. Specific number concentrations of nano-particles were low for the RD tester but were elevated when more energetic VS and SSPD testers were used. The quantitative size and concentration data obtained in this study is useful to elucidate the field emission and personal exposure data in the future provided that particle loss in the generation system is carefully assessed.

  18. Characteristic of nanoparticles generated from different nano-powders by using different dispersion methods

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn, E-mail: cjtsai@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Lin, Guan-Yu; Liu, Chun-Nan; He, Chi-En [National Chiao Tung University, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chun-Wan [Council of Labor Affairs, Executive Yuan, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    A standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train (RD), a vortex shaker (VS), and a SSPD (small-scale powder disperser) were used to investigate the emission characteristics of nano-powders, including nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO{sub 2}, primary diameter: 21 nm), nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO, primary diameter: 30-50 nm), and nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO{sub 2}, primary diameter: 10-30 nm). A TSI SMPS (scanning mobility particle sizer), a TSI APS (aerodynamic particle sizer), and a MSP MOUDI (micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor) were used to measure the number and mass distributions of generated particles. Significant differences in specific number and mass concentration or distributions were found among different methods and nano-powders with the most specific number and mass concentration and the smallest particles being generated by the most energetic SSPD, followed by VS and RD. Near uni-modal number or mass distributions were observed for the SSPD while bi-modal number or mass distributions existed for nano-powders except nano-SiO{sub 2} which also exhibited bimodal mass distributions. The 30-min average results showed that the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and number median diameter (NMD) of the SSPD ranged 1.1-2.1 {mu}m and 166-261 nm, respectively, for all three nano-powders, which were smaller than those of the VS (MMAD: 3.3-6.0 {mu}m and NMD: 156-462 nm), and the RD (MMAD: 5.2-11.2 {mu}m and NMD: 198-479 nm). For nano-particles (electric mobility diameter < 100 nm), specific mass concentrations were nearly negligible for all three nano-powders and test methods. Specific number concentrations of nano-particles were low for the RD tester but were elevated when more energetic VS and SSPD testers were used. The quantitative size and concentration data obtained in this study is useful to elucidate the field emission and personal exposure data in the future provided that particle loss in the generation system is carefully assessed.

  19. Comparison of different methods for thoron progeny measurement

    Four popular methods for thoron progeny measurement were discussed, including the aspects of detector,principle, precondition, calculation advantages and disadvantages. Comparison experiments were made in mine and houses with high background in Yunnan Province. Since indoor thoron progeny changes with time obviously and with no rule, α track method is recommended in the area of radiation protection for environmental detection and assessment. (authors)

  20. METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM EXPLOSIVES IN DIFFERENT ROCKS

    Josip Krsnik; Josip Mesec

    1989-01-01

    The most appropriate explosives required for blasting of the particular types of rocks were established by test blasting method with linear burden increase. By the same method the optimum magnitudes of deep-holes blasting were established (the paper is published in Croatian).

  1. Consumptive use of upland rice as estimated by different methods

    The consumptive use of upland rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) grown during the wet season (kharif) as estimated by modified Penman, radiation, pan-evaporation and Hargreaves methods showed a variation from computed consumptive use estimated by the gravimetric method. The variability increased with an increase in the irrigation interval, and decreased with an increase in the level of N applied. The average variability was less in pan-evaporation method, which could reliably be used for estimating water requirement of upland rice if percolation losses are considered

  2. Influence Of Different Methods Of Operative Treatment On Ovarian Reserve.

    V Simrok

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of ovarian reserve estimation for 125 women with the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS who have undergone various methods of surgical treatment - resection of the ovaries, thermokauterisation and drilling by laser (Ho-Yag. Ovarian reserve was estimated according to the amount of antral follicles, level of follitropin and Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS, also named anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH. Blood flow in ovarian tissue was also examined after various methods of surgical treatment. The study has shown that the gentlest method of surgical treatment is drilling by Ho-Yag laser, which is least likely to injure the tissue of ovaries, and also this method is most effective in enhancing and preserving ovarian reserve.

  3. On an explicit finite difference method for fractional diffusion equations

    S. B. Yuste; Acedo, L.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical method to solve the fractional diffusion equation, which could also be easily extended to many other fractional dynamics equations, is considered. These fractional equations have been proposed in order to describe anomalous transport characterized by non-Markovian kinetics and the breakdown of Fick's law. In this paper we combine the forward time centered space (FTCS) method, well known for the numerical integration of ordinary diffusion equations, with the Grunwald-Letnikov defin...

  4. Importance of English and Different Methods of Teaching English

    Reddy, Dr. P. Sreenivasulu

    2013-01-01

    Todays world considers English as a global language. The present article explains how the teaching of English started with Grammar-Translation Method and secured a strong hold in the field of teaching English, though its basic assumptions were questionable. It also examines the principles of Direct Method and its insistence on establishing a bond between the experience and expression. In an effort to meet the needs of the Indian students of English, we learn that Michael West proposed the Rea...

  5. Equivalence of ten different discounted cash flow valuation methods

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using discounted cash flows (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality using the same assumptions; t...

  6. Determination of Ketoconazole in tablets by using three different methods

    Biljana Gjorgjeska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole has been widely used as an antifungal drug  that is formulated as tablets, cream and over­the­counter ketoconazole shampoo. The aim of this research was to study and to standardize an ultraviolet spectrophotometric (UVS method, potentiometric  and a high  performance  liquid  chromatographic  (HPLC method  for  the determination  of ketoconazole in commercially available Oromycosal® tablets. These three methods were compared and discussed with respect to  their  sensitivity,  selectivity  and ready­applicability  in  routine  analytical  work.   Absorption  spectra and spectrophotometric determinations were carried out on the UVS spectrophotometer. Investigated concentrations were in range from  0.003 to  0.02mg?dm­3. The absorbance was measured at 224  nm.  In potentiometric  titrations  glass  and saturated (KCl calomel electrode were used. HPLC analyses of ketoconazole were carried in the presence of econazole as internal standard. It can be concluded that the described methods are simple, fast and reliable for determination of ketoconazole in pharmaceutical preparations. The preparation of the samples is easy, the excipients do not  interfere in the methods, so they can be used in routine quality control analysis.

