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Sample records for adjacent pericarcinomatous foci

  1. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  2. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  3. Regulatory foci and the big five

    Bak, Waclaw

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between promotion and prevention focus (Higgins, 1997) have been employed by many researchers dealing with processes of self-regulation. Little is known however about relations between regulatory orientations and more general personality traits. The present paper reports results of the study in which regulatory foci are analyzed in the context of five factor model of personality. To measure personality traits the NEO-FFI was used. Promotion and prevention regulatory foci was a...

  4. Localized air foci in the lower thorax in the patients with pneumothorax: Skip pneumothoraces

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and imaging features of localized air foci in the lower thorax in patients with pneumothorax using thin-section multidetector computed tomography. Materials and methods: Of 10,547 consecutive CT examinations comprising the chest, the CT scans of 146 patients with ordinary pneumothoraces were identified and retrospectively evaluated. The study group included 110 male and 36 female patients (mean age, 50 years; range, 1–93 years). All examinations were performed at our institution between January 2009 and December 2009. Cause of pneumothorax was classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. Localized air foci in the lower thorax were defined as being localized air collections in the lower thorax that did not appear to be adjacent to the lung. If these criteria were met, the shape, size, location laterality, and number of foci were evaluated. Associations with trauma, sex, severity of the pneumothorax, and laterality were evaluated using the χ2 test. All P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Localized air foci in the lower thorax presented as slit-like or small ovoid air collections in the lowest part of the pleural space. These foci were observed in 79/146 (54.1%) patients. The traumatic pneumothoraces group showed a higher prevalence of these features than the non-traumatic group. Some foci that were situated in the anterior part mimicked the appearance of free intraperitoneal air. Conclusion: Patients with pneumothorax commonly had localized air foci in the lower thorax. Because such foci can mimic pneumoperitoneum, accurate recognition of them is required to avoid confusion with free intraperitoneal air, especially in traumatic cases

  5. Localized air foci in the lower thorax in the patients with pneumothorax: Skip pneumothoraces

    Higuchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Takahashi, Naoya, E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takao, E-mail: takakig@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Shiotani, Motoi, E-mail: Shiotani14@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Niigata Cancer Center Hospital, 2-15-3 Chuo-ku, Kawagishicho, Niigata 951-8566 (Japan); Maeda, Haruo, E-mail: h-maeda@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and imaging features of localized air foci in the lower thorax in patients with pneumothorax using thin-section multidetector computed tomography. Materials and methods: Of 10,547 consecutive CT examinations comprising the chest, the CT scans of 146 patients with ordinary pneumothoraces were identified and retrospectively evaluated. The study group included 110 male and 36 female patients (mean age, 50 years; range, 1–93 years). All examinations were performed at our institution between January 2009 and December 2009. Cause of pneumothorax was classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. Localized air foci in the lower thorax were defined as being localized air collections in the lower thorax that did not appear to be adjacent to the lung. If these criteria were met, the shape, size, location laterality, and number of foci were evaluated. Associations with trauma, sex, severity of the pneumothorax, and laterality were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test. All P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Localized air foci in the lower thorax presented as slit-like or small ovoid air collections in the lowest part of the pleural space. These foci were observed in 79/146 (54.1%) patients. The traumatic pneumothoraces group showed a higher prevalence of these features than the non-traumatic group. Some foci that were situated in the anterior part mimicked the appearance of free intraperitoneal air. Conclusion: Patients with pneumothorax commonly had localized air foci in the lower thorax. Because such foci can mimic pneumoperitoneum, accurate recognition of them is required to avoid confusion with free intraperitoneal air, especially in traumatic cases.

  6. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Adjacent segment disease.

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  8. Gordian adjacency for torus knots

    Feller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A knot K is called Gordian adjacent to a knot L if there exists an unknotting sequence for L containing K. We provide a sufficient condition for Gordian adjacency of torus knots via the study of knots in the thickened torus. We also completely describe Gordian adjacency for torus knots of index 2 and 3 using Levine-Tristram signatures as obstructions to Gordian adjacency. Finally, Gordian adjacency for torus knots is compared to the notion of adjacency for plane curve singularities.

  9. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, th...

  10. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  11. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  12. Molecular mechanisms in DM1 - a focus on foci

    Pettersson, Olof Joakim; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G.; Damgaard, Christian Kroun

    2015-01-01

    -expanded RNA remains in the nuclear compartment, while in dividing cells such as fibroblasts a considerable fraction of the mutant RNA reaches the cytoplasm, consistent with findings that both nuclear and cytoplasmic events are mis-regulated in DM1. Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear aggregates, or...... ribonuclear foci, are more dynamic than previously anticipated and regulated by several proteins, including RNA helicases. In this review, we focus on the homeostasis of DMPK mRNA foci and discuss how their dynamic regulation may affect disease-causing mechanisms in DM1...

  13. Multiple hepatic foci in latent porphyria cutanea tarda

    A 41-year-old patient with latent porphyria cutanea tarda is described; 8 years after mastectomy for carcinoma, sonography and CT showed multiple hepatic foci, which were at first interpreted as liver metastases. A liver biopsy was carried out during laparoscopy and u/v fluorescence and subsequent laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Treatment with Resochin produced almost complete resolution of the liver abnormalities within 9 months. Magnetic resonance tomography using proton-weighted SE sequences showed a few foci of high signal intensity. (orig.)

  14. Multiple hepatic foci in latent porphyria cutanea tarda

    Kerjes, W.; Harder, T.; Steudel, A.; Hartlapp, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    A 41-year-old patient with latent porphyria cutanea tarda is described; 8 years after mastectomy for carcinoma, sonography and CT showed multiple hepatic foci, which were at first interpreted as liver metastases. A liver biopsy was carried out during laparoscopy and u/v fluorescence and subsequent laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Treatment with Resochin produced almost complete resolution of the liver abnormalities within 9 months. Magnetic resonance tomography using proton-weighted SE sequences showed a few foci of high signal intensity.

  15. Three-dimensional array foci of generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    Zhang, Junyong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2015-01-01

    We present a new kind of photon sieves on the basis of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. The required numbers and locations of axial foci can be designed by generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS). Furthermore, the three-dimensional array foci can be controllable and adjustable by the optical path difference scaling factor (OPDSF) when the amplitude modulation is replaced with the phase modulation. Multi-focal technologies can be applied to nano-imaging, THZ, laser communications, direct laser writing, optical tweezers or atom trapping, etc.

  16. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells.

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  17. Optical imaging of visual cortex epileptic foci and propagation pathways.

    Haglund, Michael M

    2012-06-01

    Precise localization of neocortical epileptic foci is a complex problem that usually requires ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings; high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies; and/or invasive monitoring with implanted grid array electrodes. The exact ictal-onset site must be identified and removed to obtain the best opportunity for a seizure-free outcome. The goal of this study was to determine if high-resolution optical imaging could precisely identify neocortical epileptic foci and what role underlying neuroanatomic pathways played in the seizure propagation. Small acute epileptic foci (0.5 × 0.5 mm(2) ) were created in the primate visual neocortex and single-unit and surface EEG recordings were combined with optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye changes. Brief visual stimulation was used to evoke interictal bursts. In addition, different visually evoked epileptiform bursts were analyzed to determine the location of the epileptic focus. Spike-triggered averaging of the optical images associated with the surface EEG interictal bursts were analyzed to determine the exact location of the epileptic focus. Specific orientations of brief visual stimulation evoked different intensity optical changes and precisely localized the epileptic focus. Optical imaging identified individual epileptic foci that were <3 mm apart. The development of individual epileptic focus was monitored with optical imaging, which demonstrated excitatory activity at the focus with a surrounding zone of inhibitory-like activity. Propagation pathways outside of the inhibitory-like surround demonstrated alternating bands of excitation and inhibition with a pattern orthogonal to the ocular dominance columns. This experimental study demonstrates that optical imaging can precisely localize an epileptic focus, and provides excellent spatial resolution of the changes that

  18. Image-based modeling of radiation-induced foci

    Costes, Sylvain; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chen, James; Chou, William; Gascard, Philippe

    Several proteins involved in the response to DNA double strand breaks (DSB) form microscopically visible nuclear domains, or foci, after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced foci (RIF) are believed to be located where DNA damage occurs. To test this assumption, we used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the spatial distribution of DSB in human nuclei exposed to high or low-LET radiation. We then compared these predictions to the distribution patterns of three DNA damage sensing proteins, i.e. 53BP1, phosphorylated ATM and γH2AX in human mammary epithelial. The probability to induce DSB can be derived from DNA fragment data measured experimentally by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We first used this probability in Monte Carlo simulations to predict DSB locations in synthetic nuclei geometrically described by a complete set of human chromosomes, taking into account microscope optics from real experiments. Simulations showed a very good agreement for high-LET, predicting 0.7 foci/µm along the path of a 1 GeV/amu Fe particle against measurement of 0.69 to 0.82 foci/µm for various RIF 5 min following exposure (LET 150 keV/µm). On the other hand, discrepancies were shown in foci frequency for low-LET, with measurements 20One drawback using a theoretical model for the nucleus is that it assumes a simplistic and static pattern for DNA densities. However DNA damage pattern is highly correlated to DNA density pattern (i.e. the more DNA, the more likely to have a break). Therefore, we generalized our Monte Carlo approach to real microscope images, assuming pixel intensity of DAPI in the nucleus was directly proportional to the amount of DNA in that pixel. With such approach we could predict DNA damage pattern in real images on a per nucleus basis. Since energy is randomly deposited along high-LET particle paths, RIF along these paths should also be randomly distributed. As expected, simulations produced DNA-weighted random (Poisson) distributions. In

  19. [Foci of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Mesostigmata, Macronyssidae) and rat-mite dermatitis in Moscow].

    Lopatina, Iu V; Sokolova, T V; Niiazova, M V

    1992-01-01

    High density of the rat population in Moscow in 1990-1991 resulted in the appearance of Ornithonyssus bacoti foci and of cases of the rat-mite dermatitis in humans. A total of 36 foci of the disease were examined and eradicated. A method for the detection of such foci has been developed. Two types of foci are distinguished, communal and industrial, and their specific features as regards the rodent and mite populations and clinical features of dermatitis in humans are described. A system of measures for liquidation of foci of rat mites is suggested, including rat and mite eradication and treatment of the patients. Specific features of these measures for various types of foci and in case of a focus reappearance are enumerated. PMID:1299760

  20. Ultramicrostructure and clinical implications of satellite foci in front of the head of pterygium

    LIU Haixia; XIANG Nan; ZHOU Xiongwu; HU Weikun; LI Guigang; ZHANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    In our previous studies,grey satellite foci were found in the front of heads of pterygia.This research was designed to investigate the ultramicrostructure and clinical implications of these satellite foci.The satellite foci were observed and counted under slit lamp biomicroscope.The patients with eye pterygia were divided into groups in terms of occupation,sex,age,length of history,grade of congestion,and size of the heads.The SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis.The cap areas and satellite foci were ultramicrostructurally examined.Among the total 62 eyes with pterygium,satellite foci were found in 34.The overall incidence of satellite foci was 54.8%.There were no significant differences in incidence among the subjects of different sex,age,and length of history.There were significant differences in incidence among the patients of different occupation,grades of congestion,and size of heads.Higher grades of congestion,outdoor occupations and larger pterygium heads were associated with higher incidence of satellite foci.High grades of congestion and bigger heads were also correlated with the number of satellite foci.Length of history bore no correlation with number of satellite foci.Histologically,the components of the cap areas and the foci were identical,with both consisting of mass of active fibroblasts.The activated fibroblasts existed in the natural tissue planes between Bowman's layer and basal cell layer.The fibroblasts in the satellite foci and the cap areas of a pterygium show some features of tumor cells and may play a vital role in the development and progression of a pterygium.The presence and amount of satellite foci around a pterygium can be used as an indicator for the speed of its growth.

  1. Incidental high-intensity foci in white matter on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    The clinical significance of high-intensity foci in the white matter on magnetic resonance images of the brain was studied in 351 adults. The foci frequently occurred in the corona radiata and centrum semiovale. The frequency and extent of the foci were closely related to age and to a previous history of cerebrovascular disease. Patients without such a history but with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. Patients without such a history but with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease tended to have these foci more frequently than those without risk factors. (orig.)

  2. Alterations of pH and Pi in seizure foci of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Previous investigations with positron-emission tomography have demonstrated that glucose uptake is diminished in seizure foci. This paper reports on P-31 MR studies performed on patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in order to determine if metabolic alterations were detectablein seizure foci. In seven of eight patients, the pH of the seizure foci was significantly higher than the pH of the control temporal lobe. In addition, the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration was significantly higher in the seizure foci. These metabolic changes indicate that P-31 MR spectroscopymight be useful in the investigation of epilepsy

  3. Multistability in Chua's circuit with two stable node-foci

    Bao, B. C.; Li, Q. D.; Wang, N.; Xu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    Only using one-stage op-amp based negative impedance converter realization, a simplified Chua's diode with positive outer segment slope is introduced, based on which an improved Chua's circuit realization with more simpler circuit structure is designed. The improved Chua's circuit has identical mathematical model but completely different nonlinearity to the classical Chua's circuit, from which multiple attractors including coexisting point attractors, limit cycle, double-scroll chaotic attractor, or coexisting chaotic spiral attractors are numerically simulated and experimentally captured. Furthermore, with dimensionless Chua's equations, the dynamical properties of the Chua's system are studied including equilibrium and stability, phase portrait, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and attraction basin. The results indicate that the system has two symmetric stable nonzero node-foci in global adjusting parameter regions and exhibits the unusual and striking dynamical behavior of multiple attractors with multistability.

  4. Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Containing Multiple Calcifed Foci: Unusual Presentation

    Leila Aghaghazvini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Schwannomas are benign neural tumors which arise from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the accessory nerve are rare lesions. The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI schwannomas relates to their location and extent: intracranial, jugular foramen, upper neck, or cervical spine. The extra cranial form is the least common reported. Calcified accessory schwannoma is rare. These lesions most often occur in the third to sixth decades of life. These tumors are slightly more common in women. "nCase presentation: We present a 37-year-old woman with a painless right posterior neck space mass which gradually appeared during one year. Except for mild numbness of the overlying skin of the mentioned mass, there were no other associated symptoms. Examination confirmed a 25 × 18mm, firm, mobile, non tender lump in the right posterior neck. Ultrasonography revealed a 30×20 mm hypo-echoic mass with multiple calcified foci and in color Doppler mild vascularity was detected. On contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck a 30×18mm heterogeneous enhancing mass with multiple calcified foci (on non contrast cuts was found posterior to the neck vessels and had displaced them anteriorly. No surrounding fat stranding or any other gross pathology was evident in the other neck spaces. "nAccording to the above findings, lymphadenopathy due to TB or less possibly, fungal infection, hemangioma, lymphangiomam, schwannoma were our differential diagnosis. Mass resection and histopathology revealed schwannoma of the accessory nerve with an unusual calcification presentation. No evidence of recurrence was detected after one year. "nDiscussion: The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI Schwannomas relates to their location and extent. The interesting point of this case was the unusual manifestation of accessory nerve schwannoma, not only because of its rarity but also because of its unusual calcification presentation and symptom-free appearance.  

  5. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data.

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J; Alegana, Victor A; Caughlin, T Trevor; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Smith, David L

    2016-04-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model. PMID:27043913

  6. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J.; Alegana, Victor A.; Caughlin, T. Trevor; zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W.; Smith, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model. PMID:27043913

  7. Theoretical and empirical linkages between workrelated commitment foci

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available No study has been reported thus far in the commitment literature which clarifies the relationship between six workrelated foci on a comparable theoretical basis. Such a comparison was made possible by the development of six instruments to operationalise involvement, commitment towards work, job, occupation, career, union and school as cognitive predispositions. A random, proportionally stratified sample of 510 teachers was drawn from 184 schools and a population of 4166 teachers from a previous provincial department of education. Only 279 of the 385 usuable questionnaires were fully completed and used for final analysis. A second-order factor analysis yielded four factors which explain about 66 of the total variance. These factors named "workaholism", "organisational-related involvement, commitment", "union commitment", and "work-related alienation" seem to be relative independent factors. No support for the existence of six separate foci could be found. Opsomming Geen studie is tot dusver in die verbondenheidliteratuur gerapporteer wat die verhouding tussen ses werkverwante foki op 'n vergelykbare teoretiese basis ophelder nie. So 'n vergelyking is moontlik gemaak deur die ontwikkeling van ses instrumente om betrokkenheid, verbondenheid tot werk, pos, beroep, loopbaan, vakbond en skool as kognitiewe predisposisies te operasionaliseer. 'n Ewekansige, proporsioneel-gestratifiseerde steekproef van 510 onderwysers is by 184 skole en 'n populasie van 4166 onderwysers van 'n vorige provinsiale onderwysdepartement getrek. Slegs 279 van die 385 bruikbare vraelyste was volledig voltooi en is vir finale ontleding gebruik. 'n Tweedeorde-faktorontleding het vier faktore opgelewer wat ongeveer 66 van die totale variansie verklaar. Hierdie faktore is "werkbeheptheid", "organisasie-verwante betrokkenheid/verbondenheid", "vakbondverbondenheid" en "werk-verwante vervreemding" genoem wat skynbaar relatief-onafhanklike faktore is. Geen steun vir die bestaan van

  8. DIBROMOETHANE EFFECTS ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYL-TRANSPEPTIDASE POSITIVE FOCI IN RAT LIVER

    The initiating and promoting activities of 1.2-dibromoethane in rat liver were investigated using the enzyme-altered foci bioassay. The incidence of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci was used as an early histochemical marker for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine ...

  9. Migratory marker expression in fibroblast foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Ennas Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast foci (FF are considered a relevant morphologic marker of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP, and are recognised as sites where fibrotic responses are initiated and/or perpetuated in this severe disease. Despite their relevance, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the formation of FF and their role in tissue remodelling are poorly defined. In previous studies we have provided evidence of abnormal activation of the wnt-signaling-pathway in IPF/UIP that is centred on FF and the overlying epithelium. This important morphogenetic pathway is able to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT, a mechanism involved in developmental and metastatic processes, which is also potentially involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Since EMT is characterised by enhancement of migratory potential of cells, we investigated the molecular profile of FF in 30 biopsies of IPF/UIP and a variety of control samples, focussing on the immunohistochemical expression of three molecules involved in cell motility and invasiveness, namely laminin-5-γ2-chain, fascin, and heat-shock-protein-27. Results We provide evidence that in UIP these three molecules are abnormally expressed in discrete clusters of bronchiolar basal cells precisely localised in FF. These cellular clusters expressed laminin-5-γ2-chain and heat-shock-protein-27 at very high levels, forming characteristic three-layered lesions defined as "sandwich-foci" (SW-FF. Upon quantitative analysis SW-FF were present in 28/30 UIP samples, representing more than 50% of recognisable FF in 21/30, but were exceedingly rare in a wide variety of lung pathologies examined as controls. In UIP, SW-FF were often observed in areas of microscopic honeycombing, and were also found at the interface between normal lung tissue and areas of dense scarring. Conclusion These molecular abnormalities strongly suggest that SW-FF represent the leading edge of

  10. Preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging, electrocorticography, surgery and pathology

    Objective: The value of preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging was investigated. Methods: The study population consisted of 23 patients with intractable partial seizures which was difficult to control with anticonvulsant for long period. In order to preoperatively locate the epileptic foci, double SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed during interictal and ictal stage. The foci were confirmed with electrocorticography (EcoG), surgery and pathology. Results: The author checked with EcoG the foci shown by SPECT, 23 patients had all typical spike discharge. The regions of radioactivity increase in ictal matched with the abnormal electrical activity areas that EcoG showed. The spike wave originated in the corresponding cerebrum cortex instead of hyperplastic and adherent arachnoid or tumor itself. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging contributes to distinguishing location, size, perfusion and functioning of epileptogenic foci, and has some directive function on to making out a treatment programme at preoperation

  11. Radioimmunoguided imaging of prostate cancer foci with histopathological correlation

    Purpose: We have previously presented a technique that fuses ProstaScint and pelvic CT images for the purpose of designing brachytherapy that targets areas at high risk for treatment failure. We now correlate areas of increased intensity seen on ProstaScint-CT fusion images to biopsy results in a series of 7 patients to evaluate the accuracy of this technique in localizing intraprostatic disease. Methods and Materials: The 7 patients included in this study were evaluated between June 1998 and March 29, 1999 at Metrohealth Medical Center and University Hospitals of Cleveland in Cleveland, Ohio. ProstaScint and CT scans of each patient were obtained before transperineal biopsy and seed implantation. Each patient's prostate gland was biopsied at 12 separate sites determined independently of Prostascint-CT scan results. Results: When correlated with biopsy results, our method yielded an overall accuracy of 80%: with a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 68%, and a negative predictive value of 88%. Conclusion: The image fusion of the pelvic CT scan and ProstaScint scan helped identify foci of adenocarcinoma within the prostate that correlated well with biopsy results. These data may be useful to escalate doses in regions containing tumor by either high-dose rate or low-dose rate brachytherapy, as well as by external beam techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

  12. Irradiation induced foci (IRIF) as a biomarker for radiosensitivity

    Goodarzi, Aaron A. [Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom); Jeggo, Penny A., E-mail: p.a.jeggo@sussex.ac.uk [Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    It has long been known that the level of radiosensitivity between individuals covers a considerable range. This range is reflected in analysis of patient cell lines with some cell lines showing significantly reduced sensitivity to in vitro radiation exposure. Our increased exposure to radiation from diagnostic medical procedures and other life style changes has raised concerns that there may be individuals who are at an elevated risk from the harmful impact of acute or chronic low dose radiation exposure. Additionally, a subset of patients show an enhanced normal tissue response following radiotherapy, which can cause significant discomfort and, at the extreme, be life threatening. It has long been realised that the ability to identify sensitive individuals and to understand the mechanistic basis underlying the range of sensitivity within the population is important. A reduced ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and/or activate the DSB damage response underlies some, although not necessarily all, of this sensitivity. In this article, we consider the utility of the recently developed {gamma}H2AX foci analysis to provide insight into radiation sensitivity within the population. We consider the nature of sensitivity including the impact of radiation on cell survival, tissue responses and carcinogenesis and the range of responses within the population. We overview the current utility of the {gamma}H2AX assay for assessing the efficacy of the DNA damage response to low and high dose radiation and its potential future exploitation.

  13. Irradiation induced foci (IRIF) as a biomarker for radiosensitivity

    It has long been known that the level of radiosensitivity between individuals covers a considerable range. This range is reflected in analysis of patient cell lines with some cell lines showing significantly reduced sensitivity to in vitro radiation exposure. Our increased exposure to radiation from diagnostic medical procedures and other life style changes has raised concerns that there may be individuals who are at an elevated risk from the harmful impact of acute or chronic low dose radiation exposure. Additionally, a subset of patients show an enhanced normal tissue response following radiotherapy, which can cause significant discomfort and, at the extreme, be life threatening. It has long been realised that the ability to identify sensitive individuals and to understand the mechanistic basis underlying the range of sensitivity within the population is important. A reduced ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and/or activate the DSB damage response underlies some, although not necessarily all, of this sensitivity. In this article, we consider the utility of the recently developed γH2AX foci analysis to provide insight into radiation sensitivity within the population. We consider the nature of sensitivity including the impact of radiation on cell survival, tissue responses and carcinogenesis and the range of responses within the population. We overview the current utility of the γH2AX assay for assessing the efficacy of the DNA damage response to low and high dose radiation and its potential future exploitation.

  14. WNT7B in fibroblastic foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Meuten Travis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating interstitial pneumonia causing a loss of respiratory surface area due to a proliferative fibrotic response involving hyperplastic, hypertrophic, and metaplastic epithelium, cystic honeycomb change, septal expansion, and variable inflammation. Wnt (wingless signaling glycoproteins are known to be involved in lung development and tissue repair, and are up-regulated in patients with IPF. Based on previous qRT-PCR data showing increased Wnt7B in lungs of IPF patients, a systematic, quantitative examination of its tissue site distribution was undertaken. Methods Tissue samples from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC of 39 patients diagnosed with mild to severe IPF/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and 19 normal patients were examined for the immunolocalization of Wnt7B. Results In normal lung, moderate Wnt7B reactivity was confined to airway epithelium, smooth muscle of airways and vasculature, and macrophages. IPF lung showed strong Wnt7B reactivity in fibroblastic foci, dysplastic airway and alveolar epithelium, and in highly discrete subepithelial, basement membrane-associated regions. All reactive sites were sized and counted relative to specific microscopic regions. Those in the subepithelial sites were found in significantly greater numbers and larger relative area compared with the others. No reactive sites were present in normal patient controls. Conclusions The results demonstrate Wnt7B to be expressed at high concentrations in regions of active hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrotic change in IPF patients. In this context and its previously established biologic activities, Wnt7B would be expected to be of potential importance in the pathogenesis of IPF.

  15. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    azoxymethane (AOM) (5 mg/kg body weight) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCI) (20 mg/kg body weight), respectively, one dose a week for two weeks, Animals were killed after four and 10 weeks, After four weeks only the mice dosed with IQ and PhIP had aberrant crypt foci, A much higher number of...... induced a higher percentage of medium or large sized aberrant crypt foci than PhIP or IQ, The interpretation of the aberrant crypt foci as precursor lesions for colon cancer in the PhIP and IQ mice is difficult because PhIP and IQ have not been reported to be colonic carcinogens, If cooked food mutagens...... such as IQ or PhIP are to be used as initiators in the aberrant crypt foci test, the use of rats may be preferable....

  16. Concordance and discordance between PET images and foci of scalp EEG

    Epileptic foci were determined by scalp EEG and positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine 18 in 22 children with partial epilepsy (PE, n=13) and Lennoxy-Gastaut syndrome (LGS, n=9). The patients ranged in age from 6 to 18 years. The pattern of hypometabolism was classified into the following 4 categories: non-focal, localized, hemispheric, and diffuse. In the group of PE patients, 11 showed a relative agreement between the EEG foci and region of a low cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) determined by PET. A decreased CMRglc was matched with the EEG foci in 4 patients with LGS. A tendency of a higher relationship between the EEG foci and PET images was significant in PE than LGS. (N.K.)

  17. Ontogenetic development of transition of interictal activity of cortical foci into ictal phases

    Mareš, Pavel

    (2007). [WONOEP /9./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Teluk Nibong, Langkawi ] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interictal activity * cortical foci * development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  18. An empirical test of multiple foci of commitment in a work team environment

    Bishop, James Wallace

    1995-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been recognized as a multiple foci phenomenon with two of the more important foci being the work team and the organization as a whole. That organizational and team commitment can vary differentially has been established. However, research has not attempted to determine the antecedents that may cause them to do so. At the same time, a number of constructs that have been explored as antecedents of organizational commitment have also been recognized as having partic...

  19. Homogenizing the dose for adjacent fields

    Difficulties are found in radiotherapy in the determination of the gap which should be left among adjacent fields on the skin. In order to homogenize the dose at a given depth, measurements are done with a wood phantom using films, thermoluminescent dosemeters and ionization chambers. Field match is checked according to tables related in the literature and experimental data. Two tables of field separation are built at various depths, one for simultaneous adjacent fields and the other for non-simultaneous adjacent fields. Tables must be checked and the additional distances corrected for each field

  20. Tall gastrodis tuber combined with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in focal epilepsy

    Weimin Wang; Zhenyu Fan; Yongqin Zhang; Yuxia Yang; Yaqing Liu; Xiaoli Dang; Wenjun Song; Yinping Wu; Jiang Ye

    2013-01-01

    One hundred patients with focal epilepsy were recruited for the present study and their seizures controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The patients then orally received a capsule of tall gastrodis tuber powder, a traditional Chinese drug, and underwent single photon emission computed tomography, long-term electroencephalogram, and CT/MRI. Blood drug levels were monitored throughout the study. Before treatment with tall gastrodis tuber, 35 of the 100 cases had abnormal CT/MRI scans; 79 cases had abnormal single photon emission computed tomography images; 86 cases had abnormal electroencephalogram; and a total of 146 abnormal perfusion foci were observed across the 100 subjects. After treatment, the number of patients with normal single photon emission computed tomography images increased by 12; normal electroencephalogram was observed in an additional 27 cases and the number of patients with epileptiform discharge decreased by 29 (34% of 86); the total number of abnormal perfusion foci decreased by 52 (36%) and changes in abnormal foci were visible in 65 patients. These changes indicate that the administration of tall gastrodis tuber in combination with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in patients with focal epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that traditional Chinese drugs can repair abnormal perfusion foci and, as such, are a promising new pathway in the treatment of focal epilepsy.

  1. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  2. A Review of Impact of Bam Earthquake on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Status: Epidemic of Old Foci, Emergence of New Foci and Changes in Features of the Disease

    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global findings indicate that incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has significantly in­creased during the past decade, as documented in many countries. This review was aimed to evaluate the trend of CL cases in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics during a decade after the earthquake (2003–2012 com­pared to the corresponding period before the earthquake in Bam (1993–2003.Methods: Direct smear preparations along with different intrinsic methods were used for detection and identification of the causative agents.Results: Overall, 20999 cases of CL have occurred during the last 20 years (1993–2012, 6731 cases before and 14268 cases after the earthquake (P< 0.001.Conclusions: Following a major earthquake, several risk factors could activate epidemics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in old foci and induce emerging foci in new areas.

  3. Detect Adjacent Well by Analyzing Geomagnetic Anomalies

    Su Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a method of determining the position of adjacent well by analyzing geomagnetic anomalies in the drilling. In the experiment, put a casing in the geomagnetic field respectively to simulate 3 conditions, which are vertical well, deviated well and horizontal well. Study the interference of regional geomagnetic caused by casing, summary the law of the regional geomagnetic field anomalies caused by the adjacent casing. Experimental results show that: magnetic intensity distortion caused by deviated well is similar to that caused by horizontal well, but the distortion is different from vertical well. The scope and amplitude of N and E component magnetic intensity distortion will increase with the increase of casing inclination, meanwhile the scope and amplitude of V component distortion will decrease and the distortion value changes from negative to positive to the southwest of adjacent well. Through the analysis of geomagnetic anomalies, the position of the adjacent wells could be determined.

  4. Effect of microwave and ionizing radiation on formation of DNA of repair foci in lymphocytes from cord blood

    Different types of radiation are affecting us nowadays. Electromagnetic radiation which is produced mainly by mobile phones, Wi-fi and base stations is affecting us practically all of the time. Long term effects of this type of radiation are not fully examined. It is very important to know effects of radiation that influence us so much like electromagnetic radiation. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious types of DNA damage. Several proteins involved in DNA repair and DNA damage signaling have been shown to produce discrete foci in response to ionizing radiation. These foci are believed to co-localize to DSB and referred to as ionizing radiation-induced foci or DNA repair foci. Ionizing radiation is known to induce formation of radiation induced foci which are very hard to analyze exactly. That's why the second aim of this work was to compare two automatized systems for analysis of DNA repair foci, METAFER and ImageStream. (authors)

  5. Adjacency Algebra of Unitary Cayley Graph

    A. Satyanarayana Reddy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A few properties of unitary Cayley graphs are explored using their eigenvalues. It is shown that the adjacency algebra of a unitary Cayley graph is a coherent algebra. Finally, a class of unitary Cayley graphs that are distance regular are also obtained.Key Words: Adjacency Algebra, Circulant Graph, Coherent Algebra, Distance Regular Graph,Ramanujan's sum .AMS(2010: 05C25, 05C50

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in relation to EEG epileptic foci in tuberous sclerosis

    In 20 patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS), who were sequentially treated for epilepsy at our clinic, the high signal lesions in the cerebral cortex and subcortex detected on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with the interictal EEG findings. In four cases who showed a unilateral distribution of the MRI lesions, there was a good correlation between the laterality of the affected lobes and the localization of the EEG epileptic foci. Thirteen cases with more than four affected lobes in both hemispheres also showed bilateral epileptic foci on EEG. The MRI lesions in the occipital lobes showed the best correlation with the EEG epileptic foci, while the worst correlation was seen in the frontal lobes. In addition, the cases with four or more affected lobes without laterality on MRI are more likely to show bilateral synchronization on EEG. The prognosis of epilepsy in these cases was found to be rather poor. (author)

  7. DNA damage foci in mitosis are devoid of 53BP1.

    Nelson, Glyn; Buhmann, Matthias; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2009-10-15

    Nuclear DNA damage foci indicate ongoing DNA damage response, which is the major inducer of cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis. 53BP1 is one central mediator of the DNA damage response and a component of active DNA damage foci. Using an AcGFP-53BP1c fluorescent fusion protein that quantitatively reports DNA damage, we show that the recruitment of 53BP1 into gammaH2A.X-containing DNA damage foci was inhibited at G(2)/M. This suggests a possible mechanism for cells to continue through the G(2) checkpoint with gammaH2A.X-flagged double strand breaks via inhibition of 53BP1-mediated DNA damage signalling. PMID:19806024

  8. FOCIS: A forest classification and inventory system using LANDSAT and digital terrain data

    Strahler, A. H.; Franklin, J.; Woodcook, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate, cost-effective stratification of forest vegetation and timber inventory is the primary goal of a Forest Classification and Inventory System (FOCIS). Conventional timber stratification using photointerpretation can be time-consuming, costly, and inconsistent from analyst to analyst. FOCIS was designed to overcome these problems by using machine processing techniques to extract and process tonal, textural, and terrain information from registered LANDSAT multispectral and digital terrain data. Comparison of samples from timber strata identified by conventional procedures showed that both have about the same potential to reduce the variance of timber volume estimates over simple random sampling.

  9. Dynamics of replication foci in early S-phase as visualized by cross-correlation function

    Mašata, Martin; Malínský, Jan; Fidlerová, Helena; Smirnov, Evgeny; Raška, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2005), s. 61-68. ISSN 1047-8477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/1121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Replication sites * Replication foci * Replication timing Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  10. Genetic micro-heterogeneity of Leishmania major in emerging foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Attia, Hanene; Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Bali, Aymen; Schweynoch, Carola; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Mkannez, Ghada; Chlif, Sadok; Belhaj-Hamida, Nabil; Dellagi, Koussay; Schönian, Gabriele; Laouini, Dhafer

    2016-09-01

    Tunisia is endemic for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) major. ZCL displays a wide clinical polymorphism, with severe forms present more frequently in emerging foci where naive populations are dominant. In this study, we applied the multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) using ten highly informative and discriminative markers to investigate the genetic structure of 35 Tunisian Leishmania (L.) major isolates collected from patients living in five different foci of Central Tunisia (two old and three emerging foci). Phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances showed that nine of the ten tested loci were homogeneous in all isolates with homozygous alleles, whereas one locus (71AT) had a 58/64-bp bi-allelic profile with an allele linked to emerging foci. Promastigote-stage parasites with the 58-bp allele tend to be more resistant to in vitro complement lysis. These results, which stress the geographical dependence of the genetic micro-heterogeneity, may improve our understanding of the ZCL epidemiology and clinical outcome. PMID:27137082

  11. Repair of abnormal perfusion foci in idiopathic epilepsy patients under long-term antiepileptic treatment

    Weimin Wang; Siyu Zhao; Yaqing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizure control and the disappearance of epileptiform discharge are not indicative of the absence of abnormal perfusion foci.Perfusion abnormalities are a major cause of epileptic discharge, and the existence of abnormal perfusion foci implies possible relapse.Very little is known about perfusion abnormality repair in epilepsy.The present study selected 43 cases of idiopathic epilepsy under antiepileptic drug control for an average of 24 months.Comparisons between interictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT)images and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) pre- and post-treatment showed that cases of normal SPECT increased by 48% (12/25) following treatment, with a total number of 15 reduced foci (36%, 15/41).Perfusion foci, i.e., region of interest, were altered following treatment.These changes included:normal to abnormal in 3 cases (7%, 3/43; 2 hyperperfusion and 1 hypoperfusion); abnormal to normal in 14 cases (32%, 14/43; 10 pre-treatment hypoperfusion and 4 hyperperfusion); abnormal to abnormal in 7 cases (16%, 7/43; hyperperfusion to hypoperfusion in 5 cases, hypoperfusion to hyperperfusion in 2 cases).Long-term EEG revealed in an increase in the number of normal cases by 20 (40%, 20/39), and there were 25 fewer cases with epileptiform discharges (66%, 25/38).These findings demonstrate that long-term control of anti-epileptic drugs partially repaired cerebral perfusion abnormalities and reduced epileptiform discharges in idiopathic epilepsy.

  12. Expanding the Foci of Activity Theory: Accessing the Broader Contexts and Experiences of Mathematics Education Reform

    Venkat, Hamsa; Adler, Jill

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider our use of activity theory to examine empirical data from a study of reform in England--the implementation of the mathematics strand of the Key Stage 3 Strategy in two schools. Our concerns are largely methodological--we consider the aspects of reform that more traditional activity theory methods and foci were able to…

  13. Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-Induced Foci (IRIF). The assembly of proteins at the DSB-flanking chromatin occurs in a highly ordered and strictly hierarchical fashion. To a large extent, this is achieved by regulation of protein-protein interactions triggered by a variety of post-translational modifications including...

  14. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  15. The cell transformation assay: toward a statistical classification of mixed and intermediate foci images.

    Procaccianti, Claudio; Stefanini, Federico M; Urani, Chiara

    2011-03-01

    The human carcinogenicity evaluation of chemicals has a great impact on public health. In vitro methods, such as the cell transformation assay (CTA), allow for a fast and reliable assessment of the carcinogenic potential of a chemical compound in comparison with the standard two-year bioassay. The scoring and classification of foci in selected cell lines is performed, after staining, by light microscopy. Foci can be separated into three classes: type I, which are scored as non-transformed, and types II and III that are considered to include fully transformed foci. However, in a number of cases, even an expert is uncertain about the attribution of a focus to a given class, due to its mixed or intermediate nature. Here, we suggest a simple approach to classifying mixed or intermediate foci by exploiting the quantitative information available from images, which is captured by statistical descriptors. A quantitative index is proposed, to describe the degree of dissimilarity of mixed and intermediate images to the three well-distinguished classes. PMID:21452912

  16. DNA DSB measurements and modelling approaches based on gamma-H2AX foci time evolution

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Campa, Alessandro; Antonelli, Francesca; Mariotti, Luca; Belli, Mauro; Giardullo, Paola; Simone, Giustina; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the main dam-age related to the deleterious consequences in the cells. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can cause mutations or loss of chromosome regions which can eventually lead to cell death or neo-plastic transformation. Quantification of the number and complexity of DSBs induced by low doses of radiation remains a complex problem. About ten years ago Rogakou et al. proposed an immunofluorescent technique able to detect even a single DSB per cell. This approach is based on the serine 139 phosphorylation of many molecules (up to 2000) of histone H2AX (γg-H2AX) following the induction of a DSB in the DNA. DSB can be visualized as foci by immunofluores-cence by using phospho-specific antibodies, so that enumeration of foci can be used to measure DSB induction and processing. It is still not completely clear how γ-H2AX dephosphorylation takes place; however it has been related with DSB repair, in particular with the efficiency of DSB repair. In this work we analyse the H2AX phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics after irradiation of primary human fibroblasts (AG1522 cell line) with radiation of differing quality, that is γ-rays and α-particles (125 keV/µm), with the aim of comparing the time evolution of γ-H2AX foci. Our results show that, after a dose of 0.5 Gy, both γ-rays and α-particles induce the maximum number of γ-H2AX foci within 30 minutes from irradiation, that this number depends on the radiation type and is consistent with the number of track traversal in α-irradiated nuclei, that the dephosphorylation kinetics are very different, being the α-induced foci rate of disappearence slower than that of γ-induced foci. In this work a modellistic approach to estimate the number of DSB induced by γ-rays detectable by using the γ-H2AX assay is presented. The competing processes of appearance and disappearance of visible foci will be modeled taking into account the

  17. Adjacent Instability after Instrumented Lumbar Fusion.

    Wen-Jer Chen

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The invention of pedicle screw instrumentation has greatly improved outcomes ofspinal fusion, which has become the treatment of choice for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Asresearchers accumulate experience, both theoretical and clinical advances are continuallybeing reported. A review of the literature and the experience of the authors show that thedevelopment of adjacent instability, as in the breakdown of a neighboring unfixed motionsegment, is a common consequence of an instrumented lumbar spine. This article reviewsthe risk factors and surgical treatment of adjacent instability. The authors believe that properpreoperative planning and complete surgical procedures are imperative to prevent adjacentinstability. For those who need revision surgery, meticulous surgical techniques can achievesatisfactory results.

  18. On the complexity of adjacent resource scheduling

    Duin, C.W.; Sluis, van, P.

    2004-01-01

    We study the problem of scheduling resource(s) for jobs in an adjacent manner (ARS). The problem relates to fixed interval scheduling on the one hand, and to the problem of two-dimensional strip packing on the other hand. Further, there is a close relation with multiprocessor scheduling. A distinguishing characteristic is the constraint of resource-adjacency. As an application of ARS, consider an airport where passengers check in for their flight, joining lines before one or more desks; at th...

  19. Adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns considered harmful

    We characterize the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to distinguish changes in internal conductivity distributions, and analyze it as a function of stimulation and measurement patterns. A distinguishability measure, z, is proposed which is related to the signal-to-noise ratio of a medium and to the probability of detection of conductivity changes in a region of interest. z is a function of the number of electrodes, the EIT stimulation and measurement protocol, the stimulation amplitude, the measurement noise, and the size and location of the contrasts. Using this measure we analyze various choices of stimulation and measurement patterns under the constraint of medical electrical safety limits (maximum current into the body). Analysis is performed for a planar placement of 16 electrodes for simulated 3D tank and chest shapes, and measurements in a saline tank. Results show that the traditional (and still most common) adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns have by far the poorest performance (by 6.9 ×). Good results are obtained for trigonometric patterns and for pair drive and measurement patterns separated by over 90°. Since the possible improvement over adjacent patterns is so large, we present this result as a call to action: adjacent patterns are harmful, and should be abandoned. We recommend using pair drive and measurement patterns separated by one electrode less than 180°. We describe an approach to modify an adjacent pattern EIT system by adjusting electrode placement

  20. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  1. Localization and cure of epileptic foci with the use of MEG measurements.

    Anninos, P A; Tsagas, N

    1989-06-01

    Systematic studies with pathological subjects with focal and general epilepsies using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements showed significant brain activities even if they are not present in the electroencephalogram EEG. Using a mapping technique characterized by an isospectral amplitude (ISO-SA) of the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the MEG power spectrum we were able to localize the epileptic foci. This localization of epileptic foci gives us information on the emitted magnetic field intensity and frequency for each focal point on the map of the patient. Using this information we can cure the patient by adjusting an electronic device which can emit back to the specific scalp point a magnetic field of the same intensity and frequency as the one which-is emitted from it. The principle of this technique is based on the physical phenomenon of Young's double-slit experiment by which under certain condition light plus light gives darkness. PMID:2506144

  2. Three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci from Greek ladders to generalized Fibonacci sequences.

    Zhang, Junyong

    2015-11-16

    Greek ladder is a technique for approximating Cn by rational numbers where n is a positive integer and C is a positive real number. For the classical Greek ladder, the value isC. Based on the continued fraction theory and algebraic equation, the classical Greek ladder in a special case can be reduced to the generalized Fibonacci sequence. By means of proper switching and binary, ternary or quaternary phase modulation, here we have successfully designed the various kinds of nano-photonic devices to produce three-dimensional array foci whose focusing properties satisfy the above mathematical characteristics. With this technology, the diffraction-limited array foci are freely designed or distributed under the requirement at the desired multiple focal planes. PMID:26698510

  3. Advances in infectious foci imaging using 99mTc radiolabelled antibiotics

    Conventional methods of infection diagnosis, relying on experimental tests and culture of organisms from infected foci have continued to developing new technologies and automation. Nuclear medicine is a reliable diagnostic technique capable to detect infectious foci in human disease. A wide range of radiolabeled agents have been evaluated for demonstrating their ability to distinguish microbial infectious lesions. New researches continue to be made on the use of radiolabeled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection would be useful in monitoring of disease treatment. Here, the new approaches of infection scintigraphic imaging by radiolabeled antibiotics are thoroughly discussed in order to assess and compare their diagnostic value as targeting imaging radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  4. Nonequilibrium phenomena in adjacent electrically isolated nanostructures

    Khrapai, V. S.; Ludwig, S.; Kotthaus, J. P.; Tranitz, H. P.; Wegscheider, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on nonequilibrium interaction phenomena between adjacent but electrostatically separated nanostructures in GaAs. A current flowing in one externally biased nanostructure causes an excitation of electrons in a circuit of a second nanostructure. As a result we observe a dc current generated in the unbiased second nanostructure. The results can be qualitatively explained in terms of acoustic phonon based energy transfer between the two mutually isolated circuits.

  5. Antecedents of trust across foci: a comparative study of Turkey and China

    Wasti, Arzu S.; Tan, Hwee Hoon; Erdil, Selin

    2010-01-01

    Instead of importing Western models of interpersonal trust, we adopted a qualitative approach to understand trust relationships from indigenous cultures' perspectives. We examined trust relationships directed at different foci in the organization (supervisor, peer, and subordinate) in two different countries, Turkey and China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 Turkish and 30 Chinese employees working for a variety of large-scale organizations located in Istanbul, Turkey and Sh...

  6. Immune Responses to Plague Infection in Wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A Role in Foci Persistence?

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity a...

  7. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Florence Stinglhamber; David De Cremer

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural just...

  8. Motor correlates of models of secondary bilateral synchrony and multiple epileptic foci

    Jiruška, Přemysl; Prokš, J.; Otáhal, Jakub; Mareš, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2007), s. 627-635. ISSN 1059-1311 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/03/0770; GA ČR GA304/05/2582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : epileptic foci * secondary bilateral synchrony * neocortex Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2007

  9. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Costes, S.V.; Chiolo, I.; Pluth, J.M.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Jakob, B.

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatiotemporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution...

  10. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-...... such as IQ or PhIP are to be used as initiators in the aberrant crypt foci test, the use of rats may be preferable.......The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...

  11. Evaluation of three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung diseases with computed tomography

    Niwa, Masamitsu [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung disease was evaluated by CT image, and it was examined whether each lung disease could be diagnosed by different distribution. Subjects were 120 cases (idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 15 cases, sarcoidosis 23 cases, miliary tuberculosis 10 cases, diffuse panbronchiolitis 7 cases, chronic pulmonary emphysema 6 cases, pulmonary metastasis 9 cases, SLE 6 cases, PSS 8 cases, dermatomyositis (DM) 6 cases, RA 7 cases, SjS 9 cases and others 14 cases). CT image was obtained from apex to base of lung with 10 mm gapless. The image was divided into three parts in both head-tail direction and back-front direction, and two parts in cortex medulla direction, and the ratio of foci to whole in each part was evaluated in five phases, and the part with the highest ratio was determined as the predominant side. In idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis, miliary tuberculosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, chronic pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary metastasis, PSS and DM, the predominant side was confirmed, respectively, and usefulness of differential diagnosis was recognized. Constant distribution wasn't recognized in SLE, RA and SjS, because the state of disease was not always same in the foci of these diseases. (K.H.)

  12. PCNA-dependent accumulation of CDKN1A into nuclear foci after ionizing irradiation

    Wiese, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rudolph, Jeanette Heede [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Jakob, Burkhard [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Fink, Daniela [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Tobias, Frank [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Blattner, Christine [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. of Toxicology and Genetics; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-03-26

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 confers cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage and inhibits DNA replication through its direct interaction with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Previously, we reported that in response to densely ionizing radiation CDKN1A rapidly is recruited to the sites of particle traversal, and that CDKN1A foci formation in response to heavy ions is independent of its transactivation by TP53. In this paper, we show that exposure of normal human fibroblasts to X-rays or to H2O2 also induces nuclear accumulations of CDKN1A. We find that CDKN1A foci formation in response to radiation damage is dependent on its dephosphorylation and on its direct physical interaction with PCNA. Live cell imaging analyses of ectopically expressed EGFP-CDKN1A and dsRed-PCNA show rapid recruitment of both proteins into foci after radiation damage. Detailed dynamic measurements reveal a slightly delayed recruitment of CDKN1A compared to PCNA, which is best described by bi-exponential curve fitting, taking the preceding binding of PCNA to DNA into account. Finally, we propose a regulatory role for CDKN1A in mediating PCNA function after radiation damage, and provide evidence that this role is distinct from its involvement in nucleotide excision repair and unrelated to double-strand break repair.

  13. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2010 BEST and BSIERP Study 1WE10/WE10-08

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecosystem & Fisheries-Oceanography Coordinated Investigations (Eco-FOCI) is an effort by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and associated...

  14. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  15. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Adachi, Y.; Yagishita, A. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, N. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Institute, Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  16. Kauffman's adjacent possible in word order evolution

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Word order evolution has been hypothesized to be constrained by a word order permutation ring: transitions involving orders that are closer in the permutation ring are more likely. The hypothesis can be seen as a particular case of Kauffman's adjacent possible in word order evolution. Here we consider the problem of the association of the six possible orders of S, V and O to yield a couple of primary alternating orders as a window to word order evolution. We evaluate the suitability of various competing hypotheses to predict one member of the couple from the other with the help of information theoretic model selection. Our ensemble of models includes a six-way model that is based on the word order permutation ring (Kauffman's adjacent possible) and another model based on the dual two-way of standard typology, that reduces word order to basic orders preferences (e.g., a preference for SV over VS and another for SO over OS). Our analysis indicates that the permutation ring yields the best model when favoring pa...

  17. Factory waste influence on Elbrus adjacent area

    Complete text of publication follows. Two major burials of waste from concentrating mill of The Tyrnauz Tungsten-Molybdic Plant are situated at the recreation area of Elbrus adjacent territory. But it is significant that the strong winds periods are available here at the river Baksan valley constantly, which are transfers the particles of burials along that valley. The waste pollutes pastures and agricultural lands. The sampling of the buried material on the surface and of the soil of adjacent territory was fulfilled here in order to check up that assumption. The chemical analyses of the buried waste were performed at the X-ray spectrometer Philips PW2400. The results received showed the high quantity of some environmental threat elements. The soil sample analyses on 20 elements (including Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, P, S, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Pb, As, Mo, W, Sn) showed the excess of maximum permissible concentrations (according to Russian Federation hygienic regulations 2.1.7.2041-06) of some investigated elements in the all researched samples. Some results of the investigations are shown below in the table 1. The excesses of maximum permissible concentrations were observed for phosphorus from 5.3 to 11.3 times as much; for sulphur from 3 to 8.75 times as much; for cobalt from 2.6 to 4.6 times as much; for nickel from 8.25 to 15.25 times as much; for copper from 9.3 to 22 times as much; for arsenic up to 10 and at one sample - to 28 times as much. At the MPC level was the lead contents and also at single instances - the manganese and vanadium contents. The excess of background contents were observed for molybdenum up to 8, tungsten - up to 38 and tin - up to 7 times as much. Presented data confirmed the supposition that buried waste pollutes pastures and agricultural lands of Elbrus adjacent area and that means the necessity of either more careful burial of these waste products, or their full recycling.

  18. Foci of cyclin A2 interact with actin and RhoA in mitosis

    Abdelhalim Loukil; Fanny Izard; Mariya Georgieva; Shaereh Mashayekhan; Jean-Marie Blanchard; Andrea Parmeggiani; Marion Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin A2 is a key player in the regulation of the cell cycle. Its degradation in mid-mitosis depends primarily on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), while autophagy also contributes. However, a fraction of cyclin A2 persists beyond metaphase. In this work, we focus on cyclin A2-rich foci detected in mitosis by high resolution imaging and analyse their movements. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 interacts with actin and RhoA during mitosis, and that cyclin A2 depletion induces a dramatic dec...

  19. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries

  20. Detecting Adjacent Relativity of Engineering Drawing Entities with Container Window

    林福严; 邱友申; 秦吉胜

    2001-01-01

    Automatic recognition and interpretation of engineering drawing plays an important role in computer aided engineering. Detecting the positional relation between entities is an important topic in this research field. In this paper the concepts of adjacent relativity and container window of drawing entities were proposed. By means of container window, the adjacent irrelative entities can be detected quickly and effectively, which speeds up the process of adjacent relativity detection. Meanwhile, the algorithm of adjacent relativity detection was discussed.

  1. Characteristics of {gamma}-H2AX foci at DNA double-strand breaks sites

    Pilch, D.R.; Sedelnikova, O.A.; Redon, C. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Celeste, A.; Nussenzweig, A. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Experimental Immunology Branch, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bonner, W.M. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) is essential to the efficient recognition and (or) repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and many molecules, often thousands, of H2AX become rapidly phosphorylated at the site of each nascent DSB. An antibody to {gamma}-H2AX reveals that this highly amplified process generates nuclear foci. The phosphorylation site is a serine four residues from the C-terminus which has been evolutionarily conserved in organisms from giardia intestinalis to humans. Mice and yeast lacking the conserved serine residue demonstrate a variety of defects in DNA DSB processing. H2AX{sup {delta}}{sup /{delta}} mice are smaller, sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in class switch recombination and spermatogenesis while cells from the mice demonstrate substantially increased numbers of genomic defects. {gamma}-H2AX foci formation is a sensitive biological dosimeter and presents new and exciting opportunities to understand important biological processes, human diseases, and individual variations in radiation sensitivity. These potentialities demonstrate the importance of understanding the parameters and functions of {gamma}-H2AX formation. (author)

  2. Characteristics of γ-H2AX foci at DNA double-strand breaks sites

    Phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) is essential to the efficient recognition and (or) repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and many molecules, often thousands, of H2AX become rapidly phosphorylated at the site of each nascent DSB. An antibody to γ-H2AX reveals that this highly amplified process generates nuclear foci. The phosphorylation site is a serine four residues from the C-terminus which has been evolutionarily conserved in organisms from giardia intestinalis to humans. Mice and yeast lacking the conserved serine residue demonstrate a variety of defects in DNA DSB processing. H2AXΔ/Δ mice are smaller, sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in class switch recombination and spermatogenesis while cells from the mice demonstrate substantially increased numbers of genomic defects. γ-H2AX foci formation is a sensitive biological dosimeter and presents new and exciting opportunities to understand important biological processes, human diseases, and individual variations in radiation sensitivity. These potentialities demonstrate the importance of understanding the parameters and functions of γ-H2AX formation. (author)

  3. Intracranial EEG electrodes. Localization by means of three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging data for use in characterization of epileptic foci before surgery

    Subdural strip electrodes or intracerebral electrodes are required in order to precisely localize epileptic foci, which is mandatory for epilepsy surgery. The subdural electrodes are inserted via a borehole and thus precise positioning cannot be directly monitored. Therefore, the location of the electrodes in relation to the gyri and sulci has to be determined by imaging techniques. In this study, a three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) technique was used for visualization of intracranial EEG electrodes. A 3D gradient echo sequence with thin slices of 1 mm is required for the assessment of the gyral anatomy of the brain surface. Using a short repetition time of 30 ms good image quality within an acceptable acquisition time of about 15 min was possible. Post-processing with 3D surface reconstruction was performed using a Sun workstation. Three-dimensional reconstruction allows a more precise delineation of the localization of the EEG electrodes and the simultaneous display of the adjacent brain structures. Misplacement of intracranial electrodes is readily detected. 3D MRI with 3D surface reconstruction proved superior to 2D imaging and CT for the assessment of EEG electrode localization. (orig.)

  4. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Keller, Lani C.; Alberts, Jonathan B.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2011-04-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713-22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed.

  5. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713–22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed

  6. Imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes in the brain on susceptibility-weighted MRI

    Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aida, Noriko; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Shishikura, Ayako [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Miyata, Daiki [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Circulation Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Microsusceptibility changes in the brain are well known to correspond with microbleeds or micrometal fragments in adults, but this phenomenon has not been explored well in children. To assess imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Between 2006 and 2008, 12 children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility on SWI without corresponding abnormal signal on conventional MRI were identified and were retrospectively assessed. The locations of foci of microsusceptibility included the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar white matter, without any clear systematic anatomic distribution. CT (n = 5) showed no calcification at the locations corresponding to the microsusceptibility on SWI. Conventional MR imaging showed white matter volume loss (n = 5), delayed myelination (n = 2), acute infarction (n = 1), chronic infarction (n = 1), meningitis (n = 1), slight signal abnormality in the white matter (n = 1) and no abnormal findings (n = 1). Follow-up SWI (n = 3) showed no change of the microsusceptibility foci. Interestingly, all children had a history of heart surgery under extracorporeal circulation for congenital heart disease. Multiple foci of microsusceptibility can be seen in the brain on SWI in children with congenital heart disease who underwent heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation. (orig.)

  7. The foci of DNA double strand break-recognition proteins localize with γH2AX after heat treatment

    Recently, there have been many reports concerning proteins which can recognize DNA double strand break (DSBs), and such proteins include histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phospho-serine 1981, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phospho-threonine 2609, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) phospho-serine 343, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), phospho-threonine 68, and structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) phospho-serine 966. Thus, it should be possible to follow the formation of DSBs and their repair using immunohistochemical methods with multiple antibodies to detect these proteins. When normal human fibroblasts (AG1522 cells) were exposed to 3 Gy of X-rays as a control, clearly discernable foci for these proteins were detected, and these foci localized with γH2AX foci. After heat treatment at 45.5 deg C for 20 min, these proteins are partially localized with γH2AX foci. Here we show that there were slight differences in the localization pattern among these proteins, such as a disappearance from the nucleus (phospho-ATM) and translocation to the cytoplasm (phospho-NBS1) at 30 min after heat treatment, and some foci (phospho-DNA-PKcs and phospho-CHK2) appeared at 8 h after heat treatment. These results are discussed from perspectives of heat-induced denaturation of proteins and formation of DSBs. (author)

  8. Effects of separate and combined treatments with gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine in neonatal rats on the induction of altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors

    To characterize the effects of combined treatments with gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) on the induction of histochemically detectable altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors, we assessed the yields of these lesions in the livers of 150-day-old rats that had been treated neonatally with a single dose of gamma radiation and i.p.-injected DEN, either separately or in combination. The focus population was examined for two histochemical markers (elevated gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT(+)] and iron exclusion [FE(-)] ), giving rise to three detectable focus phenotypes, i.e. GGT(+) foci, FE(-) foci, and GGT(+), FE(-) foci. These results suggest that (i) phenotypically distinguishable lesions, including foci with different histochemical marker patterns and tumors, originate from specific types of damage at different genetic loci and are developmentally independent; and (ii) the expression of the GGT(+) market per se in altered hepatocyte foci is not a reliable index of incipient hepatic neoplasia. (author)

  9. Cytoplasmic CUG RNA foci are insufficient to elicit key DM1 features.

    Warunee Dansithong

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is the expansion of a CTG tract located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. Expression of mutant RNAs encoding expanded CUG repeats plays a central role in the development of cardiac disease in DM1. Expanded CUG tracts form both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates, yet the relative significance of such aggregates in eliciting DM1 pathology is unclear. To test the pathophysiology of CUG repeat encoding RNAs, we developed and analyzed mice with cardiac-specific expression of a beta-galactosidase cassette in which a (CTG(400 repeat tract was positioned 3' of the termination codon and 5' of the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal. In these animals CUG aggregates form exclusively in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells. A key pathological consequence of expanded CUG repeat RNA expression in DM1 is aberrant RNA splicing. Abnormal splicing results from the functional inactivation of MBNL1, which is hypothesized to occur due to MBNL1 sequestration in CUG foci or from elevated levels of CUG-BP1. We therefore tested the ability of cytoplasmic CUG foci to elicit these changes. Aggregation of CUG RNAs within the cytoplasm results both in Mbnl1 sequestration and in approximately a two fold increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic Cug-bp1 levels. Significantly, despite these changes RNA splice defects were not observed and functional analysis revealed only subtle cardiac dysfunction, characterized by conduction defects that primarily manifest under anesthesia. Using a human myoblast culture system we show that this transgene, when expressed at similar levels to a second transgene, which encodes expanded CTG tracts and facilitates both nuclear focus formation and aberrant splicing, does not elicit aberrant splicing. Thus the lack of toxicity of cytoplasmic CUG foci does not appear to be a consequence of low expression levels. Our results therefore demonstrate that the cellular location of CUG RNA

  10. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Florence Stinglhamber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural justice judgments, which in turn influenced their affective commitment to the organisation. Similarly, co-workers' interactional justice judgments increased employee's own interactional justice judgments, which in turn impacted on their affective commitment to both the supervisor and the organisation. As a whole, findings suggest that coworkers' justice judgments strengthened employee's affective attachments toward the justice sources by reinforcing employee's own justice perceptions.

  11. Nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci in euchromatin and heterochromatin

    Chiolo, Irene; Georgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2013-09-03

    Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment.

  12. 16-year remission of rheumatoid arthritis after unusually vigorous treatment of closed dental foci.

    Breebaart, A C; Bijlsma, J W J; van Eden, W

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of 16 years duration, apparently caused by the extraction of endodontically well-treated, healthy looking teeth. The only clue that the teeth were contributing to the disease pathogenesis in this case of RA was that the patient was able to reproducibly induce severe attacks of arthritis after prolonged, heavy pressure on some of his teeth treated with root canal fillings. After extraction, a small pus layer was found to cover the apices of the clinically healthy looking teeth. The rheumatoid factor (RF) became negative and the patient remained symptom free for the next 16 years. The possible connections between micro-organisms in closed dental foci under constant pressure and the chronicity and exacerbations of RA are discussed. PMID:12175115

  13. From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence

    Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Chanteau, Suzanne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Re-emergence of human cases of plague after decades of silence does not necessarily mean that plague foci are re-emerging. Most often, Yersinia pestis bacteria have been maintained and circulating at low levels in the rodent populations. It seems therefore more appropriate to speak in terms of expansion or regression phases for sylvatic rodent plague foci and to reserve the term re-emergence for human cases. From the analysis of well-documented human plague cases in Madagascar, we underline t...

  14. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats

    Orner Gayle A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlorophyllin (CHL is a promising chemopreventive agent believed to block cancer primarily by inhibiting carcinogen uptake through the formation of molecular complexes with the carcinogens. However, recent studies suggest that CHL may have additional biological effects particularly when given after the period of carcinogen treatment. This study examines the post-initiation effects of CHL towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci of the liver and colon. The single concentration of CHL tested in this study (0.1% in the drinking water had no significant effects on AFB1-induced foci of the liver and colons of rats.

  15. The Focinator - a new open-source tool for high-throughput foci evaluation of DNA damage

    The quantitative analysis of foci plays an important role in many cell biological methods such as counting of colonies or cells, organelles or vesicles, or the number of protein complexes. In radiation biology and molecular radiation oncology, DNA damage and DNA repair kinetics upon ionizing radiation (IR) are evaluated by counting protein clusters or accumulations of phosphorylated proteins recruited to DNA damage sites. Consistency in counting and interpretation of foci remains challenging. Many current software solutions describe instructions for time-consuming and error-prone manual analysis, provide incomplete algorithms for analysis or are expensive. Therefore, we aimed to develop a tool for costless, automated, quantitative and qualitative analysis of foci. For this purpose we integrated a user-friendly interface into ImageJ and selected parameters to allow automated selection of regions of interest (ROIs) depending on their size and circularity. We added different export options and a batch analysis. The use of the Focinator was tested by analyzing γ-H2.AX foci in murine prostate adenocarcinoma cells (TRAMP-C1) at different time points after IR with 0.5 to 3 Gray (Gy). Additionally, measurements were performed by users with different backgrounds and experience. The Focinator turned out to be an easily adjustable tool for automation of foci counting. It significantly reduced the analysis time of radiation-induced DNA-damage foci. Furthermore, different user groups were able to achieve a similar counting velocity. Importantly, there was no difference in nuclei detection between the Focinator and ImageJ alone. The Focinator is a costless, user-friendly tool for fast high-throughput evaluation of DNA repair foci. The macro allows improved foci evaluation regarding accuracy, reproducibility and analysis speed compared to manual analysis. As innovative option, the macro offers a combination of multichannel evaluation including colocalization analysis and the

  16. Mammalian nuclei contain foci which are highly enriched in components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery.

    Carmo-Fonseca, M; Tollervey, D; Pepperkok, R; Barabino, S M; Merdes, A; Brunner, C; Zamore, P. D.; Green, M R; Hurt, E; Lamond, A. I.

    1991-01-01

    The organization of the major snRNP particles in mammalian cell nuclei has been analysed by in situ labelling using snRNA-specific antisense probes made of 2'-OMe RNA. U3 snRNA is exclusively detected in the nucleolus while all the spliceosomal snRNAs are found in the nucleoplasm outside of nucleoli. Surprisingly, U2, U4, U5 and U6 snRNAs are predominantly observed in discrete nucleoplasmic foci. U1 snRNA is also present in foci but in addition is detected widely distributed throughout the nu...

  17. Specific targeting of infectious foci with radioiodinated human recombinant interleukin-1 in an experimental model

    In the present study, radioiodinated human recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1) was investigated for its potential to image infectious foci in vivo in an animal model of infection. Twenty-four hours after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus abscess in the left calf muscle, mice were i.v. injected with both iodine-125 labelled IL-1 and iodine-131 labelled myoglobin, a size-matched control agent. The animals were killed for tissue biodistribution studies at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h p.i. Gamma camera images were obtained at 6, 24 and 48 h after injecting mice with 123I-IL-1. Radioiodinated IL-1 rapidly cleared from the body; after 12 h the abscess was the organ with the highest activity. The absolute abscess uptake of 125I-IL-1 remained high compared to 131I-myoglobin, resulting in significantly higher abscess-to-muscle ratios of 125I-IL-1 compared to 131I-myoglobin. The ratios of 125I-IL-1 reached the ultimate value of 44.4 ± 10.8 at 48 h p.i., whereas the ratios of 131I-myoglobin did not exceed 5.9 ± 0.7. Gamma camera imaging revealed clearly visible abscesses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate specific retention of radioiodinated IL-1 in the abscess, presumably by interaction of IL-1 with its receptor on the inflammatory cells. The high target-to-background ratios that were obtained over the course of time indicate that the IL-1 receptor may be a valuable target for the imaging of infectious foci. (orig.)

  18. PIV Measurements and Mechanisms of Adjacent Synthetic Jets Interactions

    LUO Zhen-Bing; XIA Zhi-Xun

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of adjacent synthetic jet actuators with varying relative amplitude and the relative phase of driving voltage are measured using a particle image velocimetry(PIV).Varying relative amplitude or relative phase of driving voltage of the adjacent actuators vectors the direction of the ensuing merged jet of the adjacent synthetic jets.The vectoring mechanism of the adjacent vortex pairs,attract-impact causing deflection(AICD),is provided to explain why the merged jet is generally vectored to the side of the phase-leading synthetic jet or the synthetic jet with higher driving voltage.

  19. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463

  20. Novel characteristics of CtIP at damage-induced foci following the initiation of DNA end resection

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yajima, Hirohiko, E-mail: hyajima@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CtIP becomes hyperphosphorylated and forms foci following cell irradiation. • CtIP accumulates in foci subsequent to the peak of hyperphosphorylation. • CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state at later times. • CtIP is continuously recruited to DNA double strand breaks downstream of resection. • CtIP presumably have a distinct role following the initiation of resection. - Abstract: Homologous recombination (HR) is a major repair pathway for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and end resection, which generates a 3′-single strand DNA tail at the DSB, is an early step in the process. Resection is initiated by the Mre11 nuclease together with CtIP. Here, we describe novel characteristics of CtIP at DSBs. At early times following exposure of human cells to ionizing radiation, CtIP localized to the DSB, became hyperphosphorylated and formed foci in an ATM-dependent manner. At later times, when the initiation of resection had occurred, CtIP foci persist but CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state, which is dependent on ATM and ATR. Exposure to cycloheximide revealed that CtIP turns over at DSB sites downstream of resection. Our findings provide strong evidence that CtIP is continuously recruited to DSBs downstream of both the initiation and extension step of resection, strongly suggesting that CtIP has functions in addition to promoting the initiation of resection during HR.

  1. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2011 Gulf of Alaska Late Larval Survey DY11-02/2DY11

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A total of 70 stations were occupied. The standard FOCI grid and line 8 were samped. At each station we sampled using paired 20 and 60 cm Bongo frames (150 and 500...

  2. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Erk, M.J. van; Doornbos, R.P.; Krul, C.A.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2% curcum

  3. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once a...

  4. Aflatoxin B1-Associated DNA Adducts Stall S Phase and Stimulate Rad51 foci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Michael Fasullo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AFB1 is a potent recombinagen in budding yeast. AFB1 exposure induces RAD51 expression and triggers Rad53 activation in yeast cells that express human CYP1A2. It was unknown, however, when and if Rad51 foci appear. Herein, we show that Rad53 activation correlates with cell-cycle delay in yeast and the subsequent formation of Rad51 foci. In contrast to cells exposed to X-rays, in which Rad51 foci appear exclusively in G2 cells, Rad51 foci in AFB1-exposed cells can appear as soon as cells enter S phase. Although rad51 and rad4 mutants are mildly sensitive to AFB1, chronic exposure of the NER deficient rad4 cells to AFB1 leads to increased lag times, while rad4 rad51 double mutants exhibit synergistic sensitivity and do not grow when exposed to 50 μM AFB1. We suggest RAD51 functions to facilitate DNA replication after replication fork stalling or collapse in AFB1-exposed cells.

  5. On spectral hypergraph theory of the adjacency tensor

    Pearson, Kelly J.; Zhang, Tan

    2012-01-01

    We study both $H$ and $E/Z$-eigenvalues of the adjacency tensor of a uniform multi-hypergraph and give conditions for which the largest positive $H$ or $Z$-eigenvalue corresponds to a strictly positive eigenvector. We also investigate when the $E$-spectrum of the adjacency tensor is symmetric.

  6. FindFoci: a focus detection algorithm with automated parameter training that closely matches human assignments, reduces human inconsistencies and increases speed of analysis.

    Alex D Herbert

    Full Text Available Accurate and reproducible quantification of the accumulation of proteins into foci in cells is essential for data interpretation and for biological inferences. To improve reproducibility, much emphasis has been placed on the preparation of samples, but less attention has been given to reporting and standardizing the quantification of foci. The current standard to quantitate foci in open-source software is to manually determine a range of parameters based on the outcome of one or a few representative images and then apply the parameter combination to the analysis of a larger dataset. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of using machine learning to train a new algorithm (FindFoci to determine optimal parameters. FindFoci closely matches human assignments and allows rapid automated exploration of parameter space. Thus, individuals can train the algorithm to mirror their own assignments and then automate focus counting using the same parameters across a large number of images. Using the training algorithm to match human assignments of foci, we demonstrate that applying an optimal parameter combination from a single image is not broadly applicable to analysis of other images scored by the same experimenter or by other experimenters. Our analysis thus reveals wide variation in human assignment of foci and their quantification. To overcome this, we developed training on multiple images, which reduces the inconsistency of using a single or a few images to set parameters for focus detection. FindFoci is provided as an open-source plugin for ImageJ.

  7. Study on Optimization of Phase Offset at Adjacent Intersections

    Yuanli GU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the phase offset at adjacent intersections is the key parameter regarding coordinated control of traffic signal for adjacent intersections, which decides the effect of the coordinated control for adjacent intersections. According to characters of saturated traffic flow of Chinese urban road, this thesis establishes a model for optimization of phase offset for adjacent interactions and finds a solution from such model by adopting genetic algorithm. The model is verified by actual traffic flow datum of two adjacent signal intersections on Changan Avenue. Then a comparison is made between the optimization result of such model and that of the existing mathematical method and SYNCHRO model, which indicates that the model established by this thesis can reduce the delay suffered by vehicles at the intersections and increase the traffic efficiency of the intersections.

  8. Aberrant crypt foci in patients with a positive family history of sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Stevens, Richard G; Swede, Helen; Heinen, Christopher D; Jablonski, Melissa; Grupka, Michael; Ross, Barry; Parente, Melissa; Tirnauer, Jennifer S; Giardina, Charles; Rajan, Thiruchandurai V; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Levine, Joel

    2007-04-18

    Early detection is crucial in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) deaths. The earliest detectable neoplastic lesion in the colon is the aberrant crypt foci (ACF). A major question is whether ACF are precursors of CRC, and thus, early biomarkers for CRC risk. If so, we hypothesized that the number of ACF would be higher in patients who had a family history of CRC compared to patients without. We counted ACF in the distal 20cm of colon/rectum during 103 colonoscopic examinations using a prototype Close Focus Colonoscope (Olympus Corp.) with methylene blue chromendoscopy. Each patient was asked whether they had a family history of CRC in a first degree relative, or a personal history of CRC or adenoma. Patients answering 'no' to these questions (n=17) had a mean number of ACF of 4.4; the mean was significantly higher in the patients with a positive family history of CRC (9.0, p<0.01; n=43) or a personal history of advanced adenoma (7.5, p<0.05; n=34). PMID:16950561

  9. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Latent Trypanosoma brucei gambiense foci in Uganda: a silent epidemic in children and adults?

    Wastling, S L; Picozzi, K; Wamboga, C; VON Wissmann, B; Amongi-Accup, C; Wardrop, N A; Stothard, J R; Kakembo, A; Welburn, S C

    2011-10-01

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness follows a long asymptomatic phase and persists in ancient foci from which epidemic clinical disease arises. A putative focus of T. b. gambiense infections has been identified, initially in mothers and young children, on the Lake Albert shoreline of Western Uganda leading to mass screening of 6207 individuals in September 2008. T. b. gambiense infections were identified by Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT) and sub-species-specific PCR although parasitological methods failed to confirm any patent trypanosome infections. In April 2009, CATT positives were re-visited; diagnosis of individuals by CATT and PCR was unstable over the two time points and parasites remained undetected, even using mini Anion Exchange Centrifugation Technique (mAECT). These observations suggest the possibility of a silent focus of disease, where all infected individuals are in a latent stage, and highlight our limited understanding of the local natural history and disease progression of T. b. gambiense in children and adults. PMID:21554841

  11. Azoxymethane-induced rat aberrant crypt foci: Relevance in studying chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Jayadev Raju

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colon cancer involves sequential and multistep progression of epithelial cells initiated to a cancerous state with defined precancerous intermediaries.Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) represent the earliest identifiable intermediate precancerous lesions during colon carcinogenesis in both laboratory animals and humans.ACF are easily induced by colon-specific carcinogens in rodents and can be used to learn more about the process of colon carcinogenesis.For over two decades,since its first discovery,azoxymethane(AOM)-induced rodent ACF have served as surrogate biomarkers in the screening of various anticarcinogens and carcinogens.Several dietary constituents and phytochemicals have been tested for their colon cancer chemopreventive efficacy using the ACF system.There has been substantial effort in defining and refining ACF in terms of understanding their molecular make-up,and extensive research in this field is currently in progress.In chemoprevention studies,AOM-induced rat ACF have been very successful as biomarkers,and have provided several standardized analyses of data.There have been several studies that have reported that ACF data do not correlate to actual colon tumor outcome,however,and hence there has been an ambiguity about their role as biomarkers.The scope of this mini-review is to provide valuable insights and limitations of AOM-induced rat ACF as biomarkers in colon cancer chemoprevention studies.The role of the dynamics and biological heterogeneity of ACF is critical in understanding them as biomarkers in chemoprevention studies.

  12. Relationship of pelvic bone fracture pattern and bleeding foci on angiography

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the patterns of pelvic bone fracture and location of hemorrhage on angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients with pelvic bone fracture and active bleeding. Fractures were classified according to Tile classification. Locations of bleedings were divided into four groups; main trunk/anterior/posterior divisions of internal iliac artery, and other locations. The relationship between the fracture pattern and bleedings were analyzed statistically. Forty one bleedings were in 22 patients with type A fracture. Twenty (49%) were at the anterior division, 12 (29%) were at the posterior division, and 9 (22%) were found in other location. Thirty three bleedings were in 23 patients with type B fracture. Fifteen (45%) were at the posterior division, 10 (30%) were at the anterior division, 3 (9%) were at the main trunk of the internal iliac artery, and 5 (16%) were at other location. Eighteen bleedings were in 11 patients with type C fracture. Thirteen (72%) were at the posterior division, 4 (22%) were at the anterior division, and 1 (6%) was at main trunk of internal iliac artery. Anterior divisional bleedings were more common in type A, posterior divisional bleedings were more common in type B and C fractures (p = 0.014). The distribution of bleeding is significantly related to the fracture patterns. Fracture pattern may help in predicting the location of bleeding foci on embolization

  13. High-LET Patterns of DSBs in DNA Loops, the HPRT Gene and Phosphorylation Foci

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new results obtained with our model based on the track structure and chromatin geometry that predicts the DSB spatial and genomic distributions in a cell nucleus with the full genome represented. The model generates stochastic patterns of DSBs in the physical space of the nucleus filled with the realistic configuration of human chromosomes. The model was re-used to find the distribution of DSBs in a physical volume corresponding to a visible phosphorylation focus believed to be associated with a DSB. The data shows whether there must more than one DSB per foci due to finite size of the visible focus, even if a single DSB is radiochemically responsible for the phosphorylation of DNA in its vicinity. The same model can predict patterns of closely located DSBs in a given gene, or in a DNA loop, one of the large-scale chromatin structures. We demonstrated for the example of the HPRT gene, how different sorts of radiation lead to proximity effect in DSB locations, which is important for modeling gene deletions. The spectrum of intron deletions and total gene deletions was simulated for the HPRT gene. The same proximity effect of DSBs in a loop can hinder DSB restitutions, as parts of the loop between DSBs is deleted with a higher likelihood. The distributions of DSBs and deletions of DNA in a loop are presented.

  14. Lens-Prism Correctors For Ritchey-Chretien And Quasi Ritchey-Chretien Foci

    Ding-qiang, Su; Ming, Liang

    1986-08-01

    Two new lens-prism correctors are designed for secondary foci, of which the diameter of the primary is 7.5 meter, the f-ratio of the primary is 2 and the final f-ratio is about 5.4. The field of view of the R-C system is 46 and that of the quasi R-C system is 1°. These correctors can be used for the correction of both the aberrations and the atmospheric disper-sion. They consist of two cemented lenses. Each cemented lens is made of two different kinds of glasses, of which the indexes of refraction are near and the dispersions are different. The cemented surface is tilted. The two cemented lenses can rotate oppositly around the optical axis for correcting the atmospheric dispersion at different zenith distance. All of surfaces of these correctors are spherical. Spot diagrams of two systems are given for three relative orientations of two cemented lenses, each at nine positions in the field of view, which show both the monochromatic image quality and the effect of correcting the atmospheric dispersion are excellent.

  15. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  16. Radioiodination and Biological Evaluation of some Drugs for Inflammatory Foci Imaging

    A radiopharmaceutical is defined as a chemical or pharmaceutical preparation labeled with a radionuclide in tracer or therapeutic concentration, used as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. A radiopharmaceutical agent is usually administrated into a vein. Depending on which type of scan is being performed, the imaging will be done either immediately, a few hours later, or even several days after the injection. Imaging time varies, generally ranging from 20 to 45 minutes.In this thesis, we are more interested in the drugs that can be used for the treatment of all kinds of inflammation whether septic or aseptic. The inflammation by itself can be a controllable disease, but as the inflammation, specially the chronic type, can be the reason and the beginning of many more serious diseases as autoimmune disease, pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and cancer, the study and the early diagnosis of the inflammation can prevent many future problems for the patient. The study of the inflammation has been discussed before by labeling drugs with Iodine-125 for the imaging of inflammatory foci like etodolac, meloxicam, piroxicam and other drugs.

  17. A review of Web information seeking research: considerations of method and foci of interest

    Konstantina Martzoukou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background. Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of gaining direct knowledge of behaviour. User-centred research emphasises the importance of holistic approaches, which incorporate physical, cognitive, and affective elements. Problems. Comprehensive studies are limited; many approaches are problematic and a consistent methodological framework has not been developed. Research has often failed to ensure appropriate samples that ensure both quantitative validity and qualitative consistency. Typically, observation has been based on simulated rather than real information needs and most studies show little attempt to examine holistically different characteristics of users in the same research schema. Research also deals with various aspects of cognitive style and ability with variant definitions of expertise and different layers of user experience. Finally the effect of social and cultural elements has not been extensively investigated. Conclusion. The existing limitations in method and the plethora of different approaches allow little progress and fewer comparisons across studies. There is urgent need for establishing a theoretical framework on which future studies can be based so that information seeking behaviour can be more holistically understood, and results can be generalised.

  18. Delayed acquisition of non-adjacent vocalic distributional regularities.

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two non-adjacent vowels. Experiments 1 and 2 show that a preference for PA over AP (anterior-posterior) words emerges between 10 and 13 months in French-learning infants. Control experiments show that this bias cannot be explained by adjacent or positional preferences. The present study demonstrates that infants become sensitive to non-adjacent vocalic distributional regularities between 10 and 13 months, showing the existence of a delay for the acquisition of non-adjacent vocalic regularities compared to equivalent non-adjacent consonantal regularities. These results are consistent with the CV hypothesis, according to which consonants and vowels play different roles at different linguistic levels. PMID:25786491

  19. Interactions of adjacent pulsating, erupting and creeping solitons

    Song Li-Jun; Li Lu; Zhou Guo-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the adjacent interactions of three novel solitons for the quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which are plain pulsating, erupting and creeping solitons. It is found that different performances are presented for different solitons due to isolated regions of the parameter space where they exist. For example, plain pulsating and erupting solitons exhibit mutual annihilation during collisions with the decrease of total energy, but for creeping soliton,the two adjacent pulses present soliton fusion without any loss of energy. Otherwise, the method for restraining the interactions is also found and it can suppress interacions between these two adjacent pulses effectively.

  20. Griset: Pottery of the Great Basin and Adjacent Areas

    Forsyth, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Pottery of the Great Basin and Adjacent Areas. Suzanne Griset, ed. University of Utah Anthropological Papers No. Ill, 1986, 170 pp., 34 figs., 5 tables, annotated and indexed bibliography, $17.50 (paper).

  1. Typical features of the foci in case of largescale radiation accidents and their influence on organization of medical care

    The paper studied typical features of foci in case of large-scale radiation accidents, which differ from foci after nuclear explosion by the components of radioactive substances, small particle dispersity, their higher solubility, longer period of radiation contamination and its irregularity. It complicates special treatment, creates difficulties in evaluation of radiation situation and in carrying out sanitary-hygienic measures. The leading radiation factor is external radiation exposure, but in the initial period close to Nuclear Power Plant, the contribution of internal radiation exposure due to inhalation of radioactive substances is very important and should be taken into consideration when rating radiation exposure Besides, there must be taken into account considerable contribution of non-radiation factors (stress, toxic effects, social-economic conditions etc.) in aggravation of health condition of people. The above specific features require corrections in classic approach to prophylaxis and treatment of radiation injuries. 18 refs.; 4 tabs

  2. PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-FOCI SYSTEMS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST (GEOMECHANICS AND TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Boris M. Chikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study, an earthquake focus is viewed as a 3D zone of the Earth’s crust, wherein the discharge of mechanical loading is accompanied by recordable destruction and qualitative transformation of the geological medium. The purpose of the present publication is to make an attempt to reveal a direct relationship between seismicity and deformation-metamorphic processes which took place in the Earth’s crust. Traditional and alternative interpretations of geomechanics of seismic-foci situations are discussed. The problems of geodynamics and geostatics of the seismic-foci systems and their concentrations, as well as anthropogenic models and mechanisms of focus medium structuring are reviewed. The relationship between seismicity and mechanisms of «regional shearing» or formation of crustal deformation-metamorphic structures of lineament type is outlined in the example of the Chuya seismic system of earthquakes which occurred in 2003 and afterwards in the Altai region.

  3. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast with foci of morphologic malignancy: a case of PASH with malignant transformation?

    Nassar, Hind; Elieff, Michelle P; Kronz, Joseph D; Argani, Pedram

    2010-12-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferation of the hormonally responsive, specialized mammary stroma characterized by slit-like pseudovascular spaces lined by bland spindle cells. It is usually an incidental microscopic finding but in some cases it may present as a slowly growing mass. A malignant counterpart for this lesion has not been reported. We describe a case of PASH with foci of malignant histologic features presenting as a slowly growing mass in a 30-year-old woman. The previously reported variants of PASH and the other mammary stromal lesions related to PASH are also discussed. This is perhaps the first case of PASH with foci of malignant histologic features reported in the literature and represents a rare sarcoma derived from specialized hormonally responsive mammary stroma. PMID:18611932

  4. Effects of corn oil and benzyl acetate on number and size of azaserine-induced foci in the pancreas of LEW and F344 rats

    Longnecker, D.S.; Roebuck, B.D.; Curphey, T.J.; Lhoste, E.; Coon, C.I.; MacMillan, D.

    1986-09-01

    The response of LEW and F344 strain rats to the pancreatic carcinogen azaserine was compared using the size and number of azaserine-induced acidophilic acinar cell foci and nodules as parameters in a 4-month experiment. A second experiment compared the effect of corn oil intake by gavage and dietary routes on the growth of azaserine-induced pancreatic lesions in LEW rats. A third experiment tested the activity of benzyl acetate in regard to its ability to induce acinar cell foci or to promote the growth of such foci in azaserine-treated rats. The results showed that equivalent doses of azaserine induce two to seven times more foci in LEW than in F344 rats, and that LEW rats have a higher incidence of spontaneous foci than F344 rats. Azaserine-treated LEW rats that were given 5 mL corn oil/kg body weight 5 days per week by gavage developed more acinar cell foci than rats fed a basal diet (chow). Addition of an equivalent amount of corn oil to chow had a similar effect of enhancing the development of foci. Rats of neither strain developed acinar cell foci when benzyl acetate was given by gavage or in the diet nor was there evidence that benzyl acetate has a significant effect on the development of foci in azaserine-treated rats. These studies also demonstrate that the azaserine/rat model of pancreatic carcinogenesis which was developed in LEW rats can be adapted for use with F344 rats.

  5. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-07-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure.

  6. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  7. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats.

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1-3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  8. RNA/MBNL1-containing foci in myoblast nuclei from patients affected by myotonic dystrophy type 2: an immunocytochemical study

    C. Pellicciari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2 is a dominantly inherited autosomal disease with multi-systemic clinical features and it is caused by expansion of a CCTG tetranucleotide repeat in the first intron of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9 gene in 3q21.The expanded-CCUG-containing transcripts are retained in the cell nucleus and accumulate in the form of focal aggregates which specifically sequester the muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1 protein, a RNA binding factor involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. The structural organization and composition of the foci are still incompletely known. In this study, the nuclear foci occurring in cultured myoblasts from DM2 patients were characterised at fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy by using a panel of antibodies recognizing transcription and processing factors of pre-mRNAs. MBNL1 proved to co-locate in the nuclear foci with snRNPs and hnRNPs, whereas no co-location was observed with RNA polymerase II, the non-RNP splicing factor SC35, the cleavage factor CStF and the PML protein. At electron microscopy the MBNL1-containing nuclear foci appeared as roundish domains showing a rather homogeneous structure and proved to contain snRNPs and hnRNPs. The sequestration of splicing factors involved in early phases of pre-mRNA processing supports the hypothesis of a general alteration in the maturation of several mRNAs, which could lead to the multiple pathological dysfunctions observed in dystrophic patients.

  9. Dose-response relationship of γ-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of γ-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and γ-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y(0.5h) = 11.66D + 0.15 (R2 = 0.99), Y(5h) = 2.44D + 0.15 (R2 = 0.99), Y(8h) = 1.57D + 0.22 (R2 = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using γ-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in γ-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  10. Identification of endemic foci of Lyme disease: isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis).

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

    1985-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the blood, kidneys, spleens, eyes, or livers of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) (n = 19 of 22) and from the blood, kidneys, or spleens of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) (n = 2 of 2) captured at three foci for Lyme disease in eastern Connecticut. These bacteria were cultured most frequently from spleens (n = 19) and kidneys (n = 15). B. burgdorferi persisted in one mouse for at least 60 days. One spiroc...