  7. Quantitative burnup determination: A comparison of different experimental methods

    The burn-up of nuclear fuel is defined as the energy produced per mass of fuel and, hence, is related to the inventory of fission products formed in the matrix of the fuel. It affects both neutron-physical and material properties. Therefore, it is essential to have methods available that allow a reliable determination of this important parameter. The burn-up is usually determined by measuring the content of an element that results from the fission process. The isotope 148Nd has proven to be an ideal monitor due to its chemical and neutron physical properties. On the other hand, 148Nd can only be determined by wet-chemistry methods, which means a rather costly and time consuming chemistry process. Another method using the sum of 145Nd and 146Nd is proposed. In case of very high burn-ups of U02 fuel and, especially, MOX fuel this method needs weighed yields for U and Pu to obtain a sufficient accuracy. Among the non-destructive spectrometric methods, the burn-up determination with 137Cs provides adequate results provided the gamma radiation detector is calibrated and self-attenuation effects of Cs together with measurement geometries are considered. (Author)

  8. Bargmann Symmetry Constraint for a Family of Liouville Integrable Differential-Difference Equations

    徐西祥

    2012-01-01

    A family of integrable differential-difference equations is derived from a new matrix spectral problem. The Hamiltonian forms of obtained differential-difference equations are constructed. The Liouville integrability for the obtained integrable family is proved. Then, Bargmann symmetry constraint of the obtained integrable family is presented by binary nonliearization method of Lax pairs and adjoint Lax pairs. Under this Bargmann symmetry constraints, an integrable symplectic map and a sequences of completely integrable finite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense are worked out, and every integrable differential-difference equations in the obtained family is factored by the integrable symplectie map and a completely integrable tinite-dimensionai Hamiltonian system.

  9. Deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration in an SU(3) gauge theory with adjoint fermions

    We analyze the finite temperature phase diagram of QCD with fermions in the adjoint representation. The simulations performed with four dynamical Majorana fermions show that the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions occur at two distinct temperatures. While the deconfinement transition is first-order at Td we find evidence for a continuous chiral transition at a higher temperature Tc ≅ 8 Td. We observe a rapid change of bulk thermodynamic observables at Td which reflects the increase in the number of degrees of freedom. However, these show little variation at Tc, where the fermion condensate vanishes. We also analyze the potential between static fundamental and adjoint charges in all three phases and extract the corresponding screening masses above Td

  10. Adjoint-Based a Posteriori Error Estimation for Coupled Time-Dependent Systems

    Asner, Liya

    2012-01-01

    We consider time-dependent parabolic problem s coupled across a common interface which we formulate using a Lagrange multiplier construction and solve by applying a monolithic solution technique. We derive an adjoint-based a posteriori error representation for a quantity of interest given by a linear functional of the solution. We establish the accuracy of our error representation formula through numerical experimentation and investigate the effect of error in the adjoint solution. Crucially, the error representation affords a distinction between temporal and spatial errors and can be used as a basis for a blockwise time-space refinement strategy. Numerical tests illustrate the efficacy of the refinement strategy by capturing the distinctive behavior of a localized traveling wave solution. The saddle point systems considered here are equivalent to those arising in the mortar finite element technique for parabolic problems. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Neutrino masses in SU(5) x U(1){sub F} with adjoint flavons

    Nardi, Enrico [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, C.P. 13, Frascati (Italy); IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Restrepo, Diego; Velasquez, Mauricio [Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-03-15

    We present a SU(5) x U(1){sub F} supersymmetric model for neutrino masses and mixings that implements the seesaw mechanism by means of the heavy SU(2) singlets and triplets states contained in three adjoints of SU(5). We discuss how Abelian U(1){sub F} symmetries can naturally yield non-hierarchical light neutrinos even when the heavy states are strongly hierarchical, and how it can also ensure that R-parity arises as an exact accidental symmetry. By assigning two flavons that break U(1){sub F} to the adjoint representation of SU(5) and assuming universality for all the fundamental couplings, the coefficients of the effective Yukawa and Majorana mass operators become calculable in terms of group theoretical quantities. There is a single free parameter in the model, however, at leading order the structure of the light neutrinos mass matrix is determined in a parameter independent way. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative photoacoustic tomography using forward and adjoint Monte Carlo models of radiance

    Hochuli, Roman; Arridge, Simon; Cox, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Forward and adjoint Monte Carlo (MC) models of radiance are proposed for use in model-based quantitative photoacoustic tomography. A 2D radiance MC model using a harmonic angular basis is introduced and validated against analytic solutions for the radiance in heterogeneous media. A gradient-based optimisation scheme is then used to recover 2D absorption and scattering coefficients distributions from simulated photoacoustic measurements. It is shown that the functional gradients, which are a challenge to compute efficiently using MC models, can be calculated directly from the coefficients of the harmonic angular basis used in the forward and adjoint models. This work establishes a framework for transport-based quantitative photoacoustic tomography that can fully exploit emerging highly parallel computing architectures.

  13. Methods for comparative risk assessment of different energy sources

    The environmental and health aspects of different energy systems, particularly those associated with the generation of electricity, are emerging as significant issues for policy formulation and implementation. This, together with the growing need of many countries to define their energy programmes for the next century, has provided the basis for a renewed interest in the comparative risk assessment of different energy sources (fossil, nuclear, renewables). This document is the outcome of a Specialists Meeting on the procedural and methodological issues associated with comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources. After an introductory chapter outlining the issues under consideration the papers presented at the Meeting, which have been indexed separately, are given. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Different use of magnetometric methods in Czech archaeology

    Křivánek, Roman

    Leuven : Centre of archaeological sciences, 2012 - (Braekmans, D.; Honings, J.; Degryse, P.). s. 438 ISBN 978-94-6165-043-6. [International symposium on archaeometry /39./. 28.05.2012-01.06.2012, Leuven] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : geophysical survey * archaeological prospection * magnetometric method Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. Methods of exploitation of different types of uranium deposits

    Deposits are mined using three broad types of mining methods: open pit, underground and in situ leaching. This publication addresses all aspects of mining and milling methods for several types of deposits and provides information to assist in the selection process of methods and also considers what actions must be taken into account for obtaining regulatory approvals for a project and for final decommissioning and reclamation of a project. The objective of this publication is to provide a process of selections of methods for mining engineers and managers involved in modernising ongoing operations or considering opening new operations. Several practical examples are given. These guidelines can be consulted and used in many countries involved in uranium mining and milling operations. The examples where costs are given can also be adjusted to specific economic conditions of various countries. The authors are from four uranium producing countries. They bring diversified experience for all types of mining and milling operations from tile opening of a mine to the decommissioning of the complete operation

  16. A Different Method of Hepaticojejunostomy for Proximal Biliary Injuries

    Diane M. Radford

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of proximal biliary injuries presents a surgical challenge. Anastomoses can be difficult to perform and can have poor results. We describe a method of hepaticojejunostomy done from within the Roux-en-Y loop, which can be utilized in this situation.