  11. Inducibility of nuclear Rad51 foci after DNA damage distinguishes all Fanconi anemia complementation groups from D1/BRCA2

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a cancer susceptibility disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. So far 11 complementation groups have been identified, from which only FA-D1/BRCA2 and FA-J are defective downstream of the central FANCD2 protein as cells from these groups are capable of monoubiquitinating FANCD2. In this study we show that cells derived from patients from the new complementation groups, FA-I, FA-J and FA-L are all proficient in DNA damage induced Rad51 foci formation, making the cells from FA-D1/BRCA2 patients that are defective in this process the sole exception. Although FA-B patient HSC230 was previously reported to also have biallelic BRCA2 mutations, we found normal Rad51 foci formation in cells from this patient, consistent with the recent identification of an X-linked gene being mutated in four unrelated FA-B patients. Thus, our data show that none of the FA proteins, except BRCA2, are required to sequester Rad51 into nuclear foci. Since cells from the FA-D1 and FA-J patient groups are both able to monoubiquitinate FANCD2, the 'Rad51 foci phenotype' provides a convenient assay to distinguish between these two groups. Our results suggest that FANCJ and FANCD1/BRCA2 are part of the integrated FANC/BRCA DNA damage response pathway or, alternatively, that they represent sub-pathways in which only FANCD1/BRCA2 is directly connected to the process of homologous recombination

  12. Development and validation of 'AutoRIF': software for the automated analysis of radiation-induced foci

    McVean Andrew; Kent Simon; Bakanov Alexei; Hobbs Tom; Anderson Rhona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The quantification of radiation-induced foci (RIF) to investigate the induction and subsequent repair of DNA double strands breaks is now commonplace. Over the last decade systems specific for the automatic quantification of RIF have been developed for this purpose, however to ask more mechanistic questions on the spatio-temporal aspects of RIF, an automated RIF analysis platform that also quantifies RIF size/volume and relative three-dimensional (3D) distribution of RIF w...

  13. Epidemiology of colonic aberrant crypt foci: review and analysis of existing studies.

    Stevens, Richard G; Swede, Helen; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2007-07-18

    Since first described in a rodent model in 1987, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon have been shown to exhibit many of the molecular features of the more advanced colonic neoplasms including cancer. Therefore, they may be early lesions with potential for progression, and be valuable biomarkers for reduction of risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). For this review, we searched PubMed, and reference lists of recent publications, for studies which reported on associations of features of ACF in humans, such as number or size, with subject characteristics, such as age or family history of CRC. Over 150 papers have reported on ACF in humans. However, the vast majority of these publications are concerned with molecular and morphological features of biopsied lesions, and not their epidemiology. None of the epidemiological studies were of optimum design, primarily due to their absence of a well-defined subject sampling frame or method. Given their 'first-generation' nature, consistent findings were of increased ACF number with age and with synchronous advanced colonic neoplasia. One study reported a higher mean number of ACF in subjects with a family history of CRC than in those without. The strongest evidence on the ability of ACF to predict a diagnosis of CRC will be from prospective studies with baseline ACF assessment in a large sample of disease-free persons (many thousands) who are followed carefully for many years. In the interim, because ACF are asymptomatic, well-designed cross-sectional studies are feasible and will yield valuable information on the relation of ACF to the known risk factors for CRC. This information can then be used to improve the design of prospective studies, and of clinical intervention trials that use ACF as an intermediate endpoint. PMID:17182176

  14. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  15. Detecting Foci of Malaria Transmission with School Surveys: A Pilot Study in the Gambia.

    Ebako N Takem

    Full Text Available In areas of declining malaria transmission such as in The Gambia, the identification of malaria infected individuals becomes increasingly harder. School surveys may be used to identify foci of malaria transmission in the community.The survey was carried out in May-June 2011, before the beginning of the malaria transmission season. Thirty two schools in the Upper River Region of The Gambia were selected with probability proportional to size; in each school approximately 100 children were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. Each child had a finger prick blood sample collected for the determination of antimalarial antibodies by ELISA, malaria infection by microscopy and PCR, and for haemoglobin measurement. In addition, a simple questionnaire on socio-demographic variables and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets was completed. The cut-off for positivity for antimalarial antibodies was obtained using finite mixture models. The clustered nature of the data was taken into account in the analyses.A total of 3,277 children were included in the survey. The mean age was 10 years (SD = 2.7 [range 4-21], with males and females evenly distributed. The prevalence of malaria infection as determined by PCR was 13.6% (426/3124 [95% CI = 12.2-16.3] with marked variation between schools (range 3-25%, p<0.001, while the seroprevalence was 7.8% (234/2994 [95%CI = 6.4-9.8] for MSP119, 11.6% (364/2997 [95%CI = 9.4-14.5] for MSP2, and 20.0% (593/2973 [95% CI = 16.5-23.2 for AMA1. The prevalence of all the three antimalarial antibodies positive was 2.7% (79/2920.This survey shows that malaria prevalence and seroprevalence before the transmission season were highly heterogeneous.

  16. Chemoprevention of aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats by dietary onion.

    Taché, Sylviane; Ladam, Aélis; Corpet, Denis E

    2007-01-01

    Onion intake might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to epidemiology. However, Femia showed in 2003 that diets with a 20% onion intake increase carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated this dose was too high. Prevention of initiation was thus tested in 60 rats given a 5% dried onion diet or AIN76 diet, and initiated 12 days later with azoxymethane (AOM, 1x20 mg/kg i.p.), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ, 2x200 mg/kg p.o.), or N-nitroso-N-methylurea (2x50 mg/kg p.o.). Prevention of promotion was tested in 38 rats given AOM, then randomised to: AIN76 diet; 5% onion diet; phytochemicals diet (supplemented with propyl-disulfide, quercetine-glycosides and oligofructose); 1% pluronic F68 diet (a potent chemopreventive PEG-like block-polymer, used as a positive control). Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were scored 30 days (initiation) or 100 days (promotion) after carcinogen injection. The onion diet given during initiation reduced the number of AOM-induced ACF (60 versus 86, p=0.03), and the size of IQ-induced ACF (1.33 versus 1.97, p=0.02). Given post-initiation, the onion diet reduced the number of ACF (34 versus 59, p=0.008) and of large ACF (6 versus 15, p=0.02). Phytochemicals diet and pluronic diet reduced ACF growth similarly. Data show that a 5% onion diet reduced carcinogenesis during initiation and promotion stages, and suggest this chemoprevention is due to known phytochemicals. PMID:17188859

  17. The historical distribution of main malaria foci in Spain as related to water bodies.

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe. PMID:25101771

  18. Medical Research Council dyspnea scale does not relate to fibroblast foci profusion in IPF

    Kagouridis Konstantinos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF irreversibly progressive fibrosing parenchymal damage, leads to defects in mechanics and gas exchange, manifesting with disabling exertional dyspnea. Previous studies have shown a relationship between fibroblast foci (FF profusion and severity and survival and a relationship between dyspnea grade and severity and outcome. We hypothesized a relationship between Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea scale with FF, and a relationship between FF and functional parameters and survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 24 histologically documented IPF patients. Profusion of FF was semiquantitatively evaluated by two scores, Brompton and Michigan. Survival analysis was performed by fitting Cox regression models to examine the relationship of the two scores with survival and the non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated to describe the relationships of FF scores with dyspnea scores and functional parameters. Results No statistically significant correlation between FF scores and the MRC scores was observed (p = 0.96 and p = 0.508 respectively. No significant correlation between FF scores and survival (p = 0.438 and p = 0.861 respectively or any functional parameter was observed. Conclusions The lack of relationship between the MRC dyspnea scale and the FF might relate to the fact that dyspnea in IPF better reflects the overall of lung damage and its related consequences on mechanics and gas exchange whereas FF, one of its histological hallmarks, may not reflect its entire histology derangement also constrained by the geographically limited sampled tissue. This might be also valid for the observed lack of association between FF and survival or functional parameters.

  19. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  20. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  1. EFFECT OF COADMINISTRATION OF PHENOBARBITAL SODIUM ON N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE-INDUCED GAMMA-GLYTAMYLTRANSFERASE-POSITIVE FOCI AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN RATS

    The effect of concurrent administration of phenobarbital on the hepatocarcinogenicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine; DENA) in rats was investigated by determination of the incidence of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) (GGT)-positive foci and...

  2. Characterization of enzootic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela.

    Barrera, R; Torres, N; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; García, C Z; Salas, R; Vasquez, C; Weaver, S C

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of the sylvatic subtype ID Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses in the lowland tropical forests of western Venezuela was investigated using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to study the reflectance patterns of VEE endemic foci and to identify other locations with similar reflectance patterns. Enzootic VEE virus variants isolated during this study are the closest genetic relatives of the epizootic viruses that emerged in western Venezuela during 1992-1993. VEE virus surveillance was conducted by exposing sentinel hamsters to mosquito bites and trapping wild vertebrates in seven forests identified and located by means of the satellite image. We isolated VEE viruses from 48 of a total of 1,363 sentinel hamsters in two of the forests on six occasions, in both dry and wet seasons. None of the 12 small vertebrates captured in 8,190 trap-nights showed signs of previous VEE virus infection. The satellite image was classified into 13 validated classes of land use/vegetation using unsupervised and supervised techniques. Data derived from the image consisted of the raw digital values of near- and mid-infrared bands 4, 5, and 7, derived Tasseled Cap indices of wetness, greenness, and brightness, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Digitized maps provided ancillary data of elevation and soil geomorphology. Image enhancement was applied using Principal Component Analysis. A digital layer of roads together with georeferenced images was used to locate the study sites. A cluster analysis using the above data revealed two main groups of dense forests separated by spectral properties, altitude, and soil geomorphology. Virus was isolated more frequently from the forest type identified on flat flood plains of main rivers rather than the forest type found on the rolling hills of the study area. The spatial analysis suggests that mosquitoes carrying the enzootic viruses

  3. Larval ecology of mosquitoes in sylvatic arbovirus foci in southeastern Senegal

    Diallo Diawo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (YFV, dengue-2 (DENV-2 and chikungunya (CHIKV] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern Senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. In this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci. Methods We searched for wet microhabitats, classified in 9 categories, in five land cover classes (agriculture, forest, savannah, barren and village from June, 2010 to January, 2011. Mosquito immatures were sampled monthly in up to 30 microhabitats of each category per land cover and bred until adult stage for determination. Results No wet microhabitats were found in the agricultural sites; in the remaining land covers immature stages of 35 mosquito species in 7 genera were sampled from 9 microhabitats (tree holes, fresh fruit husks, decaying fruit husks, puddles, bamboo holes, discarded containers, tires, rock holes and storage containers. The most abundant species was Aedes aegypti formosus, representing 30.2% of the collections, followed by 12 species, representing each more than 1% of the total, among them the arbovirus vectors Ae. vittatus (7.9%, Ae. luteocephalus (5.7%, Ae. taylori (5.0%, and Ae. furcifer (1.3%. Aedes aegypti, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Er. chrysogster and Ae. vittatus were the only common species collected from all land covers. Aedes furcifer and Ae. taylori were collected in fresh fruit husks and tree holes. Species richness and dominance varied significantly in land covers and microhabitats. Positive associations were found mainly between Ae. furcifer, Ae. taylori and Ae. luteocephalus. A high proportion of potential enzootic vectors that are not anthropophilic were found in the larval mosquito fauna. Conclusions In southeastern Senegal, Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori larvae showed a more

  4. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  5. Spontaneous γH2AX Foci in Human Solid Tumor-Derived Cell Lines in Relation to p21WAF1 and WIP1 Expression

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of H2AX on Ser139 (γH2AX after exposure to ionizing radiation produces nuclear foci that are detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy. These so-called γH2AX foci have been adopted as quantitative markers for DNA double-strand breaks. High numbers of spontaneous γH2AX foci have also been reported for some human solid tumor-derived cell lines, but the molecular mechanism(s for this response remains elusive. Here we show that cancer cells (e.g., HCT116; MCF7 that constitutively express detectable levels of p21WAF1 (p21 exhibit low numbers of γH2AX foci (<3/nucleus, whereas p21 knockout cells (HCT116p21−/− and constitutively low p21-expressing cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231 exhibit high numbers of foci (e.g., >50/nucleus, and that these foci are not associated with apoptosis. The majority (>95% of cells within HCT116p21−/− and MDA-MB-231 cultures contain high levels of phosphorylated p53, which is localized in the nucleus. We further show an inverse relationship between γH2AX foci and nuclear accumulation of WIP1, an oncogenic phosphatase. Our studies suggest that: (i p21 deficiency might provide a selective pressure for the emergence of apoptosis-resistant progeny exhibiting genomic instability, manifested as spontaneous γH2AX foci coupled with phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of p53; and (ii p21 might contribute to positive regulation of WIP1, resulting in dephosphorylation of γH2AX.

  6. RAD18 and associated proteins are immobilized in nuclear foci in human cells entering S-phase with ultraviolet light-induced damage

    Proteins required for translesion DNA synthesis localize in nuclear foci of cells with replication-blocking lesions. The dynamics of this process were examined in human cells with fluorescence-based biophysical techniques. Photobleaching recovery and raster image correlation spectroscopy experiments indicated that involvement in the nuclear foci reduced the movement of RAD18 from diffusion-controlled to virtual immobility. Examination of the mobility of REV1 indicated that it is similarly immobilized when it is observed in nuclear foci. Reducing the level of RAD18 greatly reduced the focal accumulation of REV1 and reduced UV mutagenesis to background frequencies. Fluorescence lifetime measurements indicated that RAD18 and RAD6A or polη only transferred resonance energy when these proteins colocalized in damage-induced nuclear foci, indicating a close physical association only within such foci. Our data support a model in which RAD18 within damage-induced nuclear foci is immobilized and is required for recruitment of Y-family DNA polymerases and subsequent mutagenesis. In the absence of damage these proteins are not physically associated within the nucleoplasm

  7. Advantages and limitations of stereological estimation of placental glutathione S-transferase-positive rat liver cell foci by computerized three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Imaida, K; Tatematsu, M; Kato, T; Tsuda, H; Ito, N

    1989-04-01

    The applicability to a medium-term bioassay for liver carcinogens of mathematical formulae for the calculation of numbers of foci per volume was examined in F344 rats. Two weeks after initiation with diethylnitrosamine, animals were given test compounds for 6 weeks, partial hepatectomy being performed at week 3. At week 8, the rats were killed, the livers removed and stained immunohistochemically for assessment of glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci development. Numbers and areas of lesions were measured two-dimensionally using a color image analyzer, and the Enzmann and Campbell formulae for estimation of number and volume per cm3 were applied to the results. In addition, three-dimensional reconstruction of individual foci was performed using up to 150 GST-P stained foci, with the aid of a computerized graphic system. Both two- and three-dimensionally expressed quantitative results were found to adequately demonstrate the modifying potential of test chemicals on hepatocarcinogenesis. The three-dimensional approach was only more accurate if most of the foci were small and the liver was enlarged by compound treatment. Stereological reconstruction revealed that the shape of GST-P-positive foci, especially if relatively large, is not always spherical but that many demonstrate irregular branching forms, so that the assumptions behind stereological estimation are not met. The results therefore show that care must be taken in applying mathematical formulae for the calculation of three-dimensional data. PMID:2501249

  8. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  9. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci

    Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Samy, Abdallah M.; Frah, Ehab A.; ElMubarak, Wigdan A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Results Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in

  10. From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence.

    Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Chanteau, Suzanne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Re-emergence of human cases of plague after decades of silence does not necessarily mean that plague foci are re-emerging. Most often, Yersinia pestis bacteria have been maintained and circulating at low levels in the rodent populations. It seems therefore more appropriate to speak in terms of expansion or regression phases for sylvatic rodent plague foci and to reserve the term re-emergence for human cases. From the analysis of well-documented human plague cases in Madagascar, we underline the causes of re-emergence that can be generalized to most world foci, and can help define environments at risk where the threat of new emergence lurks. In all recent plague outbreaks, usually more than one risk factor was at the origin of the re-emergence. The reduction or discontinuance of surveillance and control, as well as poverty and insalubrity are the main factors in the re-emergence of human cases, allowing increased contacts with infected rodents and fleas. Environment changes (i.e. climatic changes, deforestation, urbanization) induce changes in flea and rodent populations by (i) extension of rodent habitats (for example by replacing forests by steppes or farmlands); (ii) modifications in population dynamics (possible outbreaks due to an increase of available food resources); but also, (iii) emergence of new vectors, reservoirs and new Y. pestis genotypes. Numerous and spontaneous genomic rearrangements occur at high frequencies in Y. pestis, which may confer selective advantages, enhancing the ability of Y. pestis to survive, to be transmitted to new hosts, and to colonize new environments. Therefore, any environmental change should be taken as a warning signal and active surveillance programs should be initiated. PMID:15845233

  11. DNA-damage foci to detect and characterize DNA repair alterations in children treated for pediatric malignancies.

    Nadine Schuler

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies.

  12. The p150 subunit of CAF-1 causes association of SUMO2/3 with the DNA replication foci

    Uwada, Junsuke [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Niina; Yamaguchi, Yutaro; Uchimura, Yasuhiro [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shibahara, Kei-ichi [Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Mishima (Japan); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-related modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) can be post-translationally conjugated to a wide variety of proteins constituting chromatin, the platform for genetic and epigenetic regulation. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SUMO2/3 and SUMO2/3-modified proteins are delivered to the chromatin fibers. Here we report that the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), human p150, interacts directly and preferentially with SUMO2/3. Amino acid residue of 98-105 in p150 is essential and sufficient for SUMO2/3 interaction. p150-SUMO2/3 interaction coincided with regions that replicate chromatin fibers, because accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were detected at foci co-localized with both p150 and SUMO2/3 during the S-phase in a cell line expressing epitope-tagged p150. Although inhibition of SUMO2/3 expression had only a small effect on p150 deposition on the replication sites, depletion of p150 led to delocalization of SUMO2/3 from the replication foci. Furthermore, p150 mutants deficient in SUMO2/3 interaction, caused a major reduction of SUMO2/3 at the replication foci. Thus, our findings suggest an expanded role of p150 as a SUMO2/3-interacting factor, and raise the intriguing possibility that p150 plays a role in promoting delivery of SUMO2/3 or SUMO2/3-modified proteins (or both) on chromatin fibers during replication.

  13. Genomic instability of human aberrant crypt foci measured by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR and array-CGH.

    Alrawi, Sadir J; Carroll, Robert E; Hill, Hank C; Gibbs, John F; Tan, Dongfeng; Brenner, Bruce M; Nowak, Norma J; Swede, Helen; Stoler, Daniel L; Anderson, Garth R

    2006-10-10

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest identifiable neoplastic lesions in the colon. Thirty-two ACFs were examined for genomic instability in forms detectable either by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR or by array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH]. One-fourth of ACFs revealed moderate instability by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR; none showed amplifications or deletions on array-CGH. The absence of genomic events detectible by BAC array-CGH indicates early events in colorectal tumor progression are typically smaller than the approximate 150 kb size of a BAC clone insert. PMID:16806294

  14. Feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: first evidence from studies in Mali and Senegal.

    Lamine Diawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass treatment with ivermectin is a proven strategy for controlling onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it is not known if it can also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission and test whether ivermectin treatment could be safely stopped in the study areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 126 villages, and 17,801 people were examined. The prevalence of microfilaridermia was <1% in all three foci. A total of 157,500 blackflies were collected and analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larvae using a specific DNA probe, and vector infectivity rates were all below 0.5 infective flies per 1,000 flies. Except for a subsection of one focus, all infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Treatment was therefore stopped in test areas of 5 to 8 villages in each focus. Evaluations 16 to 22 months after the last treatment in the test areas involved examination of 2,283 people using the skin snip method and a DEC patch test, and analysis of 123,000 black flies. No infected persons and no infected blackflies were detected in the test areas, and vector infectivity rates in other catching points were <0.2 infective flies per 1,000. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the first empirical evidence that elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin treatment is feasible in some endemic foci in Africa. Although further studies are needed to determine to what extent these findings can be extrapolated to other endemic areas in Africa, the principle of elimination has been established. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control has adopted an additional

  15. PET/CT detection of incidental colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake: Correlation with colonoscopy results

    Purpose: F.D.G.-PET is an established tool for the diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Several case series suggest that F.D.G.-PET often detects incidental adenomatous polyps or colorectal adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to correlate unexpected colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake to pathology findings after systematic colonoscopy. Patients and methods: We reviewed the records of 3541 patients who underwent F.D.G. PET/CT in our institution over a 30-month period for the assessment of a known or suspected malignancy. In 85 of them, incidental, nodular shaped and well-circumscribed foci of abnormal uptake were identified in the area of the colon or rectum. Patients with segmental or diffuse abnormal colorectal uptake were excluded, as well as patients with known benign or malignant colorectal disease. Colonoscopy and complete pathology report was available in 29 patients. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured in all lesions. Results: Unexpected colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake were associated with colonoscopic abnormalities in 23 patients (true positive rate: 79 %). Adenocarcinomas were found in six patients (SUVmax = 7.3 ± 2.6), tubular adenomas in four patients (SUVmax = 7.3 ± 4.9) and tubulovillous adenomas in 12 patients (SUVmax = 4.2 ± 1.1). Hyperplasic polyps with no sign of dysplasia were found in the last patient (SUVmax 3.3). Concomitant CT abnormalities were found on PET/CT fusion in eight patients and consisted of wall thickening (n = 5) or nodular mass (n = 3). Conversely, PET was falsely positive in six patients (21 %), with no concomitant CT abnormalities and no abnormal findings at endoscopy (SUVmax 6.2 ± 2.8, no significant difference with true positive lesions). Conclusion: Our findings emphasize the need to perform a colonoscopy in front of incidental nodular colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake because malignant or pre-malignant neoplasms, which are not clinically apparent, are found in more than

  16. [Outstanding Soviet zoologist and parasitologist E. N. Pavlovsky--the creator of the theory of natural foci of disease].

    Pavlovskyĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information on the outstanding Soviet Zoology and Parasitology, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lieutenant-General of the Medical Service E. N. Pavlovsky, the author of more than 1500 scientific papers, the founder of scientific school, one of the few scholars the twentieth century, approaching the level of scientists and encyclopedists. Considered its contribution to the study of natural foci of diseases has promoted the development of environmental trends in parasitology. PMID:22606908

  17. Group edge choosability of planar graphs without adjacent short cycles

    Xin ZHANG; Liu, Guizhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to introduce the group version of edge coloring and list edge coloring, and prove that all 2-degenerate graphs along with some planar graphs without adjacent short cycles is group $(\\Delta(G)+1)$-edge-choosable while some planar graphs with large girth and maximum degree is group $\\Delta(G)$-edge-choosable.

  18. PROBABILISTIC ZONING OF ADJACENT CATCHMENTS BY PHYSICAL MODELING

    Yu. B. Andreev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Now the probabilistic zoning of avalanche sites is being made either on the basis of the available field data, or using the mathematical and physical modeling of avalanche dynamics processes. The work purpose consisted in research of interaction and compiling probabilistic zoning maps of two adjacent avalanche sites by a physical modeling method. For the two adjacent sites № 9 and 10 on the slope of northern exposition ofTchegetMountain(Elbrus region,Caucasus the model of this slope with the scale of 1: 2 500 was created. The model dimension is 0,82 × 1,1 ×0,57 m. This model was produced using the 4-mm plywood sheets imposed against each other. The model horizontals correspond to the10 mnatural ones. The model slope was also surfaced by thin gypsum lay and then varnished. The fine-grained sawdust (0.1 mm with a natural friction angle of 43º has been chosen as the loose material modeling snow. A series of experiments on modeling avalanche releases from the two sites were carried out resulted in the measurements of avalanche deposit parameters such as run-out distance and length, width and thickness of deposits. The similarity criteria were used during the experiments. The morphometric features of adjacent sites interaction are revealed. The basic result of the carried out work will consist in the probabilistic zoning map of two adjacent sites № 9 and 10.

  19. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  20. Evaluation of agents to detect inflammatory foci using an experimental animal model

    We have evaluated the propensities of four agents- two metal complexes and two protein species, viz. 67Ga-citrate, 99mTc-citrate, 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (99mTc-HIG); and 99mTc-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA), for localization of (turpentine- induced) inflammatory lesions in a rat and rabbit animal model systems. All these radiopharmaceuticals showed fairly good uptake in inflammatory lesions. 99mTc-HIG, 99mTc-HSA and 67Ga-citrate showed slower blood clearance and higher liver uptakes. On the other hand 99mTc-citrate demonstrated faster blood clearance and negligible liver and gut accumulation. The respective inflamed/normal muscle (IM/NM) ratios obtained with these agents in this animal model were in the following order: 99mTc-HIG>99mTc-HSA> 67Ga-citrate>99mTc-citrate at 5 h post injection. Although the IM/NM was relatively low in the case of 99mTc-citrate as compared with other radiopharmaceuticals the inflammation could be detected within 1-3 h. post injection because of the higher activities that could be injected with this radiopharmaceutical. Since 99mTc-citrate is predominantly excreted via renal pathway it is rapidly cleared from blood and shows fairly good accumulation in infection/inflammatory lesions at early time periods along with low uptakes in liver and adjacent organs. This agent can therefore be beneficially used to detect the abdominal abscess(es)/inflammation(s) within 1-3 h post injection. Because of its favourable characteristics, physical, biological, clinical, and even cost-effectiveness, it is suggested that 99mTc-citrate could be tried out as an agent for detection of inflammation including abdominal and vertebral abscess(es). (author)

  1. XRCC2 is Required for the Formation of Rad51 Foci Induced by Ionizing Radiation and DNA Cross-Linking Agent Mitomycin C

    Liu Nan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available XRCC2 protein shares weak amino acid sequence similarity with Rad51, which is a central player in homologous recombinational repair (HRR. Rad51 proteins assemble at the sites of HRR and form visible nuclear foci in response to DNA damage. Xrcc2 hamster mutant irs1 cells are incapable of forming Rad51 foci after ionizing irradiation or DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C treatment, though the Rad51 protein level is normal in the mutant. The defect can be corrected in an XRCC2 transformant. Time course study showed that the irs1 cells primarily lacked the early response (2 hours after irradiation to form small Rad51 foci (type 1 and later response (8 hours after irradiation to form large foci (type 2. These results suggested that XRCC2 is essential for the assembly of the DNA damage-induced Rad51 foci and that XRCC2 may play an important role in the early stage of HRR.

  2. [Slow Formation and Degradation of γH2AX Foci in Human Skin Fibroblasts Exposed to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation].

    Grekhova, A K; Eremin, P S; Osipov, A N; Eremin, I I; Pustovalova, M V; Ozerov, I V; Smetanina, N M; Lazareva, N L; Vorobyeva, N Yu; Pulin, A A; Maksimova, O A; Gordeev, A V; Bushmanov, A Yu; Kotenko, K V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that the kinetics of changes of γH2AX foci number (marker of DNA double-strand breaks) in human skin fibroblasts after exposure to low doses of X-ray radiation (20, 40 and 80 mGy) differs from that observed after exposure to medium-low doses (160 and 240 mGy). After exposure to 160 and 240 mGy the highest number of γH2AX foci was detected at 30 min after exposure (first experimental point) and further their decrease was observed. At the same time we observed a fast phase of repair (upto 4 h), in which there was a decrease of the foci amount to ~50-60% and a slow phase of repair (from 4 h to 24 h). After 24 h only ~3-5% of the foci amount observed at 30 min after irradiation was left. After exposure to low doses, the foci number did not decrease during 2 h and even 24 h after exposure their amount was ~25% from that observed at maximum points (1 h after irradiation at 40 and 80 mGy and 2 h after irradiation at 20 mGy). PMID:26601539

  3. Improvement parameters in dynamic compaction adjacent to the slopes

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic compaction is a cost-effective method commonly used for improvement of sandy soils. A number of researchers have investigated experimentally and numerically the improvement parameters of soils using dynamic compaction, such as crater depth, improvement depth, and radial improvement, however, these parameters are not studied for improvement adjacent to the slopes or trenches. In this research, four different slopes with different inclinations are modeled numerically using the finite element code ABAQUS, and impact loads of dynamic compaction are applied. The static factors of safety are kept similar for all trenches and determined numerically by application of gravity loads to the slope using strength reduction method (SRM. The analysis focuses on crater depth and improvement region which are compared to the state of flat ground. It can be observed that compacted area adjacent to the slopes is narrower and slightly away from the slope compared to the flat state. Moreover, crater depth increases with increase in slope inclination.

  4. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    S Mahadevan; P Prema; S K Agarwalla; B Sahu; C S Shastry

    2006-09-01

    We examine the behavior of transmission coefficient across the rectangular barrier when attractive potential well is present on one or both sides and also the same is studied for a smoother barrier with smooth adjacent wells having Woods–Saxon shape. We find that presence of well with suitable width and depth can substantially alter at energies below the barrier height leading to resonant-like structures. In a sense, this work is complementary to the resonant tunneling of particles across two rectangular barriers, which is being studied in detail in recent years with possible applications in mind. We interpret our results as due to resonant-like positive energy states generated by the adjacent wells. We describe in detail the possible potential application of these results in electronic devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices.

  5. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  6. On heavy machines dynamical loading under adjacent links shocks

    Трубачев, Сергей Иванович; Лысюк, Дмитрий Степанович; Талимонова, Ольга Юрьевна

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical model, describing the dynamics under collision of heavy machinery adjacent links in the presence of gaps and other elements with a dead or smoothness zone of transfer functions of kinematic chains, is given. The model is designed using a procedure of "smoothing" discontinuous functions and regarding a variable structure. The specific example of a dynamic system and its numerical calculation is considered. The pressure between the roller and a workpiece is expressed by means o...

  7. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  8. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    Amancio, Diego R.; Filipi N. Silva; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-01-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the wo...

  9. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Mahmoud Yahyai; Masoud Mirtaheri; Mehrab Mahoutian; Amir S. Daryan

    2008-01-01

    In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance bet...

  10. Disrupted Turn Adjacency and Coherence Maintenance in Instant Messaging Conversations

    Berglund, Therese Örnberg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of coherence in text-based log files from 120 two-party Instant Messaging (IM) conversations among a group of international students at a design school. The goals of the study were to investigate whether disrupted turn adjacency was an obstacle to coherence and to identify the linguistic strategies employed to maintain coherence. Additional signs of problematic coherence creation were also investigated, focusing on explicit signs of miscommunication. In this pa...

  11. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  12. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  13. MR imaging evaluation of ductal carcinoma in situ and ductal carcinoma in situ with small invasive foci of breast

    Objective: To retrospectively assess diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of local extent of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and DCIS with small invasive foci, compared with the mammography and uhrasonography (US) imagings. Methods: Results of MRI, mammography, and US imaging from 17 consecutive women with known breast DCIS and DCIS with invasive foci were analyzed, and then compared with pathologic examination. Results: (1) Fourteen lesions showed enhancement on dynamic breast MRI, of which 11 lesions were no-mass-like enhancement. Six of 11 lesions appeared segmental enhancement, and 2 were regional enhancement. Ductal and multiple focal areas enhancement were 1 case respectively. Symmetric diffuse enhancement in bilateral breast was showed in 1 patient. Ductal dilation was visible in ipsilateral breast on pre-contrast MRI in 2 cases, which manifested bloody nipple discharge in clinical examination, and duct enhanced on post- contrast imaging in one of them. Two lesions appeared mass enhancement with irregular shape and homogeneous signal. Linear enhancement surrounding the oval homogeneous mass with smooth margin found in 1 case. (2) Thirteen of 17 patients underwent bilateral mammography. There were various findings in mammograms, including microcalcifications (6 cases), normal mammograms (2 cases), calcifications with other appearance (2 cases), and non-calcification ahnormity (3 cases). In 8 lesions with calcifications, 5 were noted higher' probability of malignancy calcifications and 3 intermediate concern calcifications. Calcifications distributed clustered (5 cases), regional (2 cases) and diffuse (1 case) shape. (3) Sixteen of 17 patients were performed breast US examination. Eleven lesions, which were correct diagnosed, appeared higher echo spots within irregular lower echo area. One lesion diagnosed benign and 4 were negative on US examination. (4) Regarded the size measured on pathologic examination

  14. Novel Image Processing Interface to Relate DSB Spatial Distribution from Immunofluorescence Foci Experiments to the State-of-the-Art Models of DNA Breakage

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed software (NASARadiationTrackImage) allows a quick and automatic segmentation of foci that indicate spatial localization of specific proteins that are visualized by immunofluorescence. Of interest are the spatial and temporal distribution of foci such as gammaH2AX, a signal of the phosphorylation of a variant of the histone H2A that has been shown to correspond to DSBs, or proteins involved in DSB processing, such as ATM, Rad51, and p53, following exposures of human cells to high charge and energy (HZE) ion irradiation. Experimental data are recorded as sets of two-dimensional images in color with cells and foci of gammaH2AX, ATM, Rad51 or others shown. Different cells, levels of radiation and timing after radiation were recorded. The software allows us to calculate the number of foci per cell, overall intensity of light in foci and their spatial organization. A simple statistical model allows for testing of foci overlap (eclipse). A more complex statistical model previously known as DNAbreak simulates track structure and random chromosome geometry. It has one adjustable parameter corresponding to an average intensity of DSB creation in cubic micrometers of DNA volume per particle track or unit dose. Its limitation is the low-resolution limit both in physical space and DSB's along DNA. It works adequately on the scale of a cell and provides further insights on how the geometry of tracks and DNA affects genomic damage of the cell and subsequent repair. Future developments of the model for the description of the time evolution of DNA damage response proteins, and more robust track structure models will be discussed.

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of interictal 18F-FDG PET images for presurgical evaluation of epileptic foci in extratemporal lobe epilepsy

    Interictal 18F-FDG PET is beneficial to patients with epilepsy to define the epileptic foci before operation, especially to decide the laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However usefulness has not been clearly established in extra TLE. We retrospectively applied Z-score analysis to interictal preoperative 18F-FDG PET images for detection of the epileptic foci in order to achieve better performance. Seventeen epileptic patients (women/men; 8/9, age; 11-55 yrs) underwent resection of epileptic foci with good outcome (Engel's stage of I or II) even after more than a year from operation. Presurgical 18F-FDG PET images were spatially normalized using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99) with an original Japanese template for 18F-FDG and compared with normal database constructed from 31 healthy volunteers (women/men; 14/17, age; 19-59 yrs). A software program, easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS), for analysis of patient data was developed by calculating Z-score in each voxel and visualizing the score in a standardized stereotactic space; Z-score=(normal mean-patient's value)/a standard deviation of normal data. Detectability of epileptic foci for this computer-aided analysis was compared with visual inspection of original 18F-FDG PET images by five radiologists without any clinical information. In all cases, there was significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the operated area. The sensitivities of the detection of epileptic foci obtained from visual inspection were 47-59%. In contrast to, computer analysis by eZIS showed 71% sensitivity when we defined the highest Z-score in the cerebrum to be the focus diagnosed by eZIS. Computer-aided diagnosis with eZIS for 18F-FDG PET study is useful for detecting epileptic foci in extra TLE. (author)

  16. γ-H2AX foci are increased in lymphocytes in vivo in young children 1 h after very low-dose X-irradiation: a pilot study

    Halm, Brunhild M.; Franke, Adrian A.; Lai, Jennifer F. [University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turner, Helen C.; Brenner, David J.; Zohrabian, Vatche M. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Radiological Research, New York, NY (United States); DiMauro, Robert [Kapi' olani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality involving ionizing radiation. The presence of γ-H2AX foci after low to moderate ionizing radiation exposure has been demonstrated; however it is unknown whether very low ionizing radiation exposure doses from CT exams can induce γ-H2AX formation in vivo in young children. To test whether very low ionizing radiation doses from CT exams can induce lymphocytic γ-H2AX foci (phosphorylated histones used as a marker of DNA damage) formation in vivo in young children. Parents of participating children signed a consent form. Blood samples from three children (ages 3-21 months) undergoing CT exams involving very low blood ionizing radiation exposure doses (blood doses of 0.22-1.22 mGy) were collected immediately before and 1 h post CT exams. Isolated lymphocytes were quantified for γ-H2AX foci by a technician blinded to the radiation status and dose of the patients. Paired t-tests and regression analyses were performed with significance levels set at P < 0.05. We observed a dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci post-CT exams (P = 0.046) among the three children. Ionizing radiation exposure doses led to a linear increase of foci per cell in post-CT samples (102% between lowest and highest dose). We found a significant induction of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from post-CT samples of three very young children. When possible, CT exams should be limited or avoided by possibly applying non-ionizing radiation exposure techniques such as US or MRI. (orig.)

  17. γ-H2AX foci are increased in lymphocytes in vivo in young children 1 h after very low-dose X-irradiation: a pilot study

    Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality involving ionizing radiation. The presence of γ-H2AX foci after low to moderate ionizing radiation exposure has been demonstrated; however it is unknown whether very low ionizing radiation exposure doses from CT exams can induce γ-H2AX formation in vivo in young children. To test whether very low ionizing radiation doses from CT exams can induce lymphocytic γ-H2AX foci (phosphorylated histones used as a marker of DNA damage) formation in vivo in young children. Parents of participating children signed a consent form. Blood samples from three children (ages 3-21 months) undergoing CT exams involving very low blood ionizing radiation exposure doses (blood doses of 0.22-1.22 mGy) were collected immediately before and 1 h post CT exams. Isolated lymphocytes were quantified for γ-H2AX foci by a technician blinded to the radiation status and dose of the patients. Paired t-tests and regression analyses were performed with significance levels set at P < 0.05. We observed a dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci post-CT exams (P = 0.046) among the three children. Ionizing radiation exposure doses led to a linear increase of foci per cell in post-CT samples (102% between lowest and highest dose). We found a significant induction of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from post-CT samples of three very young children. When possible, CT exams should be limited or avoided by possibly applying non-ionizing radiation exposure techniques such as US or MRI. (orig.)

  18. Ionizing radiation-induced foci formation of mammalian Rad51 and Rad54 depends on the Rad51 paralogs, but not on Rad52

    Homologous recombination is of major importance for the prevention of genomic instability during chromosome duplication and repair of DNA damage, especially double-strand breaks. Biochemical experiments have revealed that during the process of homologous recombination the RAD52 group proteins, including Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54, are involved in an essential step: formation of a joint molecule between the broken DNA and the intact repair template. Accessory proteins for this reaction include the Rad51 paralogs and BRCA2. The significance of homologous recombination for the cell is underscored by the evolutionary conservation of the Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54 proteins from yeast to humans. Upon treatment of cells with ionizing radiation, the RAD52 group proteins accumulate at the sites of DNA damage into so-called foci. For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54 is abrogated in the absence of Rad52, while Rad51 foci formation does occur in the absence of the Rad51 paralog Rad55. By contrast, we show here that in mammalian cells, Rad52 is not required for foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54. Furthermore, radiation-induced foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54 is impaired in all Rad51 paralog and BRCA2 mutant cell lines tested, while Rad52 foci formation is not influenced by a mutation in any of these recombination proteins. Despite their evolutionary conservation and biochemical similarities, S. cerevisiae and mammalian Rad52 appear to differentially contribute to the DNA-damage response

  19. The IEC-publication 336/1981 - new formulation of the standards for X-ray foci

    With the new IEC-standard for foci a clear distinction has been made between application oriented focus classification, expressed by the focus nominal value as a dimensionless number and the detectable real geometric focus measured in the sense of the principle 'Truth in advertising'. Now, even regions of a size < 0.3 can be included into the size standard by substituting of the operture camera with the more accurate slit aperture. Furthermore in future the user obtains additional information like resolution values and modulation transfer function: information, that can directly be converted into image-delivering factors, and that allow quantitatively the integration of the tube into the complete radiologic system, above the sole specification control. (orig.)

  20. X-ray induced formation of γ-H2AX foci after full-field digital mammography and digital breast-tomosynthesis.

    Siegfried A Schwab

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine in-vivo formation of x-ray induced γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing full-field digital mammography (FFDM and to estimate foci after FFDM and digital breast-tomosynthesis (DBT using a biological phantom model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. For in-vivo tests, systemic blood lymphocytes were obtained from 20 patients before and after FFDM. In order to compare in-vivo post-exposure with pre-exposure foci levels, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used. For in-vitro experiments, isolated blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers were irradiated at skin and glandular level of a porcine breast using FFDM and DBT. Cells were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX, and foci representing distinct DNA damages were quantified. RESULTS: Median in-vivo foci level/cell was 0.086 (range 0.067-0.116 before and 0.094 (0.076-0.126 after FFDM (p = 0.0004. In the in-vitro model, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell after FFDM was 0.120 (range 0.086-0.140 at skin level and 0.035 (range 0.030-0.050 at glandular level. After DBT, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell was 0.061 (range 0.040-0.081 at skin level and 0.015 (range 0.006-0.020 at glandular level. CONCLUSION: In patients, mammography induces a slight but significant increase of γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes. The introduced biological phantom model is suitable for the estimation of x-ray induced DNA damages in breast tissue in different breast imaging techniques.

  1. {gamma}H2AX foci as a measure of DNA damage: A computational approach to automatic analysis

    Ivashkevich, Alesia N. [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Martin, Olga A. [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, D.H.H.S., Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Smith, Andrea J. [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Redon, Christophe E.; Bonner, William M. [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, D.H.H.S., Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Martin, Roger F. [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Lobachevsky, Pavel N., E-mail: pavel.lobachevsky@petermac.org [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2011-06-03

    The {gamma}H2AX focus assay represents a fast and sensitive approach for the detection of one of the critical types of DNA damage - double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by various cytotoxic agents including ionising radiation. Apart from research applications, the assay has a potential in clinical medicine/pathology, such as assessment of individual radiosensitivity, response to cancer therapies, as well as in biodosimetry. Given that generally there is a direct relationship between numbers of microscopically visualised {gamma}H2AX foci and DNA DSB in a cell, the number of foci per nucleus represents the most efficient and informative parameter of the assay. Although computational approaches have been developed for automatic focus counting, the tedious and time consuming manual focus counting still remains the most reliable way due to limitations of computational approaches. We suggest a computational approach and associated software for automatic focus counting that minimises these limitations. Our approach, while using standard image processing algorithms, maximises the automation of identification of nuclei/cells in complex images, offers an efficient way to optimise parameters used in the image analysis and counting procedures, optionally invokes additional procedures to deal with variations in intensity of the signal and background in individual images, and provides automatic batch processing of a series of images. We report results of validation studies that demonstrated correlation of manual focus counting with results obtained using our computational algorithm for mouse jejunum touch prints, mouse tongue sections and human blood lymphocytes as well as radiation dose response of {gamma}H2AX focus induction for these biological specimens.

  2. Effect of vanadium on colonic aberrant crypt foci induced in rats by 1,2 Dimethyl hydrazine

    P Suresh Kanna; CB Mahendrakumar; T Chakraborty; P Hemalatha; Pratik Banerjee; M Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the chemo preventive effects of vanadium on rat colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH).METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were randomly divided into four groups. Rats in Group A received saline vehicle alone for 16 weeks. Rats in Group B were given DMH injection once a week intraperitoneally for 16 weeks;rats in Group C, with the same DMH treatment as in the Group B, but received 0.5-ppm vanadium in the form ammonium monovanadate ad libitum in drinking water. Rats in the Group D received vanadium alone as in the Group C without DMH injection.RESULTS: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were formed in animals in DMH-treated groups at the end of week 16.Compared to DMH group, vanadium treated group had less ACF (P<0.001). At the end of week 32, all rats in DMH group developed large intestinal tumors. Rats treated with vanadium contained significantly few colonic adenomas and carcinomas (P<0.05) compared to rats administered DMH only. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.05) in colon tumor burden (sum of tumor sizes per animal) was also evident in animals of Group C when compared to those in rats of carcinogen control Group B. The results also showed that vanadium significantly lowered PCNA index in ACF (P<0.005). Furthermore, vanadium supplementation also elevated liver GST and Cyt P-450 activities (P<0.001 and P<0.02, respectively).CONCLUSION: Vanadium in the form of ammonium monovanadate supplemented in drinking water ad libitum has been found to be highly effective in reducing tumor incidence and preneoplastic foci on DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that vanadium administration can suppress colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  3. Space Radiation Effects on Human Cells: Modeling DNA Breakage, DNA Damage Foci Distribution, Chromosomal Aberrations and Tissue Effects

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Huff, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Future long-tem space travel will face challenges from radiation concerns as the space environment poses health risk to humans in space from radiations with high biological efficiency and adverse post-flight long-term effects. Solar particles events may dramatically affect the crew performance, while Galactic Cosmic Rays will induce a chronic exposure to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. These types of radiation, not present on the ground level, can increase the probability of a fatal cancer later in astronaut life. No feasible shielding is possible from radiation in space, especially for the heavy ion component, as suggested solutions will require a dramatic increase in the mass of the mission. Our research group focuses on fundamental research and strategic analysis leading to better shielding design and to better understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation damage. We present our recent effort to model DNA damage and tissue damage using computational models based on the physics of heavy ion radiation, DNA structure and DNA damage and repair in human cells. Our particular area of expertise include the clustered DNA damage from high-LET radiation, the visualization of DSBs (DNA double strand breaks) via DNA damage foci, image analysis and the statistics of the foci for different experimental situations, chromosomal aberration formation through DSB misrepair, the kinetics of DSB repair leading to a model-derived spectrum of chromosomal aberrations, and, finally, the simulation of human tissue and the pattern of apoptotic cell damage. This compendium of theoretical and experimental data sheds light on the complex nature of radiation interacting with human DNA, cells and tissues, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis later in human life after the space mission.

  4. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  5. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  6. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  7. Three-dimensional visualization of intracranial vessels and adjacent structures

    MR three-dimensional-Fourier-transform, gradient-echo sequences are available that allow the acquisition of high-quality data sets, suitable for three- dimensional image processing. Most recently, flow- compensated measurement sequences are used to achieve a three-dimensional perspective of the vascular anatomy. Spatial relationships between vessels and adjacent structures can be revealed by three-dimensional displays, showing both vessels and tissue surfaces (brain, tumor) in a three- dimensional manner. The image-processing techniques are based on the ray-tracing principle. The method can be used for the optimization of neurosurgical planning in the sellar region

  8. Historical Earthquakes in the Yellow Sea and Its Adjacent Area

    Wu Ge; Wang Andong; Wu Di

    2005-01-01

    As a result of sorting out, estimating and cataloging of historical earthquakes, from the year of 2 A.D. to Aug., 1949, we found that there were 2187 earthquakes with M≥3.0 in the area of the Yellow Sea and its adjacent area. Among the earthquakes, the number of earthquakes with M ≥ 5.0 is 209, and at least 43 of the earthquakes caused serious losses, 20 of the earthquakes caused human causalities. It is demonstrated that there were 3 areas of historical earthquake concentration and the earthquake activity was higher in the 16th century and the first half if the 20th century.

  9. The kernel of the adjacency matrix of a rectangular mesh

    Tomei, Carlos; Vieira, Tania

    2002-01-01

    Given an m x n rectangular mesh, its adjacency matrix A, having only integer entries, may be interpreted as a map between vector spaces over an arbitrary field K. We describe the kernel of A: it is a direct sum of two natural subspaces whose dimensions are equal to $\\lceil c/2 \\rceil$ and $\\lfloor c/2 \\rfloor$, where c = gcd (m+1,n+1) - 1. We show that there are bases to both vector spaces, with entries equal to 0, 1 and -1. When K = Z/(2), the kernel elements of these subspaces are described...

  10. Experimental Tape Casting of Adjacently Graded Materials for Magnetic Refrigeration

    Bulatova, Regina

    graded thin films. The motivation to create such adjacently segmented structures stemmed from a search of material and a materials design alternative to the expensive rare earth element gadolinium which is widely used as a magnetic regenerator in the emerging magnetic refrigeration technology....... Conventional tape casting involves the preparation of specially formulated slurry, which is cast by a blade to a thin flat tape, then dried into flexible so-called green solid tape and can be subsequently sintered into a hard ceramic material. The principal difference and, at the same time, a challenge...

  11. The formation of adjacent triplex-duplex domainsin DNA.

    Nam, K. H.; Abhiraman, S; Wartell, R M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of single-stranded DNA oligomers to form adjacent triplex and duplex domains with two DNA structural motifs was examined. Helix-coil transition curves and a gel mobility shift assay were used to characterize the interaction of single-stranded oligomers 12-20 nt in length with a DNA hairpin and with a DNA duplex that has a dangling end. The 12 nt on the 5'-ends of the oligomers could form a triplex structure with the 12 bp stem of the hairpin or the duplex portion of the DNA with a...

  12. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Koshi Ninomiya; Koichi Iwatsuki; Yu-ichiro Ohnishi; Toshika Ohkawa; Toshiki Yoshimine

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to...

  13. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  14. An ElGamal Encryption Scheme of Adjacency Matrix and

    B. Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Cryptography is the combination of Mathematics and Computer science. Cryptography is used for encryption and decryption of data using mathematics. Cryptography transit the information in an illegible manner such that only intended recipient will be able to decrypt the information. In the recent years, researchers developed several new encryption methods. Among such ElGamal encryption is the one laid a concede platform for the researchers in Cryptography. Ever science several mathematical models were applied for encryption/decryption. In this paper, we introduced an ElGamal encryption, which uses points on the elliptic curve, and finite state machines and adjacency matrix.

  15. The Analysis of the Patterns of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage Foci by a Stochastic Monte Carlo Model of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induction by Heavy Ions and Image Segmentation Software

    Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    To create a generalized mechanistic model of DNA damage in human cells that will generate analytical and image data corresponding to experimentally observed DNA damage foci and will help to improve the experimental foci yields by simulating spatial foci patterns and resolving problems with quantitative image analysis. Material and Methods: The analysis of patterns of RIFs (radiation-induced foci) produced by low- and high-LET (linear energy transfer) radiation was conducted by using a Monte Carlo model that combines the heavy ion track structure with characteristics of the human genome on the level of chromosomes. The foci patterns were also simulated in the maximum projection plane for flat nuclei. Some data analysis was done with the help of image segmentation software that identifies individual classes of RIFs and colocolized RIFs, which is of importance to some experimental assays that assign DNA damage a dual phosphorescent signal. Results: The model predicts the spatial and genomic distributions of DNA DSBs (double strand breaks) and associated RIFs in a human cell nucleus for a particular dose of either low- or high-LET radiation. We used the model to do analyses for different irradiation scenarios. In the beam-parallel-to-the-disk-of-a-flattened-nucleus scenario we found that the foci appeared to be merged due to their high density, while, in the perpendicular-beam scenario, the foci appeared as one bright spot per hit. The statistics and spatial distribution of regions of densely arranged foci, termed DNA foci chains, were predicted numerically using this model. Another analysis was done to evaluate the number of ion hits per nucleus, which were visible from streaks of closely located foci. In another analysis, our image segmentaiton software determined foci yields directly from images with single-class or colocolized foci. Conclusions: We showed that DSB clustering needs to be taken into account to determine the true DNA damage foci yield, which helps to

  16. Adjacent stage impurity ratio in rare earth countercurrent extraction process

    CHENG Fuxiang; WU Sheng; LIAO Chunsheng; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Impurity components decrease stage by stage in a cascade of rare earth (RE) extraction separation,and adjacent stage impurity ratio (ASIR) which is defined as the ratio of an impurity's contents in the aqueous/organic phase of two adjacent stages can be used to evaluate the capacity of impurity removal for the two stages.On the basis of extraction equilibrium and mass balance,the ASIR in a two-component extraction separation was deducted and its simplified expressions were given for different process sections according to reasonable assumptions.The calculation simulation was then carried out to obtain the ASIR distribution in the cascade.The results showed that in both the extraction and scrubbing sections the ASIR principally increased with the decrease of the molar proportion of the impurity but along with a flat appearing in the purification zone located in the middle of the cascade.The ASIR intuitively exhibits the nmning status of RE extraction separation and purification,which could provide a theoretic guide for investigating the influence factors of RE extraction separation process in practical industry.

  17. Adjacent segment disease in degenerative pathologies with posterior instrumentation

    Ana Guadalupe Ramírez Olvera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the real incidence of adjacent segment disease after fusion, and to identify the levels and predisposing factors for the pathology, as well as the functional results. METHODS: a retrospective case series study with level of evidence IIB, in a sample of 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine, spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis, submitted to surgery in the period 2005 to December 2013, with posterior instrumentation and posterolateral fusion, with follow-up from 2007 until May 2014, in which the symptomology and radiographic findings were evaluated, to establish the diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: the study included 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine (n=116, isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis (n=50 and degenerative scoliosis (n=13; during the study, 20 cases of adjacent level segment were identified, 80% of which were treated surgically with extension of the instrumentation, while 20% were treated conservatively with NSAIDs and therapeutic blocks. CONCLUSION: An incidence of 11% was found, with an average of 3.25 years in diagnosis and treatment, a prevalence of females and diagnosis of stenosis of the lumbar canal on posterior instrumentation, a predominance of levels L4-L5; 80% were treated with extension of the instrumentation. The complications were persistent radiculopathy, infection of the surgical wound, and one death due to causes not related to the lumbar pathology.

  18. Absorbed dose distribution analyses in irradiation with adjacent fields

    Because the special irradiation technique with adjacent fields is the most used in the case of medulloblastoma treatment, we consider very important to specify some general information about medulloblastoma. This malignant disease has a large incidence in children with age between 5-7 years. This tumor usually originates in the cerebellum and is referred to as primitive undifferentiated tumor. It may spread contiguously to the cerebellar peduncle, floor of the fourth ventricle, into the cervical spine. In addition, it may spread via the cerebrospinal fluid intracranially and/or to the spinal cord. For this purpose it is necessary to perform a treatment technique with cranial tangential fields combined with adjacent fields for the entire spinal cord to achieve a perfect coverage of the zones with malignant cells. The treatment in this case is an association between surgery-radio-chemotherapy, where the radiotherapy has a very important roll and a curative purpose. This is due to the fact that the migration of malignant cells in the body can't be controlled by surgery. Because of this special irradiation technique used in medulloblastoma treatment, we chase to describe in this paper this complex type of irradiation where the implications of the beams divergence in doses distribution are essentials

  19. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  20. EFFECTS OF STRAIN, SEX, ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION AND PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY ON THE INDUCTION BY CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE FOCI IN RAT LIVER

    The incidence of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive foci induced by 0.3 mmol/kg diethylnitrosamine (DENA) followed by promotion with 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital in drinking water and was the same in Fischer 344, Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Lewis rats. There was no differe...

  1. EFFECT OF SINGLE VERSUS SPLIT DOSES OF DIETHYINITROSAMINE ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE-FOCI IN THE LIVERS OF ADULT AND JUVENILE RATS

    The induction of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-foci by single and by split doses of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) was evaluated in the livers of juvenile and young adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats. A single dose of DENA was administered at either 32, 41 or 52 days of age and foll...

  2. Mutations in DEPDC5 cause Familial Focal Epilepsywith Variable Foci and are a common cause of familial non-lesional focal epilepsy

    Pandolfo, Massimo; Dibbens, Leanne; De Vries, Boukje; Donatello, Simona; Heron, Sarah; Hodgson, Bree; Chintawar, Satyan; Crompton, Douglas; Hughes, James; Bellows, Susannah; Klein, Karl Martin; Callenbach, Petra; Corbett, Mark; Gardner, Alison; Kivity, Sarah; Iona, Xenia; Regan, Brigid; Weller, Claudia; Crimmins, Denis; O'Brien, Terence; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Mulley, John; Dubeau, Francois; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Cossette, Patrick; Thomas, Paul; Gecz, Jozef; Serratosa, Jose; Brouwer, Oebele; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; Van Den Maagdenberg, Arn; Berkovic, Samuel; Scheffer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause of autosomal dominant Familial Focal Epilepsy with Variable Foci (FFEVF), to investigate the prevalence of mutations in the FFEVF causative gene in familial cases of non-lesional focal epilepsy, to study the expression in the brain and the subcellular localiz

  3. γ-H2AX foci analysis in human lymphocytes: a biological tool for assessment of early triage during mass exposure of radiation

    Emergence of nuclear terrorism and increased use of nuclear technology for industry, energy production, and defence purpose has also increased the risk of mass exposure to radiation. During these scenarios of mass exposure to radiation, an efficient system which would measure the dose absorbed by an individual is required for early triage management. The present study aims to establish γ-H2AX as a biomarker for management of early triage. Radiation induced DNA DSB studied in lymphocytes isolated from 10 healthy individuals and challenged with 2 Gy of X-rays in vitro showed a gradual decrease in number of foci signals. As the persistence of foci signals is important for biodosimetry, phosphatase inhibitors like Calyculin A, Fostriecin and Okadiac Acid were used. Calyculin A was found to be the better inhibitor showing a 2 fold increase in retention of foci signals at 6 hours. The dose response curve was performed in lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Although both the methods indicated a linear increase in foci signals, microscopic analysis was found to be more sensitive. Influence of age and gender on dose response curve was studied and no significant difference was found. The effect of confounding factors like genetic factors and smoking habits on the dose response curve is being investigated. (author)

  4. mRNA decay proteins are targeted to poly(A+ RNA and dsRNA-containing cytoplasmic foci that resemble P-bodies in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Itzel López-Rosas

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies. In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A(+ RNA and (ii during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P

  5. Cytokeratin 8/18 overexpression and complex formation as an indicator of GST-P positive foci transformation into hepatocellular carcinomas

    Screening of the proteome of microdissected glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci and normal-appearing liver on anionic (Q10), and cationic (CM10) surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) ProteinChip arrays demonstrated significant overexpression of cytokeratin 8 (CK8; m/z 54,020), cytokeratin 18 (CK18; m/z 47,760), microsomal cytochrome 5A (m/z 15,224) and histone type 2 H2aa3 (m/z 15,964) in the livers of rats initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) followed by 10 weeks on phenobarbital (PB) at a dose of 500 ppm. Furthermore, formation of CK8 and CK18 complexes due to CK8 phosphorylation at Ser73 and Ser431 was found to be strongly associated with promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by PB and the development of hepatocellular carcinomas. The data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real-time Q-PCR and profound overexpression of CK8 and CK18 (CK8/18) proteins and mRNAs were detected in several large size GST-P positive foci and liver tumors. A strong correlation between CK8/18 positive foci development and multiplicity of hepatocellular carcinomas was further observed. Moreover, elevation of CK8/18 was strongly associated with induction of cell proliferation in GST-P positive foci and tumors. In conclusion, our data imply that CK8/18 overexpression, those two cytokeratins complex formation associated with histone type 2 H2aa3 up-regulation and intermediate filament reorganization may drive neoplastic transformation of GST-P positive foci during rat hepatocarcinogenesis leading to the formation of hepatocellular carcinomas.

  6. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  7. Replication protein A and γ-H2AX foci assembly is triggered by cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks

    Human replication protein A (RPA p34), a crucial component of diverse DNA excision repair pathways, is implicated in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. To evaluate its role in DSB repair, the intranuclear dynamics of RPA was investigated after DNA damage and replication blockage in human cells. Using two different agents [ionizing radiation (IR) and hydroxyurea (HU)] to generate DSBs, we found that RPA relocated into distinct nuclear foci and colocalized with a well-known DSB binding factor, γ-H2AX, at the sites of DNA damage in a time-dependent manner. Colocalization of RPA and γ-H2AX foci peaked at 2 h after IR treatment and subsequently declined with increasing postrecovery times. The time course of RPA and γ-H2AX foci association correlated well with the DSB repair activity detected by a neutral comet assay. A phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, completely abolished both RPA and γ-H2AX foci formation triggered by IR. Additionally, radiosensitive ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells harboring mutations in ATM gene product were found to be deficient in RPA and γ-H2AX colocalization after IR. Transfection of AT cells with ATM cDNA fully restored the association of RPA foci with γ-H2AX illustrating the requirement of ATM gene product for this process. The exact coincidence of RPA and γ-H2AX in response to HU specifically in S-phase cells supports their role in DNA replication checkpoint control. Depletion of RPA by small interfering RNA (SiRNA) substantially elevated the frequencies of IR-induced micronuclei (MN) and apoptosis in human cells suggestive of a role for RPA in DSB repair. We propose that RPA in association with γ-H2AX contributes to both DNA damage checkpoint control and repair in response to strand breaks and stalled replication forks in human cells

  8. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H2O2-induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O2−; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H2O2-induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX+ cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents. This also indicates that oxidative stress

  9. Analysis of blasting damage in adjacent mining excavations

    Nick Yugo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a small-scale wedge failure at Yukon Zinc's Wolverine Mine in Yukon, Canada, a vibration monitoring program was added to the existing rockbolt pull testing regime. The failure in the 1150 drift occurred after numerous successive blasts in an adjacent tunnel had loosened friction bolts passing through an unmapped fault. Analysis of blasting vibration revealed that support integrity is not compromised unless there is a geological structure to act as a failure plane. The peak particle velocity (PPV rarely exceeded 250 mm/s with a frequency larger than 50 Hz. As expected, blasting more competent rock resulted in higher PPVs. In such cases, reducing the round length from 3.5 m to 2.0 m was an effective means of limiting potential rock mass and support damage.

  10. Acyclic 6-choosability of planar graphs without adjacent short cycles

    WANG WeiFan; ZHANG Ge; CHEN Min

    2014-01-01

    A proper vertex coloring of a graph G is acyclic if G contains no bicolored cycles.Given a list assignment L={L(v)|v∈V}of G,we say that G is acyclically L-colorable if there exists a proper acyclic coloringπof G such thatπ(v)∈L(v)for all v∈V.If G is acyclically L-colorable for any list assignment L with|L(v)|k for all v∈V(G),then G is acyclically k-choosable.In this paper,we prove that every planar graph G is acyclically 6-choosable if G does not contain 4-cycles adjacent to i-cycles for each i∈{3,4,5,6}.This improves the result by Wang and Chen(2009).

  11. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Koshi Ninomiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted.

  12. New adjacent vertebral body fracture after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is widely used as a treatment for painful osteoporotic compression fractures and malignant osteolytic tumors. Although the procedure appears to provide dramatic pain relief promote life quality but also with some complications. Additional adjacent vertebral body fracture are frequently reported after vertebroplasty but the cause relationship between the procedure and new-onset vertebral fracture remains unknown. New compression fractures following percutaneous vertebroplasty may not be a complication of the procedure itself, but rather as a part of the course of underlying pathology. The crucial point of discussion in this paper is whether vertebroplasty predisposes the development of additional vertebral fractures, at a rate higher than that seen in the absence of vertebroplasty, but no definitive answer to this question is yet to come. This review explores and attempts to comprehend the data both of supporting and refuting a relationship between vertebroplasty and the development of subsequent fractures. (authors)

  13. Migration of PCBs from Sealants to Adjacent Material

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Kampmann, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    PCB in sealants can migrate into porous surfaces like concrete and brick and contaminate these materials. The study focuses on an analysis of concentration profiles in relation to alleviation of PCB contamination. The PCB content was determined in 20 samples of concrete and 6 samples of brick...... concentration of the adjacent material. The profiles of PCB concentration into the materials showed some variation, though in general there is a tendency of relative higher concentration near the primary source in concrete and longer migration at low concentrations in brick. The concentration profiles seemed to...... fit an exponential function for concrete and a power function for brick. Based on the sample series, a worst case scenario for migration was defined. For concrete, it showed that a concentration of less than 50 ppm in the material (hazardous waste) was reached at a distance of 5 cm, whereas for bricks...

  14. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Mahmoud Yahyai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.

  15. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  16. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  17. Illumination of a spherical fusion pellet displaced from the geometric foci of focused laser beams: vector-analysis method

    The illumination of a spherical fusion pellet displaced from the foci of a refractive laser-fusion system is investigated based on the vector-analysis method. This method is more accurate than the phase-shift approximation for the spherical wave functions in the displaced frame and reduces the computation time and capacity more greatly than does the method of translational addition theorems for spherical wave functions. Two transformation matrices are derived through analyzing the EM-field vector in three different frames of coordinates. The two matrices are used to calculate the efficiency, kurtosis, and skewness of illumination distribution at the pellet surface. The numerical results of the illumination efficiency are in a good agreement with the results of othe workers. In addition, the pellet displacement corresponding to maximal illumination flatness near the focus is determined quantitatively. The illumination asymmetry that is due to the perpendicular pellet displacement is aggravated by using larger lens aperture or short light wavelength and/or by displacing the pellet on the positive axial side of the focus

  18. Use of γ-H2AX Foci Assay on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Sensitive Biomarker of Exposure

    In modern medicine, it is impossible to imagine diagnostics and treatments without equipment that emit radiation (X-ray, CT, PET, etc.). At the same time there is a need to minimize the amount of radiation that the patient will gain during such medical examination. In that manner ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle and dosimetry are the bases of assuring patients safety. The induction of gamma phosphorylated H2AX histone is newly developed tool in biodosimetry, which is more sensitive for the detection of radiation caused DNA damage than currently used micronucleus and comet assay. Gamma phosphorylation of H2AX histone is a consequence of DNA double strand breaks and its role is to trigger the DNA repair mechanisms. In this study, we tested the effect of 2 and 4 Gy X-rays on human peripheral blood lymphocytes from two healthy volunteers using γ-H2AX foci assay. The FITC signal from labelled antibodies was monitored using flow cytometry and clearly demonstrated the difference in control samples and irradiated samples. There was also the difference between the exposed blood samples from the two volunteers. The results of present study reveal new sensitive method that is capable of detecting changes in DNA when exposed to different doses of radiation, and thus potentially optimizing the ALARA principle.(author)

  19. Molecular Evidence of a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sylvatic Cycle in the Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of Equatorial Guinea

    Carlos eCordon-Obras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gambiense trypanosomiasis is considered an anthroponotic disease. Consequently, control programs are generally aimed at stopping transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense by detecting and treating human cases. However, the persistence of numerous foci despite efforts to eliminate this disease questions this strategy as unique tool to pursue the eradication. The role of animals as a reservoir of T. b. gambiense is still controversial, but could partly explain maintenance of the infection at hypo-endemic levels. In the present study, we evaluated the presence of T. b. gambiense in wild animals in Equatorial Guinea. The infection rate ranged from 0.8% in the insular focus of Luba to more than 12% in Mbini, a focus with a constant trickle of human cases. The parasite was detected in a wide range of animal species including four species never described previously as putative reservoirs. Our study comes to reinforce the hypothesis that animals may play a role in the persistence of T. b. gambiense transmission, being particularly relevant in low transmission settings. Under these conditions the integration of sustained vector control and medical interventions should be considered to achieve the elimination of Gambiense trypanosomiasis.

  20. Is the technetium-99m-fluoroquinolone complex discriminates between septic and aseptic inflammatory foci? in -vitro evaluation

    Aim: in-vitro evaluation of 99mTc-L-Flox and 99mTc-Cipro complexes. Method: four steps technique was used: 1-determination of the complexion capability of the tracers with the free purified DNA of both e. coli and s. aureus . 2- estimation the binding efficiency of the tracers to live and heat killed bacteria of different standard .3- comparing the bioactivity of the labeled and the non labeled fluoroquinolones using dick diffusion test.4- determination of the percent binding of the labeled fluoroquinolones to the plasma proteins using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method. Results:the gathered results revealed the effective binding of the labeled fluoroquinolones to the purified DNA with high percent (65-68% for each species). High localization and binding of the tracers to the DNA of the live bacterial cell, which is the site of action of topoisomerase ll and IV, were observed, and not to the DNA of the dead one. High uptake of the tracers by the live resistant bacterial strain was noticed with low localization in their DNA. high bioavailability and plasma protein binding were observed. Conclusion: 99mTc- fluoroquinolones, in the present study, retained their antimicrobial activities and exhibited high targeting to the DNA of live sensitive bacteria and not to dead or resistant strains. These results lead to the ability of the labeled fluoroquinolones to image and identify septic foci from aseptic one

  1. Abdominal Angiostrongylosis in Southern Brazil - Prevalence and Parasitic Burden in Mollusc Intermediate Hosts from Eighteen Endemic Foci

    Rambo Paulo R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Nocturnal collection of molluscs and search for infective third stage larvae of A. costaricensis was carried out in 18 endemic foci identified by the notification of a confirmed diagnosis in human biopsies or surgical specimens. Molluscs were digested in acidic solution and isolation of larvae eventually present was done in a Baermann funnel. Larvae identified by the presence of a delicate groove in the tail were counted to assess the individual parasitic burden. Four species were found infected, with ranges of prevalence in parenthesis: Phyllocaulis variegatus (7% to 33.3%; Bradybaena similaris (11.7% to 24.1%; Belocaulus angustipes (8.3% and Phyllocaulis soleiformis (3.3% to 14.2%. Parasitic burden varied from 1 to 75 with P. variegatus, 1 to 98 with B. similaris, 1 to 13 with B. angustipes and 1 larvae in each of two specimens of P. soleiformis. P. variegatus was present in all sites and was found infected with the highest prevalence figures and the highest individual parasitic burdens. These data stress the importance of veronicellid slugs as intermediate hosts for A. costaricensis in the endemic areas in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  2. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours.

    Wijnands, M V W; van Erk, M J; Doornbos, R P; Krul, C A M; Woutersen, R A

    2004-10-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2% curcumin (CUR), 4% rutin (RUT) or 0.04% benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) for 8 months. ACF were counted after 7, 15 and 26 weeks. Tumours were scored after 26 weeks and 8 months. We found that the WB and CUR diets inhibited the development of colorectal tumours. In contrast, the RUT and BIT diets rather enhanced (although not statistically significantly) colorectal carcinogenesis. In addition, the various compounds caused different effects on the development of ACF. In most cases the number or size of ACF was not predictive for the ultimate tumour yield. The expression of some tumour-related genes was significantly different in tumours from the control group as compared to tumours from the treated groups. It was concluded that WB and CUR, as opposed to RUT and BIT, protects against colorectal cancer and that ACF are unsuitable as biomarker for colorectal cancer. Effects of the different dietary compounds on metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) expression correlated well with the effects of the dietary compounds on the ultimate tumour yield. PMID:15304309

  3. Assessing ‘radiosensitivity’ with kinetic profiles of γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and BRCA1 foci

    Background and purpose: DNA repair assays to identify radiosensitive patients have had limited clinical implementation due to long turn-around times or limited specificity. This study evaluates γ-H2AX-Irradiation Induced Foci (IRIF) kinetics as a more rapid surrogate for the ‘gold standard’ colony survival assay (CSA) using several known DNA repair disorders as reference models. Materials and methods: Radiosensitive cells of known and unknown etiology were studied. γ-H2AX-IRIFs were quantified over 24 h, and the curves were fitted by combining logarithmic growth and exponential decay functions. Fitted values that differed from radionormal controls were considered aberrant and compared to CSA results. Results: We observed 87% agreement of IRIF data with the CSA for the 14 samples tested. Analysis of γ-H2AX-IRIF kinetics for known repair disorders indicated similarities between an RNF168−/− cell line and an RS cell of unknown etiology. These cell lines were further characterized by a reduction in BRCA1-IRIF formation and G2/M checkpoint activation. Conclusions: γ-H2AX-IRIF kinetics showed high concordance with the CSA in RS populations demonstrating its potential as a more rapid surrogate assay. This method provides a means to globally identify defective DNA repair pathways in RS cells of unknown etiology through comparison with known DNA repair defects.

  4. Spatial prediction and analysis of Himalayan marmot plague natural epidemic foci in China based on HJ-1 satellite data

    2010-01-01

    Plague,caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis,is a serious and rapidly progressing illness in humans that can be fatal if not treated effectively.The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the largest area of natural Himalayan marmot(Marmota himalayana) plague foci in China and covers more than 630000 km2.Akesai County in Gansu Province is a part of this natural focus of plague and was chosen as a study area.Our study used an ecological niche modeling(ENM) approach to predict the potential distribution of the Himalayan marmot.Environment and Disaster Monitor Satellite(HJ-1) data was used to investigate environment factors that affect plague host animal activity.Host animal point data from active surveillance was combined with environmental variables from the HJ-1 satellite and other databases,and the models of the potential distribution of Himalayan marmot were produced with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production(GARP).The probability of marmot presence was divided into 0-5%,5%-20%,20%-40%,40%-80%,and 80%-100% subgroups.Areas with 80%-100% probability exhibited the greatest potential for the presence of Himalayan marmot.According to the predicted potential distribution of Himalayan marmot in the study area,active surveillance of plague hosts and plague control and prevention could be more efficient.

  5. Bi-directional routing of DNA mismatch repair protein human exonuclease 1 to replication foci and DNA double strand breaks

    Liberti, Sascha Emilie; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Wang, Jing;

    2011-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA metabolism, including replication, recombination and repair, substantiated by its interactions with PCNA, DNA helicases BLM and WRN, and several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We investigated the sub-nuclear localization of hEXO1 during S......-phase progression and in response to laser-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We show that hEXO1 and PCNA co-localize in replication foci. This apparent interaction is sustained throughout S-phase. We also demonstrate that hEXO1 is rapidly recruited to DNA DSBs. We have identified a PCNA interacting protein...... 390-490 and 787-846) are required to direct the protein to the DNA damage site. Our results reveal that protein domains in hEXO1 in conjunction with specific protein interactions control bi-directional routing of hEXO1 between on-going DNA replication and repair processes in living cells...

  6. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  7. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    week for to or 20 weeks. Throughout the study the animals were fed I) semisynthetic casein-based control diet, 2) control diet with 20% lard, 3) control diet with 20% lard and 20% dietary fiber, or 4) control diet where most of the carbohydrate pool was substituted with sucrose and dextrin. The...... significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of ACF and number of small and medium ACF. Adding lard to the standard diet did not cause an increase in ACF, bur if the dietary fiber was added to the high-fat diet, a statistically significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in......The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once a...

  8. Incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infections in high-endemic foci in India and Nepal: a prospective study.

    Bart Ostyn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Leishmania donovani infection and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL was assessed in a prospective study in Indian and Nepalese high-endemic villages. DAT-seroconversion was used as marker of incident infection in 3 yearly surveys. The study population was followed up to month 30 to identify incident clinical cases. In a cohort of 9034 DAT-negative individuals with neither active signs nor history of VL at baseline, 42 VL cases and 375 asymptomatic seroconversions were recorded in the first year, giving an infection:disease ratio of 8.9 to 1. In the 18 months' follow-up, 7 extra cases of VL were observed in the seroconverters group (N=375, against 14 VL cases among the individuals who had not seroconverted in the first year (N=8570 (RR=11.5(4.5foci in India and Nepal is nine times more frequent than incident VL disease. About 1 in 50 of these new but latent infections led to VL within the next 18 months.

  9. The potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing the radiosensitivity of carbon beam in human tumor cell lines

    Carbon ions (12C6+) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The assessment of tumour radiosensitivity would be particularly useful in optimizing the radiation dose during radiotherapy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing 12C6+ radiosensitivity of tumour cells. The doses of 12C6+ and X-rays used in the present study were 2 and 4 Gy. The survival fraction, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and repair kinetics of DSB were assayed with clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma MEC-1 cells at the time points of 0.5, 4, 16 and 24 h after 12C6+ and X-rays irradiation. The survival fraction for 12C6+ irradiation was much more inhibited than for X-rays (p < 0.05) in all three tumour cell lines tested. Substantial amounts of residual damage, assessed by the neutral comet assay, were present after irradiation (p < 0.05). The highest residual damage was observed at 0.5 or 4 h, both for 12C6+ and X-ray irradiation. However, the residual damage in HeLa and MEC-1 cells was higher for 12C6+ than X-rays (p < 0.05). The strongest induction of γH2AX foci was observed after 30 min, for all three tumour cell lines (p < 0.01). The franction of γH2AX foci persisted for at least 24 h after 12C6+ irradiation; in HeLa cells and MEC-1 was higher than after X-ray irradiation (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between the clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay were not statistically significant, except for some tumour cells at individual irradiation doses and types. Our study demonstrated that the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX foci assay could be used to assess the radiosensitivity of 12C6+ in human tumour cells

  10. A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete of all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogue. The synthetic seismograms have been generated by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (DMAX), maximum velocity (VMAX), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid of 0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg. over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and found in good agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have the DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. (author)

  11. Characterization of adjacent breast tumors using oligonucleotide microarrays

    Current methodology often cannot distinguish second primary breast cancers from multifocal disease, a potentially important distinction for clinical management. In the present study we evaluated the use of oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis in determining the clonality of tumors by comparing gene expression profiles. Total RNA was extracted from two tumors with no apparent physical connection that were located in the right breast of an 87-year-old woman diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The RNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Genome U95A Gene Chip® (12,500 known human genes) and analyzed using the Gene Chip Analysis Suite® 3.3 (Affymetrix, Inc, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and JMPIN® 3.2.6 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC, USA). Gene expression profiles of tumors from five additional patients were compared in order to evaluate the heterogeneity in gene expression between tumors with similar clinical characteristics. The adjacent breast tumors had a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.987, and were essentially indistinguishable by microarray analysis. Analysis of gene expression profiles from different individuals, however, generated a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.710. Transcriptional profiling may be a useful diagnostic tool for determining tumor clonality and heterogeneity, and may ultimately impact on therapeutic decision making

  12. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  13. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  14. Can Logging in Equatorial Africa Affect Adjacent Parks?

    Jeremy W. Lichstein

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation can cause fundamental regional-scale shifts in vegetation structure and diversity. This is particularly true in Africa. Although national parks are being established to protect areas from deforestation and to conserve biodiversity, these parks are not immune to disturbances outside their boundaries. We used regional-scale atmospheric simulation experiments to investigate how deforestation in timber concessions might affect precipitation inside adjacent, undisturbed national parks in the equatorial African countries of Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The experiments revealed a complex response. Some parks showed rainfall reduced as much as 15%, while others showed slight increases. Rainfall inside parks was particularly sensitive to upwind deforestation along the path of airborne moisture traveling inland from the ocean. A variety of shortcomings in the current modeling procedures limit the ability to extrapolate from experiments such as ours to provide spatially explicit, long-term forecasts of climate. We describe what advances in modeling are needed to produce regional-scale predictions that are robust enough to be useful to managers and policy makers.

  15. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  16. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  17. Adjacent-cell preconditioners for accelerating multidimensional neutron transport methods

    The Adjacent-cell Preconditioner (AP) is derived for accelerating generic fixed-weight, Weighted Diamond Difference (WDD) neutron transport methods in multidimensional Cartesian geometry. The AP is determined by requiring: (a) the eigenvalue of the combined mesh sweep-AP iterations to vanish in the vicinity of the origin in Fourier space; and (b) the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the preconditioner to satisfy a diffusion-like condition. The spectra of the resulting iterations for a wide range of problem parameters exhibit a spectral radius smaller than .25, that vanishes implying immediate convergence for very large computational cells. More importantly, unlike other unconditionally stable acceleration schemes, the AP is cell-centered and its spectral radius remains small when the cell aspect ratio approaches 0 or ∞. Testing of the AP and comparison of its rate of convergence to the standard Source Iterations (SI) for Burre's Suite of Test Problems (BSTeP) demonstrates its high efficiency in reducing the number of iterations required to achieve convergence, especially for optically thick cells where acceleration is most needed

  18. Analysis of Lymphocytic DNA Damage in Early Multiple Sclerosis by Automated Gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 Foci Detection: A Case Control Study

    Rasche, Ludwig; Heiserich, Lisa; Behrens, Janina Ruth; Lenz, Klaus; Pfuhl, Catherina; Wakonig, Katharina; Gieß, René Markus; Freitag, Erik; Eberle, Caroline; Wuerfel, Jens; Dörr, Jan; Bauer, Peter; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Paul, Friedemann; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to DNA double-strand breaks, the histone protein H2AX becomes phosphorylated at its C-terminal serine 139 residue, referred to as γ-H2AX. Formation of γ-H2AX foci is associated with recruitment of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. γ-H2AX expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was recently proposed as a diagnostic and disease activity marker for multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective To evaluate the significance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in PBMCs as diagnostic and disease activity markers in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) using automated γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci detection. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs of patients with CIS/early RRMS (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 27) with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 specific antibodies. Nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci were determined using a fully automated reading system, assessing the numbers of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci per total number of cells and the percentage of cells with foci. Patients underwent contrast enhanced 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical examination including expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 were also compared in previously frozen PBMCs of each 10 CIS/early RRMS patients with and without contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) and 10 healthy controls. Results The median (range) number of γ-H2AX (0.04 [0–0.5]) and 53BP1 (0.005 [0–0.2]) foci per cell in freshly isolated PBMCs across all study participants was low and similar to previously reported values of healthy individuals. For both, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, the cellular focus number as well as the percentage of positive cells did not differ between patients with CIS/RRMS and healthy controls. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 levels neither correlated with number nor volume of T2-weighted lesions on MRI, nor with the EDSS. Although γ-H2AX, but not

  19. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Giovannini, Caterina [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Piaggi, Simona [Sezione di Patologia Sperimentale, Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Federico, Giovanni [Unità di Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Diabete, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Scarpato, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scarpato@unipi.it [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O{sub 2}{sup −}; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX{sup +} cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents

  20. Hepatic Stellate Cell–Targeted Delivery of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Transgene via Bile Duct Infusion Enhances Its Expression at Fibrotic Foci to Regress Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Fibrosis

    Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani; Kang,Yuzhan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Peng, Qiwen; Sakban, Rashidah Binte; Nugraha, Bramasta; Jiang, Xuan; Bunte, Ralph M.; So, Peter T. C.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Mao, Hai-Quan; Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis generates fibrotic foci with abundant activated hepatic stellate cells and excessive collagen deposition juxtaposed with healthy regions. Targeted delivery of antifibrotic therapeutics to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) might improve treatment outcomes and reduce adverse effects on healthy tissue. We delivered the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene specifically to activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrotic liver using vitamin A–coupled liposomes by retrograde intrabiliary infu...

  1. Integrating corporate social responsibility and other strategic foci in a distributed production system: a transaction cost perspective on the North Sea offshore petroleum industry

    Midttun, Atle; Dirdal, Tore; Gautesen, Kristian; Omland, Terje; Wenstøp, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the challenges of integrating CSR with other strategic foci into the supply/contractor chain, both conceptually and empirically, with a focus on one sectorial case: the Norwegian upstream petroleum industry. It compares contradictory theories of strategic focus and explores their implications for the organisation of the supply chain and discusses challenges and solutions for operative CSR oriented supply chain manage­ment Design/methodology/approach The empirical ana...

  2. Frequency of gamma H2AX foci in healthy volunteers and health workers occupationally exposed to X-irradiation and its relevance in biological dosimetry.

    Raavi, Venkateswarlu; Basheerudeen, Safa Abdul Syed; Jagannathan, Vijayalakshmi; Joseph, Santosh; Chaudhury, Nabo Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-H2AX (γ-H2AX) assay is a marker to measure double-strand breaks in the deoxyribonucleic acid. Variables such as age, oxidative stress, temperature, genetic factors and inter-individual variation have been reported to influence the baseline γ-H2AX focus levels. Therefore, knowledge on baseline frequency of γ-H2AX foci in a targeted population would facilitate reliable radiation triage and dose estimation. The objective of the present study was to establish the baseline data using blood samples from healthy volunteers (n = 130) differing in age, occupation and lifestyle as well as from occupationally exposed health workers (n = 20). The γ-H2AX focus assay was performed using epifluorescence microscopy. In vitro dose-response curve for γ-H2AX foci was constructed in blood samples (n = 3) exposed to X-rays (30 min post-exposure). The mean γ-H2AX focus frequency obtained in healthy volunteers was 0.042 ± 0.001 and showed an age-related increase (p healthy volunteers. A sub-group analysis did not show a significant (p > 0.1) difference in γ-H2AX focus frequency among sexes. Blood exposed in vitro to X-rays showed dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci frequency (Y = 0.1902 ± 0.1363 + 2.9020 ± 0.3240 * D). Baseline frequency of γ-H2AX foci obtained from different age groups showed a significant (p lifestyle factors. PMID:27287768

  3. Could prominent airway-centered fibroblast foci in lung biopsies predict underlying chronic microaspiration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients?

    Bois, Melanie C; Hu, Xiaowen; Ryu, Jay H; Yi, Eunhee S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic occult aspiration of small droplets (microaspiration) due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or hiatal hernia is postulated to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathologic correlate of IPF. We hypothesized that chronic microaspiration may manifest as prominent airway-centered fibroblastic foci (FFs) in IPF. UIP cases diagnosed by wedge biopsies over a 6-year period (2006-2011) were identified and scored (1-3) for the prominence of airway-centered FFs by 2 authors blinded for clinical history. Relevant clinical information was obtained. Thirty-seven patients (22 men) were diagnosed with IPF by multidisciplinary approach. Thirteen cases (35.1%) demonstrated high airway-centered FF score (score 3). Twenty (54.1%) patients carried a clinical diagnosis of GERD, and 3 patients (8.1%) had hiatal hernia. High airway-centered FF score was significantly associated with hiatal hernia diagnosis (P=.037) but not with a diagnosis of GERD or the use of proton pump inhibitors/histamine-2 receptor antagonists. High airway-centered FF score was associated with airway-centered acute inflammation (P=.028) and peribronchiolar granulomas (P=.042). In summary, IPF cases with hiatal hernia were more likely to have a prominent airway-centered FF. Given the strong association between hiatal hernia and GERD and their risk for developing chronic microaspiration, the prominent airway-centered FF in UIP might predict the presence of chronic microaspiration, acknowledging that GERD and proton pump inhibitor/histamine-2 receptor antagonist use failed to demonstrate a significant association. Larger studies are warranted for further investigation. PMID:26980038

  4. Development and validation of 'AutoRIF': software for the automated analysis of radiation-induced foci

    McVean Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of radiation-induced foci (RIF to investigate the induction and subsequent repair of DNA double strands breaks is now commonplace. Over the last decade systems specific for the automatic quantification of RIF have been developed for this purpose, however to ask more mechanistic questions on the spatio-temporal aspects of RIF, an automated RIF analysis platform that also quantifies RIF size/volume and relative three-dimensional (3D distribution of RIF within individual nuclei, is required. Results A java-based image analysis system has been developed (AutoRIF that quantifies the number, size/volume and relative nuclear locations of RIF within 3D nuclear volumes. Our approach identifies nuclei using the dynamic Otsu threshold and RIF by enhanced Laplacian filtering and maximum entropy thresholding steps and, has an application 'batch optimisation' process to ensure reproducible quantification of RIF. AutoRIF was validated by comparing output against manual quantification of the same 2D and 3D image stacks with results showing excellent concordance over a whole range of sample time points (and therefore range of total RIF/nucleus after low-LET radiation exposure. Conclusions This high-throughput automated RIF analysis system generates data with greater depth of information and reproducibility than that which can be achieved manually and may contribute toward the standardisation of RIF analysis. In particular, AutoRIF is a powerful tool for studying spatio-temporal relationships of RIF using a range of DNA damage response markers and can be run independently of other software, enabling most personal computers to perform image analysis. Future considerations for AutoRIF will likely include more complex algorithms that enable multiplex analysis for increasing combinations of cellular markers.

  5. Evaluation of 99mTcN-moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate, as a potential radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic localization of infectious foci

    In the current study radio complexation of the moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate (MXND) with technetium-99m (99mTc) using the [99mTc-N]2+ core through legend exchange reaction was explored. The 99mTcN-MXND complex was biologically evaluated as a potential radiopharmaceutical for in vivo scintigraphy using artificially infected male sprague-dawley rats (MSDR) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The radiochemistry of the complex was explored in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP), in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C for 16 h, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in artificially infected with S. aureus MSDR. It was observed that the complex showed stability of more than 90% up to 4 h after reconstitution with a maximum RCP value of 97.55 ± 0.42% at 30 min. The complex showed significantly in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C with an insignificant free species up to 16.50% within 16 h. In vitro saturated binding with S. aureus was noted up to 120 min with maximum value of 73.25% at 90 min of incubation. Almost sixfold uptake was noted in the infected muscle of the MSDR as compared to inflamed and normal muscle. The 97.55 ± 0.42% RCP values, stability in serum with insignificant untagged 16.50% species, 73.25% in vitro binding with S. aureus and sixfold uptake in the target organ posed the 99mTcN-MXND complex as a promising radiopharmaceutical for S. aureus infectious foci. (author)

  6. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms. PMID:26992297

  7. Protective effect of WR2721 against the induction of altered hepatocyte foci in rats treated once with gamma irradiation within one day after birth

    The authors investigated the protective effects of WR2721 on the induction by radiation of altered hepatocyte foci in 150-day-old Sprague Dawley rats. One hundred micrograms of WR2721 per gram of body weight were administered to selected groups of neonatal animals 30 min prior to the administration of single doses of γ irradiation (150 or 300 rad). Focus pheotypes, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and/or the iron exclusion histochemical markers, were quantitated through the use of serial frozen sectioning techniques and computer-assisted image analysis. Radiation was effective in inducing foci formation. Induction was much more effective in female as compared to male rats. WR2721 reduced the frequencies of radiation-induced foci at both radiation doses, with the greatest effect apparent in female rats. The protective effect of WR2721 in this system suggests that this compound and related aminothiols may be useful probes for examining mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by radiation or chemicals

  8. Sensitive immunodetection of radiotoxicity after iodine-131 therapy for thyroid cancer using γ-H2AX foci of DNA damage in lymphocytes

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the degree of radiotoxicity to lymphocytes in thyroid cancer after iodine-131 (I-131) therapy using γ-H2AX foci immunodetection. This study focused on 15 patients who underwent I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer after surgery. All patients received 3.7 GBq of I-131. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient before therapy and 4 days thereafter. Lymphocytes were isolated from the blood samples and subjected to γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The number (mean±standard deviation (SD)) of foci per lymphocyte nucleus was 0.41±0.51 before and 6.19±1.80 after radioiodine therapy, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.001<0.05). Absorbed doses estimated for the 15 patients were 0.77±0.31 Gy applying standard line in vitro external radiation doses. γ-H2AX foci immunodetection in lymphocytes may detect radiation-induced DNA damage associated with I-131 therapy for thyroid cancer, and may facilitate estimation of the radiation doses absorbed with this therapy. (author)

  9. γ-H2AX foci as in vivo effect biomarker in children emphasize the importance to minimize X-ray doses in paediatric CT imaging

    Vandevoorde, C.; Franck, C.; Bacher, K.; Thierens, H. [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Gent (Belgium); Breysem, L.; Smet, M.H. [University Hospital Louvain, Radiology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Ernst, C. [University Hospital Brussels, Radiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Backer, A. de [General Hospital Sint-Lucas Ghent, Radiology Department, Ghent (Belgium); Moortele, K. van de [General Hospital Sint-Jan Bruges, Radiology Department, Bruges (Belgium); Smeets, P. [Ghent University Hospital, Radiology Department, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-10-30

    Investigation of DNA damage induced by CT x-rays in paediatric patients versus patient dose in a multicentre setting. From 51 paediatric patients (median age, 3.8 years) who underwent an abdomen or chest CT examination in one of the five participating radiology departments, blood samples were taken before and shortly after the examination. DNA damage was estimated by scoring γ-H2AX foci in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Patient-specific organ and tissue doses were calculated with a validated Monte Carlo program. Individual lifetime attributable risks (LAR) for cancer incidence and mortality were estimated according to the BEIR VII risk models. Despite the low CT doses, a median increase of 0.13 γ-H2AX foci/cell was observed. Plotting the induced γ-H2AX foci versus blood dose indicated a low-dose hypersensitivity, supported also by an in vitro dose-response study. Differences in dose levels between radiology centres were reflected in differences in DNA damage. LAR of cancer mortality for the paediatric chest CT and abdomen CT cohort was 0.08 and 0.13 permille respectively. CT x-rays induce DNA damage in paediatric patients even at low doses and the level of DNA damage is reduced by application of more effective CT dose reduction techniques and paediatric protocols. (orig.)