  17. Some results on the dynamics and transition probabilities for non self-adjoint hamiltonians

    We discuss systematically several possible inequivalent ways to describe the dynamics and the transition probabilities of a quantum system when its hamiltonian is not self-adjoint. In order to simplify the treatment, we mainly restrict our analysis to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. In particular, we propose some experiments which could discriminate between the various possibilities considered in the paper. An example taken from the literature is discussed in detail

  18. Spectrum of SU(2) gauge theory with two fermions in the adjoint representation

    Hietanen, Ari; Rantaharju, Jarno; Rummukainen, Kari; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    We present preliminary results of lattice simulations of SU(2) gauge theory with two Wilson fermions in the adjoint representation. This theory has recently attracted considerable attention because it might possess an infrared fixed point (or an almost-fixed-point), and hence be a candidate for a walking technicolor theory. In this work we study the particle spectrum of the theory, and compare it with more familiar spectrum of the theory with SU(2) gauge fields and two flavors of fundamental ...

  19. Serre's reduction of linear systems of partial differential equations with holonomic adjoints

    Cluzeau, Thomas; Quadrat, Alban

    2010-01-01

    Given a linear functional system (e.g., ordinary/partial di erential system, di erential time-delay system, di erence system), Serre's reduction aims at nding an equivalent linear functional system which contains fewer equations and fewer unknowns. The purpose of this paper is to study Serre's reduction of underdetermined linear systems of partial di erential equations with either polynomial, formal power series or analytic coe cients and with holonomic adjoints in the sense of algebraic anal...

  20. Coupling Unification and Dark Matter in a Standard Model Extension with Adjoint Majorana Fermions

    Aizawa, Tasuku; Ibe, Masahiro; Kaneta, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    We revisit an extension of the Standard Model with Majorana fermions in the adjoint representations. There, a precise coupling unification and the good candidate for dark matter (the $SU(2)_L$ triplet fermion) are achieved simultaneously. In particular, we show that the $SU(3)_c$ octet fermion which is required for successful unification can be a good non-thermal source of the triplet fermion dark matter. We also show that the scenario predicts a rather short lifetime of the proton compared w...

  1. Adjoint BFKL at finite coupling: a short-cut from the collinear limit

    Basso, Benjamin; Sever, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In the high energy Regge limit, the six gluons scattering amplitude is controlled by the adjoint BFKL eigenvalue and impact factor. In this paper we determine these two building blocks at any value of the 't Hooft coupling in planar $\\cal{N}$=4 SYM theory. This is achieved by means of analytic continuations from the collinear limit, where similar all loops expressions were recently established. We check our predictions against all available data at weak and strong coupling.

  2. Scattering and self-adjoint extensions of the Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian

    De Oliveira, Cesar R [Departamento de Matematica-UFSCar, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo 13560-970 (Brazil); Pereira, Marciano, E-mail: marciano@uepg.b [Departamento de Matematica e EstatIstica-UEPG, Ponta Grossa, Parana 84030-900 (Brazil)

    2010-09-03

    We consider the Hamiltonian operator associated with planar sections of infinitely long cylindrical solenoids and with a homogeneous magnetic field in their interior. First, in the Sobolev space H{sup 2}, we characterize all generalized boundary conditions on the solenoid border compatible with quantum mechanics, i.e. the boundary conditions, so that the corresponding Hamiltonian operators are self-adjoint. Then we study and compare the scattering of the most usual boundary conditions, that is, Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method.

    Aizat Abas

    Full Text Available This paper studies the three dimensional (3D simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann Method of Different BGA Orientations on I-Type Dispensing Method.

    Abas, Aizat; Gan, Z L; Ishak, M H H; Abdullah, M Z; Khor, Soon Fuat

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the three dimensional (3D) simulation of fluid flows through the ball grid array (BGA) to replicate the real underfill encapsulation process. The effect of different solder bump arrangements of BGA on the flow front, pressure and velocity of the fluid is investigated. The flow front, pressure and velocity for different time intervals are determined and analyzed for potential problems relating to solder bump damage. The simulation results from Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) code will be validated with experimental findings as well as the conventional Finite Volume Method (FVM) code to ensure highly accurate simulation setup. Based on the findings, good agreement can be seen between LBM and FVM simulations as well as the experimental observations. It was shown that only LBM is capable of capturing the micro-voids formation. This study also shows an increasing trend in fluid filling time for BGA with perimeter, middle empty and full orientations. The perimeter orientation has a higher pressure fluid at the middle region of BGA surface compared to middle empty and full orientation. This research would shed new light for a highly accurate simulation of encapsulation process using LBM and help to further increase the reliability of the package produced. PMID:27454872

  5. A coarse-mesh nodal method-diffusive-mesh finite difference method

    Modern nodal methods have been successfully used for conventional light water reactor core analyses where the homogenized, node average cross sections (XSs) and the flux discontinuity factors (DFs) based on equivalence theory can reliably predict core behavior. For other types of cores and other geometries characterized by tightly-coupled, heterogeneous core configurations, the intranodal flux shapes obtained from a homogenized nodal problem may not accurately portray steep flux gradients near fuel assembly interfaces or various reactivity control elements. This may require extreme values of DFs (either very large, very small, or even negative) to achieve a desired solution accuracy. Extreme values of DFs, however, can disrupt the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node average fluxes, and can lead to a difficulty in interpolating adjacent DF values. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made, but nothing has been satisfactory. A new coarse-mesh nodal scheme called the Diffusive-Mesh Finite Difference (DMFD) technique, as contrasted with the coarse-mesh finite difference (CMFD) technique, has been developed to resolve this problem. This new technique and the development of a few-group, multidimensional kinetics computer program are described in this paper

  6. Learning and Retention of Quantum Concepts with Different Teaching Methods

    Deslauriers, Louis; Wieman, Carl

    2011-01-01

    We measured mastery and retention of conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in a modern physics course. This was studied for two equivalent cohorts of students taught with different pedagogical approaches using the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey. We measured the impact of pedagogical approach both on the original conceptual learning…

  7. On the validity of tidal turbine array configurations obtained from steady-state adjoint optimisation

    Jacobs, Christian T; Kramer, Stephan C; Funke, Simon W

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the optimal amount of power from an array of tidal turbines requires an intricate understanding of tidal dynamics and the effects of turbine placement on the local and regional scale flow. Numerical models have contributed significantly towards this understanding, and more recently, adjoint-based modelling has been employed to optimise the positioning of the turbines in an array in an automated way and improve on simple, regular man-made configurations. Adjoint-based optimisation of high-resolution and ideally 3D transient models is generally a very computationally expensive problem. As a result, existing work on the adjoint optimisation of tidal turbine placement has been mostly limited to steady-state simulations in which very high, non-physical values of the background viscosity are required to ensure that a steady-state solution exists. However, such compromises may affect the reliability of the modelled turbines, their wakes and interactions, and thus bring into question the validity of the co...