  10. Wall shear stress in intracranial aneurysms and adjacent arteries

    Fuyu Wang; Bainan Xu; Zhenghui Sun; Chen Wu; Xiaojun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic parameters play an important role in aneurysm formation and growth. However, it is difficult to directly observe a rapidly growing de novo aneurysm in a patient. To investigate possible associations between hemodynamic parameters and the formation and growth of intracranial aneurysms, the present study constructed a computational model of a case with an internal carotid artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, based on the CT angiography findings of a patient. To simulate the formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm and the growth of the internal carotid artery aneurysm, we then constructed a model that virtually removed the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, and a further two models that also progressively decreased the size of the internal carotid artery aneurysm. Computational simulations of the fluid dynamics of the four models were performed under pulsatile flow conditions, and wall shear stress was compared among the different models. In the three aneurysm growth models, increasing size of the aneurysm was associated with an increased area of low wall shear stress, a significant decrease in wall shear stress at the dome of the aneurysm, and a significant change in the wall shear stress of the parent artery. The wall shear stress of the anterior communicating artery remained low, and was significantly lower than the wall shear stress at the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery or the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. After formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, the wall shear stress at the dome of the internal carotid artery aneurysm increased significantly, and the wall shear stress in the upstream arteries also changed significantly. These findings indicate that low wall shear stress may be associated with the initiation and growth of aneurysms, and that aneurysm formation and growth may influence hemodynamic parameters in the local and adjacent arteries.

  11. IFN-gamma signaling in the central nervous system controls the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis independently of the localization and composition of inflammatory foci

    Lee Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a model for multiple sclerosis, presents typically as ascending paralysis. However, in mice in which interferon-gamma (IFNγ signaling is disrupted by genetic deletion, limb paralysis is accompanied by atypical deficits, including head tilt, postural imbalance, and circling, consistent with cerebellar/vestibular dysfunction. This was previously attributed to intense cerebellar and brainstem infiltration by peripheral immune cells and formation of neutrophil-rich foci within the CNS. However, the exact mechanism by which IFNγ signaling prohibits the development of vestibular deficits, and whether the distribution and composition of inflammatory foci within the CNS affects the course of atypical EAE remains elusive. Methods We induced EAE in IFNγ-/- mice and bone marrow chimeric mice in which IFNγR is not expressed in the CNS but is intact in the periphery (IFNγRCNSKO and vice versa (IFNγRperiKO. Blood-brain barrier permeability was determined by Evans blue intravenous administration at disease onset. Populations of immune cell subsets in the periphery and the CNS were quantified by flow cytometry. CNS tissues isolated at various time points after EAE induction, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for composition of inflammatory foci and patterns of axonal degeneration. Results Incidence and severity of atypical EAE were more pronounced in IFNγRCNSKO as compared to IFNγRperiKO mice. Contrary to what we anticipated, cerebella/brainstems of IFNγRCNSKO mice were only minimally infiltrated, while the same areas of IFNγRperiKO mice were extensively populated by peripheral immune cells. Furthermore, the CNS of IFNγRperiKO mice was characterized by persistent neutrophil-rich foci as compared to IFNγRCNSKO. Immunohistochemical analysis of the CNS of IFNγ-/- and IFNγR chimeric mice revealed that IFNγ protective actions are exerted through microglial STAT1

  12. KAMG: A Tool for Converting Blood Ties and Affinity Ties into Adjacency Matrices

    Hang Xiong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinship Adjacency Matrix Generator (KAMG is a browser-based software for creating adjacency matrices using the information of kinship ties. Specifically, it is capable of converting the family trees in the format of GEDCOM files into adjacency matrices of blood relationship. With the data of intermarriages between different families, it can further create the adjacency matrix of affinity relationship for the families. The outcomes can be directly used to create networks. KAMG is written in JavaScript and implemented on web browsers. It is completely open source and the source code is publicly available on GitHub.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  14. Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions

    Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

    2010-12-22

    To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

  15. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen;

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken into c...

  16. TP53 mutations in clinically normal mucosa adjacent to oral carcinomas

    Thode, Christenze; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    positive cells. Seven specimens contained both histological normal and dysplastic epithelial tissues adjacent to the tumour. A TP53 mutation was found in only one specimen; this mutation appeared in the normal mucosa, the adjacent tumour, and the epithelial dysplasia. CONCLUSION: We found that upregulation...

  17. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  18. Treatment Outcome and Patient Satisfaction with Two Adjacent Implant-Supported Restorations in the Esthetic Zone

    Tymstra, Nynke; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stellingsma, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters as well as the esthetic outcome of two adjacent implant-supported restorations and the surrounding peri-implant mucosa in the maxillary esthetic zone. Ten patients were treated with two adjacent implants in the anteri

  19. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent...

  20. Adjacency effect estimation by ground spectra measurement and satellite optical sensor synchronous observation data

    Jianwen Ma; Xue Chen

    2006-01-01

    @@ This paper addresses the estimation of adjacency effect of CBERS-2 image.The adjacency effect influences the digital number (DN) value of a pixel by adding surrounding scattering signals and path scattering signals.Based on the theory of radiation transfer model,a procedure is designed to measure the reflectance from the surface target materials and the materials in a box,which is 1.5 m above the surface to avoid upwelling reflectance.The results show that the adjacency effect varies from visible,near infrared and becomes steady within short infrared wavelength region;the adjacency effect weakens with the increase of distance between testing sites.The adjacency effect of CBERS-2 image is corrected and the quality of the resulting image is improved.

  1. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  2. Proof-of-principle of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: final results of a study in Mali and Senegal.

    Mamadou O Traore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission, and test whether treatment could be safely stopped. This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 131 villages where 29,753 people were examined and 492,600 blackflies were analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larva using a specific DNA probe. There was a declining trend in infection and transmission levels after the last treatment. In two sites the prevalence of microfilaria and vector infectivity rate were zero 3 to 4 years after the last treatment. In the third site, where infection levels were comparatively high before stopping treatment, there was also a consistent decline in infection and transmission to very low levels 3 to 5 years after stopping treatment. All infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The study has established the proof of principle that onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment is feasible in at least some endemic foci in Africa. The study results have been instrumental for the current evolution from onchocerciasis control to elimination in Africa.

  3. Early increase of radiation-induced γH2AX foci in a human Ku70/80 knockdown cell line characterized by an enhanced radiosensitivity

    A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DNA repair after exposure to ionizing radiation represents a research priority aimed at improving the outcome of clinical radiotherapy. Because of the close association with DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, phosphorylation of the histone H2AX protein (γH2AX), quantified by immunodetection, has recently been used as a method to study DSB induction and repair at low and clinically relevant radiation doses. However, the lack of consistency in literature points to the need to further validate the role of H2AX phosphorylation in DSB repair and the use of this technique to determine intrinsic radiosensitivity. In the present study we used human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells, characterized by a radiosensitive phenotype due to reduced levels of the Ku70 and Ku80 repair proteins, and investigated whether this repair-deficient cell line displays differences in the phosphorylation pattern of H2AX protein compared to repair-proficient MCF10A cells. This was established by measuring formation and disappearance of γH2AX foci after irradiating synchronized cell populations with 60Co γ-rays. Our results show statistically significant differences in the number of γH2AX foci between the repair-deficient and -proficient cell line, with a higher amount of γH2AX foci present at early times post-irradiation in the Ku-deficient cell line. However, the disappearance of those differences at later post-irradiation times questions the use of this assay to determine intrinsic radiosensitivity, especially in a clinical setting. (author)

  4. Different effects of short- and long-chained fructans on large intestinal physiology and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    Poulsen, Morten; Molck, Anne-Marie; Jacobsen, Bodil Lund

    2002-01-01

    the development of ACF: microflora, short-chain fatty acids, pH, and cell proliferation. A 3-wk pretreatment period with both fructans was included. Feeding the long-chained fructan (5% or 15%) significantly inhibited the numbers of small and total ACF after 5 and 10 wk. The short-chained fructan (15......-type fructan on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colon. In addition, the present study investigated the influence of chain length, dietary level (5% or 15%), and duration of feeding (5 or 10 wk) on the following intestinal parameters supposed to be involved in...

  5. Significance of p53-binding protein 1 nuclear foci in uterine cervical lesions: endogenous DNA double strand breaks and genomic instability during carcinogenesis

    Matsuda, Katsuya; Miura, Shiro; Kurashige, Tomomi; Suzuki, Keiji; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Ihara, Makoto; Nakajima, Hisayoshi; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Aims A defective DNA damage response can result in genomic instability (GIN) and lead to transformation to cancer. As p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) localizes at the sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and rapidly forms nuclear foci (NF), the presence of 53BP1 NF can be considered to be an indicator of endogenous DSBs reflecting GIN. Our aim was to analyse the presence of DSBs by immunofluorescence for 53BP1 expression in a series of cervical lesions, to evaluate the significance of GIN d...

  6. The influence of simple sugars and starch given during pre- or post-initiation on aberrant crypt foci in rat colon

    Poulsen, Morten; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Thorup, Inger; Breinholt, Vibeke; Meyer, Otto A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dietary sugar on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane (AOM). The potential role of sugar as either a co-initiator or a promoter was investigated by giving diets high in...... was seen. The level of oxidative stress in the cytosol from the proximal colon and colonic glutathione transferase and quinone reductase was not affected by the sugar treatments. The overall results from this study show that sucrose and dextrin enhance the number of preneoplastic lesions in AOM...

  7. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)- induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    Mølck, A.M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.;

    2001-01-01

    In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...... the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in...

  8. Three-dimensional imaging reveals the spatial separation of γH2AX–MDC1–53BP1 and RNF8–RNF168–BRCA1-A complexes at ionizing radiation-induced foci

    Background and purpose: Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage causes the accumulation of DNA damage response (DDR) proteins as visible foci in cell nuclei. Despite the identified functional roles in DNA repair, the spatial relationships of different DDR proteins at foci have not been explicitly examined. This study aims to systematically compare the distribution of DDR proteins at IR-induced foci. Materials and methods: MCF-7 cells were treated with IR, stained for γH2AX, MDC1, RNF8, RNF168, 53BP1, Abraxas (CCDC98), BRCA1, BRCC36, Merit40 (NBA1) and RAP80, and then imaged using high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) confocal microscopy to assess the relative localization of proteins at foci. Results: All BRCA1-A complex components displayed strong co-localization, which overlapped significantly with RNF8 and RNF168, but not with γH2AX and MDC1. Intriguingly, 53BP1 co-located well with γH2AX and MDC1, but remained separate from RNF8 and RNF168. These co-localization patterns were consistent for at least 3 h after IR. Conclusions: The foci formations of γH2AX–MDC1–53BP1 and RNF8–RNF168–BRCA1-A complexes are spatially independent. Such divergence was not anticipated from prior studies on the recruitment of these proteins to foci. This information indicates that individual foci may represent distinct sites of DNA repair facilitated by a specific subset of DDR proteins.

  9. Promoting effects of phenobarbital on the enzyme-altered foci induced by intrahepatic γ-ray-irradiation in the rat liver

    Radiation-induced carcinogenesis of the rat liver using iridium-192 seeds as an intrahepatic radioactive source was studied by enzyme histochemical means. Rats were divided into six groups according to various combinations of one or two iridium-192 or stainless steel seeds and whether they were given a diet containing 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) or a basal diet (BD). Each group were sacrificed at 20, 40, and 60 weeks after intrahepatic insertion of the iridium-192 or stainless steel seeds. γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were stained in the liver tissues, and GGT-positive foci were quantified. Liver neoplasm was not evident, but enzyme-altered foci (EAF) were induced by γ-ray irradiation. At every point (20, 40, and 60 weeks) after the insertion of the seeds, the GGT-positive area was larger in the rats given PB than those given BD. Moreover, despite the iridium-192 radioactivity decay, EAF developed continuously in the rats given PB, and persisted in those given BD from 40 to 60 weeks after insertion. These results indicated that phenobarbital promotes the development of EAF initiated by irradiation, as it promotes the process of chemical carcinogenesis in the rat liver. (author)

  10. Phenylbutazone induces expression of MBNL1 and suppresses formation of MBNL1-CUG RNA foci in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy.

    Chen, Guiying; Masuda, Akio; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Kinoshita, Masanobu; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Tohru; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by abnormal expansion of CTG repeats in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Expanded CTG repeats are transcribed into RNA and make an aggregate with a splicing regulator, MBNL1, in the nucleus, which is called the nuclear foci. The nuclear foci sequestrates and downregulates availability of MBNL1. Symptomatic treatments are available for DM1, but no rational therapy is available. In this study, we found that a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), phenylbutazone (PBZ), upregulated the expression of MBNL1 in C2C12 myoblasts as well as in the HSA(LR) mouse model for DM1. In the DM1 mice model, PBZ ameliorated aberrant splicing of Clcn1, Nfix, and Rpn2. PBZ increased expression of skeletal muscle chloride channel, decreased abnormal central nuclei of muscle fibers, and improved wheel-running activity in HSA(LR) mice. We found that the effect of PBZ was conferred by two distinct mechanisms. First, PBZ suppressed methylation of an enhancer region in Mbnl1 intron 1, and enhanced transcription of Mbnl1 mRNA. Second, PBZ attenuated binding of MBNL1 to abnormally expanded CUG repeats in cellulo and in vitro. Our studies suggest that PBZ is a potent therapeutic agent for DM1 that upregulates availability of MBNL1. PMID:27126921

  11. 乳腺钙化在乳腺疾病诊断中的价值%Diagnostic value of the calcified foci in mammography for breast diseases

    莫任光; 苏佳娜; 郭晓婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺钥靶X线中钙化的影像特点在乳腺疾病中的临床意义.方法 对我院100例手术及病理证实有钙化的乳腺疾病进行分析.结果 100例乳腺钙化中,良性病变39例,乳腺癌61例.结论 乳腺钙化是乳腺疾病重要X线征象,特别是钙化形态在乳腺癌诊断中具有重要意义.%Objective To study the diagnostic value of the calcified foci in mammography for the benign and malignant breast disease.Methods In 100 female individuals,calcifications had been found in mammography and confirmed by surgery or biopsy.The characteristics of the morphology and distribution were analyzed retrospectively.Results 61 out of 100 cases with calcified foci were breast cancers,occupying 61.0%,while the left 39 cases were benign.Conclusion Calcifications in mammography are very valuable,especially the shape of the calcifications plays an important role in differential diagnosis for benign and malignant breast diseases.

  12. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula. PMID:19390737

  13. Adjacency Preserving Bijection Maps of Hermitian Matrices over any Division Ring with an Involution

    Li Ping HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Let D be any division ring with an involution, H(D) be the space of all n × n hermitian matrices over D. Two hermitian matrices A and B are said to be adjacent if rank(A - B) =1. It is proved that if ψ is a bijective map from H(D)(n ≥ 2) to itself such that ψ preserves the adjacency,then ψ-1 also preserves the adjacency. Moreover, if H(D)≠F3(F2), then ψ preserves the arithmetic distance. Thus, an open problem posed by Wan Zhe-Xian is answered for geometry of symmetric and hermitian matrices.

  14. MRI of the normal brain from early childhood to middle age. Pt. 1. Appearances on T2- and proton density-weighted images and occurrence of incidental high-signal foci

    The magnetic resonance images of 67 healthy subjects aged 4-50 years were studied for differences in general signal intensity between the different brain structures, the frequency of focal intensity changes in the brain, and variations in size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. In adults over 25 years of age the thalamus gave lower signal than the putamen or caudate nucleus. Definite periventricular high signal was found in the white matter of one third of subjects of all ages. Small (< 5 mm in diameter) high signal foci were found in the cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images in 27 % of subjects (20 % of healthy children and adolescents and 34 % of adults). They gave high signal on both short and long echoes in 11 % of children and adolescents and in 22 % of adults; 51 % of all foci gave high signal with both echoes. This does not support the hypothesis that they are caused mainly by enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces. Of the high signal foci on T2-weighted images, 86 % were in watershead areas. Two foci were found in one subject in the periventricular watershed area (beside the tips of the frontal horns) and they were never seen in the other deep white matter regions. In healthy, relatively young subjects with no known risk factors, high signal foci other than Virchow-Robin spaces, were common; neither their prevalence nor their number correlated with age in this series. A few slightly large sulci were found in some adults. (orig.)

  15. Detection of hypervascular malignant foci in borderline lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of dynamic multi-detector row CT, dynamic MR imaging and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging

    The study object was to retrospectively compare the detection rate of hypervascular foci visualized by CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) in borderline nodules, which was observed upon cirrhotic livers, on dynamic MDCT, dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR (dynamic MR), and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging. Eighty-five nodules in 49 patients with cirrhosis were evaluated. When a part of the nodule showed hyperdensity relative to the surrounding areas of the nodule on CTHA, it was defined as ''hypervascular focus.'' The relationships between the dynamic MDCT and dynamic MR and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging findings of these foci were analyzed using X2 test. Hypervascular foci were detected in 17 (53%) of 32 on the arterial dominant phase of dynamic MDCT, in 19 (37%) of 51 on the arterial dominant phase of dynamic MR and in 6 (26%) of 23 on SPIO-enhanced MR imaging. Arterial dominant phase of dynamic MDCT demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate of hypervascular foci less than 5 mm in diameter than did dynamic and SPIO MR imaging (p<0.05). Hypervascular foci in borderline nodules could be better visualized by dynamic MDCT than by gadolinium- and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging. Dynamic MDCT is recommended for the follow-up examination of hypovascular borderline lesions. (orig.)

  16. Correspondence Associated with the Agreement for Drainage on Lands Adjacent to Tewaukon National Widlife

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains correspondence associated with the cooperative agreement for drainage on lands adjacent to the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  17. Cooperative Agreement for Road Improvement Adjacent to Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This cooperative agreement concerns the construction of a road bridge and approaches adjacent to the Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. This agreement is between...

  18. Cooperative Agreement Concerning Drainage on Lands Adjacent to Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This cooperative agreement concerns a matter of drainage on lands adjacent to Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. This agreement is between Mr. Harold Lee landowner,...

  19. Oceanographic Observations made adjacent to the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, July-November, 2010.

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A program to measure waves, water levels, and currents near the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana and adjacent berm construction site was conducted by the U.S....

  20. Correspondence Associated with the Agreement for Road Improvement Adjacent to Tewaukon National Widlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains correspondence associated with the cooperative agreement for the construction of a road bridge and approaches adjacent to the Tewaukon...

  1. Smarandachely Adjacent-vertex-distinguishing Proper Edge Coloring of K4∨Kn

    CHEN Xiang-en; YAO Bing

    2014-01-01

    Let f be a proper edge coloring of G using k colors. For each x ∈ V (G), the set of the colors appearing on the edges incident with x is denoted by Sf (x) or simply S(x) if no confusion arise. If S(u) S(v) and S(v) S(u) for any two adjacent vertices u and v, then f is called a Smarandachely adjacent vertex distinguishing proper edge col-oring using k colors, or k-SA-edge coloring. The minimum number k for which G has a Smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge coloring using k colors is called the Smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, or SA-edge chromatic number for short, and denoted byχsa(G). In this paper, we have discussed the SA-edge chromatic number of K4∨Kn.

  2. Oil samples and geochemical analyses of Afghanistan and adjacent areas (oilafg.shp)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains points that describe the location of oil samples collected in Afghanistan and adjacent areas, and the results of organic geochemical analysis.

  3. Study on Ground Motion Attenuation Relation in Shanghai and Its Adjacent Region

    Shi Shuzhong; Shen Jianwen

    2004-01-01

    Based on intensity data in Shanghai and its adjacent region, the intensity attenuation relation is determined. Selecting the western United States as a reference area where there are rich strong ground motion records and intensity data, and by determining ground motion attenuation relation in an area lacking in strong ground motion data, we obtain the ground motion attenuation relation in Shanghai and its adjacent region.

  4. fMRI Evidence of Acupoints Specificity in Two Adjacent Acupoints

    Hua Liu; Jian-Yang Xu; Lin Li; Bao-Ci Shan; Bin-Bin Nie; Jing-quan Xue

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI sca...

  5. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Ezgi Akar; Mehmet Ufuk Akmil; Merih İş

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males) who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of inter...

  6. Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Accelerates Degenerative Disease at Adjacent Vertebral Segments

    Pickett, Gwynedd E.; Duggal, Neil; Theodore, Nicholas; Sonntag, Volker K.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical corpectomy provides the most direct and thorough surgical approach for anterior decompression when spinal cord compression is found directly behind the vertebral body. However, anterior cervical fusion has been shown to be associated with the development of new degenerative changes at levels immediately adjacent to the fused segments. Th e incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following anterior cervical corpectomy has not been widely reported. We set out to...

  7. Carbon sources supporting benthic mineralization in mangrove and adjacent seagrass sediments (Gazi Bay, Kenya)

    BOUILLON, S; Moens, T.; F. Dehairs

    2004-01-01

    The origin of carbon substrates used by in situ sedimentary bacterial communities was investigated in an intertidal mangrove ecosystem and in adjacent seagrass beds in Gazi bay (Kenya) by δ13C analysis of bacteria-specific PLFA (phospholipid fatty acids) and bulk organic carbon. Export of mangrove-derived organic matter to the adjacent seagrass-covered bay was evident from sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) and δ13CTOC data. PLFA δ13C data indicate tha...

  8. Evaluation of caries in deciduous second molar and adjacent permanent molar in mixed dentition

    Srinivasan, Daya; Louis, C. Joe

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was done to evaluate association of caries in deciduous second molar and adjacent permanent first molar, tooth surface more involved in permanent first molar and to assess the parental awareness regarding the eruption of permanent first molar. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred and ten children (160 boys, 150 girls) of mixed dentition aged between 6 and 11 years were included. Presence or absence of paired association of caries in primary second molar and adjacent permanent f...

  9. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Bernardo Q Souki; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with convent...

  10. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  11. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. “non-adjacent wetlands”) are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow...

  12. Recruitment of activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to herpes simplex virus ICP0 nuclear foci: Potential role in blocking IFN-β induction

    The host innate response to viral infection includes the production of interferons, which is dependent on the coordinated activity of multiple transcription factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been shown to block efficient interferon expression by multiple mechanisms. We and others have demonstrated that HSV-1 can inhibit the transcription of genes promoted by interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), including interferon beta (IFN-β), and that the immediate-early ICP0 protein is sufficient for this function. However, the exact mechanism by which ICP0 blocks IRF-3 activity has yet to be determined. Unlike some other viral proteins that inhibit IRF-3 activity, ICP0 does not appear to affect phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF-3. Here, we show that a portion of activated IRF-3 co-localizes with nuclear foci containing ICP0 at early times after virus infection. Co-localization to ICP0-containing foci is also seen with the IRF-3-binding partners and transcriptional co-activators, CBP and p300. In addition, using immunoprecipitation of infected cell lysates, we can immunoprecipitate a complex containing ICP0, IRF-3, and CBP. Thus we hypothesize that ICP0 recruits activated IRF-3 and CBP/p300 to nuclear structures, away from the host chromatin. This leads to the inactivation and accelerated degradation of IRF-3, resulting in reduced transcription of IFN-β and an inhibition of the host response. Therefore, ICP0 provides an example of how viruses can block IFN-β induction by sequestration of important transcription factors essential for the host response

  13. Localization of Epileptic Foci in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by MR and EEG%颞叶癫 的EEG和MR术前定位研究

    高翔; 江澄川; 洪震; 俞丽云

    2000-01-01

    Aim:To discuss pre-operative localization of epileptic foci in intractable temporal epilepsy by EEG and MR. Meth-ods: MR and EEG were used to localize the epileptic foci in 20 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)pre-oper-atively,all the patients had intra-operative cortical EEG examination and post-operative follow-up. Restults: 17 patients' seizurefoci were localized by MR and EEG examination ,among them l 0 patients have hippocampus sclerosis, 3 cases tephromalacia, 2cases arachnoid cyst, 1 case glioma. Another 3 cases were localized hy repetitive EEG examinaticm while MR examinationswere normal. All patients were followed up after operation,the result was satisfactory. Conclusion:EEG is the most importantlocalizing method for temporal lobe epilepsy,MR is useful for the secondary TLE.Examination of hippocampus for HS will behelpful while the ordinary MR examination is normal.%目的:探讨EEG、MR对颞叶癫 (TLE)术前定位。方法:用MR、EEG对20例TLE病例进行术前定位与术中EEG和术后随访结果比较。结果:20例病例中17例依据MR及EEG获得定位,主要在海马区域病变12例,前颞叶5例,另3例MR检查正常,依据多次EEG检查获得定位,随访疗效满意。结论:EEG是诊断TLE的重要手段,MR可对继发性TLE作出正确诊断,MR对海马硬化检查可协助EEG对TLE定位诊断。

  14. Unexpected foci of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the breast detected by PET/CT: incidence and clinical significance

    Litmanovich, Diana [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gourevich, Konstantin [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9602, Haifa (Israel); Israel, Ora [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9602, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, B. and R. Rapaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Gallimidi, Zahava [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, B. and R. Rapaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of unexpected focal {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake localized by PET/CT within the breast. The files of 4,038 consecutive female cancer patients referred for FDG PET/CT over a period of 74 months were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with breast cancer were excluded from the study. The incidence of focal sites of increased FDG uptake localized by PET/CT to the breast was determined. The intensity of uptake was measured using the lean body mass maximum standard uptake value (LBM SUV{sub max}), and the presence and patterns of morphologic changes on CT were assessed. The etiology and clinical significance of findings were confirmed histologically or with imaging and clinical follow-up. Unexpected FDG foci in the breast were identified in 33 of 4,038 patients (0.82%). Follow-up data were available for 30 patients. Malignancy was diagnosed in 17 patients (histology 12, clinical 5) and excluded in 13 patients (histology 9, clinical 4). There was a borderline statistically significant difference in FDG uptake (LBM SUV{sub max}) between malignant (3.13 {+-} 2.25) and benign (1.85 {+-} 1.18) lesions (p = 0.05). Focal lesions were seen on CT in 23 patients (malignant 11, benign 12), and CT was negative in 7 patients (malignant 6, benign 1). Although rare, incidental focal abnormal FDG uptake in the breast may represent malignant lesions in up to 57% of patients. Breast incidentalomas on PET/CT warrant further assessment including tissue sampling to define the etiology of these unexpected FDG-avid foci. (orig.)

  15. Combined olaparib and oxaliplatin inhibits tumor proliferation and induces G2/M arrest and γ-H2AX foci formation in colorectal cancer

    Xu K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kaiwu Xu,1* Zhihui Chen,2* Yi Cui,1 Changjiang Qin,2 Yulong He,2 Xinming Song2 1Endoscopy Center, 2Gastrointestinal Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 has an important role in homologous recombination repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PARP1 inhibitor on oxaliplatin treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods: A cell counting kit-8 assay was used to determine the sensitivity of CRC cells to olaparib and/or oxaliplatin. The gene and protein expressions of PARP1 and the gamma histone variant H2AX (γH2AX were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The γH2AX foci formation assay was used to investigate the influence of treatments on cells. Flow cytometry was used to examine the changes in cell cycle distribution. Finally, we investigated the combination of olaparib and oxaliplatin in the CRC tumor model. Results: Olaparib changed the expression of γH2AX and PARP1, and increased the sensitivity of CRC cells to oxaliplatin. The γH2AX foci assay showed that olaparib did not induce double-strand breaks (DSBs alone, but it enhanced the induction of DSBs by oxaliplatin. The flow cytometry results showed that cells exposed to combination treatment had more G2/M-phase cells than control. Additionally, tumor xenograft studies suggested that combined treatment inhibited the growth of CRC. Conclusion: CRC cells are sensitized to combined treatment with olaparib and oxaliplatin, and this could be a promising strategy for clinical chemotherapy in CRC. Keywords: olaparib, oxaliplatin, chemosensitization, colorectal cancer

  16. Adjacent Codons Act in Concert to Modulate Translation Efficiency in Yeast.

    Gamble, Caitlin E; Brule, Christina E; Dean, Kimberly M; Fields, Stanley; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-28

    Translation elongation efficiency is largely thought of as the sum of decoding efficiencies for individual codons. Here, we find that adjacent codon pairs modulate translation efficiency. Deploying an approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that scored the expression of over 35,000 GFP variants in which three adjacent codons were randomized, we have identified 17 pairs of adjacent codons associated with reduced expression. For many pairs, codon order is obligatory for inhibition, implying a more complex interaction than a simple additive effect. Inhibition mediated by adjacent codons occurs during translation itself as GFP expression is restored by increased tRNA levels or by non-native tRNAs with exact-matching anticodons. Inhibition operates in endogenous genes, based on analysis of ribosome profiling data. Our findings suggest translation efficiency is modulated by an interplay between tRNAs at adjacent sites in the ribosome and that this concerted effect needs to be considered in predicting the functional consequences of codon choice. PMID:27374328

  17. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  18. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  19. Identification of protein-RNA interaction sites using the information of spatial adjacent residues

    Cheng Yong-Mei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-RNA interactions play an important role in numbers of fundamental cellular processes such as RNA splicing, transport and translation, protein synthesis and certain RNA-mediated enzymatic processes. The more knowledge of Protein-RNA recognition can not only help to understand the regulatory mechanism, the site-directed mutagenesis and regulation of RNA–protein complexes in biological systems, but also have a vitally effecting for rational drug design. Results Based on the information of spatial adjacent residues, novel feature extraction methods were proposed to predict protein-RNA interaction sites with SVM-KNN classifier. The total accuracies of spatial adjacent residue profile feature and spatial adjacent residues weighted accessibility solvent area feature are 78%, 67.07% respectively in 5-fold cross-validation test, which are 1.4%, 3.79% higher than that of sequence neighbour residue profile feature and sequence neighbour residue accessibility solvent area feature. Conclusions The results indicate that the performance of feature extraction method using the spatial adjacent information is superior to the sequence neighbour information approach. The performance of SVM-KNN classifier is little better than that of SVM. The feature extraction method of spatial adjacent information with SVM-KNN is very effective for identifying protein-RNA interaction sites and may at least play a complimentary role to the existing methods.

  20. Telomere length in hepatocellular carcinoma and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues by quantitative PCR.

    Zhang, Yujing; Shen, Jing; Ming-Whei; Lee, Yu Po-Huang; Santella, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    Telomere shortening limits the proliferative capacity of human cells, restrains the regenerative capacity of organ systems during chronic diseases and aging and also induces chromosomal instability as well as initiation of cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that telomeres are often significantly shorter in tumor tissue, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), compared to the surrounding tissue, but telomere length in HCC tissues was not correlated with several clinical parameters, such as age, sex, HBV or HCV infections and tumor size. In the present study, the telomere length ratio of 36 paired HCC, and their adjacent non-tumor tissues was measured by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). The mean telomere lengths (SD) for HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were 0.26 (0.10) and 0.47 (0.20) respectively (t = 6.22, P telomere length in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The number of tumors with telomere length shorter than 0.50 was much higher than that of adjacent non-tumor tissues; more than 90% of the tissues with telomere length > or = 0.50 were adjacent non-tumor tissues. The correlations between telomere length and aflatoxin B1- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts level, p53 mutations and p16 hypermethylation status were also tested, but no significant associations were found. The relationship between telomere length shortening, chemical carcinogen exposure, and genetic and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:18058461

  1. An Upper Bound for the Adjacent Vertex Distinguishing Acyclic Edge Chromatic Number of a Graph

    Xin-sheng Liu; Ming-qiang An; Yang Gao

    2009-01-01

    A proper k-edge coloring of a graph G is called adjacent vertex distinguishing acyclic edge coloring if there is no 2-colored cycle in G and the color set of edges incident to u is not equal to the color set of edges incident to v,where uv ∈ E(G).The adjacent vertex distinguishing acyclic edge chromatic number of G,denoted by χαα(G),is the minimal number of colors in an adjacent vertex distinguishing acyclic edge coloring of G.In this paper we prove that if G(V,E)is a graph with no isolated edges,then χαα(G)≤32△.

  2. A method of 3D CAD model retrieval based on feature adjacent graph

    Shi, Min; Zhang, Shusheng

    2013-03-01

    To reuse the 3D CAD model, a new method of 3D CAD model retrieval based on feature adjacent graph is proposed. First, a representation of feature adjacent graph for the CAD model is extracted by automatic identification-based and interactive identification-assisted. Next, the vertex product graph of the two CAD model's feature adjacent graphs is constructed, and then the ant colony algorithm is employed to detect the maximum-cliques in the vertex product graph. At last, the similarity of the models is calculated by comparing the maximum-cliques. Experimental results show that this method can realize the 3D CAD model retrieval and its efficiency meets the requirements of applications.

  3. The speciation of marine particulate iron adjacent to active and passive continental margins

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2012-03-01

    We use synchrotron-based chemical-species mapping techniques to compare the speciation of suspended (1-51 μm) marine particulate iron collected in two open ocean environments adjacent to active and passive continental margins. Chemical-species mapping provides speciation information for heterogeneous environmental samples, and is especially good for detecting spectroscopically distinct trace minerals and species that could not be detectable by other methods. The average oxidation state of marine particulate iron determined by chemical-species mapping is comparable to that determined by standard bulk X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. Using chemical-species mapping, we find that up to 43% of particulate Fe in the Northwest Pacific at the depth of the adjacent active continental margin is in the Fe(II) state, with the balance Fe(III). In contrast, particulate iron in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which receives the highest dust deposition on Earth and is adjacent to a passive margin, is dominated by weathered and oxidized Fe compounds, with Fe(III) contributing 90% of total iron. The balance is composed primarily of Fe(II)-containing species, but we detected individual pyrite particles in some samples within an oxygen minimum zone in the upper thermocline. Several lines of evidence point to the adjacent Mauritanian continental shelf as the source of pyrite to the water column. The speciation of suspended marine particulate iron reflects the mineralogy of iron from the adjacent continental margins. Since the solubility of particulate iron has been shown to be a function of its speciation, this may have implications for the bioavailability of particulate iron adjacent to passive compared to active continental margins.

  4. Microemulsions as model fluids for enhanced oil recovery: dynamics adjacent to planar hydrophilic walls

    Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Lipfert, F.; Kerscher, M.; Mattauch, S.; Richter, D.

    2012-10-01

    After the dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy, the model of Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the surface near lamellar ordered membranes. Reflections of hydrodynamic waves by the wall - or the volume conservation between the membrane and the wall - explain faster relaxations and, therefore, a lubrication effect that is important for flow fields in narrow pores. The whole scenery is now spectated by using different scenarios of a bicontinuous microemulsion exposed to clay particles and of a lamellar microemulsion adjacent to a planar wall. The Seifert concept could successfully be transferred to the new problems.

  5. Microstructural evolution adjacent to grain boundaries under cascade damage conditions and helium production

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Victoria, M.

    1996-01-01

    be absorbed by extended sinks such as dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs). The loss of SIAs by this process causes a vacancy supersaturation representing an efficient driving force for void swelling, in particular in regions adjacent to GBs. Enhanced swelling in regions adjacent to GBs has been observed...... in several metals subject to irradiation by both fast fission neutrons and 600 MeV protons. In the latter case, however, the width of the region of enhanced swelling is smaller and the amount of swelling is significantly lower than in the former case. Recently, enhanced swelling near GBs as induced...

  6. Computation and analysis of the geomagnetic field model in China and its adjacent area for 2003

    GU Zuo-wen; AN Zhen-chang; GAO Jin-tian; ZHAN Zhi-jia; YAO Tong-qi; HAN Wei; CHEN Bin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the geomagnetic data at 135 stations and 35 observatories in China in 2003, the Taylor polynomial model and the spherical cap harmonic model in China and its adjacent area for 2003 were established. In the model calculation, the truncation order of the model and the influences of the boundary restriction on the model calculation were carefully analyzed. The results show that the geomagnetic data used are precise and reliable, and the selection of the truncation order is reasonable. The Taylor polynomial model and the spherical cap harmonic model in China and its adjacent area established in this paper are consistent very well.

  7. The X-ray features of breast ductal carcinoma in situ and its small invasive foci and correlation between mammographic features and prognostic biological factors

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the mammographic features of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and DCIS with small invasive foci, and to analyze the correlation between the mammographic findings and the prognostic biologic factors. Methods: The mammographic examination was performed in 95 consecutive women with breast DCIS (n=50) and DCIS with invasive foci (n=45). The prognostic biologic factors including progesterone receptor (PR), C-erbB-2, and p53 were evaluated in 62 of 95 cases. Categorical data were expressed as percentages and analyzed by using the X2 test, and furthermore the odds ratio was measured. Results: (1) Only one abnormality was seen on mammography in 62 patients. Combined two abnormalities on mammography were seen in 26 patients. Mammograms were normal in 7 patients. (2) Calcifications with or without other abnormality were noted in 62 cases. Of them, 73% (n=45) had higher probability of malignancy calcifications and the others were intermediate concern calcifications. Clustered calcifications (36 lesions) was the most common distribution, which usually accompanied by another abnormality. And then were segmental (18 lesions) distributed pattern. As far as the shape of mass (n=22) was concerned, the oval shaped lesion (13 cases) was the most common, and the margin of the mass appeared as ill-defined in 15 cases, microlobulated in 1, circumscribed in 4, and obscured in 2, respectively. Isodensity mass had a higher frequency in this group (12/22, 55%). Other non-calcification findings included architecture distortion (7 cases), local asymmetry (15 cases), global asymmetry (5 cases), and solitary dilated duct (3 cases), and most of them accompanied with other signs. (3) For expression profile of the biological factors, significant differences were found among malignant calcification group, intermediate concern calcification group, and non-calcification group. The odds of PR positive for the lesions noted as non-calcification were 11

  8. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  9. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. PMID:27139318

  10. Marginal tissue response adjacent to Astra Dental Implants supporting overdentures in the mandible

    Gotfredsen, K; Holm, B; Sewerin, I;

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal tissue response adjacent to implant supported overdentures. Twenty edentulous patients had 2 Astra Dental Implants placed in the canine region of the lower jaw. New overdentures were retained by individual ball attachments in 11 patients and by a...

  11. Radiocarbon dating reveals different past managements of adjacent forest soils in the Campine region, Belgium

    Chiti, T.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Janssens, I. A.; Certini, G.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Sirignano, C.

    2009-01-01

    The soils of adjacent first generation monospecific stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in the Campine region, Belgium, apparently developed under the same forming factors, were studied for carbon dynamics to disentangle eventual different past land uses

  12. Irreversible Electroporation Adjacent to the Rectum: Evaluation of Pathological Effects in a Pig Model

    Schoellnast, Helmut [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Monette, Sebastien [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Laboratory of Comparative Pathology (United States); Ezell, Paula C. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, Research Animal Resource Center (United States); Single, Gordon [AngioDynamics Inc. (United States); Maybody, Majid [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Weiser, Martin R.; Fong Yuman [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery (United States); Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the rectum wall after IRE applied adjacent to the rectum. CT-guided IRE adjacent to the rectum wall was performed in 11 pigs; a total of 44 lesions were created. In five pigs, ablations were performed without a water-filled endorectal coil (group A); in six pigs, ablation was performed with the coil to avoid displacement of the rectum wall (group B). The pigs were killed after 7-15 days and the rectums were harvested for pathological evaluation. There was no evidence of perforation on gross postmortem examination. Perirectal muscle lesions were observed in 18 of 20 ablations in group A and in 21 of 24 ablations in group B. Inflammation and fibrosis of the muscularis propria was observed in ten of 18 lesions in group A and in ten of 21 lesions in group B. In group A, findings were limited to the external layer of the muscularis propria except for one lesion; in group B, findings were transmural in all cases. Transmural necrosis with marked suppurative mucosal inflammation was observed in seven of 21 lesions in group B and in no lesion in group A. IRE-ablation adjacent to the rectum may be uneventful if the rectum wall is mobile and able to contract. IRE-ablation of the rectum may be harmful if the rectum wall is fixed adjacent to the IRE-probe.

  13. Irreversible Electroporation Adjacent to the Rectum: Evaluation of Pathological Effects in a Pig Model

    To evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the rectum wall after IRE applied adjacent to the rectum. CT-guided IRE adjacent to the rectum wall was performed in 11 pigs; a total of 44 lesions were created. In five pigs, ablations were performed without a water-filled endorectal coil (group A); in six pigs, ablation was performed with the coil to avoid displacement of the rectum wall (group B). The pigs were killed after 7–15 days and the rectums were harvested for pathological evaluation. There was no evidence of perforation on gross postmortem examination. Perirectal muscle lesions were observed in 18 of 20 ablations in group A and in 21 of 24 ablations in group B. Inflammation and fibrosis of the muscularis propria was observed in ten of 18 lesions in group A and in ten of 21 lesions in group B. In group A, findings were limited to the external layer of the muscularis propria except for one lesion; in group B, findings were transmural in all cases. Transmural necrosis with marked suppurative mucosal inflammation was observed in seven of 21 lesions in group B and in no lesion in group A. IRE-ablation adjacent to the rectum may be uneventful if the rectum wall is mobile and able to contract. IRE-ablation of the rectum may be harmful if the rectum wall is fixed adjacent to the IRE-probe.

  14. Geodynamic analysis of oil and gas basins in Russia and adjacent countries

    Kleshev, K.A.; Shein, V.S. [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Geologorazvedochnyj Neftyanoj Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The following questions are examined in the article: the present-day use of geodynamics in oil and gas exploration, the structure and geodynamic evolution of some oil and gas basins in Russia and adjacent countries, the possibility of using geodynamics to solve the most important problems in oil and gas geology. (authors). 38 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Load Rate of Facet Joints at the Adjacent Segment Increased After Fusion

    Hui Li; Bao-Qing Pei; Jin-Cai Yang; Yong Hai; De-Yu Li; Shu-Qin Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The cause of the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after fusion remains unknown.It is reported that adjacent facet joint stresses increase after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.This increase of stress rate may lead to tissue injury.Thus far,the load rate of the adjacent segment facet joint after fusion remains unclear.Methods:Six C2-C7 cadaveric spine specimens were loaded under four motion modes:Flexion,extension,rotation,and lateral bending,with a pure moment using a 6° robot arm combined with an optical motion analysis system.The Tecscan pressure test system was used for testing facet joint pressure.Results:The contact mode of the facet joints and distributions of the force center during different motions were recorded.The adjacent segment facet joint forces increased faster after fusion,compared with intact conditions.While the magnitude of pressures increased,there was no difference in distribution modes before and after fusion.No pressures were detected during flexion.The average growth velocity during extension was the fastest and was significantly faster than lateral bending.Conclusions:One of the reasons for cartilage injury was the increasing stress rate of loading.This implies that ASD after fusion may be related to habitual movement before and after fusion.More and faster extension is disadvantageous for the facet joints and should be reduced as much as possible.

  16. Analysis hydrogeochemical cituation in the territories adjacent to the storage ponds "Svidovok"

    Scherstyuk N.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thehydrogeochemicalcomposition of surface and groundwater in the area adjacent to the pond-storage “Svidovok” (West Donbas was analyzed. The chemical types of surface and groundwater by the formula Kurlova were determined. The equilibriums with aluminosilicates and silicateswereconsidered.

  17. The costs of living with elephants in the areas adjacent to Marsabit National Park and Reserve

    Ngene, S.M.; Omondi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Crop raiding by elephants is a serious management problem around protected areas in Kenya. This is because of changes in the land use systems in these areas, with crop farming occurring in areas where it did not previously. Crop raiding by elephants was monitored in the area adjacent to Marsabit Nat

  18. Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing gas migration

    Christophersen, Mette; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Field experiments investigating lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill in Denmark during a one-year period were conducted. A significant seasonal variation, with low concentrations of methane and high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the summer, caused by methane oxidation was...

  19. Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing emissions and methane oxidation

    Christophersen, Mette; Kjeldsen, Peter; Holst, Helle; Chanton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Field investigations of lateral gas transport and subsequent emissions in soil adjacent to an old landfill in Denmark have been conducted during a one-year period. A significant seasonal variation in the emissions with high carbon dioxide and low methane fluxes in the summer (May to October) was...

  20. Small vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent tissues. A morphologic study

    Poulsen, Hemming; Junge, Jette; Vyberg, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinomas are of different subtypes and degrees of differentiation, and may be associated with adjacent lichen sclerosus and/or varying degrees of dysplasia. The aim of this investigation was to study small carcinomas with a diameter of less than 2 cm in order to find a poss...

  1. Preliminary assessment of illegal hunting by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    Gandiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Illegal hunting of wildlife is a major issue in today’s society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. In this study, a total of 114 local residents from eight villages located in four wards adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, south-eastern Zimbabwe were interviewed in 2009, using semi

  2. Deformations and damage to buildings adjacent to deep excavations in soft soils

    Korff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations and to find a reliable method to design and monitor deep excavations in urban areas with soft soil conditions. The research focuses on typical Dutch conditions. The

  3. Tourist preferences for ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park: A choice experiment approach

    Chaminuka, P.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Selomane, A.O.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism a

  4. Stock structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters

    Pampoulie, Christophe; Slotte, Aril; Oskarsson, Guomundur J.;

    2015-01-01

    The genetic structure of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus L. was investigated in its north-easterly distribution in the Norwegian Sea and adjacent waters, using 23 neutral and one non-neutral (Cpa111) microsatellite loci. Fish from the suspected 2 main populations-the Norwegian spring...

  5. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    2010-04-01

    ... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  6. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of tissue reactions adjacent to endosteal implants in monkeys

    Gotfredsen, K; Rostrup, E; Hjörting-Hansen, E;

    1992-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length bet...

  7. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  8. Expression profile of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD106) in inflammatory foci using rhenium-188 labelled monoclonal antibody in mice.

    Kairemo, K J; Strömberg, S; Nikula, T K; Karonen, S L

    1998-06-01

    Rhenium (Re)-188 is a generator (W-188/Re-188) produced high energy beta-emitter suitable for radionuclide therapy (T1/2 is 16.9 hrs and Emax 2.1 MeV (range 11 mm)). We have labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) raised against vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with Re-188 using glucoheptonate chelation technique and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The labelling efficiency, free perrhenate and reduced Re were controlled with thin layer chromatography and the purification of Re-188-MoAbs was performed using gel filtration. Our results indicate that Re-188-labelled antibodies remain in vitro stable and the labelling purity is > 90%. We also have applied these Re-188-MoAbs for detection of inflammatory disease in a mouse. The effective half-lives of organs of interest after an injection of Re-188-anti-VCAM1 were as follows: blood 5.2 hr, kidney 4.7 hr, and liver 9.6 hr. Re-188-anti-VCAM-1 was found to accumulate mainly in kidney and liver. One hour after the injection, the kidney contained in average as high as 12.5% and the liver 2.8 ID/g tissue. After 6 hr, the kidney contained 5.5% ID/g and the liver 2.6% ID/g. At 24 hr, the kidney uptake was 0.5% ID/g and the liver uptake 0.8% ID/g, respectively. The inflamed foci, subcutaneous lesions in the footpad skin, were visualized using gamma camera. From the distribution data the uptakes in the inflamed foci as follows: at 1 hr 2.18 (inflammation) and 1.72% ID/g (control), at 6 hr 1.42 (inflammation) and 0.85% ID/g (control), and at 24 hr 0.17 (inflammation) and 0.084% ID/g (control), respectively. Anti-VCAM-1 MAb showed better targeting as compared to control MoAbs in inflammation (caused by E.coli lipoplysaccaride). In conclusion, Re-188 is suitable for MAb labelling, and MAb against VCAM-1 may be used for detection of local inflammatory disease. PMID:9762472

  9. Long-term aerobic swimming training by rats reduces the number of aberrant crypt foci in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer

    W. Lunz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of long-term aerobic swimming training regimens of different intensities on colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats (11 weeks old were given 4 subcutaneous injections (40 mg/kg body weight each of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl containing 1.5% EDTA, pH 6.5, at 3-day intervals and divided into three exercise groups that swam with 0% body weight (EG1, N = 11, 2% body weight (EG2, N = 11, and 4% body weight of load (EG3, N = 10, 20 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks, and one sedentary control group (CG, N = 10. At sacrifice, the colon was removed and counted for tumors and aberrant crypt foci. Tumor size was measured and intra-abdominal fat was weighed. The mean number of aberrant crypt foci was reduced only for EG2 compared to CG (26.21 ± 2.99 vs 36.40 ± 1.53 crypts; P < 0.05. Tumor incidence was not significantly different among groups (CG: 90%; EG1: 72.7%; EG2: 90%; EG3: 80%. Swimming training did not affect either tumor multiplicity (CG: 2.30 ± 0.58; EG1: 2.09 ± 0.44; EG2: 1.27 ± 0.19; EG3: 1.50 ± 0.48 tumors or size (CG: 1.78 ± 0.24; EG1: 1.81 ± 0.14; EG2: 1.55 ± 0.21; EG3: 2.17 ± 0.22 cm³. Intra-abdominal fat was not significantly different among groups (CG: 10.54 ± 2.73; EG1: 6.12 ± 1.15; EG2: 7.85 ± 1.24; EG3: 5.11 ± 0.74 g. Aerobic swimming training with 2% body weight of load protected against the DMH-induced preneoplastic colon lesions, but not against tumor development in the rat.

  10. Dissociation of indium from indium-111-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid conjugated non-specific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G in inflammatory foci

    With this study we intended to test the hypothesis that, upon administration of 111In-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA-IgG), 111In is retained in the infectious foci after dissociation from IgG. Therefore we measured the tissue distribution of double-labelled 111In-DTPA-IgG-(carbon-14) in rats with a focal infection and compared the results with corresponding data for DTPA-IgG-(14C). DTPA-conjugated IgG was labelled with 111In via citrate transchelation. 111In-DTPA-IgG and DTPA-IgG were labelled with 14C through methylation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and instant thin-layer chromatography analysis were performed to test the in vitro stability of the labelled proteins. Young Wistar rats with a Staphylococcus aureus infection of the left calf muscle were injected intravenously with 0.2 ml of a solution containing either 0.4 MBq 111In and 30 kBq 14C or 30 kBq 14C labelled to 80 μg IgG. Groups of five rats were sacrificed at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h. p.i. Activity uptake was determined for plasma, urine, abscess, muscle and various other tissues. Averages and standard deviations were calculated for groups of five rats. HPLC analysis was performed on plasma and urine samples taken up to 48 h p.i. The radiochemical purity of the IgG preparations was >95%. The labelled preparations appeared stable in vitro. The 14C abscess activity decreased from 1.2% to 0.7% of the injected dose per gram (% I.D./g) between 2 and 48 h after injection and was linearly related to the 14C plasma concentration. However, the 111In concentration in the infectious foci remained constant over time (1.0% I.D./g) despite a decreasing concentration of 111In in plasma. Labelling with 14C did not influence the abscess uptake of 111In after administration of 111In-DTPA-IgG. On the other hand, conjugation with DTPA and labelling with In111 did not influence the tissue distribution of 14C-IgG either. (orig.)

  11. Hydrologic Connection Between Geysers and Adjacent Thermal Pools, Two Examples: El Tatio, Chile and Yellowstone, USA

    Munoz Saez, C.; Fauria, K.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Namiki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geyser eruption cycles can be influenced by adjacent and distant thermals sources, suggesting a hydraulic connection through permeable pathways. Diffusion of fluid pressure can be responsible for the communication between geysers. In this study we examine the processes linking two different geysers with adjacent thermal pools. The first was Vega Rinconada, located at El Tatio geyser field, Chile, where we measured temperature inside the conduit between the ground surface and a depth of seven meters, at one-meter intervals. The second was Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, where we measured temperature of the overflow water at the base of the cone. Concurrently, we measured temperature and the water level in pools adjacent to both geysers. We found common elements in both geyser - pool systems: First, water temperature in both adjacent pools was below the boiling point and cooler than water in the geysers. Second, changes in pool water levels were correlated with eruptions of the geysers. During the quiescent period of the geysers, the water level increased in adjacent pools, while water level in the pools deceased during eruptions. Additionally, measurements inside of the conduit in Vega Rinconada Geyser showed that water temperature increased in the deepest part of the conduit during eruptions, while water temperature decreased in the shallow part of the geyser conduit (~1 to 2 m). These drops in temperature in the shallow conduit were coincident with the drop in water level in the adjacent pool. This suggests that after the initiation of an eruption, water may drain from the pool to the geyser. Furthermore, we observed a temperature drop of 3oC in the shallow conduit immediately preceding the end of an eruption. This suggests that flow from the pool to geyser contributes to eruption shut off. Our observations of geyser-pool systems indicate a hydrologic connection between the geysers and their adjacent pools. In the case of Vega Rinconada, cold water

  12. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Wei Ju; Guiting Hou

    2014-01-01

    The South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions of Central Asia are located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The formation of South Tianshan Orogen was a diachronous, scissors-like process, which took place during the Palaeozoic, and its western segment was accepted as a site of the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent, which occurred in the late Palaeozoic. However, the post-collisional tectonic evolution of the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions remains debatable. Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I) late Ordovicianeearly Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean;(II) middle Silurianemiddle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III) late Devonianelate Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks;(IV) early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting;(V) late PermianeTriassic the first intraplate orogeny;(VI) JurassicePalaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII) NeoceneeQuaternary intraplate orogeny.

  13. The adjacent positioning of co-regulated gene pairs is widely conserved across eukaryotes

    Arnone James T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated cell growth and development requires that cells regulate the expression of large sets of genes in an appropriate manner, and one of the most complex and metabolically demanding pathways that cells must manage is that of ribosome biogenesis. Ribosome biosynthesis depends upon the activity of hundreds of gene products, and it is subject to extensive regulation in response to changing cellular conditions. We previously described an unusual property of the genes that are involved in ribosome biogenesis in yeast; a significant fraction of the genes exist on the chromosomes as immediately adjacent gene pairs. The incidence of gene pairing can be as high as 24% in some species, and the gene pairs are found in all of the possible tandem, divergent, and convergent orientations. Results We investigated co-regulated gene sets in S. cerevisiae beyond those related to ribosome biogenesis, and found that a number of these regulons, including those involved in DNA metabolism, heat shock, and the response to cellular stressors were also significantly enriched for adjacent gene pairs. We found that as a whole, adjacent gene pairs were more tightly co-regulated than unpaired genes, and that the specific gene pairing relationships that were most widely conserved across divergent fungal lineages were correlated with those genes that exhibited the highest levels of transcription. Finally, we investigated the gene positions of ribosome related genes across a widely divergent set of eukaryotes, and found a significant level of adjacent gene pairing well beyond yeast species. Conclusion While it has long been understood that there are connections between genomic organization and transcriptional regulation, this study reveals that the strategy of organizing genes from related, co-regulated pathways into pairs of immediately adjacent genes is widespread, evolutionarily conserved, and functionally significant.

  14. "三焦点"广义椭圆曲线及其传导特性%The Research on the Generalized Elliptic Curve with Three Foci

    邹志琼; 周良泽

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a new concept of the generalized ellipse with three foci, shows the ploting method and the mathematical models of the ellipse, builds up the mathematical model of the distance from the gravity center M of the ellipse to the moving point P on the curve of the ellipse, presents the transfer characteristics of the ellipse to force and velocity and its applications in the industry.%提出了三焦点广义椭圆的概念,给出了三焦点广义椭圆的画法及其轨迹方程,建立了三焦点广义椭圆的重心M到三焦点广义椭圆轨迹曲线上动点P的距离d的数学模型,研究了三焦点广义椭圆构件对力与速度的传动特性及其在工业上的应用.

  15. Correlations of 18F-fluorothymidine uptake with pathological tumour size, Ki-67 and thymidine kinase 1 expressions in primary and metastatic lymph node colorectal cancer foci

    To examine correlations of 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) uptake with pathological tumour size and immunohistochemical Ki-67, and thymidine kinase 1 (TK-1) expressions in primary and metastatic node colorectal cancer foci. Thirty primary cancers (PCs) and 37 metastatic nodes (MNs) were included. FLT uptake was assessed by visual scores (non-visible: 0-1 and visible: 2-4), standardized uptake value (SUV), and correlated with size, Ki-67, and TK-1. SUV was measured in visible lesions. FLT heterogeneity was assessed by visual scores (no heterogeneous uptake: 0 and heterogeneous uptake: 1-4). Forty-two lesions were visible. The visible group showed significantly higher values than the non-visible group in size, Ki-67, and TK-1 (each p 0.05). Heterogeneous FLT uptake was noted in 73 % (22/30) of PCs. FLT uptake correlated with size. Heterogeneous FLT distribution in colorectal cancers may be one of the causes of weak or lack of FLT uptake/Ki-67 or TK-1 correlation. (orig.)

  16. Different effects of short- and long-chained fructans on large intestinal physiology and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats.

    Poulsen, Morten; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Jacobsen, Bodil Lund

    2002-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans, which are nondigestible carbohydrates, have been shown to modulate the number of induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon as well as the colonic microflora in laboratory animals. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short- and long-chained inulin-type fructan on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colon. In addition, the present study investigated the influence of chain length, dietary level (5% or 15%), and duration of feeding (5 or 10 wk) on the following intestinal parameters supposed to be involved in the development of ACF: microflora, short-chain fatty acids, pH, and cell proliferation. A 3-wk pretreatment period with both fructans was included. Feeding the long-chained fructan (5% or 15%) significantly inhibited the numbers of small and total ACF after 5 and 10 wk. The short-chained fructan (15%) inhibited the number of small and total ACF after 5 and 10 wk but significantly increased the numbers of medium and large ACF after 10 wk. In conclusion, the effect on ACF outcome was influenced by the chain length of the fructans. PMID:12416260

  17. Contributions to the understanding of the directivity of Vrancea earthquake foci, considerations on some results of seismic tomography performed in Romania

    The hypothesis that the focal mechanism of intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes is prevailingly responsible for the general shape of their isoseismal lines was first put forth some 45 years ago. In 1990, Enescu and Smalbergher provided both the theoretical underpinning and the quantitative proof for this hypothesis, which either, orally and in print, has continued to be 'challenged' by various opinions lacking quantitative foundation and more or less indebted to fantasy. These bungled challenges thrived on the fact that the 1980 demonstration somehow lacked generality being confined to earthquakes with NE-SW-oriented, NW sloping fault planes. This paper fills the gap by providing theoretical and observational evidence that the focal mechanism is undoubtedly the key factor behind the general shape of the isoseismal lines of all intermediate-depth Vrancea earthquakes. This makes possible a better understanding of the directivity of Vrancea earthquake foci and utilises its characteristics in order to resolve major practical problem such as the drawing of seismic hazard maps through either of the probabilistic or deterministic methods. Since the most aggressive challenge to the above hypothesis was based on results of seismic tomographs conducted in Romania not so long ago, it appeared compulsory to make a critical quantitative analysis of these results, fill in some gaps, and put the ensuing solutions on solid realistic grounds. (author)

  18. Induction of foci of phosphorylated H2AX histones and premature chromosome condensation after DNA damage in Vicia faba root meristem

    Immunocytochemical analysis using antibody raised against human H2AX histones phosphorylated at serine 139 (gamma-H2AX) demonstrates that root meristem cells of Vicia faba exposed to UV-radiation or incubated with hydroxyurea (HU) reveal discrete foci at the border of the nucleolus and perinucleolar chromatin or scattered over the whole area of cell nucleus. Western blots detected only one protein band at the position expected for the phosphorylated form of H2AX. The dose-effect relationship was demonstrated following treatment with 2.5 and 10 mM HU. Proteins extracted from root meristems incubated for 2 h either with HU and caffeine or with HU and sodium metavanadate showed unchanged amounts of bound gamma-H2AX antibodies as compared to root meristems treated with 2.5 mM HU. Higher quantities of phosphorylated H2AX histones were detected in proteins extracted from roots treated with HU and 2-aminopurine. All treatments were effective in producing evident aberrations of premature mitosis: broken and lagging chromatids, acentric fragments, chromosomal bridges and micronuclei. Our results show that phosphorylation of H2AX at the carboxy-terminal Ser-Gln-Glu sequence is among the earliest responses to double-strand breaks and, presumably, one of the key ATM/ATR-dependent signals indispensable for the repair of spontaneous and induced DNA damage in plant cells

  19. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention. PMID:27490566

  20. Evaluation of natural foci of Panstrongylus megistus in a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Jose Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Panstrongylus megistus is commonly found in wild environments of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the network of refuges used by triatomine in a forest fragment of Porto Alegre and to identify Trypanosoma cruzi infection, associated hosts and the epidemiological importance of both hosts and triatomines. Methods Techniques including the spool-and-line method and active searching (transects were used to identify natural foci. Results The food source for each triatomine was determined using the precipitin test, and the infection of marsupials was determined by xenodiagnosis. A total of 33 adults (domestic environment and 27 nymphs (wild environment of P. megistus were found in addition to 43 Didelphis albiventris specimens. The infection rates of triatomine adults, triatomine nymphs and opossums with T. cruzi I were 64%, 73% and 69%, respectively. Birds, rodents and opossums were the main resources used by triatomine. Conclusions This work presents the first characterization of a natural focus of P. megistus in Rio Grande do Sul. The natural characteristics of this focus and its implication in the transmission of T. cruzi are discussed.

  1. Calculation of the energy deposition in nanovolumes by protons and HZE particles: geometric patterns of initial distributions of DNA repair foci

    The biological effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are different from those caused by low-LET radiation due to the difference in the patterns of energy deposition in cells. In this work, we studied the role of the track structure in the spatial distribution of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the first part, the irradiation of a cubic volume of 12 µm of side by 300 MeV protons (LET ∼0.3 keV µm−1) and by 1 GeV/amu iron ion particles (LET∼150 keV µm−1) was simulated with the Monte Carlo code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) and the dose was calculated in voxels of different sizes. In the second part, dose calculations were combined with chromosomes simulated by a random walk (RW) model to assess the formation of DSBs. The number of DSBs was calculated as a function of the dose and particle fluence for 1 GeV protons, 293 MeV/u carbon, and 1 GeV/u iron particles. Finally, the DSB yield was obtained as a function of the LET for protons, helium, and carbon. In general, the number and distribution of calculated DSBs were similar to experimental DNA repair foci data. From this study, we concluded that a stochastic model combining nanoscopic dose calculations and chromosomes simulated by RWs is a useful approach to study radiation-induced DSBs. (paper)

  2. Chemopreventive effect of myrtenal on bacterial enzyme activity and the development of 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci in Wistar Rats

    Lokesh Kumar Booupathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer remains as a serious health problem around the world despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Dietary fibers are considered to reduce the risk of colon cancer as they are converted to short chain fatty acids by the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the intestine, but imbalanced diet and high fat consumption may promote tumor formation at different sites, including the large bowel via increased bacterial enzymes activity. The present study was conducted to characterize the inhibitory action of myrtenal on bacterial enzymes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF. Experimental colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine is histologically, morphologically, and anatomically similar to human colonic epithelial neoplasm. Discrete microscopic mucosal lesions such as ACF and malignant tumors function as important biomarkers in the diagnosis of colon cancer. Methylene blue staining was carried out to visualize the impact of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and myrtenal. Myrtenal-treated animals showed decreased levels of bacterial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and mucinase. Characteristic changes in the colon were noticed by inhibiting ACF formation in the colon. In conclusion, treatment with myrtenal provided altered pathophysiological condition in colon cancer-bearing animals with evidence of decreased crypt multiplicity and tumor progression.

  3. Calculation of the energy deposition in nanovolumes by protons and HZE particles: geometric patterns of initial distributions of DNA repair foci

    Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-09-01

    The biological effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are different from those caused by low-LET radiation due to the difference in the patterns of energy deposition in cells. In this work, we studied the role of the track structure in the spatial distribution of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). In the first part, the irradiation of a cubic volume of 12 µm of side by 300 MeV protons (LET ˜0.3 keV µm-1) and by 1 GeV/amu iron ion particles (LET˜150 keV µm-1) was simulated with the Monte Carlo code RITRACKS (relativistic ion tracks) and the dose was calculated in voxels of different sizes. In the second part, dose calculations were combined with chromosomes simulated by a random walk (RW) model to assess the formation of DSBs. The number of DSBs was calculated as a function of the dose and particle fluence for 1 GeV protons, 293 MeV/u carbon, and 1 GeV/u iron particles. Finally, the DSB yield was obtained as a function of the LET for protons, helium, and carbon. In general, the number and distribution of calculated DSBs were similar to experimental DNA repair foci data. From this study, we concluded that a stochastic model combining nanoscopic dose calculations and chromosomes simulated by RWs is a useful approach to study radiation-induced DSBs.

  4. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  5. Relation between Gravity Field Feature and Tectonics and Earthquakes in Taiwan and Its Adjacent Seas

    张赤军; 方剑

    2001-01-01

    Short wave gravity anomaly is correlated to sea floor topography in the gravity field of Taiwan and its adjacent seas. Gravity values of 200 × 10-5ms-2 at Yushang and -160 × 10-5ms-2 at Liuqiu sea trench are respectively the maximum and minimum gravity values in this area.Bouguer gravity anomaly reflects not only Moho interface undulation, but also fault distribution.The inflexion of gradient belt of Bouguer gravity anomaly is a spot liable to earthquakes. Middlelong wave geoid is the best data to invert crustal thickness. We calculate crustal thickness by using geoid data, and the maximum value is 38km; the minimum value is 12km in Taiwan and its adjacent seas.

  6. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases.

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Cheib, Paula L; de Brito, Gabriela M; Pinto, Larissa S M C

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  7. Dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of lesions adjacent to pituitary gland

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horichi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of dynamic studies for the preoperative diagnosis of tumor lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland. We examined 13 tumors. We obtained pre- and post-contrast thin slice T1-weighted images of the sellar regions. FSE sequences were used for dynamic study. The capability to distinguish the tumor from the pituitary gland and additional information obtained from the dynamic study were evaluated. Two meningiomas were identified more clearly on the dynamic than on the delayed study. In two cavernous hemangiomas, the peripheral nodular stains gradually increased during the dynamic study. For the preoperative evaluation of lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland, the dynamic study can often identify the lesions more clearly and may provide additional information.

  8. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    Liolios Angelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  9. Prose and Poetry Classification and Boundary Detection Using Word Adjacency Network Analysis

    Roxas, Ranzivelle Marianne; Tapang, Giovanni

    Word adjacency networks constructed from written works reflect differences in the structure of prose and poetry. We present a method to disambiguate prose and poetry by analyzing network parameters of word adjacency networks, such as the clustering coefficient, average path length and average degree. We determine the relevant parameters for disambiguation using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the effect size criterion. The accuracy of the method is 74.9 ± 2.9% for the training set and 73.7 ± 6.4% for the test set which are greater than the acceptable classifier requirement of 67.3%. This approach is also useful in locating text boundaries within a single article which falls within a window size where the significant change in clustering coefficient is observed. Results indicate that an optimal window size of 75 words can detect the text boundaries.

  10. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Bernardo Q Souki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction.

  11. Teaching Fillers, Discourse Markers and Adjacency Pairs to College Stu-dents

    王蓓

    2015-01-01

    Speaking has long been underestimated in College English education, compared with reading , writing and listening. Even In universities where spoken courses are provided, verbal filler and discourse markers which vastly exist in native speaker ’s corpora are rarely found in these prescribed spoken course books. For the teaching of adjacency pairs, which are always one of the focuses in teaching conversation skills in College English spoken program ,students are required to make up a new one based on the given scenario after they have memorized model dialogues. Unfortunately, students always experience pragmatic difficulty when they interact with people in the real world if they are guided by this approach. This article suggests a triangle which is com⁃posed of exposure, instruction and practice to teach verbal filler, discourse markers and adjacency pairs. This triangle combines both direct approach and indirect approach. Furthermore, in spoken program , English teachers can adapt spoken course books to integrate features of authentic conversations.

  12. Crucial problems on security assessment of a building site adjacent to an excavated high slope

    文海家; ZHANG; Jialan; 等

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this work is the assessment on the stability of an excavated high slope in order to insure the security of the building site adjacent to the slope,which is frequently encountered in town construction in mountainous areas due to terrain limit.On the base of some typical engineering cases in Chongqing,several crucial problems on security assessment of building site adjacent to an excavated high slope,including the natural geological conditions and man-destroyed degree,engineering environment,potential failure pattern of the high slope,calculation parameters and analysis methods,are roundly discussed.It is demonstrated that the conclusion of security assessment can be determined according to the aspects above-mentioned,and the security assessment is one of the fundamental data to insure the safety of the related construction,site and buildings.

  13. A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas

    YOU Xiaobao; ZHOU Guangqing; ZHU Jiang; LI Rongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A sea temperature data assimilation system for the China Seas and adjacent areas is developed based on a nested regional ocean circulation model and variational optimal interpolation assimilation method. A 12-year assimilation experiment is performed by using the observational temperature profiles from World Ocean Database 1998 (WOD98) and ECMWF reanalysis surface wind stress. Experimental results indicate that the variational scheme shows good skill in assimilating the observed sea temperature into a regional ocean circulation model. Compared with simulation alone, the sea temperature data assimilation significantly improves the performance of a regional ocean model and obtains comprehensive description of the circulations in the China Seas and adjacent areas. Assimilation results, such as the strength and flowing axis of the Kuroshio, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and its corresponding horizontal circulation in summer and dipole eddies in the South China Sea in the late summer/early autumn and the eastward jet between them, are well consistent with the observed evidences.

  14. Steganography in 3D Geometries and Images by Adjacent Bin Mapping

    Hao-Tian Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A steganographic method called adjacent bin mapping (ABM is presented. Firstly, it is applied to 3D geometries by mapping the coordinates within two adjacent bins for data embedding. When applied to digital images, it becomes a kind of LSB hiding, namely the LSB+ algorithm. In order to prevent the detection using a metric named histogram tail, the hiding is performed in a pseudorandom order. Then we show that the steganalytic algorithms based on histogram characteristic function (HCF can be prevented by implementing the LSB+ algorithm on subsets of pixels having the same neighbor values. The experimental results show that important high-order statistics of the cover image are preserved in this way while little distortion is introduced to 3D geometric models with an appropriate bin size.

  15. Steganography in 3D Geometries and Images by Adjacent Bin Mapping

    Wu Hao-Tian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A steganographic method called adjacent bin mapping (ABM is presented. Firstly, it is applied to 3D geometries by mapping the coordinates within two adjacent bins for data embedding. When applied to digital images, it becomes a kind of LSB hiding, namely the algorithm. In order to prevent the detection using a metric named histogram tail, the hiding is performed in a pseudorandom order. Then we show that the steganalytic algorithms based on histogram characteristic function (HCF can be prevented by implementing the algorithm on subsets of pixels having the same neighbor values. The experimental results show that important high-order statistics of the cover image are preserved in this way while little distortion is introduced to 3D geometric models with an appropriate bin size.

  16. Microemulsions as model fluids for enhanced oil recovery: dynamics adjacent to planar hydrophilic walls

    Mattauch S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After the dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy, the model of Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the surface near lamellar ordered membranes. Reflections of hydrodynamic waves by the wall – or the volume conservation between the membrane and the wall – explain faster relaxations and, therefore, a lubrication effect that is important for flow fields in narrow pores. The whole scenery is now spectated by using different scenarios of a bicontinuous microemulsion exposed to clay particles and of a lamellar microemulsion adjacent to a planar wall. The Seifert concept could successfully be transferred to the new problems.

  17. Results of backfilling and injection tests for the sealing of areas adjacent to storage chambers

    Cabin closings of cabins considered adequate for the storage of nuclear waste shall during all phases of operation conform with the requirements for radio-activity protection of the operating personnel and of the environment. Systematic injection of areas adjacent to cabin closings model 2 provide for the controlled adherence to specifications. Test injections within the ore deposit of the Konrad mine have been carried out to prove feasability. (orig.)

  18. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP), Betula alba (BA), and...

  19. A Giant Gartner Duct Cyst Originating from the Uterine Cervix and Adjacent Myometrium: A Case Report

    Kim, Eun Hui; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Gartner duct cysts are relatively common congenital cysts in the anterolateral wall of the vagina. Most are small (less than 2 cm) and asymptomatic, but larger cysts may cause problems. We report a rare case of a giant Gartner duct cyst (7 cm) originating from the right lateral portion of the uterine cervix and adjacent myometrium. It appeared as an exophytic multiseptated cystic mass containing different density fluids on CT

  20. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  1. The tiger beetles ( Coleoptera , Carabidae , Cicindelinae ) of Israel and adjacent lands

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicinde...

  2. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    Matalin,Andrey; I. Chikatunov,Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti...

  3. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    William Austin; Bruce Ott; Henry Reiswig; Paula Romagosa; Neil McDaniel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among spe...

  4. Mixed convection boundary layer flow adjacent to a vertical surface embedded in a stable stratified medium

    Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Pop, Ioan [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cluj, R-3400 Cluj, CP 253 (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow through a stable stratified medium adjacent to a vertical surface is investigated. The velocity outside the boundary layer and the surface temperature are assumed to vary linearly from the leading edge of the surface. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by the Keller-box method. It is found that dual solutions exist, and the thermal stratification delays the boundary layer separation. (author)

  5. Sensitivity of Internal Wave Energy Distribution over Seabed Corrugations to Adjacent Seabed Features

    Karimpour, F.; Zareei, A.; Alam, M. -R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we show that the distribution of internal gravity waves energy over a patch of seabed corrugations strongly depends on the "distance" of the patch to adjacent seafloor features. Specifically, we consider the energy distribution over a patch of seabed ripples neighbored to i. another patch of ripples, and ii. a vertical wall. Seabed undulations with dominant wavenumber twice as large as overpassing internal waves reflect back part of the energy of the internal waves (Bragg reflection), le...

  6. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures

  7. Irreversible Electroporation of a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lesion Adjacent to a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Stent Graft

    Niessen, Christoph; Jung, Ernst Michael; Wohlgemuth, Walter A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Trabold, Benedikt [Department of Anaesthesia, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany); Haimerl, Michael; Schreyer, Andreas; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Regensburg D-93053 (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report in a 65-year-old man hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent-graft which was successfully treated with irreversible electroporation (IRE). IRE is a new non-thermal tissue ablation technique which uses electrical pulses to induce cell necrosis by irreversible membrane poration. IRE proved to be more advantageous in the ablation of perivascular tumor with little injury to the surrounding structures.

  8. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Okhotsk Sea and Adjacent Areas [Vladivostok, June 1995

    1996-01-01

    I REPORT OF THE PICES WORKSHOP ON THE OKHOTSK SEA AND ADJACENT AREAS (pdf, 0.1 Mb) 1. Outline of the workshop 2. Summary reports from sessions 3. Recommendations of the workshop 4. Acknowledgments II SCIENTIFIC PAPERS SUBMITTED FROM SESSIONS 1. Physical Oceanography Sessions (pdf, 4 Mb) A. Circulation and water mass structure of the Okhotsk Sea and Northwestern Pacific Valentina D. Budaeva & Vyacheslav G. Makarov Seasonal variability of t...

  9. The Impact of a Shopping Centre on the Value of Adjacent Residential Properties

    M.C. Sale

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the South African retail landscape over the past few decades is the increase in the number and size of retail shopping centres situated in, or close to, residential areas. These shopping centres have the potential to generate both positive and negative externalities which may, in turn, be capitalised into adjacent residential property prices. However, policy makers are still unsure as to the effect of commercial land uses such as shopping centres on surr...

  10. Repeated adjacent segment diseases and fractures in osteoporotic patients: a case report

    Chen, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedicle screw instrumentation for treating spinal disorder is becoming increasingly widespread. Many studies have advocated its use to facilitate rigid fixation for spine; however, adjacent segmental disease is a known complication. Instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spines remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. Prophylactic vertebroplasty for adjacent vertebra has been reported to reduce the complications of junctional compression fractures but has raised a new problem of vertebral subluxation. This case report is a rare and an extreme example with many surgical complications caused by repeated instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spine in a single patient. This patient had various complications including adjacent segmental disease, vertebral subluxation, and junctional fractures on radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Case presentation An 81-year-old Taiwanese woman underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of L4-L5 in Taiwan 10 years ago. Due to degenerative spinal stenosis of L3-L4 and L2-L3, she had decompression with instrumented fusion from L5 to L1 at the previous hospital. However, catastrophic vertebral subluxations with severe neurologic compromise occurred, and she underwent salvage surgeries twice with prolonged instrumented fusion from L5 to T2. The surgeries did not resolve her problems of spinal instability and neurologic complications. Eventually, the patient remained with a Frankel Grade C spinal cord injury. Conclusion Adjacent segmental disease, junctional fracture, and vertebral subluxation are familiar complications following instrumented spinal fusion surgeries for osteoporotic spines. Neurologic injuries following long instrumentation are often serious and difficult to address with surgery alone. Conservative treatments should always be contemplated as an alternative method for patients with poor bone stock.

  11. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    Steven P. Brady

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes rema...

  12. Regional geochemical and geophysical surveys in the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas, north Wales

    Cooper, D. C.; Rollin, K.; Cornwell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes stream sediment and gravity surveys carried out across the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas. The gravity survey confirmed the presence of a broad regional Bouguer anomaly low in the central part of the Dome, on which is superimposed several smaller irregular highs and lows. Some of these local anomalies possibly reflect small igneous bodies but more detailed gravity surveys would be needed to determine their form. Near Corwen the Bryneglwys Fault co...

  13. An evolutionary Monte Carlo algorithm for identifying short adjacent repeats in multiple sequences

    Li, VOK; Xu, J.; li, Q.; X. Fan; Li, SYR

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm is an effective and powerful method to sample complicated distributions. Short adjacent repeats identification problem (SARIP), i.e., searching for the common sequence pattern in multiple DNA sequences, is considered as one of the key challenges in the field of bioinformatics. A recently proposed Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm has demonstrated its effectiveness in solving SARIP. However, high computation time and inevitable local optima hind...

  14. Higher-Order Weakly Generalized Adjacent Epiderivatives and Applications to Duality of Set-Valued Optimization

    Wang QL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new notion of higher-order weakly generalized adjacent epiderivative for a set-valued map is introduced. By virtue of the epiderivative and weak minimality, a higher-order Mond-Weir type dual problem and a higher-order Wolfe type dual problem are introduced for a constrained set-valued optimization problem, respectively. Then, corresponding weak duality, strong duality, and converse duality theorems are established.

  15. Thermal buckling of metal oil tanks subject to an adjacent fire

    Liu, Ying(College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing, China)

    2011-01-01

    Fire is one of the main hazards associated with storage tanks containing flammable liquids. These tanks are usually closely spaced and in large groups, so where a petroleum fire occurs, adjacent tanks are susceptible to damage leading to further development of the fire. The structural behaviour such as thermal stability and failure modes of the tanks under such fire scenario are very important to the safety design and assessment of oil depots. However, no previous studies on th...

  16. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level

    Hakan, Tayfun; Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain ...

  17. Ant Colony System for a Fuzzy Adjacent Multiple-Level Warehouse Layout Problem

    ZHANG Qiang; YU Ying-zi; LAI K K

    2006-01-01

    A warehouse layout problem where the warehouse has more than one level and both the distance from the cell to the receive/exit bay and demand of item types are fuzzy variables is proposed. The problem is to find a layout with the minimum transportation cost subject to adjacency and other constraints. A fuzzy expected value model is given and an ant colony system is designed to solve the problem. Computational results indicate the efficiency and effectiveness of the method.

  18. Distribution Patterns of Human Elephant Conflict in Areas Adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve, Tanzania

    Munuo, Wilbright

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human pressure on terrestrial ecosystems has caused loss and fragmentation of habitats for wildlife species. That has brought humans and wildlife in close proximity intensifying human wildlife conflicts, especially when wild animals with wide home ranges, such as African and Asian elephants, are involved. This study assesses distribution patterns of human elephant conflict (HEC) in areas adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve (RGR) in Tanzania. Questionnaire survey was used as a tool fo...

  19. Relative impact of a seagrass bed and its adjacent epilithic algal community in consumer diets

    Lepoint, Gilles; Nyssen, Fabienne; Gobert, Sylvie; Dauby, Patrick; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and compare, using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope data, the food sources supporting consumer communities in a Mediterranean seagrass bed (Gulf of Calvi, Corsica) with those in an adjacent epilithic alga-dominated community. Isotopic data for consumers are not significantly different in the two communities. Particulate matter and algal material (seagrass epiflora and dominant epilithic macroalgae) appear to be the main food sources in both communities. ...

  20. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  1. Environmental Settings and Harmful Algal Blooms in the Sea Area Adjacent to the Changjiang River Estuary

    Zhou, Mingjiang

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the environmental settings of the sea area adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary include complex currents and water masses, the diluted water plume and its redirection, upwelling, front, and nutrients and their sources. The Changjiang River estuary characteristics also include the phytoplankton community, which can affect the growth, migration, assembling, resting and competition of algae to form red tides in this area.. The features of red tide events recorded in th...

  2. Effect of caries experience in primary molars on cavity formation in the adjacent permanent first molar

    Leroy, Roos; Bogaerts, Kris; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Declerck, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to address the influence of a sound versus affected first and/or second deciduous molar on the incidence of visible caries experience in the adjacent permanent first molar. Clinical and questionnaire data were obtained from a 6-year prospective oral health screening project in Flanders, Belgium (Signal-Tandmobiel project), where 4,468 children (born in 1989) were examined annually during their primary school time. A multiple survival model allowing for dependent data with po...

  3. IMMEDIATE RECIPROCAL CHANGES AT ADJACENT LEVEL FOLLOWING SINGLE-LEVEL ALIF

    Enrique Vargas Uribe; Rodrigo Amaral; Luis Marchi; Rubens Jensen; Leonardo Oliveira; Fernanda Fortti; Etevaldo Coutinho; Luiz Pimenta

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To assess the segmental sagittal parameters and the adjacent mobile segment after interbody fusion by anterior approach in single-level L5-S1. Methods : Retrospective study. Inclusion: Interbody fusion by anterior approach (10°/15° angle), due to DDD, low-grade spondylolisthesis and/or stenosis without prior lumbar fusion. Thirty-five cases were included (25 women; mean age 47±15 years). Analysis of lumbar radiographs were performed preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. The ...

  4. Risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration after surgical correction of degenerative lumbar scoliosis

    Kee-yong Ha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Degenerative lumbar scoliosis surgery can lead to development of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD after lumbar or thoracolumbar fusion. Its incidence, risk factors, morbidity and correlation between radiological and clinical symptoms of ASD have no consensus. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of radiologic adjacent segment disease and certain imperative parameters. Materials and Methods: 98 patients who had undergone surgical correction and lumbar/thoracolumbar fusion with pedicle screw instrumentation for degenerative lumbar scoliosis with a minimum 5 year followup were included in the study. We evaluated the correlation between the occurrence of radiologic adjacent segment disease and imperative patient parameters like age at operation, sex, body mass index (BMI, medical comorbidities and bone mineral density (BMD. The radiological parameters taken into consideration were Cobb′s angle, angle type, lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, intercristal line, preoperative existence of an ASD on plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and surgical parameters were number of the fusion level, decompression level, floating OP (interlumbar fusion excluding L5-S1 level and posterolateral lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Visual Analogue Score (VAS and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Results: ASD was present in 44 (44.9% patients at an average period of 48.0 months (range 6-98 months. Factors related to occurrence of ASD were preoperative existence of disc degeneration (as revealed by MRI and age at operation ( P = 0.0001, 0.0364. There were no statistically significant differences between radiological adjacent segment degeneration and clinical results (VAS, P = 0.446; ODI, P = 0.531. Conclusions: Patients over the age of 65 years and with preoperative disc degeneration (as revealed by plain radiograph and MRI were at a higher risk of developing ASD.

  5. fMRI Evidence of Acupoints Specificity in Two Adjacent Acupoints

    Hua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong and ST44 (Neiting, and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII, contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints.

  6. A preoperative assessment of adjacent organ invasion by stomach carcinoma with high resolution computed tomography

    Adjacent organ invasion by stomach carcinoma on computed tomography (CT) was studied. CT images of tumors and their adjacent organs, whose invasion was assessed at surgery, were retrospectively analyzed in 51 gastric cancer patients. An absence of fat planes or an irregularity of the border between the tumor and adjacent organs was not found to be significantly related with invasion. The mean densities of the region of interest (ROI) set at the border were greater at the invasion sites (60.0±38.1) than at noninvation sites (35.6±55.5)(p<0.05). The standard deviation of the densities in the ROI was not affected by invasion. The discriminant function determined invasion to the pancreas, liver, and colon with an accuracy of 75%, 61%, and 78%, respectively. In diagnosing the invasion of stomach cancer on CT, the conventional criteria were not practical, while a quantitative analysis of the density in the ROI with high resolution CT was considered to improve the accuracy. (author)

  7. The Relationship Between Morphology of Lumbar Disc Herniation and MRI Changes in Adjacent Vertebral Bodies

    Hamed Reyhani Kermani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Intervertebral disc herniation has two common types, extrusion and protrusion, which may affect the adjacent vertebrae.In addition, it is associated with significant signal changes in T1 MRI (short TR/TE and T2 MRI (long TR/TE.   Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analytic one, in which sampling was performed retrospectively. Cases were randomly selected from the patients undergoing discectomy in our department in a one-year period. Before surgery, MRI images, T1-weighted and T2-weighted sagittal cuts were interpreted by an expert radiologist. Signal intensity of the upper and the lower adjacent vertebra and the operated herniated disc were compared with the normal discs, both in T1-weighted and T2-weighted. Changes in signal intensity were recorded in qualitative variables. Statistical analysis was then performed between two groups. Results: In the present study, we have evaluated 170 patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery, which included 97 protruded and 86 extruded discs. The patients’ age ranged from 21 to 78 years old, with an average of 43.03 ±11.4 years. Evaluating the type of discopathy with the presence of signal changes (hypo or hyper signal changes demonstrated more signal changes in upper adjacent vertebrae in T2-weighted MRI (45.3%. However, patients with protruded discs showed less changes (30.9%. It showed that the difference was statistically significant (P

  8. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  9. Historical records of eutrophication in Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea

    F. Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two sediment cores from the Changjiang (Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea were collected and studied for eutrophication history using paleoecological records of environmental changes over the last century. A multiproxy approach by using biological and geochemical analyses revealed changes in diatom assemblages, total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN and biogenic silica (BSi and give an indication of nutrient in status and trends in Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent East China Sea. The diatom assemblages in the two cores generally increased gradually from the 1970s, and accelerated from the 1990s until now, reflecting the increased eutrophication and causing large algae blooms/red tides. The TOC, TN and BSi showing the similar trends, supported the interpretation of the eutrophication process indicated by diatom analyses. The two cores were located in different sea areas of the East China Sea, and we discuss their relative changes based on their environment characteristics. We also discuss the potential effect of anthropogenic influences and ongoing projects on eutrophication in the Changjiang River and its adjacent East China Sea.