  8. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    Oliveira, de, T.; G Gubert; Roman SS; AP Kempka; RC Prestes

    2015-01-01

    Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours) and thawed by five differen...

  9. A Review on Different Virtual Learning Methods in Pharmacy Education

    Amin Noori; Leila Kouti; Farnaz Akbari; Mehrdad Assarian; Amin Rakhshan; Kaveh Eslami

    2015-01-01

    Virtual learning is a type of electronic learning system based on the web. It models traditional in- person learning by providing virtual access to classes, tests, homework, feedbacks and etc. Students and teachers can interact through chat rooms or other virtual environments. Web 2.0 services are usually used for this method. Internet audio-visual tools, multimedia systems, a disco CD-ROMs, videotapes, animation, video conferencing, and interactive phones can all be used to deliver data to t...

  10. Valuation of Brands - A Critical Comparison of Different Methods

    Kriegbaum, Catharina

    1998-01-01

    In recent years intangible assets have become increasingly important for many companies. One significant category of intangible assets are brands. Because of their growing importance, researchers have begun to develop methods to better measure and account for brand names. Traditional brand management performance measures usually are short-term oriented and give no incentives to invest in brands but rather lead to short-term activities which harm longterm brand value. This is alarming, especia...

  11. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT MOLECULAR METHODS IN SCREENING GENETICALLY MODIFIED LENTIL

    Çelikkol Akçay, Ufuk; Kalemtaş, Gülsüm; Yücel, Meral; Öktem, Hüseyin Avni

    2010-01-01

    Currently transgenic plants are grown in more than 20 countries with maize, soybean, canola and cotton being the most predominant crops. Inexperience in the outcomes of the technology and growing public concern necessitates proper detection and regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) from farmland to market. Due to their high specifity and sensitivity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based systems are currently the method of choice in detection of genetic modifications. This study...

  12. Contamination of nanoparticles by endotoxin: evaluation of different test methods

    Smulders Stijn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL assay and an alternative method based on toll-like receptor (TLR 4 reporter cells when applied with particles (TiO2, Ag, CaCO3 and SiO2, or after extraction of the endotoxin as described in the ISO norm 29701. Results Our results indicate that the gel clot LAL assay is easily disturbed in the presence of nanoparticles; and that the endotoxin extraction protocol is not suitable at high particle concentrations. The chromogenic-based LAL endotoxin detection systems (chromogenic LAL assay and Endosafe-PTS, and the TLR4 reporter cells were not significantly perturbed. Conclusion We demonstrated that nanoparticles can interfere with endotoxin detection systems indicating that a convenient test method must be chosen before assessing endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples.

  13. Stress responses in lambs castrated with three different methods

    Paola Sandra Nicolussi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to evaluate the animal response to stress in lambs caused by three different castration techniques. Forty-six male lambs aged 4-5 months were randomly allocated to one of four groups including Burdizzo (B, scrotal ablation (SA, orchiectomy (OR and control handling (H. Local anaesthesia (lidocaine 2% was administered in both spermatic cords and the scrotal neck of lambs before each treatment. Blood samples were collected at -30, -10, +1, +20, +40, +60, +120, and +180 minutes. Serum cortisol concentrations were determined using a competitive immunoassay and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated for each lamb. The following biochemical parameters were assayed for each animal at each time point: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU. The time needed for total lesion resolution and weight gain of each animal was recorded. Orchiectomy elicits the greatest cortisol response, significantly greater than that seen in similarly handled controls (P≤0.01, Burdizzo and scrotal ablation groups (P≤0.05. The serum cortisol AUC was higher in the scrotal ablation group (P≤0.05 than controls, but lower than in the orchiectomy group (P≤0.05. The Burdizzo group didn’t differ from controls. Serum glucose levels of the castrated lambs differed significantly from the control group, following a trend similar to cortisol. No change was seen in ALT, AST, LDH or CK. No difference in weight gain was seen among the groups. Our results suggest that use of the Burdizzo is the preferable castration technique for adult lambs, while scrotal ablation is a valid surgical alternative to orchiectomy and permits more rapid wound healing that is ideal for extensive management where flocks are not under close observation.

  14. A finite difference method for free boundary problems

    Fornberg, Bengt

    2010-04-01

    Fornberg and Meyer-Spasche proposed some time ago a simple strategy to correct finite difference schemes in the presence of a free boundary that cuts across a Cartesian grid. We show here how this procedure can be combined with a minimax-based optimization procedure to rapidly solve a wide range of elliptic-type free boundary value problems. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY RISK ASSESSMENT - TWO METHODS, DIFFERENT RESULTS

    Pop Cristiana Lucretia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : the purpose of this study was to verify if there is any significant difference between body fat assessment by calculating body mass index and by using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Materials: subsequently we determined the ratio between body fat and muscular mass percentage in a sample of 156 university girl students. Results : BMI and muscle mass percentage seem to have similar variance and trends, while body fat exceeded in numbers and percents the highest levels of BMI. While...

  16. Seismic structure of the European upper mantle based on adjoint tomography

    Zhu, Hejun; Bozdağ, Ebru; Tromp, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    We use adjoint tomography to iteratively determine seismic models of the crust and upper mantle beneath the European continent and the North Atlantic Ocean. Three-component seismograms from 190 earthquakes recorded by 745 seismographic stations are employed in the inversion. Crustal model EPcrust combined with mantle model S362ANI comprise the 3-D starting model, EU00. Before the structural inversion, earthquake source parameters, for example, centroid moment tensors and locations, are reinverted based on global 3-D Green's functions and Fréchet derivatives. This study consists of three stages. In stage one, frequency-dependent phase differences between observed and simulated seismograms are used to constrain radially anisotropic wave speed variations. In stage two, frequency-dependent phase and amplitude measurements are combined to simultaneously constrain elastic wave speeds and anelastic attenuation. In these two stages, long-period surface waves and short-period body waves are combined to simultaneously constrain shallow and deep structures. In stage three, frequency-dependent phase and amplitude anomalies of three-component surface waves are used to simultaneously constrain radial and azimuthal anisotropy. After this three-stage inversion, we obtain a new seismic model of the European curst and upper mantle, named EU60. Improvements in misfits and histograms in both phase and amplitude help us to validate this three-stage inversion strategy. Long-wavelength elastic wave speed variations in model EU60 compare favourably with previous body- and surface wave tomographic models. Some hitherto unidentified features, such as the Adria microplate, naturally emerge from the smooth starting model. Subducting slabs, slab detachments, ancient suture zones, continental rifts and backarc basins are well resolved in model EU60. We find an anticorrelation between shear wave speed and anelastic attenuation at depths global attenuation studies. Furthermore, enhanced