  10. Impact of electromechanical parameter variations in treatment volume doses and adjacent structures

    ICRU Report 62 recommends that radiotherapy treatment dose should be prescribed in such a way that the dose to the target volume varies no more than 10%. In order to keep this goal, a very important role is played by the quality assurance (QA) of the treatment unit associated to the high level work of the personnel involved in planning and patient treatment. This paper shows the influence of the main electrical and mechanical linear accelerator parameters: field size, source-skin distance, gantry angle and light x radiation field coincidence in tumor volume and adjacent organ doses. We simulated a cubic tumor and a cubic adjacent critical organ in a cubic phantom and used a 3D Prowess system for planning. The treatment has been simulated for a 6 MV linear accelerator. We simulated two treatment planning: one using all the parameters inside their tolerance limits and another doubling these limits. The final results have show that, if the irradiation machine operates out of the tolerance limits, the dose variation in the planning target volume (PTV) can goes till ± 5,8% and in the critical adjacent organ till ± 7,7%. Therefore we concluded that, according to the complexity of the treatment, it can be necessary to reduce the tolerance levels advised by the IAEA/TECDOC - 1151. (author)

  11. The Relationship Between Morphology of Lumbar Disc Herniation and MRI Changes in Adjacent Vertebral Bodies

    Hamed Reyhani Kermani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intervertebral disc herniation has two common types, extrusion and protrusion, which may affect the adjacent vertebrae.In addition, it is associated with significant signal changes in T1 MRI (short TR/TE and T2 MRI (long TR/TE.   Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional analytic one, in which sampling was performed retrospectively. Cases were randomly selected from the patients undergoing discectomy in our department in a one-year period. Before surgery, MRI images, T1-weighted and T2-weighted sagittal cuts were interpreted by an expert radiologist. Signal intensity of the upper and the lower adjacent vertebra and the operated herniated disc were compared with the normal discs, both in T1-weighted and T2-weighted. Changes in signal intensity were recorded in qualitative variables. Statistical analysis was then performed between two groups. Results: In the present study, we have evaluated 170 patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery, which included 97 protruded and 86 extruded discs. The patients’ age ranged from 21 to 78 years old, with an average of 43.03 ±11.4 years. Evaluating the type of discopathy with the presence of signal changes (hypo or hyper signal changes demonstrated more signal changes in upper adjacent vertebrae in T2-weighted MRI (45.3%. However, patients with protruded discs showed less changes (30.9%. It showed that the difference was statistically significant (P

  12. Análise da dinâmica e estrutura de focos da morte súbita dos citros Dynamics and structure analysis of citrus sudden death foci

    Waldir C. de Jesus Junior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A morte súbita dos citros (MSC é uma nova e destrutiva doença que afeta laranjeiras doces (Citrus sinensis e algumas tangerineiras (C. reticulata enxertadas em limoeiro 'Cravo' (C. limonia. Sua etiologia e mecanismos de transmissão são ainda desconhecidos e estudos epidemiológicos foram iniciados recentemente. Com o objetivo de caracterizar a disseminação da MSC, foi empregada a técnica de análise da dinâmica e estrutura de focos (ADEF em 166 mapas de distribuição espacial de plantas com sintomas de MSC, provenientes de 51 talhões do norte do Estado de São Paulo e sul do Triângulo Mineiro. Pela ADEF, as epidemias de MSC se iniciam com focos unitários distribuídos de maneira aleatória no talhão. Em talhões com até 2% de incidência, 85% dos focos continham uma planta. Posteriormente, o progresso da doença ocorreu mais pelo aumento de novos focos, que pelo aumento do tamanho dos focos, indicado pelo aumento do número de focos até 18% de incidência e pelo número reduzido de plantas por foco (menos de quatro plantas por foco a 20% de incidência. Na maioria dos casos (71,5%, os focos apresentaram maior expansão na direção da linha de plantio que entre as linhas. A diminuição da compacidade dos focos com o aumento da incidência da MSC sugere que os focos maiores tendem a ser menos compactos e que a disseminação da doença não ocorre de forma homogênea e contínua ao redor da primeira planta afetada. Estes padrões são similares aos padrões de doenças causadas por um agente infeccioso, transmitido por vetores.Citrus Sudden Death (CSD is a new and destructive disease that affects sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis and some mandarins (C. reticulata grafted on Rangpur lime (C. limonia. Its etiology and transmission mechanisms are still unknown, epidemiologic study of the disease was recently initiated. Dynamics and structure analysis of foci technique (DSAF was used to characterize CSD dissemination on 166 spatial

  13. ''Dural tail'' adjacent to acoustic neuroma on MRI: a case report

    Lunardi, P. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Mastronardi, L. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Nardacci, B. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Acqui, M. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)); Fortuna, A. (Dept. of Neurological Sciences-Neurosurgery, Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy))

    1993-04-01

    A 'dural tail' on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI has been often observed adjacent to meningiomas and considered to be useful in distinguishing meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle from acoustic neuroma. However, demonstration of a dural tail adjacent to an acoustic neuroma indicates that this sign is not specific. (orig.)

  14. Senescence-associated heterochromatin foci are dispensable for cellular senescence, occur in a cell type- and insult-dependent manner, and follow expression of p16 (ink4a)

    Košař, Martin; Bartkova, J.; Hubáčková, Soňa; Hodný, Zdeněk; Lukas, J.; Bartek, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), s. 457-468. ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/1418; GA ČR GA301/08/0353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : genotoxic and replicative stress * senescence-associated heterochromatin foci * DNA damage response Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.359, year: 2011

  15. Soy Saponins Meditate the Progression of Colon Cancer in Rats by Inhibiting the Activity of β-Glucuronidase and the Number of Aberrant Crypt Foci but Not Cyclooxygenase-2 Activity

    Yu-Wei Guo; Yue-Hwa Chen; Wan-Chun Chiu; Hsiang Liao; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of extracted crude soybean saponins on preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and the related mechanism were investigated. Research Methods and Procedures. Rats were assigned into five groups according to different doses of extracted crude soybean saponins and received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) injection in week 5. In week 15, all rats were sacrificed. The number of ACFs, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, the level of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2),...

  16. Role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer: Quantitative analysis of imaging contour compared to whole-mount histopathology

    Purpose: To investigate the role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining the contour of treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer, since targeted therapy requires accurate target volume definition. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified 20 patients with prostate cancer who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging prior to radical prostatectomy and subsequent creation of detailed histopathological tumor maps from whole-mount step sections. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed all MR images and electronically contoured all suspected treatable (⩾0.5 cm3) tumor foci. Deformable co-registration in MATLAB was used to calculate the margin of error between imaging and histopathological contours at both capsular and non-capsular surfaces and the treatment margin required to ensure at least 95% tumor coverage. Results: Histopathology showed 17 treatable tumor foci in 16 patients, of which 8 were correctly identified by both readers and an additional 2 were correctly identified by reader 2. For all correctly identified lesions, both readers accurately identified that tumor contacted the prostatic capsule, with no error in contour identification. On the non-capsular border, the median distance between the imaging and histopathological contour was 1.4 mm (range, 0–12). Expanding the contour by 5 mm at the non-capsular margin included 95% of tumor volume not initially covered within the MR contour. Conclusions: Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging can be used to accurately contour treatable intraprostatic tumor foci; adequate tumor coverage is achieved by expanding the treatment contour at the non-capsular margin by 5 mm

  17. The influence of x-ray contrast agents in computed tomography on the induction of dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes of human blood samples

    Jost, G.; Golfier, S.; Pietsch, H.; Lengsfeld, P.; Voth, M.; Schmid, T. E.; Eckardt-Schupp, F.; Schmid, E.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify two biomarkers for radiation exposure (dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci) in human lymphocytes after CT scans in the presence of an iodinated contrast agent. Blood samples from a healthy donor were exposed to CT scans in the absence or presence of iotrolan 300 at iodine concentrations of 5 or 50 mg ml-1 blood. The samples were exposed to 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 Gy in a tissue equivalent body phantom. Chromosome aberration scoring and automated microscopic analysis of γ-H2AX foci were performed in parts of the same samples. The theoretical physical dose enhancement factor (DEF) was calculated on the basis of the mass energy-absorption coefficients of iodine and blood and the photon energy spectrum of the CT tube. No significant differences in the yields of dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci were observed in the absence or presence of 5 mg iodine ml-1 blood up to 0.1 Gy, whereas at 1 Gy the yields were elevated for both biomarkers. At an iodine concentration of 50 mg ml-1 serving as a positive control, a biological DEF of 9.5 ± 1.4 and 2.3 ± 0.5 was determined for dicentrics and γ-H2AX foci, respectively. A physical DEF of 1.56 and 6.30 was calculated for 5 and 50 mg iodine ml-1, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that in the diagnostic dose range (radiation and contrast dose), no relevant biological dose-enhancing effect could be detected, whereas a clear biological dose-enhancing effect could be found for a contrast dose well outside the diagnostic CT range for the complete radiation dose range with both methods.

  18. Correlations of {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine uptake with pathological tumour size, Ki-67 and thymidine kinase 1 expressions in primary and metastatic lymph node colorectal cancer foci

    Nakajo, Masatoyo; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Kajiya, Yoriko; Tani, Atsushi [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima (Japan); Goto, Yuko; Higashi, Michiyo [Kagoshima University, Department of Human Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, 890-8544 (Japan); Jinguji, Megumi; Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Tanaka, Sadao [Nanpuh Hospital, Department of Pathology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To examine correlations of {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) uptake with pathological tumour size and immunohistochemical Ki-67, and thymidine kinase 1 (TK-1) expressions in primary and metastatic node colorectal cancer foci. Thirty primary cancers (PCs) and 37 metastatic nodes (MNs) were included. FLT uptake was assessed by visual scores (non-visible: 0-1 and visible: 2-4), standardized uptake value (SUV), and correlated with size, Ki-67, and TK-1. SUV was measured in visible lesions. FLT heterogeneity was assessed by visual scores (no heterogeneous uptake: 0 and heterogeneous uptake: 1-4). Forty-two lesions were visible. The visible group showed significantly higher values than the non-visible group in size, Ki-67, and TK-1 (each p < 0.05). Size correlated significantly with visual score (PC; ρ = 0.74 and MN; ρ = 0.63), SUVmax (PC; ρ = 0.49, and MN; ρ = 0.76), and SUVmean (PC; ρ = 0.40 and MN; ρ = 0.76) (each p < 0.05). Visual score correlated significantly with size (ρ = 0.86), Ki-67max (ρ = 0.35), Ki-67mean (ρ = 0.38), TK-1max (ρ = 0.35) and TK-1mean (ρ = 0.25) (each p < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between FLT uptake and Ki-67 or TK-1 in 42 visible lesions (each p > 0.05). Heterogeneous FLT uptake was noted in 73 % (22/30) of PCs. FLT uptake correlated with size. Heterogeneous FLT distribution in colorectal cancers may be one of the causes of weak or lack of FLT uptake/Ki-67 or TK-1 correlation. (orig.)

  19. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment. PMID:25684508

  20. Aberrant crypt foci and colon cancer: comparison between a short- and medium-term bioassay for colon carcinogenesis using dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats

    Rodrigues M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant crypt foci (ACF in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents are considered to be the earliest hallmark of colon carcinogenesis. In the present study the relationship between a short-term (4 weeks and medium-term (30 weeks assay was assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH in the rat. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg twice a week for 2 weeks and killed at the end of the 4th or 30th week. ACF were scored for number, distribution pattern along the colon and crypt multiplicity in 0.1% methylene-blue whole-mount preparations. ACF were distinguished from normal crypts by their larger size and elliptical shape. The incidence, distribution and morphology of colon tumors were recorded. The majority of ACF were present in the middle and distal colon of DMH-treated rats and their number increased with time. By the 4th week, 91.5% ACF were composed of one or two crypts and 8.5% had three or more crypts, while by the 30th week 46.9% ACF had three or more crypts. Thus, a progression of ACF consisting of multiple crypts was observed from the 4th to the 30th week. Nine well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were found in 10 rats by the 30th week. Seven tumors were located in the distal colon and two in the middle colon. No tumor was found in the proximal colon. The present data indicate that induction of ACF by DMH in the short-term (4 weeks assay was correlated with development of well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the medium-term (30 weeks assay.

  1. Two-foci bendable mirrors for the ALS MAESTRO beamline: design and metrology characterization and optimal tuning of the mirror benders

    Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Chow, Ken P.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Rotenberg, Eli; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2013-09-01

    MAESTRO, the Microscopic and Electronic STRucture Observatory, currently under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), will be a world premier facility for the study of electronic and structural properties of in situ grown crystals. The new facility will be comprised of several end-stations, including angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, μARPES and nARPES end-stations, and a photoemission electron microscope combined with a lowenergy electron microscope (PEEM/LEEM). Redirection of the x-ray beam between the μARPES and PEEM/LEEM end-stations, which are longitudinally separated by 2.5 meters, uses a system of two bendable mirrors, placed in Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration designed for two foci. Here we present the details of the mirrors' design and report on the characterization of the mirrors carried out at the ALS X-ray optical laboratory (XROL). Optimal tuning and calibration of the mirrors was performed using a technique recently developed at the OML [Opt. Eng. 48(8), 083601 (2009)]. The technique is based on regression analysis of surface slope data obtained with a long trace profiler (LTP). We provide results of tests of temporal and temperature stabilities of the shape of the mirrors. High reliability of the optical metrology with the mirrors has become possible due to a modification of the tuning procedure described in the present article. The modification allows accounting for the gravity sag effect, as well as the LTP systematic error in measurements with significantly curved x-ray optics.

  2. Trichinella pseudospiralis foci in Sweden.

    Pozio, E; Christensson, D; Stéen, M; Marucci, G; La Rosa, G; Bröjer, C; Mörner, T; Uhlhorn, H; Agren, E; Hall, M

    2004-11-10

    In Sweden, the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs has greatly decreased since the 1970s, with no reports in the past 4 years. However, infected wild animals continue to be found. The objective of the present study was to identify the species of Trichinella present in animals of Sweden, so as to contribute to the knowledge on the distribution area and hosts useful for the prevention and control of this zoonosis. In the period 1985-2003, Trichinella larvae were detected in the muscles of 81/1800 (4.5%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 1/6 (16.7%) arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), 1/7 (14.3%) wolf (Canis lupus), 10/200 (5.0%) lynxes (Lynx lynx), 4/8000 (0.05%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), and 27/66 x 10(6) (0.000041%) domestic pigs. All four Trichinella species previously found in Europe were detected (Trichinella spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis). The non-encapsulated species T. pseudospiralis was detected in three wild boars from Holo (Stockholm area) and in one lynx from Froso (Ostersund area), suggesting that this species is widespread in Sweden. These findings are consistent with those of a study from Finland, both for the unexpected presence of T. pseudospiralis infection and the presence of the same four Trichinella species, suggesting that this epidemiological situation is present in the entire Scandinavian region. The widespread diffusion of T. pseudospiralis in the Scandinavian region is also important in terms of it potential impact on public health, given that human infection can occur and the difficulties to detect it by the trichinelloscopic examination. PMID:15482889

  3. Regulatory Foci and Organizational Commitment

    Markovits, Yannis; Ullrich, Johannes; van Dick, Rolf; Davis, Ann J.

    2008-01-01

    We use regulatory focus theory to derive specific predictions regarding the differential relationships between regulatory focus and commitment. We estimated a structural equation model using a sample of 520 private and public sector employees and found in line with our hypotheses that (a) promotion focus related more strongly to affective…

  4. Comparison of adjacent segment degeneration five years after single level cervical fusion and cervical arthroplasty:a retrospective controlled study

    SUN Yu; ZHAO Yan-bin; PAN Sheng-fa; ZHOU Fei-fei; CHEN Zhong-qiang; LIU Zhong-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical arthroplasty is indicated to preserve cervical motion and prevent accelerated adjacent segment degeneration.Whether accelerated adjacent segment degeneration is prevented in the long term is unclear.This trial compared adjacent segment degeneration in Bryan disc arthroplasty with that in anterior cervical decompression and fusion five years after the surgery.Methods We studied patients with single level degenerative cervical disc disease.The extent of adjacent segment degeneration was estimated from lateral X-rays.Results Twenty-six patients underwent single level Bryan disc arthroplasty and twenty-four patients underwent single level anterior cervical decompression and fusion.All patients were followed up for an average of sixty months.In the Bryan arthroplasty group,nine(17.6%)segments developed adjacent segment degeneration,which was significantly lower than that(60.4%)in the anterior cervical decompression and fusion group.Eleven segments in the Bryan arthroplasty group developed heterotopic ossification according to McAfee's classification and two segments had range of motion less than 2°.In the heterotopic ossification group,four(19.5%)segments developed adjacent segment degeneration,similar to the number in the non-heterotopic ossification group(16.7%).Adjacent segment degeneration rate was 50% in gradeⅣ?group but 11.8% in gradeⅡ?to Ⅲ.Conclusions Adjacent segment degeneration was accelerated after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.However,Bryan disc arthroplasty avoided accelerated adjacent segment degeneration by preserving motion.Patients with gradeⅣ?heterotopic ossification lost motion,and the rate of adjacent segment degeneration was higher than that in patients without heterotopic ossification.

  5. Análise da dinâmica, estrutura de focos e arranjo espacial da mancha manteigosa em campo Analysis of the dynamics, foci structure and spatial arrangement of the blister spot in the field

    Josimar Batista Ferreira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a dispersão espacial da mancha manteigosa em cafeeiro, por meio de arranjos espaciais e da análise da dinâmica e estruturas de focos da doença durante três anos consecutivos. Nesse período, não houve progresso da doença no campo. Sob plantas doentes, surgiam mudas com sintomas da doença, um indício da transmissibilidade via semente. Constatou-se um total de 10 focos, com média de 2,5 plantas/focos e com tendência desses focos (maior número de plantas sintomáticas na direção das linhas de plantios, tendo disposição de forma elíptica. Observou-se número elevado de focos unitários, correspondendo a 52% das plantas doentes. Pelas análises de seqüências ordinárias runs e doublet verificou-se padrão espacial aleatório. Tal fato indica que a mancha manteigosa ocorre a partir de plantas isoladas (focos unitários e que a principal via de transmissão é a semente (semente/planta/semente.The aim of this study was to analyze the spatial dispersion pattern of the blister spot on coffee trees, through spatial arrangements and the analysis of the dynamics and foci structure of the disease during three consecutive years. No disease progress was observed in this area during the period of study. Seedlings showing disease symptoms were found under the canopy of diseased trees, strongly indicating that the disease may be transmitted through the seeds. Ten foci with 2.5 trees per focus were observed in the studied area. The foci were distributed following the plant rows with elliptical shape. Unitary foci predominated in the area in 52% of the diseased trees. Analyses of runs and doublets showed a random spatial pattern of the disease. These results evidenced that the blister spot occurs from isolated plants (unitary foci and this characteristic may possibly be explained if the seeds are the main disease transmission agent (seed-plant-seed.

  6. Drivers of tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the Dempster Highway, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Cameron, Emily A.; Lantz, Trevor C.

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of climate warming and more frequent disturbances. Disturbances can have particularly large effects on high-latitude ecosystems when ecosystem structure and function is controlled by strong feedbacks between soil conditions, vegetation, and ground thermal regime. In this study we investigated the impact of road construction and maintenance on vegetation structure and biomass along the Dempster Highway where it crosses the Peel Plateau in the Northwest Territories. To explore drivers of tall shrub proliferation and to quantify shrub proliferation in this region of continuous permafrost, greyscale air photos (1975) and Quickbird satellite imagery (2008) were used to map landcover change within two 0.6 km2 belts next to the road and two 0.6 km2 belts 500 m away from the road. Maps showing areas where: 1) tall shrubs expanded, and 2) dwarf shrub tundra resisted invasion were then used to select field sites where a suite of biophysical variables were measured. Rapid tall shrub proliferation and greater biomass adjacent to the road indicate that disturbance can facilitate vegetation change in tundra environments. Our field data also suggests that increased shrub proliferation adjacent to the road was caused by greater soil moisture. Tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the road occurred at lower elevation sites characterized by wetter soils with thicker organic layers. Areas that resisted tall shrub encroachment were located at higher elevations and had drier soils with thin organic layers. Our observations also support previous work illustrating that tall shrub expansion next to the highway promotes strong positive feedbacks to ongoing shrub growth and proliferation.

  7. Trends in developed land cover adjacent to habitat for threatened salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    Krista K Bartz

    Full Text Available For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008 land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain, but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008. For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition.

  8. Circummandibular Wires for Treatment of Dentoalveolar Fractures Adjacent to Edentulous Areas: A Report of Two Cases.

    Maloney, Karl

    2015-09-01

    In general, dentoalveolar fractures are a common injury seen in emergency departments, dental offices, and oral and maxillofacial surgery practices. These injuries can be the result of direct trauma or indirect trauma. Direct trauma more often causes trauma to the maxillary dentition due to the exposure of the maxillary anterior teeth. Indirect trauma is usually the result of forced occlusion secondary to a blow to the chin or from a whiplash injury. Falls are the most common mechanism of injury seen in the pediatric group. In adolescents, many of these fractures are sustained during sporting activities. However, the use of mouth guards and other protective equipment has decreased this number. Most adult injuries are caused by motor vehicle accidents, contact sports, falls, bicycles, interpersonal violence, medical/dental mishaps, and industrial accidents. Early intervention to reduce and stabilize the fracture is required to establish a bony union and ensure correct function. Most dentoalveolar fractures have bilateral stable adjacent dentition and are treated with a closed technique utilizing an acid-etch/resin splint followed by splint removal at 4 weeks. Other inferior stabilization treatments used are arch bars and other wiring techniques. It is widely accepted that semirigid stabilization techniques, such as an acid-etch/resin splint or wiring procedures, are adequate to treat dentoalveolar fractures. This is in contrast to the treatment of mandible fractures where AO principles of rigid fixation are often followed. Fractures that are unable to be reduced sometimes necessitate an open reduction followed by internal fixation, sometimes using a secondary splint for mobile teeth. In those rare cases when there are not stable adjacent teeth bilaterally other modalities must be considered. In the present report, two cases are presented where circummandibular wires were used to treat fractured mandibular dentoalveolar segments adjacent to edentulous areas. PMID

  9. An Adaptive Model for Calculating the Correlation Degree of Multiple Adjacent Signalized Intersections

    Linhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the urban adaptive traffic control system, subarea partition algorithm divides the road network into some small subareas and then determines the optimal signal control mode for each signalized intersection. Correlation model is the core of subarea partition algorithm because it can quantify the correlation degree of adjacent signalized intersections and decides whether these intersections can be grouped into one subarea. In most cases, there are more than two intersections in one subarea. However, current researches only focus on the correlation model for two adjacent intersections. The objective of this study is to develop a model which can calculate the correlation degree of multiple intersections adaptively. The cycle lengths, link lengths, number of intersections, and path flow between upstream and downstream coordinated phases were selected as the contributing factors of the correlation model. Their jointly impacts on the performance of the coordinated control mode relative to the isolated control mode were further studied using numerical experiments. The paper then proposed a correlation index (CI as an alternative to relative performance. The relationship between CI and the four contributing factors was established in order to predict the correlation, which determined whether adjacent intersections could be partitioned into one subarea. A value of 0 was set as the threshold of CI. If CI was larger than 0, multiple intersections could be partitioned into one subarea; otherwise, they should be separated. Finally, case studies were conducted in a real-life signalized network to evaluate the performance of the model. The results show that the CI simulates the relative performance well and could be a reliable index for subarea partition.

  10. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    Raphael K Didham

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables, and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone

  11. Cetacean Presence in the Trincomalee Bay and Adjacent Waters, Sri Lanka

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sri Lanka thirty species of cetaceans have been recorded to date. The canyon at Trincomalee bay is a multiple submarine canyon complex and anecdotal reports suggest that the Trincomalee bay and its adjacent waters are utilised by a number of cetacean species. Though Cetaceans are known to be abundant in the waters off Trincomalee there is a dearth of research and data pertaining to the abundance and species frequenting the Trincomalee bay and its adjacent waters. As such the current study was initiated, to get a consensus of the abundance and occurrences of species in Trincomalee Bay and its adjacent waters. Field surveys were carried out for 19 months and the research platform was a 35-foot commercial fishing vessel. 177 cetacean encounters were recorded on 67 of the 75 field days. Remarkably a total of 11 species of cetaceans which composed of two species of Baleen Whales and nine species of Toothed Whales were recorded. Delphinidae was the most common family recorded, followed by Balaenopteridae, Ziphiidae, Physeteridae, and Kogiidae. Spinner Dolphins were the most abundant cetacean owing to the large pods observed and the regularity of the sightings. They were the only species seen feeding/traveling with birds and fish (tuna. Sperm Whales, Blue Whales, and Bryde’s Whales were also relatively common. Two records of interspecific association between cetaceans were recorded. The increase in the human population in the study area has resulted in the overexploitation of marine resources which has dire repercussions on the marine mammal communities found in these waters.

  12. Carbon sources supporting benthic mineralization in mangrove and adjacent seagrass sediments (Gazi Bay, Kenya

    F. Dehairs

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The origin of carbon substrates used by in situ sedimentary bacterial communities was investigated in an intertidal mangrove ecosystem and in adjacent seagrass beds in Gazi bay (Kenya by δ13C analysis of bacteria-specific PLFA (phospholipid fatty acids and bulk organic carbon. Export of mangrove-derived organic matter to the adjacent seagrass-covered bay was evident from sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC and δ13CTOC data. PLFA δ13C data indicate that the substrate used by bacterial communities varied strongly and that exported mangrove carbon was a significant source for bacteria in the adjacent seagrass beds. Within the intertidal mangrove forest, bacterial PLFA at the surface layer (0-1 cm typically showed more enriched δ13C values than deeper (up to 10 cm sediment layers, suggesting a contribution from microphytobenthos and/or inwelled seagrass material. Under the assumption that seagrasses and mangroves are the dominant potential end-members, the estimated contribution of mangrove-derived carbon to benthic mineralization in the seagrass beds (16-74% corresponds fairly well to the estimated contribution of mangrove C to the sedimentary organic matter pool (21-71% across different seagrass sites. Based on these results and a compilation of literature data, we suggest that allochtonous carbon trapped in seagrass beds may often represent a significant fraction of the substrate for benthic mineralization - both in cases where seagrass C dominates the sediment TOC pool and in cases where external inputs are significant. Hence, it is likely that community respiration data systematically overestimate the role of mineralization in the overall seagrass C budget.

  13. Carbon sources supporting benthic mineralization in mangrove and adjacent seagrass sediments (Gazi Bay, Kenya

    S. Bouillon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of carbon substrates used by in situ sedimentary bacterial communities was investigated in an intertidal mangrove ecosystem and in adjacent seagrass beds in Gazi bay (Kenya by δ13C analysis of bacteria-specific PLFA (phospholipid fatty acids and bulk organic carbon. Export of mangrove-derived organic matter to the adjacent seagrass-covered bay was evident from sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC and δ13CTOC data. PLFA δ13C data indicate that the substrate used by bacterial communities varied strongly and that exported mangrove carbon was a significant source for bacteria in the adjacent seagrass beds. Within the intertidal mangrove forest, bacterial PLFA at the surface layer (0-1cm typically showed more enriched δ13C values than deeper (up to 10cm sediment layers, suggesting a contribution from microphytobenthos and/or inwelled seagrass material. Under the simplifying assumption that seagrasses and mangroves are the dominant potential end-members, the estimated contribution of mangrove-derived carbon to benthic mineralization in the seagrass beds (16-74% corresponds fairly well to the estimated contribution of mangrove C to the sedimentary organic matter pool (21-71% across different seagrass sites. Based on the results of this study and a compilation of literature data, we suggest that trapping of allochtonous C is a common feature in seagrass beds and often represents a significant source of C for sediment bacteria - both in cases where seagrass C dominates the sediment TOC pool and in cases where external inputs are significant. Hence, it is likely that data on community respiration rates systematically overestimate the role of in situ mineralization as a fate of seagrass production.

  14. Acceptable Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors Adjacent to the Central Biliary System

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo, E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate biliary toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Among 297 consecutive patients with liver tumors treated with SBRT of 35 to 50 Gy in 5 fractions, patients who were irradiated with >20 Gy to the central biliary system (CBS), including the gallbladder, and had follow-up times >6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Toxicity profiles, such as clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiologic data especially for obstructive jaundice and biliary infection, were investigated in relation to the dose volume and length relationship for each biliary organ. Results: Fifty patients with 55 tumors were irradiated with >20 Gy to the CBS. The median follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 6.0-80.5 months). In the dose length analysis, 39, 34, 14, and 2 patients were irradiated with >20 Gy, >30 Gy, >40 Gy, and >50 Gy, respectively, to >1 cm of the biliary tract. Seven patients were irradiated with >20 Gy to >20% of the gallbladder. Only 2 patients experienced asymptomatic bile duct stenosis. One patient, metachronously treated twice with SBRT for tumors adjacent to each other, had a transient increase in hepatic and biliary enzymes 12 months after the second treatment. The high-dose area >80 Gy corresponded to the biliary stenosis region. The other patient experienced biliary stenosis 5 months after SBRT and had no laboratory changes. The biliary tract irradiated with >20 Gy was 7 mm and did not correspond to the bile duct stenosis region. No obstructive jaundice or biliary infection was found in any patient. Conclusions: SBRT for liver tumors adjacent to the CBS was feasible with minimal biliary toxicity. Only 1 patient had exceptional radiation-induced bile duct stenosis. For liver tumors adjacent to the CBS without other effective treatment options, SBRT at a dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions is a safe treatment with regard to biliary toxicity.

  15. Biomechanical effect of vertebroplasty on the adjacent intervertebral levels using a three-dimensional finite element analysis

    LU Sheng; XU Yong-qing; ZHANG Mei-chao; TANG Xun; WANG Yue-li; ZHONG Shi-zheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biomechanical effect of different volume,distribution and leakage to adjacent disc of bone cement on the adjacent vertebral body by three-dimensional osteoporosis finite element model of lumbar.Methods: L4-L5 motion segment data of the cadaver of an old man who had no abnormal findings on roentgenograms were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans. Three-dimensional model of L4-L5 was established with Mimics software, and finite element model of L4-L5 functional spinal unit (FSU) was established by Ansys 7.0 software. The effect of different loading conditions and distribution of bone cement after vertebroplasty on the adjacent vertebral body was investigated.Results: This study presented a validated finite element model of L4-L5 FSU with a simulated vertebroplasty augmentation to predict stresses and strains of adjacent untreated vertebral bodies. The findings from this FSU study suggested the endplate and disc stress of the adjacent vertebral body was not influenced by filling volume of bone cement but unipedicle injection and leakage to the disc of bone cement could concentrate the stress of adjacent endplate.Conclusions: Asymmetric distributions and leakage of cement into intervertebral disc can improve the stress of endplate in adjacent vertebral body. These results suggest that optimal biomechanical configuration should have symmetric placement and avoid leakage of cement in operation.

  16. Noise Impact and Improvement on Indoors Acoustic Comfort for the Building Adjacent to Heavy Traffic Road

    Li Zhisheng; Li Dongmei; Mei Sheng; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Jianlong

    2007-01-01

    A good acoustic environment is absolutely essential to maintaining a high level satisfaction and moral health among residents. Noise and other boresome sounds come from both indoor and outdoor sources. For the residential buildings adjacent to heavy traffic roads, outdoors traffic noise is the main source that affects indoor acoustic quality and health. Ventilation and outdoor noise prevention become a pair of contradictions for the residents in China nowadays for those buildings adjacent to heavy traffic roads. It is investigated that traffic noise emission is mainly constituted by the motors of trucks, buses and motorcycles as well as brake. In this paper, two methods of traffic noise reduction on the indoor sound environment and comfort are carried out to study and compare the residential buildings adjacent to heavy traffic roadway in a city. One is to install noise barriers on the two sides of the roadway, which consist of sound-proof glass and plastic materials. The effect of sound-insulation of this method is heavily dependent on the relative distance between the noise barrier and indoors. A reduction of sound with an average pressure level of 2-15dB is achieved on the places behind and under the noise barrier. However, for the equivalent of noise barrier height,the noise reduction effect is little. As for the places of higher than the noise barrier, the traffic noise will be even strengthened by 3-7 dB. Noise increment can be seen at the points of distance farther than 15m and height more than noise barrier; the noise reduction effect is not satisfactory or even worsened. In addition,not every location is appropriate to install the noise barrier along the heavy traffic roads. The other method of noise reduction for the buildings adjacent to heavy traffic is to install the airproof and soundproof windows, which is the conversion from natural ventilation to mechanical ventilation. A reduction of sound with an average pressure level of 5dB to 17dB can be

  17. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    William Austin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, A. krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m and D. kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m. We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas.

  18. A review of the natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries.

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of the known natural history of adult Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Argentina and adjacent countries is provided. Food items of adult Cetoniinae include pollen and/or nectar (flower visitors), sap and/or slime flux, ripened fruits on plants, green tissues and leaves, and honey. Of the 36 species of Cetoniinae from Argentina, food items are known only for 11 species (30.5%). Attraction to light and bait-traps, adult activity periods, vertebrate predators, and the occurrence in bird nests are presented and discussed. Other insects that share the same food sources and bait-traps with Cetoniinae are mentioned. PMID:24869870

  19. Numerical simulation of scatterometer assimilated wind and ocean wave in eastern China seas and adjacent waters

    2006-01-01

    Using the latest version of Mesoscale Modeling System (MM5v3), we assimilated wind data from the scatterometer and built a model to assimilate the wind field over eastern China seas and adjacent waters and applied the wave model WAVEWATCH-Ⅲ to test the sea area with assimilative wind and blended wind of QSCAT and NCEP as driving forces. High precision and resolution numerical wave results were obtained.Analysis indicated that ifwe replace the model wind result with the blended wind, better sea surface wind results and wave results could be obtained.

  20. Repeated adjacent segment diseases and fractures in osteoporotic patients: a case report

    Chen HY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-Yao Chen,1 Chiu-Liang Chen,1,2 Wei-Liang Chen3 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, 2Liberal Arts Center of Da Yeh University, Dacun Township, Changhua County, Taiwan; 3Department of Clinical Image, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua City, Changhua County, Taiwan Background: Pedicle screw instrumentation for treating spinal disorder is becoming increasingly widespread. Many studies have advocated its use to facilitate rigid fixation for spine; however, adjacent segmental disease is a known complication. Instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spines remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. Prophylactic vertebroplasty for adjacent vertebra has been reported to reduce the complications of junctional compression fractures but has raised a new problem of vertebral subluxation. This case report is a rare and an extreme example with many surgical complications caused by repeated instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spine in a single patient. This patient had various complications including adjacent segmental disease, vertebral subluxation, and junctional fractures on radiographs and magnetic resonance images.Case presentation: An 81-year-old Taiwanese woman underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of L4-L5 in Taiwan 10 years ago. Due to degenerative spinal stenosis of L3-L4 and L2-L3, she had decompression with instrumented fusion from L5 to L1 at the previous hospital. However, catastrophic vertebral subluxations with severe neurologic compromise occurred, and she underwent salvage surgeries twice with prolonged instrumented fusion from L5 to T2. The surgeries did not resolve her problems of spinal instability and neurologic complications. Eventually, the patient remained with a Frankel Grade C spinal cord injury.Conclusion: Adjacent segmental disease, junctional fracture, and vertebral subluxation are familiar complications following instrumented spinal fusion surgeries for

  1. Benthic oxygen exchange in a live coralline algal bed and an adjacent sandy habitat

    Attard, Karl M.; Stahl, Henrik; Kamenos, Nicholas A.; Turner, Gavin; Burdett, Heidi L.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2015-01-01

    community benthic gross primary productivity (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM) derived from diel EC time series collected during 5 seasonal measurement campaigns in temperate Loch Sween, Scotland. Measurements were also carried out at an adjacent (similar to 20 m distant) permeable......(-1) of carbon at the maerl bed and sand site, respectively, were required to sustain the benthic O-2 demand. Thus, the 2 benthic habitats efficiently entrap organic carbon and are sinks of organic material in the coastal zone. Parallel deployment of 0.1 m(2) benthic chambers during nighttime revealed...

  2. Three-dimensional CT of the middle ear and adjacent structures

    Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography of the middle ear and adjacent structures has been carried out in two cadaveric heads from axial and coronal high-resolution images. The structures shown on the images of the walls of the tympanic cavity are illustrated. The usefulness and limitations of the technique, in this region, are discussed: Use of grey level volumes at the surface of the slices and the inclusion of structural landmarks is emphasized. The 3D representations show the anatomical spacial relationships of the small structures in and around the middle ear to advantage. The information may be of use in surgical orientation. (orig.)

  3. Insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City – an urbanized area adjacent to Kolkata, India

    Pallab Maity

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salt Lake City or Bidhannagar, a part of East Kolkata Wetland, is an advanced township adjacent to Kolkata. A total of 266 insect species of 206 genera under 74 families belonging to the eleven order are reported in this communication. Of them, Lepidoptera shared maximum species (73 species, followed by Odonata (46 species, Diptera (44 species, Coleoptera (42 species, Hemiptera (25 species, Hymenoptera (17 species, Orthoptera (10 species and Blattaria (06 species. The orders Ephemeroptera, Dermaptera and Mantodea shared single species respectively. Present work is the baseline data of insect faunal diversity of Salt Lake City, an urbanized area in the vicinity of Kolkata, West Bengal.

  4. A Layered Zone Routing Algorithm in Ad Hoc Network Based on Matrix of Adjacency Connection

    XU Guang-wei; LI Feng; SHI Xiu-jin; HUO Jia-zhen

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid routing protocol has received more attention recently than the proactive and the reactive, especially for large-scale and highly dynamic connection, in mobile ad hoc network. A crucial reason is that zone-layered is being utilized in the complex systems. A hybrid routing algorithm which is layered zone based on adjacency connection(LZBAC) is put forward under the background of a few members in network with steady position and link. The algorithm modifies storage structure of nodes and improves routing mechanism. The theoretical analysis and simulation testing testify that the algorithm costs shorter time of route finding and less delay than others.

  5. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas. PMID:24146581

  6. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  7. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  8. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  9. Adjacent-cell Preconditioners for solving optically thick neutron transport problems

    We develop, analyze, and test a new acceleration scheme for neutron transport methods, the Adjacent-cell Preconditioner (AP) that is particularly suited for solving optically thick problems. Our method goes beyond Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) methods in that it's spectral radius vanishes with increasing cell thickness. In particular, for the ID case the AP method converges immediately, i.e. in one iteration, to 10-4 pointwise relative criterion in problems with dominant cell size of 10 mfp or thicker. Also the AP has a simple formalism and is cell-centered hence, multidimensional and high order extensions are easier to develop, and more efficient to implement

  10. Modeling lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    , and atmospheric pressure variations. Gas diffusivity and air permeability were measured on undisturbed samples collected at an agricultural field adjacent to an old Danish municipal landfill. Empirical expressions for predicting gas diffusivity and air permeability from soil-water content were fitted...... permeability and soil-water content. Methane oxidation rate and atmospheric pressure variations had some effects, especially on the gas flux, whereas gas diffusion was not important.......Lateral migration of landfill gases in soils surrounding old (closed) municipal landfills can lead to explosion hazards and damage to vegetation. Landfill gas production and migration is controlled by microbial activity and soil physical properties such as gas (air) permeability, gas diffusivity...

  11. Measurement of outdoor noise levels adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP

    In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance levels. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the noise environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound level in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed

  12. Pollution parameters determination in water coast dispersion adjacent Carretas Point sub aquatic emissary

    It describes some results about transport processes, tracer techniques in Carretas Point sub aquatic emissary, discharge plume and emissary adjacent water coast in summer season. An overtaking and stability plume was verified. A contaminant unexpected and effusion localized was simulated. Scale effect near one coefficient was obtain Longitudinal dispersion coefficients and 1m2/seg and 0,02m2/seg transversal was estimated. The possibility to obtain information from first stages of transport analyzing fluorescence trace stain videos through geometric tools is discussed

  13. Odonata (Insecta diversity of Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary and its adjacent areas in Thattekkad, Kerala, India

    A.P. Varghese

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity of Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary and its adjacent areas in Thattekkad, Kerala, India were documented from 2010 to 2012. Opportunistic observations were carried out to record species diversity. Eighty-two species of Odonata, which included 51 species of Anisoptera (dragonflies and 31 species of Zygoptera (damselflies, were recorded during the study. Of this 21 species are endemic to the Western Ghats. The presence of the IUCN categorized nearly threatened species like Megalogomphus hannyngtoni and vulnerable species like Platysticta deccanensis and Protosticta sanguinostigma is remarkable.

  14. The genus Alphitobius Stephens (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alphitobiini in Africa and adjacent islands

    Wolfgang Schawaller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available All species of the genus Alphitobius Stephens, 1829 (Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917, subfamily Tenebrioninae Latreille, 1802 from Africa and adjacent islands are revised. New species: Alphitobius capitaneus sp. n. from Kenya. New synonyms: Cryptops ulomoides Solier, 1851, syn. n. of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1796; Alphitobius rufus Ardoin, 1976, syn. n. of Alphitobius hobohmi Koch, 1953; Peltoides (Micropeltoides crypticoides Pic, 1916, syn. n. of Peltoides (Micropeltoides opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871, comb. n. Homonym: Alphitobius ulomoides Koch, 1953 = Alphitobius arnoldi nom. n. New combinations from Alphitobius: Ulomoides basilewskyi (Ardoin, 1969, comb. n.; Peltoides (Micropeltoides opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871, comb. n. Figures of all examined species are added and a species key is compiled.

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. Small vulvar squamous cell carcinomas and adjacent tissues. A morphologic study

    Poulsen, Hemming; Junge, Jette; Vyberg, Mogens; Horn, Thomas; Lundvall, Finn

    2003-01-01

    each case. Seven patients with keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (median age 65) had adjacent lichen sclerosus. All carcinomas were completely surrounded by areas of VIN1. VIN2 and VIN3 were not found. Seven patients without lichen sclerosus (median age 58) showed squamous cell carcinomas of the...... keratinizing type (n=2) or the basaloid type (n=5). Five of these cases were incompletely surrounded by varying degrees of dysplasia, mainly VIN2 and VIN3. Two different pathogenetic pathways for the development of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma are likely....