  17. In vitro dissolution of uranyl acetate using different methods

    The dissolution rate of a material in the lung is an important parameter in evaluating the risk to humans following accidental inhalation of a substance and is also a parameter that may be useful in characterizing particles for nuclear forensics analysis. Conventional methods of measuring dissolution rates in vitro involve exposing the material or particles to a solvent, such as water, saline, or solutions that simulate lung fluid, and measuring the fraction of material that dissolves with time. A new device for measuring dissolution rates for small samples, especially individual particles, was evaluated that incorporates a regenerated cellulose dialysis membrane fixed to the bottom of a small, 2 mL plastic cup that fits into the top of a 50 mL plastic centrifuge tube. The cup is easily transferred among a series of tubes containing solvent to measure rate of dissolution. The dialysis membrane has a diffusion rating of 20 kDa molecular weight cut off which greatly exceeds the size of the dissolved uranium molecule. The performance of the dialysis cup device was evaluated by measuring the dissolution rate of uranyl acetate in distilled water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and simulated lung fluid (SLF). These results were compared to the dissolution rate measured using the traditional filter sandwich method in which a sample is sealed between two hydrophilic membranes. Although the majority of uranyl acetate dissolved in SLF within 30 min using the filter sandwich method, most of the uranyl acetate was undissolved in PBS and SLF using the dialysis membrane device. Reactions between the dissolved uranyl acetate, solvent, and the dialysis membrane likely caused the membrane to swell, shrinking the pore size, and thus reducing the transport of dissolved uranium across the membrane. Use of the dialysis cup device for evaluating dissolution rates for uranium-bearing materials in solvents containing a high concentration of salts is therefore not recommended. (author)

  18. Removal of polyvinylpyrrolidone from wastewater using different methods.

    Julinová, Markéta; Kupec, Jan; Houser, Josef; Slavík, Roman; Marusincová, Hana; Cervenáková, Lenka; Klívar, Stanislav

    2012-12-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a frequently used polymer in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. Because it is not subject to metabolic changes and is virtually nondegradable, trace concentrations of PVP are often found in community wastewaters. The literature finds that the partial removal of PVP in wastewater treatment plants probably occurs through sorption. The primary objective of this study was to find an effective method to remove PVP from wastewaters. In this regard, the literature indicates the theoretical potential to use specific enzymes (e.g., gamma-lactamases, amidases) to gradually degrade PVP molecules. Polyvinylpyrrolidone biodegradability tests were conducted using suitable heterogeneous cultures (activated sludge) collected from a conventional wastewater treatment plant, treatment plants connected to a pharmaceutical factory, and using select enzymes. Aerobic biodegradation of PVP in a conventional wastewater environment was ineffective, even after adaptation of activated sludge using the nearly identical monomer 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Another potential method for PVP removal involves pretreating the polymer prior to biological degradation. Based on the results (approximately 10 to 15% biodegradation), pretreatment was partially effective, realistically, it could only be applied with difficulty at wastewater treatment plants. Sorption of PVP to an active carbon sorbent (Chezacarb S), which corresponded to the Langmuir isotherm, and sorption to activated sludge, which corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm, were also evaluated. From these sorption tests, it can be concluded that the considerable adsorption of PVP to activated sludge occurred primarily at low PVP concentrations. Based on the test results, the authors recommend the following methods for PVP removal from wastewater: (1) sorption; (2) application of specific microorganisms; and (3) alkaline hydrolysis, which is the least suitable of the three for use in wastewater treatment

  19. Global estimates of CO sources with high resolution by adjoint inversion of multiple satellite datasets (MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, TES

    M. Kopacz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We combine CO column measurements from the MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and TES satellite instruments in a full-year (May 2004–April 2005 global inversion of CO sources at 4°×5° spatial resolution and monthly temporal resolution. The inversion uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM and its adjoint applied to MOPITT, AIRS, and SCIAMACHY. Observations from TES, surface sites (NOAA/GMD, and aircraft (MOZAIC are used for evaluation of the a posteriori solution. Using GEOS-Chem as a common intercomparison platform shows global consistency between the different satellite datasets and with the in situ data. Differences can be largely explained by different averaging kernels and a priori information. The global CO emission from combustion as constrained in the inversion is 1350 Tg a−1. This is much higher than current bottom-up emission inventories. A large fraction of the correction results from a seasonal underestimate of CO sources at northern mid-latitudes in winter and suggests a larger-than-expected CO source from vehicle cold starts and residential heating. Implementing this seasonal variation of emissions solves the long-standing problem of models underestimating CO in the northern extratropics in winter-spring. A posteriori emissions also indicate a general underestimation of biomass burning in the GFED2 inventory. However, the tropical biomass burning constraints are not quantitatively consistent across the different datasets.

  20. Effect of Different Rearing Methods on the Weight of Rabbits

    Mónika Gyovai

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of the nutrient supply at foetal, suckling and growing age on the body weight of rabbits. 242 new-born rabbits were divided into three groups on the basis of their birth weight (Low = 34-45 g, Medium = 53-58 g, High = 65-70 g. One half of the litters were nursed by one doe, while the other half by two does. After weaning at 21 days of age, half of the rabbits were fed ad libitum, while the other half were fed restricted (ca. 85-90% of the ad lib.. All of the 12 groups were divided into two subgroups randomly: first artificial insemination (AI at 15.5 or 18.5 weeks of age. All of the studied factors had significant effects on the body weight of rabbits. At four weeks of age the influence of birth weight was the highest (L: 0.51, H: 0.67 kg, P<0.05. A significant difference was found between the groups nursed by one or two does (0.52 and 0.64 kg. At nine weeks of age the effect of all factors were similar. At 15 weeks of age the following differences were found: L: 3.03, H: 3.37 kg, one or two does: 3.11 and 3.26 kg, rest. and ad lib.: 3.00 and 3.37 kg, respectively. The highest difference was found between the group of low birth weight, nursed by one doe and fed restricted (2.75 kg and that of high birth weight, nursed by two does and fed ad libitum (3.81 kg.

  1. Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering

    Morgan, MA

    2013-01-01

    This second volume in the Progress in Electromagnetic Research series examines recent advances in computational electromagnetics, with emphasis on scattering, as brought about by new formulations and algorithms which use finite element or finite difference techniques. Containing contributions by some of the world's leading experts, the papers thoroughly review and analyze this rapidly evolving area of computational electromagnetics. Covering topics ranging from the new finite-element based formulation for representing time-harmonic vector fields in 3-D inhomogeneous media using two coupled sca

  2. Fitness of different decontamination methods for reactor materials

    The contaminated oxide layers formed on the light water reactor surfaces during reactor operation are surveyed. The principles of decontamination of these surfaces are presented. In the experimental part of the study the oxides formed both in PWR and BWR simulating autoclave conditions are decontaminated chemically and electrochemically. Various stainless steels (including different metallurgical states). Inconel 600 alloy and carbon and low alloy steels were used as test materials. The effectiveness of decontamination and possible corrosion effects on the base materials including the deposition of dissolution products were especially studied

  3. Evaluation of different methods for diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria

    Mendiratta D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is a prerequisite for institution of effective treatment and reducing the mortality and morbidity of falciparum malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various rapid methods viz, acridine orange, Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein II antigen detection and Field′s stain with traditional microscopy i.e., Leishman stain for diagnosing falciparum malaria. Thick and thin blood films of 443 consecutive patients with history of fever with chills and rigors were examined by Leishman and Field′s method. Acridine orange stained wet mounts of blood were examined under fluorescence microscopy. All films were examined by two independent microbiologists. Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein II antigen was detected using commercially available kit, Paracheck Pf. Out of the 443 subjects examined for P.falciparum 18.28% were detected by Leishman stain, 6.32% by Field′s stain, 18.28% by acridine orange and 18.1% by antigen based technique. Field′s stain missed 53 (65.4%, while Paracheck Pf was negative in 6(7.4% of the Leishman positive samples. All Field′s stain and acridine orange positives were positive by Leishman, but five Paracheck Pf positives were negative. Leishman stain is cost effective but if facilities are available one should use acridine orange for screening. The antigen detection kits are rapid, simple and are useful but to rule out false negatives in clinically suspected cases, Leishman stain is reliable.

  4. Availability of heavy metals in minesoils measured by different methods

    Lago, Manoel; Arenas, Daniel; Vega, Flora; Andrade, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Most of environmental regulations concerning soil pollution commonly include the total heavy metal content as the reference for determining contamination levels. Nevertheless the total content includes all different chemical forms and it rarely gives information on mobility, availability and toxicity (Pueyo et al., 2004). To be able to determine the concentrations of contaminants that cause toxicity it is important to study the available content, the one that can interact with an organism and be incorporated in its structure (Vangronsveld and Cunningham, 1998). There are many techniques that determine the operationally defined as available content in soils. Most of them use a reagent that causes the displacement of the ions by electrostatic attraction (Pueyo et al., 2004). The aim of this work is to compare the agreement among different extractants (Cl2Ca, EDTA, DTPA, bidistilled water (BDW) and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) when Ni and Zn concentrations are measured in the extractions from five mine soils (Touro, Spain). The sequence of soils according to total contents of Ni and Zn is S4>S5>S1>S3>S2 and S4>S1>S5>S2>S3, respectively. In all cases Zn total contents are higher than Ni varying from two times higher (S5) to four times higher (S2). Zn concentration is also higher than Ni in the Cl2Ca extractions but the opposite happens in DTPA extractions. Both metal concentrations in the EDTA, BDW and LMWOA extractions are quite similar in each soil. This first approximation already shows there is no agreement among the different techniques used for determining heavy metal availability in soils. Nevertheless it was found that soils sequence according to Zn and Ni concentrations in all available extractions techniques (with the exception of BDW) is the same. According to the Ni and Zn contents in Cl2Ca, DTPA, EDTA and LMWOA extractions the sequence is S3> S4> S5> S1> S2. The S3 is the soil with the highest content of available Ni and Zn whilst it is the

  5. Methods to incorporate different data types in the characterization process

    Spatial variability of the hydrodynamic parameters controlling radionuclide transport causes large uncertainties in the predictions. Methods have been devised to analyze spatial variability of these parameters and to model the uncertainty of the predictions. However, the final use given to large portions of the total data collected is minimal. Techniques have been developed and implemented with the aim of incorporating all types of data in the characterization of the spatial variability of conductivity/transmissivity. This serves to reduce the uncertainty in the predictions and to increase the confidence in the model. Types of data used in models include: geometric information, transmissivity data, piezometric data, geological/geophysical information tracer test concentration data, and isotopic data. (R.P.)

  6. Matching Intelligence Teaching Methods with Different Learners' Needs

    David L. Blenkhorn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current trends suggest that academia may be well “behind the curve” in delivering effective competitive and market intelligence programs and course offerings to students. There are many reasons why this state of affairs has occurred, and prominent among them is nature of challenges experienced by instructors in disseminating and teaching students the prominent competencies they need to acquire in order to be successful in the changing workplace. Applying cluster analysis to our teaching experiences and the scholarship, we develop a normative conceptual model that contrasts traditional and evolving pedagogical methods. Furthermore, we make the case that new learning tools and technologies which are revolutionizing the way information is taught need to be matched up with the new ways in which unique segments of contemporary intelligence students approach learning.

  7. Approximation of eigenvalues of some unbounded self-adjoint discrete Jacobi matrices by eigenvalues of finite submatrices

    Maria Malejki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the problem of approximation of eigenvalues of some self-adjoint operator in the Hilbert space \\(l^2(\\mathbb{N}\\ by eigenvalues of suitably chosen principal finite submatrices of an infinite Jacobi matrix that defines the operator considered. We assume the Jacobi operator is bounded from below with compact resolvent. In our research we estimate the asymptotics (with \\(n\\to \\infty\\ of the joint error of approximation for the first \\(n\\ eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the operator by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the finite submatrix of order \\(n \\times n\\. The method applied in our research is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Volkmer's results included in [H. Volkmer, Error Estimates for Rayleigh-Ritz Approximations of Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions of the Mathieu and Spheroidal Wave Equation, Constr. Approx. 20 (2004, 39-54]. We extend the method to cover a class of infinite symmetric Jacobi matrices with three diagonals satisfying some polynomial growth estimates.

  8. GRASP [GRound-Water Adjunct Sensitivity Program]: A computer code to perform post-SWENT [simulator for water, energy, and nuclide transport] adjoint sensitivity analysis of steady-state ground-water flow: Technical report

    GRASP (GRound-Water Adjunct Senstivity Program) computes measures of the behavior of a ground-water system and the system's performance for waste isolation, and estimates the sensitivities of these measures to system parameters. The computed measures are referred to as ''performance measures'' and include weighted squared deviations of computed and observed pressures or heads, local Darcy velocity components and magnitudes, boundary fluxes, and travel distance and time along travel paths. The sensitivities are computed by the adjoint method and are exact derivatives of the performance measures with respect to the parameters for the modeled system, taken about the assumed parameter values. GRASP presumes steady-state, saturated grondwater flow, and post-processes the results of a multidimensional (1-D, 2-D, 3-D) finite-difference flow code. This document describes the mathematical basis for the model, the algorithms and solution techniques used, and the computer code design. The implementation of GRASP is verified with simple one- and two-dimensional flow problems, for which analytical expressions of performance measures and sensitivities are derived. The linkage between GRASP and multidimensional finite-difference flow codes is described. This document also contains a detailed user's manual. The use of GRASP to evaluate nuclear waste disposal issues has been emphasized throughout the report. The performance measures and their sensitivities can be employed to assist in directing data collection programs, expedite model calibration, and objectively determine the sensitivity of projected system performance to parameters

  9. CMT Source Inversions for Massive Data Assimilation in Global Adjoint Tomography

    Lei, W.; Ruan, Y.; Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Smith, J. A.; Modrak, R. T.; Komatitsch, D.; Song, X.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.; Peter, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is a vital tool for probing the Earth's interior and enhancing our knowledge of the underlying dynamical processes [e.g., Liu et al., 2012]. Using the adjoint tomography method, we have successfully obtained a first-generation global FWI model named M15 [Bozdag et al., 2015]. To achieve higher resolution of the emerging new structural features and to accommodate azimuthal anisotropy and anelasticity in the next-generation model, we expanded our database from 256 to 4,224 earthquakes. Previous studies have shown that ray-theory-based Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) inversion algorithms can produce systematic biases in earthquake source parameters due to tradeoffs with 3D crustal and mantle heterogeneity [e.g., Hjorleifsdottir et al., 2010]. To reduce these well-known tradeoffs, we performed CMT inversions in our current 3D global model before resuming the structural inversion with the expanded database. Initial source parameters are selected from the global CMT database [Ekstrom et al., 2012], with moment magnitudes ranging from 5.5 to 7.0 and occurring between 1994 and 2015. Data from global and regional networks were retrieved from the IRIS DMC. Synthetic seismograms were generated based on the spectral-element-based seismic wave propagation solver (SPECFEM3D GLOBE) in model M15. We used a source inversion algorithm based on a waveform misfit function while allowing time shifts between data and synthetics to accommodate additional unmodeled 3D heterogeneity [Liu et al., 2004]. To accommodate the large number of earthquakes and time series (more than 10,000,000 records), we implemented a source inversion workflow based on the newly developed Adaptive Seismic Data Format (ASDF) [Krischer, Smith, et al., 2015] and ObsPy [Krischer et al., 2015]. In ASDF, each earthquake is associated with a single file, thereby eliminating I/O bottlenecks in the workflow and facilitating fast parallel processing. Our preliminary results indicate that errors

  10. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of different methods of calculating pinwise power

    One objective of a nuclear utility is the capability to predict the peak rod power in reload core design accurately and efficiently. This capability can be utilized in the verification of vendor results and the development of utility reload methodology. The MBS code solves the diffusion equation in x-y geometry by the finite different technique. The MBS code utilizes coarser meshes but reaches the same level of accuracy as a pin-by-pin model. The CASMO code utilizes pin profiles at specified core conditions, which are superimposed on the MBS diffusion theory results for pin power predictions. Placement of the burnable poison rods in the loading pattern are crucial to minimizing peak pin power. Westinghouse utilizes a code called TURTLE, licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and proprietary to Westinghouse. The MBS code, with macroscopic cross sections from CASMO, can be run with coarser meshes and macroscopic depletion and still reach the same level of accuracy as a pin-by-pin code such as PDQ-7 or TURTLE. The MBS input preparation is simpler than PDQ-7 or TURTLE-type input preparation

  12. Competition of different methods for recovering energy from waste.

    Friege, Henning; Fendel, Ansgar

    2011-10-01

    Waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities have been established worldwide as a sustainable method for the disposal of residual waste. In the present study the following competing WtE systems were compared: (1) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) with energy recovery; (2) co-incineration of waste in old lignite or coal-fired power plants; (3) substitute [refuse-derived fuel (RDF)] incinerators with energy recovery; and (4) co-incineration of defined waste fractions in cement kilns. In general the municipal solid waste incinerators in Europe are designed for a broad range of municipal and commercial waste without a pre-treatment of the waste. All other WtE processes including the cement kilns require a pre-treatment and are more limited in terms of RDF composition; namely particle size, chlorine content, calorific value. As to Germany, the emission limit values for all facilities are similar. A sensitivity analysis of the economics of boilers using RDF and municipal solid waste leads to the conclusion that the feasibility of RDF incinerators might partially recover if the prices for primary energy increase again. On the other hand, pre-treatment of waste leads to higher costs for RDF. Incineration and recycling capacities are large enough in middle Europe to avoid landfilling of organic waste. The steep decline of gate fees observed in some national spot markets is a clear indicator of an already existing overcapacity. Considering the enormous amount of greenhouse gas emissions saved by WtE facilities in comparison with landfilling, free capacities of WtE installations should be used to incinerate waste from EU member states where waste disposal is still predominantly based on landfilling. PMID:21824986

  13. The topology and geometry of self-adjoint and elliptic boundary conditions for Dirac and Laplace operators

    Asorey, M.; Ibort, A.; Marmo, G.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of self-adjoint extensions of first- and second-order elliptic differential operators on manifolds with boundary is studied via its most representative instances: Dirac and Laplace operators. The theory is developed by exploiting the geometrical structures attached to them and, by using an adapted Cayley transform on each case, the space {M} of such extensions is shown to have a canonical group composition law structure. The obtained results are compared with von Neumann's theorem characterizing the self-adjoint extensions of densely defined symmetric operators on Hilbert spaces. The 1D case is thoroughly investigated. The geometry of the submanifold of elliptic self-adjoint extensions {M}ellip is studied and it is shown that it is a Lagrangian submanifold of the universal Grassmannian Gr. The topology of {M}ellip is also explored and it is shown that there is a canonical cycle whose dual is the Maslov class of the manifold. Such cycle, called the Cayley surface, plays a relevant role in the study of the phenomena of topology change. Self-adjoint extensions of Laplace operators are discussed in the path integral formalism, identifying a class of them for which both treatments leads to the same results. A theory of dissipative quantum systems is proposed based on this theory and a unitarization theorem for such class of dissipative systems is proved. The theory of self-adjoint extensions with symmetry of Dirac operators is also discussed and a reduction theorem for the self-adjoint elliptic Grassmannian is obtained. Finally, an interpretation of spontaneous symmetry breaking is offered from the point of view of the theory of self-adjoint extensions.

  14. Learning Science, Learning about Science, Doing Science: Different Goals Demand Different Learning Methods

    Hodson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This opinion piece paper urges teachers and teacher educators to draw careful distinctions among four basic learning goals: learning science, learning about science, doing science and learning to address socio-scientific issues. In elaboration, the author urges that careful attention is paid to the selection of teaching/learning methods that…

  15. On the Spectra and Pseudospectra of a Class of Non-Self-Adjoint Random Matrices and Operators

    Chandler-Wilde, Simon N; Lindner, Marko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and apply methods for the spectral analysis of non-self-adjoint tridiagonal infinite and finite random matrices, and for the spectral analysis of analogous deterministic matrices which are pseudo-ergodic in the sense of E.B.Davies (Commun. Math. Phys. 216 (2001), 687-704). As a major application to illustrate our methods we focus on the "hopping sign model" introduced by J.Feinberg and A.Zee (Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999), 6433-6443), in which the main objects of study are random tridiagonal matrices which have zeros on the main diagonal and random $\\pm 1$'s as the other entries. We explore the relationship between spectral sets in the finite and infinite matrix cases, and between the semi-infinite and bi-infinite matrix cases, for example showing that the numerical range and $p$-norm $\\eps$-pseudospectra ($\\eps>0$, $p\\in [1,\\infty]$) of the random finite matrices converge almost surely to their infinite matrix counterparts, and that the finite matrix spectra are contained in the infinite ma...

  16. Non-analogue Monte Carlo method, application to neutron simulation

    With most of the traditional and contemporary techniques, it is still impossible to solve the transport equation if one takes into account a fully detailed geometry and if one studies precisely the interactions between particles and matters. Nowadays, only the Monte Carlo method offers such possibilities. However with significant attenuation, the natural simulation remains inefficient: it becomes necessary to use biasing techniques where the solution of the adjoint transport equation is essential. The Monte Carlo code Tripoli has been using such techniques successfully for a long time with different approximate adjoint solutions: these methods require from the user to find out some parameters. If this parameters are not optimal or nearly optimal, the biases simulations may bring about small figures of merit. This paper presents a description of the most important biasing techniques of the Monte Carlo code Tripoli ; then we show how to calculate the importance function for general geometry with multigroup cases. We present a completely automatic biasing technique where the parameters of the biased simulation are deduced from the solution of the adjoint transport equation calculated by collision probabilities. In this study we shall estimate the importance function through collision probabilities method and we shall evaluate its possibilities thanks to a Monte Carlo calculation. We compare different biased simulations with the importance function calculated by collision probabilities for one-group and multigroup problems. We have run simulations with new biasing method for one-group transport problems with isotropic shocks and for multigroup problems with anisotropic shocks. The results show that for the one-group and homogeneous geometry transport problems the method is quite optimal without splitting and russian roulette technique but for the multigroup and heterogeneous X-Y geometry ones the figures of merit are higher if we add splitting and russian roulette

  17. American method and comparison of the different methods of internal ballistics

    B. Patnaik

    1952-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Duc's method gave good results in almost all cases. But in all cases American ammunition was used in American guns and it is doubtful if the method would give equally good results when applied to British guns or British propellants. The advantage of Le Duc's method, however, in its simplicity compared with the other theoretical methods and the quickness with which results can be calculated by this method.

  18. Adjoint sensitivity in Electrical Impedance Tomography using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Mulckhuyse, W.F.W.; Lahaye, D.; Belitskaya, A.

    2012-01-01

    In 3D reconstruction problems the number of design variables is large and the forward model is typically computationally expensive. Reconstruction using gradient-based optimization algorithms requires many gradient computations. For such problems the computational cost of a finite difference approac

  19. Similarities and differences in the free radical generation by different irradiation methods

    Complete text of publication follows. The influence of biological treatment methods for water and air purification has been lead to the adaption of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). The hallmarks of an AOP process is the direct or indirect chemical activation of molecular oxygen ambient temperature in presence of a medium with very low pollutant concentration and this poses numerous challenges. The main characteristic of AOPs is the free radical generation. The energy of radical generation (the oxygen activation) is usually provided by VUV irradiation, radiolysis or an electron beam. Occasionally, moderately active form of oxygen (ozone or hydrogen peroxide) is used for radical generation. One of the remarkable sections of oxygen activation is realized by indirect way, typical pattern is the heterogeneous photocatalysis. The direct chemical methods for radical generation, like the Fenton reaction, rarely occurs. During the radical generation, one of the crucial questions relates to the first step of process, the charge separation and the subsequent transfer to oxygen molecule or to the target molecule. Another aspect in AOP application is the self-propagation process where chain reactions can be enhanced by the presence of peroxy-type radicals. AOP design requires the ratio of chain step rate to radical recombination rate should be increase, where possible. The optimization of self-preservation process requires a good level of understanding of the chemical mechanism of transformations and their reaction kinetic behavior for all of contaminants. Additional influencing factors of the efficiency of AOP treatment facilities include the reactor design and construction. All of these considerations warrant considerable investigation, exploration and case studies.

  20. An adjoint view on flux consistency and strong wall boundary conditions to the Navier-Stokes equations

    Stück, Arthur

    2015-11-01

    Inconsistent discrete expressions in the boundary treatment of Navier-Stokes solvers and in the definition of force objective functionals can lead to discrete-adjoint boundary treatments that are not a valid representation of the boundary conditions to the corresponding adjoint partial differential equations. The underlying problem is studied for an elementary 1D advection-diffusion problem first using a node-centred finite-volume discretisation. The defect of the boundary operators in the inconsistently defined discrete-adjoint problem leads to oscillations and becomes evident with the additional insight of the continuous-adjoint approach. A homogenisation of the discretisations for the primal boundary treatment and the force objective functional yields second-order functional accuracy and eliminates the defect in the discrete-adjoint boundary treatment. Subsequently, the issue is studied for aerodynamic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes problems in conjunction with a standard finite-volume discretisation on median-dual grids and a strong implementation of noslip walls, found in many unstructured general-purpose flow solvers. Going out from a base-line discretisation of force objective functionals which is independent of the boundary treatment in the flow solver, two improved flux-consistent schemes are presented; based on either body wall-defined or farfield-defined control-volumes they resolve the dual inconsistency. The behaviour of the schemes is investigated on a sequence of grids in 2D and 3D.