  17. Uniformity of multi-foci for holographic femtosecond laser parallel fabrication%飞秒激光全息并行加工中的多焦点均一性

    苏亚辉; 汪金礼; 杨亮; 李家文; 黄文浩

    2013-01-01

    To improve the efficiency and flexibility of femtosecond laser fabrication,a holographic femtosecond laser parallel fabrication system was built.The relationship between the uniformity and the spatial distribution of multi-foci generated by Computer-generated Hologram (CGH) was studied.Firstly,a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) was introduced into the femtosecond laser fabrication system.Then,Gerchberg-Saxton(GS) algorithm was used to design three foci arrays of straight-line distribution and triangular distribution.Finally,the effects of holograms designed by foci arrays of straight-line distribution and triangular distribution on the uniformity were compared by numerical simulation and experiments.The results show that the foci array of straight-line distribution is not easy to obtain higher uniformity,and its three-foci U is only by 79%; however,that of the triangular distribution tends to achieve higher uniformity and its three-foci U is about 100%.The experiment shows that the three foci of triangular distribution can implement a high quality parallel processing and obtained hemispheric microstructures have microlens array functions.%为了提高飞秒激光加工的效率和灵活性,设计了一套飞秒激光全息并行加工系统,并对该系统中加载计算全息图(CGH)生成的多焦点均一性和空间位置分布的关系进行了研究.首先,将空间光调制器(SLM)引入飞秒激光加工光路;然后,采用GS(Gerchberg-Saxton)算法设计了直线型和三角型分布的三焦点阵列.最后,通过数值仿真和实验研究比较了用两种不同空间分布的焦点列阵设计的全息图对均一性的影响.结果表明,在焦点阵列间距较小的情况下,直线型分布设计的焦点阵列不易获得好的均一性,三焦点U仅有79%;而用三角型分布焦点阵列设计时,可以获得很好的均一性,三焦点U约等于100%.实验数据表明,三角形分布的三焦点可以实现高质量的并行加工,加

  18. Combinatorial DNA Damage Pairing Model Based on X-Ray-Induced Foci Predicts the Dose and LET Dependence of Cell Death in Human Breast Cells

    Vadhavkar, Nikhil [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Pham, Christopher [University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States). MD Anderson Cancer Center; Georgescu, Walter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Deschamps, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Heuskin, Anne-Catherine [Univ. of Namur (Belgium). Namur Research inst. for Life Sciences (NARILIS), Research Center for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR); Tang, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Costes, Sylvain V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the classic view of static DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) being repaired at the site of damage, we hypothesize that DSBs move and merge with each other over large distances (m). As X-ray dose increases, the probability of having DSB clusters increases as does the probability of misrepair and cell death. Experimental work characterizing the X-ray dose dependence of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) is used here to validate a DSB clustering model. We then use the principles of the local effect model (LEM) to predict the yield of DSBs at the submicron level. Two mechanisms for DSB clustering, namely random coalescence of DSBs versus active movement of DSBs into repair domains are compared and tested. Simulations that best predicted both RIF dose dependence and cell survival after X-ray irradiation favored the repair domain hypothesis, suggesting the nucleus is divided into an array of regularly spaced repair domains of ~;;1.55 m sides. Applying the same approach to high-linear energy transfer (LET) ion tracks, we are able to predict experimental RIF/m along tracks with an overall relative error of 12percent, for LET ranging between 30 350 keV/m and for three different ions. Finally, cell death was predicted by assuming an exponential dependence on the total number of DSBs and of all possible combinations of paired DSBs within each simulated RIF. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) predictions for cell survival of MCF10A exposed to high-LET showed an LET dependence that matches previous experimental results for similar cell types. Overall, this work suggests that microdosimetric properties of ion tracks at the submicron level are sufficient to explain both RIF data and survival curves for any LET, similarly to the LEM assumption. Conversely, high-LET death mechanism does not have to infer linear-quadratic dose formalism as done in the LEM. In addition, the size of repair domains derived in our model

  19. Impact of shield tunneling on adjacent spread foundation on sandy cobble strata

    Yong Fang; Jun Wang; Chuan He; Xiongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    The section of shield tunnel of the Chengdu Metro line passes primarily through sandy cobble strata. There are many buildings with spread foundations along the lines. Shield tunnel construction will disturb the ground, causing displacement or stress to adjacent spread foundations. Based on the similarity theory, a laboratory model test of shield tunnel driving was carried out to study the influence of shield tunnel excavation on the displace-ment of adjacent spread foundation. The results show that foundation closer to the tunnel has greater displacement or settlement than that further away. The horizontal dis-placement is small and is influenced greatly by the cutting face. The displacement along the machine driving direction is bigger and is significantly affected by the thrust force. Settlement occurs primarily when shield machine passes close to the foundation and is the greatest at that time. Uneven settlement at the bottom of the spread foundation reaches a maximum after the excavation ends. In a numerical simulation, a particle flow model was con-structed to study the impact of shield tunnel excavation on the stresses in the ground. The model showed stress con-centration at the bottom of the spread foundation. With the increasing ground loss ratio, a loose area appears in the tunnel dome where the contact force dropped. Above the loose area, the contact force increases, forming an arch-shaped soil area which prevents the loose area from expanding to the ground surface. The excavation also changed the pressure distribution around spread foundation.

  20. Allelic losses at genomic instability-associated loci in villous adenomas and adjacent colorectal cancers.

    Brenner, Bruce M; Stoler, Daniel L; Rodriguez, Luz; Karpenko, Matthew J; Swede, Helen; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Anderson, Garth R

    2007-04-01

    Allelic imbalances in premalignant villous adenomas were compared with those in adjacent microdissected colorectal carcinoma that had arisen directly from the adenomas. Carcinoma-adenoma pairs were examined from 17 patients who underwent resections for colorectal cancer. In all, 28 microsatellite markers were examined, from regions of the genome where individual allelic losses have been associated with overall genomic instability in colorectal carcinomas. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was also evaluated for each marker in each tissue type. Loss of heterozygosity for multiple markers was found in 35% of adenomas and 65% of carcinomas; the average fractional allelic loss rate was 2.5 times higher in carcinomas than in adenomas. Of the 17 patients, 4 had MSI for >30% of markers in both adenoma and carcinoma, with no significant differences between the two tissues. Markers with particularly high imbalance rates in adenomas were seen on chromosomes 11, 14, and 15. These findings provide further evidence that genomic instability is an ongoing process during carcinogenesis, with a markedly increased frequency of allelic losses seen in carcinomas, compared with adjacent adenomas. Markers on chromosomes 11, 14, and 15 may become valuable tools in the identification of patients destined to progress to colorectal carcinomas. PMID:17350461

  1. Adjacency Matrix Based Energy Efficient Scheduling Using S-Mac Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Ravindara Bhatt,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the main motive in any Networks whether it is Wireless Sensor Network, Ad-Hoc networks, Mobile Networks, Wired Networks, Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network, Wireless Area Network etc, hence it must be energy efficient. The main parameters for energy efficient communication are maximizing network lifetime, saving energy at the different nodes, sending the packets in minimum time delay, higher throughput etc. This paper focuses mainly on the energy efficient communication with the help of Adjacency Matrix in the Wireless Sensor Networks. The energy efficient scheduling can be done by putting the idle node in to sleep node so energy at the idle node can be saved. The proposed model in this paper first forms the adjacency matrix and broadcasts the information aboutthe total number of existing nodes with depths to the other nodes in the same cluster from controller node. When every node receives the node information about the other nodes for same cluster they communicate based on the shortest depths and schedules the idle node in to sleep mode for a specific time threshold so energy at the idle nodes can be saved.

  2. Late Cenozoic Tectonic Deformation in the Dongsha Islands and Adjacent Sea Area

    WU Shiguo(吴时国); LIU Zhan(刘展); WANG Wanyin(王万银); GUO Junhua(郭军华); T. Lüdmann; H. K. Wong

    2003-01-01

    Dongsha Island and the adjacent sea area locate at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS), and is connected to the east by the Manila Trench. Analyses of seismic stratigraphy and gravity, magnetic and drilling wells data led to the discovery of three post-fault sequences (V, VI, VII). Extensive tectonic uplift, magma activity and erosion occurred in Dongsha Island and the adjacent area, where most of the faults in the northeastern SCS were still active during Pliocene and Quaternary. Two groups of faults trending NEE and NW were developed during Late Cenozoic. We conclude that three important tectonic movements, especially Dongsha movement (4.4-5.2 Ma) and Liuhua movement (1.4-1.89 Ma), controlled the structural framework in the Dongsha rise; whose deformation in the east is stronger than that in the west and whose stress field variation suggests that the tectonic uplift in the study area contributed to magmato-tectonic events correlated to the main collision phases between the East China and Taiwan 5-3 and 3-0 Ma ago.

  3. Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Adjacent to the Alimentary Tract

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located adjacent to the alimentary tract. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven patients (median age, 69 years; range, 43-82 years) who had HCC located within 2 cm of the alimentary tract underwent proton beam therapy. Liver damage according to the Child-Pugh classification was Class A in 35 patients, Class B in 9, and Class C in 3. Treatment protocols of the early 16 patients and the late 31 patients were 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions and 77 GyE in 35 fractions, respectively. Results: During the median follow-up period of 23 months, 24 patients died; the remaining 23 patients were alive until September 2008. The median overall survival was 33.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8-57.0 months). Actuarial overall and local progression-free survival rates at 3 years were 50.0% and 88.1%, respectively. Grade 2 and 3 alimentary tract hemorrhage was observed in 3 (6.4%) and 1 (2.1%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: Our proton beam therapy strategy for HCC located adjacent to the alimentary tract seems to be effective but should be performed with caution.

  4. Spectra of Adjacency Matrices in Networks with Extreme Introverts and Extroverts

    Bassler, Kevin E.; Zia, Royce K. P.

    In recent studies of networks with preferred degrees (suitable for describing social networks in which individuals tend to prefer a certain number of contacts), the XIE model of extreme introverts and extroverts was found to display remarkable collective behavior and to raise interesting theoretical issues. Though this system is defined through its dynamics, i.e., introverts/extroverts always cut/add links, the steady state turns out to be a Boltzmann-like distribution. While the intra-group links are static, the cross-links are dynamic and lead to an ensemble of bipartite graphs, with extraordinary long-ranged correlations between elements of the incidence matrix (details in JSTAT P07013, 2015). Here, we report simulation studies of a different perspective of networks, namely, the spectra associated with this ensemble of adjacency matrices. As a baseline, we first consider the spectra associated with (the adjacency matrices of) a simple random (Erdôs-Rènyi) ensemble of bipartite graphs, where simulation results can be understood analytically. Work supported by the NSF through Grants DMR-1206839 and DMR-1507371.

  5. Relevance of estuaries adjacent to megalopolis as modifiers of internal shelf areas

    Wagener, Angela; Lazzzari, Leticia; Carreira, Renato; Farias, Cassia; Mauad, Cristiane

    2014-05-01

    Guanabara Bay located in the humid tropical region is a eutrophic estuarine system bordered by the second largest metropolitan area of Brazil. Human intervention resulted in water conditions ranging from complete anoxia in the polluted inner bay area to the adjacent, relatively pristine, open coastal area. In the present work the goals were to estimate nutrients and carbon fluxes between the bay and the adjacent coastal waters and to characterize by using stable isotopes, hydrocarbons and sterols the provenance of the exported/imported organic matter. Water samples were collected from three different depths over 25 hours cycles in the wet and dry seasons at a single station strategically positioned in the bay. Measurements included CTD, nutrients, chlorophylls, DOC, POC, PN, δ13C and δ15N, hydrocarbons and sterols in SPM. Most substances showed higher concentrations in ebb tide events and through statistical tools a significant difference between the campaigns was proved. The fluxes estimated on annual basis revealed the expressive exportation to the inner continental shelf of 1.27x104 Kmol DIN yr-1, 9.52x102 Kmol DIP yr-1, 2.65x104 tons DOC yr-1, 1.96x104 tons COP yr-1, 2.96x104 tons NP yr-1.

  6. Characteristics of recent tectonic stress field in Jiashi, Xinjiang and adjacent regions

    CUI Xiao-feng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the general directional features of regional tectonic stress field in Jiashi, Xinjiang and adjacent regions from the data of focal mechanism solutions, borehole breakouts and fault slip. The direction of maximum horizontal principal stress given by these three sorts of stress data differs slightly, which indicates there is a NS-trending horizontal compression in the tectonic stress field in the region of interest. We also invert and analyze the temporal and spatial changes of recent tectonic stress field in the research region by using 137 focal mechanism solutions. The inverted results show that the maximum principal stress σ1 in Jiashi and adjacent regions is NNW-SSE with an azimuth of 162°. In the period from 1997 to 2003 before the occurrence of Jiashi-Bachu earthquake, the directions of the maximum principal stress σ1 and the minimum principal stress σ3 in Jiashi seismic source zone changed clockwise with respect to the tectonic stress field in the regions around. The maximum principal stress σ1 adjusted to the direction of NNE-SSW with an azimuth of 25°. Under the control of this tectonic stress field, a series of earthquakes happened, including the Jiashi strong earthquake swarm in 1997.Then, the tectonic stress field in the Jiashi seismic source zone might adjust again. And the tectonic stress field controlling the Jiashi-Bachu earthquake in 2003 was in accordance with the regions around.

  7. Radiologic findings of direct splenic invasion by malignant tumors of adjacent organs

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of direct invasion of the spleen by malignant tumors of adjacent organs. We retrospectively reviewed the CT (n=5) and MR (n=3) images of six patients with direct invasion of the spleen by malignant tumor of left lower lung, stomach, colon, pancreas, left kidney, and left adrenal gland. We evaluated the tumor margin, attenuation or intensity, perisplenic fat infiltration, regional lymphnode enlargement, and invaded site of the spleen. Ill-defined masses were found in the spleen with central necrosis and infiltration into perisplenic fatty tissue in all six patients; left adrenal mass was present also in three patients. Regional lymphnode enlargement was found in four patients. The masses showed heterogenous low attenuation on CT. The invaded site was variable and corresponding to their anatomical connections to the spleen. Direct invasion of the spleen by malignant tumors of adjacent organs showed ill-defined masses with central necrosis and were commonly associated with infiltration to perisplenic fatty tissue and adrenal invasion. The pattern and invaded site can be helpful to assess the primary cancer

  8. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level.

    Hakan, Tayfun; Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. PMID:27429818

  9. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level

    Tayfun Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome.

  10. Regional evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential for the South American thrust belts and adjacent foreland basins

    Coleman, J.; Cook, J.; Davis, M.; Eggers, L.; Spencer, S.; Toadvine, S. [Amoco Worldwide Exploration Business Group, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Andean thrust belts and adjacent foreland basins is varied and made complicated by regional-scale changes in stratigraphy and accompanying structural style. These changes appear to be controlled by an inherited Paleozoic structural grain and an early Mesozoic rifting fabric. Accompanying these factors are variations in source rock and evaporate distribution. Understanding the variability in the exploration and exploitation potential of the Andes is facilitated by a comparison with other thrust and fold belts from around the world. Using an integrated, modular approach, we have analyzed 27 petroliferous thrust belts and adjacent foreland basins from around the world to study the wide variety within these petroleum systems and their associated geotechnical risks. This global study indicates that the essential factors of productive systems are the volume and distribution of effective source rocks in conjunction with the timing of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and entrapment. This timing varies extensively from north to south. Hence, what works in one portion of the belt may not work in another. Integration of a global study of well-documented thrust belts and foreland basins systems with an Andean exploration or exploitation study helps narrow the range of possible interpretations developed from minimal data commonly available prior to bid rounds. It also helps in field exploitation and deeper pool wildcat exploration by suggesting new trap type potential.

  11. A New Version of Regional Ocean Reanalysis for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    HAN Guijun; LI Wei; ZHANG Xuefeng; WANG Xidong; WU Xinrong; FU Hongli; ZHANG Xiaoshuang

    2013-01-01

    A new regional ocean reanalysis over multiple decades (1958-2008) for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been completed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS)under the CORA (China Ocean ReAnalysis) project.Evaluations were performed on three aspects:(1) the improvement of general reanalysis quality; (2) eddy structures; and (3) decadal variability of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs).Results showed that the quality of the new reanalysis has been enhanced beyond ~40% (39% for temperature,44% for salinity) in terms of the reduction of root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for which the reanalysis values were compared to observed values in the observational space.Compared to the trial version released to public in 2009,the new reanalysis is able to reproduce more detailed eddy structures as seen in satellite and in situ observations.EOF analysis of the reanalysis SSHAs showed that the new reanalysis reconstructs the leading modes of SSHAs much better than the old version.These evaluations suggest that the new CORA regional reanalysis represents a much more useful dataset for the community of the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  12. Stress interactions between normal faults and adjacent strike-slip faults of 1997 Jiashi earthquake swarm

    ZHANG ZhuQi; CHEN John YongShun; LIN Jian

    2008-01-01

    During a 4-month period starting from 21 January, 1997, an earthquake swarm of seven major events (Ms≥6.0) struck the Jiashi region at the northwestern corner of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang,, China.Previous relocation studies suggested that these strong earthquakes had occurred along at least two parallel rupture zones. According to the relocated hypocenters and focal mechanisms of the events, we have constructed fault models for these seven earthquakes to calculate the Coulomb stress changes produced by each of these events. Furthermore, we extended our model calculations to include an adjacent 1996 Ms=6.9 Artushi earthquake, which occurred one year before the Jiashi earthquake swarm.Our calculations show that the Coulomb stress change caused by the preceding events was around 0.05 MPa at the hypocenter of the 4th event, and higher than 0.08 MPa at the hypocenters of the 2nd,3rd, 5th and 6th events. Our results reveal a Coulomb stress interactive cycle of earthquake triggering between two adjacent normal and strike-slip faults.

  13. Soil Seed Bank Dynamics of a Riparian Forest and its Adjacent Upland Vegetation

    Omowumi Omotoyosi OLALOYE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the densities and soil seed bank composition of a riparian forest and its adjacent upland vegetation for a better understanding the potentials of the soil seed banks in facilitating succession towards a more natural forest of native tree species. Three contiguous 20 m x 20 m plots were systematically established on both riparian forest and upland vegetation. Species enumeration, identification and distribution into families of the standing vegetation were carried out. Furthermore, five replicates soil samples were collected at two different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 .The seedling emergence test was carried out for six months in the greenhouse to determine the species composition and the density of the seed in both vegetation types. The results of the seedling emergence revealed that more seeds were deposited at the upper depth (0-15 cm than the lower depth 15-30 cm in the two vegetation types in both dry and rainy season. There was low similarity in species composition between the standing vegetation and soil seed bank in each of the two vegetation types. Herbaceous species recorded the highest number of seedlings as compared to the other habit. The low similarity between seed bank and standing vegetation of the riparian forest and the adjacent upland vegetation suggested that soil seed bank was insignificant in their restoration.

  14. Effect of Adjacent Structures on Foundation Response of Tower Building from SSI Analysis Incorporating Wave Incoherence

    Seismic response at foundation of large building caused by strong ground motion has tendency to be less intense than corresponding free-field motion, especially in high frequency range. To explain this phenomenon and to apply it to practical soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, concept of wave incoherence (or spatial variation) was introduced. The spatial variation of ground motion can be quantified by coherency function, and several coherency functions have been developed for engineering purpose. However, there is little investigation about their application to SSI analysis and design for buildings influenced by adjacent structures. This paper is focused on the seismic response of a building whose foundation lies between those of nearby structures. Specifically, a tower building consisting of steel and concrete is modeled, and the building is assumed to be located on rock media. Analyses are categorized into four cases according to the type of foundation and the existence of adjacent structures. For each case, the results from incoherent SSI analysis are compared with those from coherent analysis to investigate the effect on the seismic response of the building

  15. Toxicity and bioavailability of metals in the Missouri River adjacent to a lead refinery

    Chapman, Duane C.; Allert, Ann L.; Fairchild, James F.; May, Thomas W.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Callahan, Edward V.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of contaminated groundwater from the ASARCO metals refining facility adjacent to the Missouri River in Omaha, Nebraska. Surface waters, sediments, and sediment pore waters were collected from the Burt-Izard drain, which transects the facility, and from the Missouri River adjacent to the facility. Groundwater was also collected from the facility. Waters and sediments were analyzed for inorganic contaminants, and the toxicity of the waters was evaluated with the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-day test. Concentrations of several elemental contaminants were highly elevated in the groundwater, but not in river sediment pore waters. Lead concentrations were moderately elevated in whole sediment at one site, but lead concentrations in pore waters were low due to apparent sequestration by acid-volatile sulfides. The groundwater sample was highly toxic to C. dubia, causing 100% mortality. Even at the lowest groundwater concentration tested (6.25%) C. dubia survival was reduced; however, at that concentration, reproduction was not significantly different from upstream porewater reference samples. Sediment pore waters were not toxic, except reproduction in pore water collected from one downstream site was somewhat reduced. The decrease in reproduction could not be attributed to measured elemental contaminants.

  16. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches.

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. PMID:27219503

  17. Evaluation of thyroid carcinoma with invasion of adjacent organs by CT

    In 25 cases of advanced thryoid carcinoma, computed tomograms accurately delineated the extent of tumor and invasion to adjacent organs. With tracheal invasion CT showed an irregular tracheal deformity in 8 of 12 cases and smooth compression of the trachea in the other 4 cases. In 9 of 10 cases with jugular vein invasion, CT demonstrated obliteration of the fat plane between the tumor and the deformed jugular vein on more than 3 slices(cm). CT also showed the carotid artery to be surrounded by the tumor in 4 of 5 cases with invasion. The other case showed irregular deformity of the carotid artery. Obliteration of the fat plane between the tumor and esophagus was demonstrated by CT on more than 3 slices(cm) in 8 of 9 cases with esophageal invasion. In 13 of 14 cases of recurrent nerve involvement, the tumor was recognized to extend to the tracheoesophageal groove by CT. Direct invasion of thyroid carcinoma can generally be detected by obliteration of the fat plane on more than 3 slices(cm) and/or deformity of adjacent organ caused by the tumor. (author)

  18. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  19. Diversity of fungi from the mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest soils.

    Duff, Lyndon B; Urichuk, Theresa M; Hodgins, Lisa N; Young, Jocelyn R; Untereiner, Wendy A

    2016-07-01

    Culture-based methods were employed to recover 3929 isolates of fungi from soils collected in May and July 2014 from mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest sites. The abundance, diversity, and richness of species from nest mounds exceeded those of non-mound soils, particularly in July. Communities of fungi from mounds were more similar to those from mounds than non-mounds; this was also the case for non-mound soils with the exception of one non-mound site in July. Species of Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were dominant in nest soils and represented up to 81.8% of the taxa recovered. Members of the genus Aspergillus accounted for the majority of Trichocomaceae from nests and were represented almost exclusively by Aspergillus navahoensis and Aspergillus pseudodeflectus. Dominant fungi from non-mound sites included Cladosporium cladosporioides, Geomyces pannorum, and species of Acremonium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Phoma. Although mound nests were warmer than adjacent soils, the dominance of xerotolerant Aspergillus in soils from mounds and the isolation of the majority of Trichocomaceae at 25 and 35 °C suggests that both temperature and water availability may be determinants of fungal community structure in nests of F. ulkei. PMID:27192606

  20. Postseismic deformation and body forces shaping the Apennines and adjacent sedimentary basins in Umbria-Marche

    A. Aoudia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The geodynamic complexity of the Apennines and adjacent sedimentary basins in Umbria-Marche (North-Central Italy makes the dynamics of the present day deformation and its relationships with the seismicity less well understood. In this paper, we argue that, further to buoyancy forces, postseismic deformation of earthquakes taking place on the Apennines contributes to the regional deformation. We investigate the interaction between the normal faulting system responsible of the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence (Colfiorito fault and the low angle normal faulting system bordering the sedimentary basins, namely the Altotiberina fault. We set-up a 2D finite element model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere accounting for lateral heterogeneities and investigate how this heterogeneous structure is capable of localizing strain under the Umbria-Marche sedimentary basins, providing a way for the Colfiorito fault to influence the evolution of the Altotiberina fault. We show how the two different length and time scale processes, namely postseismic deformation and buoyancy, are complementary in shaping the Apennines and adjacent sedimentary basins. The high resolution deformation patterns modeled in this study can hardly be reproduced by a model accounting only for external forces such as a rotating or subducting or retreating Adria.

  1. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    HAN Guijun; LI Wei; ZHANG Xuefeng; LI Dong; HE Zhongjie; WANG Xidong; WU Xinrong; YU Ting; MA Jirui

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  2. A Regional Ocean Reanalysis System for Coastal Waters of China and Adjacent Seas

    2011-01-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service(NMDIS).It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis).The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system(POMgcs).The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations.Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational(3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework.Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature(SST),altimetry sea level anomaly(SLA),and temperature/salinity profiles.The reanalysis fields of sea surface height,temperature,salinity,and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature,salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges,temperature profiles,as well as the trajectories of Argo floats.Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations.These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  3. On the adjacent-vertex-strongly-distinguishing total coloring of graphs

    2008-01-01

    For any vertex u∈V(G), let TN(U)={u}∪{uv|uv∈E(G), v∈v(G)}∪{v∈v(G)|uv∈E(G)}and let f be a total k-coloring of G. The total-color neighbor of a vertex u of G is the color set Cf(u)={f(x)|x∈TN(U)}. For any two adjacent vertices x and y of V(G)such that Cf(x)≠Cf(y), we refer to f as a k-avsdt-coloring of G("avsdt"is the abbreviation of"adjacent-vertex-strongly- distinguishing total"). The avsdt-coloring number of G, denoted by Xast(G), is the minimal number of colors required for a avsdt-coloring of G. In this paper, the avsdt-coloring numbers on some familiar graphs are studied, such as paths, cycles, complete graphs, complete bipartite graphs and so on. We proveΔ(G)+1≤Xast(G)≤Δ(G)+2 for any tree or unique cycle graph G.

  4. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in solid adjacent to the Naples-Salerno motor way

    This work analyses the distribution of heavy metal in soil adjacent to the Naples-Salerno motor way, an area which typically contains volcanic products from Somma-Vesuvio. The various concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu and Cr found in different portions of the motor way (embankment, road cut, field level) are reported. The data obtained indicate high level of pollution in soil adjacent to the motor way fencing, with maximum concentrations of 1220 ppm Pb, 1.9 ppm Cd and 341 ppm Zn. Gradients of decreasing pollution with distance from the fencing and with altitude from the road surface are highest for Zn followed by Pb and Cd. The presence of these three materials in depth follows an averagely constant falling gradient, with minimum detected values at 50 cm depth. The spatial distribution of Cr does not reveal any significant differences. Relatively big levels are due to the presence in the soil of Chromium-rich minerals such as augite and olivine. Mn and Cu are found, due to local contribution, probably as a consequence of the use of copper compounds in agriculture

  5. Detection process of defects in a tube close to an adjacent element, especially in a heat exchanger

    On-site process for obtaining, by Foucault currents, the indication of a defect in a tube close to an adjacent element masking the indication of the defect. It is characterized by the course of a reference tube with an eddy current sensor near a similar adjacent element in order to obtain an indication of reference eddy currents of the adjacent element first mentioned, the completion of a joint crossover of the above first mentioned tube so as to obtain a composite indication of eddy currents of the defect and of the adjacent element, and the generation of the indication by eddy currents of the defect by comparing the composite indication with the reference indication

  6. Mercury concentrations in gafftopsail catfish and other fishes in waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From September 22-26, 1990, 20 gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) and 3 other fish species (n=4) were collected from marine waters adjacent to Hobe Sound National...

  7. Hydrography, Adjacent County lakes, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'Adjacent...

  8. Hydrography, adjacent county rivers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hydrography dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as 'adjacent...

  9. Study on relationship between historical volcanic eruptions and historical strong earthquakes in China and its adjacent regions

    1999-01-01

    This thesis lists and describes 6 pairs of tectonic events, i.e., historical volcanic eruptions associated with historical strong earthquakes, based on the analysis for the records of historical volcanic eruptions and historical strong earthquakes in China and its adjacent region since the first record. And discusses the relationship between historical eruptions and strong earthquakes by means of analyzing the characteristics of tectonic events themselves, plate movement, regional seismicity, and regional stress environment in China and its adjacent region.

  10. Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate chang...

  11. Tsunami Ready Recognition Program for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Launched in 2015

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Hinds, K.; Aliaga, B.; Brome, A.; Lopes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years with 4,561 associated deaths according to the NOAA Tsunami Database. The most recent devastating tsunamis occurred in 1946 in Dominican Republic; 1865 died. With the explosive increase in residents, tourists, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coasts, the potential for human and economic loss is enormous. It has been estimated that on any day, more than 500,000 people in the Caribbean could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. In 2005 the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG CARIBE EWS) to coordinate tsunami efforts among the 48 participating countries in territories in the region. In addition to monitoring, modeling and communication systems, one of the fundamental components of the warning system is community preparedness, readiness and resilience. Over the past 10 years 49 coastal communities in the Caribbean have been recognized as TsunamiReady® by the US National Weather Service (NWS) in the case of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and jointly by UNESCO and NWS in the case of the non US jurisdictions of Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands. In response to the positive feedback of the implementation of TsunamiReady, the ICG CARIBE EWS in 2015 recommended the approval of the guidelines for a Community Performance Based Recognition program. It also recommended the adoption of the name "Tsunami Ready", which has been positively consulted with the NWS. Ten requirements were established for recognition and are divided among Preparedness, Mitigation and Response elements which were adapted from the proposed new US TsunamiReady guidelines and align well with emergency management functions. Both a

  12. Short curcumin treatment modulates oxidative stress, arginase activity, aberrant crypt foci, and TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Highlights: ► 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) toxicity was driven by oxidative stress. ► Arginase activity correlated to aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ► Curcumin diet restored redox status and induced apoptosis of dysplastic ACF. ► Curcumin reduced arginase activity and up regulated TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts. -- Abstract: This study investigated the effect of short curcumin treatment, a natural antioxidant on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice. The incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was 100%, with 54 ± 6 per colon, 10 weeks after the first DMH injection and reached 67 ± 12 per colon after 12 weeks. A high level of undifferentiated goblet cells and a weak apoptotic activity were shown in dysplastic ACF. The morphological alterations of colonic mucosa were associated to severe oxidative stress ratio with 43% increase in malondialdehyde vs. 36% decrease in GSH. DMH also increased inducible nitric synthase (iNOS) mRNA transcripts (250%), nitrites level (240%) and arginase activity (296%), leading to nitrosative stress and cell proliferation. Curcumin treatment, starting at week 10 post-DMH injection for 14 days, reduced the number of ACF (40%), iNOS expression (25%) and arginase activity (73%), and improved redox status by approximately 46%, compared to DMH-treated mice. Moreover, curcumin induced apoptosis of dysplastic ACF cells without restoring goblet cells differentiation. Interestingly, curcumin induced a parallel increase in TGF-β1 and HES-1 transcripts (42% and 26%, respectively). In conclusion, the protective effect of curcumin was driven by the reduction of arginase activity and nitrosative stress. The up regulation of TGF-β1 and HES-1 expression by curcumin suggests for the first time, a potential interplay between these signalling pathways in the chemoprotective mechanism of curcumin.

  13. Milne problem in two adjacent half-spaces in neutron transport theory in two energy groups

    Case's method, combined with invariance principle, is used to obtain exact solutions of neutron transport problems in two adjacent half-spaces, in the two-group isotropic scattering model. The continuity condition and the invariance principle are used to obtain a set of coupled regular integral equations for the angular distribution at the interface. The expansion coefficients can be obtained from the solutions of these integral equations using the orthogonality properties of the eigen functions. Numerical results are presented for the Milne and the Constant Source problems for pure and borated light water media. The results show the feasibility of the proposed method to provide exact numerical results which can be used as standards of comparison for various approximate methods

  14. Hydromagnetic flow and heat transfer adjacent to a stretching vertical sheet in a micropolar fluid

    Yacob Nor Azizah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out for the steady two-dimensional mixed convection flow adjacent to a stretching vertical sheet immersed in an incompressible electrically conducting micropolar fluid. The stretching velocity and the surface temperature are assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the leading edge. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller box method. The effects of magnetic and material parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are discussed. It is found that the magnetic field reduces both the skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer rate at the surface for any given K and λ. Conversely, both of them increase as the material parameter increases for fixed values of M and λ.

  15. Aerial surveys of seals at Rødsand seal sanctuary and adjacent haul-out sites

    Teilmann, J.; Dietz, R.; Edren, Susi M.C.;

    This report describes the preliminary results of aerial surveys at Rødsand seal sanctuary, southeast Denmark and adjacent seal haul-out sites in southwestern Baltic. The work was carried out in connection with studies of potential effects of the Nysted offshore wind farm. Rødsand seal sanctuary...... is a part of seal management area 4, and the area is believed to hold a more or less closed population with little exchange to other areas. Although the harbour seal is relatively stationary there may be movements between the haul-out sites in the area. A possible reaction to disturbance from...... the construction and operation of the wind farm may be that the seals use other haul-out sites to a higher extend....

  16. Bone reactions adjacent to titanium implants subjected to static load. A study in the dog (I)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lateral static load induced by an expansion force on the bone/implant interface and adjacent peri-implant bone. In 3 beagle dogs, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars were extracted bilaterally. Twelve weeks later 8 implants of the ITI Dental...... Implant System were placed in each dog. Crowns connected in pairs were screwed on the implants 12 weeks after implant installation. The connected crowns contained an orthodontic expansion screw yielding 4 loading units in each dog. Clinical registrations, standardized radiographs and fluorochrome labeling...... were carried out during the 24-week loading period. Biopsies were harvested and processed for ground sectioning. The sections were subjected to histological examination. No evident marginal bone loss was observed at either test or control sites. The bone density and the mineralized bone-to-implant...

  17. SOIL AND “CERRADO” TREES NUTRIENTS AND METALS IN ADJACENT SANITARY LANDFILL AREA

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research verified the influence of a Sanitary Landfill located at the Jockey Club of the Brasilia City (JCB on the chemical contents in the tree species of “Cerrado”. Six 25 x 500 m blocks were established in the PNB to sample the soil and the trees to chemical analysis. Three blocks were established near the landfill area and three in the control area. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, lead, chromium, copper and mercury were analyzed. The highest nutrients and metals concentrations in soil were sampled in landfill adjacent area. The significant, crescent and directly proportional relationship (R2 > 0.80; p < 0.001 were observed between the elements concentration analyzed in soil with the leaves tissues. Therefore, the studied landfill presences increased nutrients and metals concentrations in soil and leaf tissue, fact that did not occur in the control area.

  18. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Karlsson, Lena;

    2012-01-01

    amount of milk without fluoride. The intervention period was 12 weeks and the end-point was mineral gain or loss in enamel, assessed by QLF on two selected sites from each individual. The attrition rate was 12.5% and 112 sites were included in the final evaluation. Results. There was no statistically......Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic...... treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (~ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same...

  19. Spatiotemporal distribution of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos in the Amur Liman and adjacent sea areas

    Karetnikova, E. A.; Garetova, L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the abundance and the ecological-trophic structure of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos communities in the Amur Liman and adjacent waters collected in June 2007 have been compared to the relevant data of 2006. Interyear changes of bacterioplankton abundance have been found to depend on the intensity of the Amur River runoff. Correlation analysis has revealed a negative dependence of the abundance of bacterioplankton, bacteriobenthos, and their ecological-trophic groups on water salinity, as well as direct relations between these biotic components and organic matter in water and bottom sediments. The microbiological indicators of water quality ranked the studied waters as classes III-IV in 2006 and as classes II-III in 2007. The high total abundance of bacteriobenthos (109-1010 cells/g) is a result of the functioning of a marginal filter rather than the direct pollution of the liman.

  20. Possible use of a BGO array for neutron stimulated emission computed tomography by summing adjacent signals

    Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is a new approach for biological spectroscopy and imaging. Since the gamma-ray photons emitted from stimulated element have energies from 100 keV to about 6 MeV, previous reports have proposed that the projection path can be defined by the neutron beam. In this paper, another possible method has been applied and the performance presented through simulations. When using signals from a single BGO crystal it is impossible to achieve good energy resolution for such high-energy photons. When summing additional signals from adjacent crystals, the energy spectrum becomes much better. Using an energy window with energy resolution of 90 keV, an average intrinsic spatial resolution of 3.938 mm FWHM is obtained

  1. Florisitic summary of 'Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada', second edition

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The second edition of the Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada by Gleason and Cronquist (1991) is the most recent and up-to-date taxonomic treatment of the flora of that region. Since no floristic summary of the Manual was included in the publication, a computer analysis of the taxonomic data of the Manual was performed in order to generate a floristic summary. Totals of 4285 species, 1091 genera, and 191 families were tabulated. The largest genus was Carex, with 230 species; the largest family was the Asteraceae, with 528 species. Comparisons made with earlier floras of the same region indicated small declines on the order of 10% for these taxonomic groups.

  2. Geochemical changes at the Permian–Triassic transition in Southern Alps and adjacent area: a review

    Aymon Baud

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Compilation of the recent literature from the Southern Alps and adjacent area confirms the geochemical variations of unusual amplitudes during the Permian-Triassic boundary interval (PTBI. A great attention has been given to the negative δ13C anomaly within the Tesero Member close to the Permian-Triassic boundary. Very detailed geochemical works have been done on the scientific Gartnerkofel core (Gk-1 and on the Slovenian sections. Major minor and rare earth elements (REE data are reported and show a marked enrichment in alkaline metals and REE of some levels of the boundary interval. But recent studies show that the low Iridium anomalies and the Osmium and Helium isotopes anomalies lack the characteristics of a large extraterrestrial impact.

  3. Filler-depletion layer adjacent to interface impacts performance of thermal interface material

    Susumu Yada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When installing thermal interface material (TIM between heat source and sink to reduce contact thermal resistance, the interfacial thermal resistance (ITR between the TIM and heat source/sink may become important, especially when the TIM thickness becomes smaller in the next-generation device integration. To this end, we have investigated ITR between TIM and aluminum surface by using the time-domain thermoreflectance method. The measurements reveal large ITR attributed to the depletion of filler particles in TIM adjacent to the aluminum surface. The thickness of the depletion layer is estimated to be about 100 nm. As a consequence, the fraction of ITR to the total contact thermal resistance becomes about 20% when the TIM thickness is about 50 μm (current thickness, and it exceeds 50% when the thickness is smaller than 10 μm (next-generation thickness.

  4. Lateral gas transport in soil adjacent to an old landfill: factors governing emissions and methane oxidation

    Christophersen, Mette; Kjeldsen, Peter; Holst, Helle;

    2001-01-01

    observed. This was attributed to methane oxidation. Diurnal measurements during a drop in barometric pressure showed that the fluxes of landfill gas changed dramatically within a very short time. The concentrations and the soil moisture content in the upper part of the soil profile had significant...... influence on the fluxes, as did the distance from the landfill border, temperature, barometric pressure and the pressure gradient. Statistical analyses proved that soil moisture described the largest part of the variation. No methane at all emitted during the summer. Calculations and isotope analyses showed......Field investigations of lateral gas transport and subsequent emissions in soil adjacent to an old landfill in Denmark have been conducted during a one-year period. A significant seasonal variation in the emissions with high carbon dioxide and low methane fluxes in the summer (May to October) was...

  5. Chase-and-run between adjacent cell populations promotes directional collective migration

    Theveneau, Eric; Steventon, Benjamin; Scarpa, Elena; Garcia, Simon; Trepat, Xavier; Streit, Andrea; Mayor, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration in morphogenesis and cancer progression often involves the coordination of multiple cell types. How reciprocal interactions between adjacent cell populations lead to new emergent behaviours remains unknown. Here we studied the interaction between Neural Crest (NC) cells, a highly migratory cell population, and placodal cells, an epithelial tissue that contributes to sensory organs. We found that NC cells “chase” placodal cells by chemotaxis, while placodal cells “run” when contacted by NC. Chemotaxis to Sdf1 underlies the chase, while repulsion involving PCP and N-Cadherin signalling is responsible for the run. This “chase-and-run” requires the generation of asymmetric forces, which depend on local inhibition of focal adhesions. The cell interactions described here are essential for correct NC migration and for segregation of placodes in vivo and are likely to represent a general mechanism of coordinated migration. PMID:23770678

  6. Norway and adjacent sedimentary basins during Cenozoic times - sediment fluxes, accumulation rates and mass balance

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2011-01-01

    stable Eocene epoch. Furthermore, histograms of depositional rates in the study area show a common feature with global patterns, that is a few-fold increase in sediment production during last 3-4 million years. This correlates well with the climate cooling, increased frequency of climate change and...... use offshore data from adjacent sedimentary basins (the North Sea and the Norwegian shelf) to calculate the amount of erosion. We have used a broad dataset of seismic 2D lines to map depositional units and a well dataset for the stratigraphic control and the velocity distribution in the sediments. We...... have therefore obtained accumulation rates in meters per million years for 5 depositional units in three areas - Southern North Sea, Central and Northern North Sea and the Norwegian shelf. Furthermore, taking into account the decay of porosity in sediments with burial depth, we have estimated the...

  7. Modeling the average shortest-path length in growth of word-adjacency networks

    Kulig, Andrzej; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; OświÈ©cimka, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We investigate properties of evolving linguistic networks defined by the word-adjacency relation. Such networks belong to the category of networks with accelerated growth but their shortest-path length appears to reveal the network size dependence of different functional form than the ones known so far. We thus compare the networks created from literary texts with their artificial substitutes based on different variants of the Dorogovtsev-Mendes model and observe that none of them is able to properly simulate the novel asymptotics of the shortest-path length. Then, we identify the local chainlike linear growth induced by grammar and style as a missing element in this model and extend it by incorporating such effects. It is in this way that a satisfactory agreement with the empirical result is obtained.

  8. Modeling the average shortest-path length in growth of word-adjacency networks.

    Kulig, Andrzej; Drożdż, Stanisław; Kwapień, Jarosław; Oświȩcimka, Paweł

    2015-03-01

    We investigate properties of evolving linguistic networks defined by the word-adjacency relation. Such networks belong to the category of networks with accelerated growth but their shortest-path length appears to reveal the network size dependence of different functional form than the ones known so far. We thus compare the networks created from literary texts with their artificial substitutes based on different variants of the Dorogovtsev-Mendes model and observe that none of them is able to properly simulate the novel asymptotics of the shortest-path length. Then, we identify the local chainlike linear growth induced by grammar and style as a missing element in this model and extend it by incorporating such effects. It is in this way that a satisfactory agreement with the empirical result is obtained. PMID:25871160

  9. Mind the edge! The role of adjacency matrix degeneration in maximum entropy weighted network models

    Sagarra, Oleguer; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Complex network null models based on entropy maximization are becoming a powerful tool to characterize and analyze data from real systems. However, it is not easy to extract good and unbiased information from these models: A proper understanding of the nature of the underlying events represented in them is crucial. In this paper we emphasize this fact stressing how an accurate counting of configurations compatible with given constraints is fundamental to build good null models for the case of networks with integer valued adjacency matrices constructed from aggregation of one or multiple layers. We show how different assumptions about the elements from which the networks are built give rise to distinctively different statistics, even when considering the same observables to match those of real data. We illustrate our findings by applying the formalism to three datasets using an open-source software package accompanying the present work and demonstrate how such differences are clearly seen when measuring networ...

  10. MRI of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tears and associated adjacent interspace lesions

    To identify the variety of second and third intermetatarsal space (IS) lesions that may coexist with and without adjacent metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) plantar plate (PP) tears. One hundred forefoot MRIs in 96 patients with metatarsalgia obtained between 30 September 2011 and 21 July 2012 using 1.5- or 3-T MRI were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two MSK radiologists and one podiatrist (DPM). MRI was evaluated for second and third MTP PP tear and the presence/nature of second and third IS lesions. Second and third IS neuromas were measured in transverse (trans) dimension. A total of 40 PP tears were identified: 36 at the second and 4 at the third MTP. Second MTP PP tear was identified in 33 % of females and 40.5 % of males. In the 63 female feet there were 21 second MTP PP tears, all of which also had second IS lesions: pericapsular fibrosis (16), bursitis (4), and ganglion (1). In the 37 male feet there were 15 second MTP PP tears, 14 of which had second IS lesions: pericapsular fibrosis (8), bursitis (5), and ganglion (1). There was no definite second IS neuroma adjacent to any second MTP PP tear. In females without PP tear, there were 24 second (3 mm trans average) and 43 third IS neuromas (4.1 mm trans average). In males without PP tear, there were 9 second (3.4 mm trans average) and 16 third IS neuromas (4.1 mm trans average). MTP PP tears occurred in 40 % of our cases, 90 % of which occurred at the second MTP. Almost all coexisted with non-neuromatous second IS lesions. (orig.)

  11. Characteristics of late hercynian magmatic activity and its formation mechanism in Nanpanjiang depression and adjacent areas

    Based on the distribution and petrochemistry of magmatic rocks, the technic background of sedimentary basin and the mechanism of magmatic activity at the Late Hercynian in Nanpanjiang depression and its adjacent areas, southern China, have been studied. The results indicate: (1) The distribution of magmatic rocks shows the feature that in the middle and western part of the study area basic igneous rocks dominate, and in the middle-eastern part intermediate rocks are predominant, while in the southeastern part acid ones are developed. (2) In the area west to the Shiwandashan basin, intermediate magmatites were controlled by deep NE-striking and NW-striking faults, especially as the conjunction site of these two group faults, magmatic activity was strong; and its tectonic background can be attributed to extensional continental rift. On the contrary, in the area east to the Shiwandashan basin, intermediate-acid magmatites were developed and controlled by Qingfang orogenic belt resulting from the Dongwu movement and its tectonic background can be identified as the orogenic belt of continental margin or island arc. (3) The model of magmatic activity has been determined as follows: at the end of Early Permian, under the action of strong tension of the crust in the middle and western part of the study area, the Yangzhi plate was obducted southeastward onto the Yunkai terrane, leading to the closure of Qingfang oceanic trough and the occurrence of continent-continent collision along the NE-trending Bobai-Chengxi fault belt. The dynamics source might be associated with 'the basalt province of E-mei Mountain' adjacent to the study area, and the mechanism of magmatic activity reflected the sedimentary features of Late Hercynian basins. (authors)

  12. MRI of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate tears and associated adjacent interspace lesions

    Umans, Hilary [Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Lenox Hill Radiology Imaging and Associates, Bronx, NY (United States); Srinivasan, Ramya; Elsinger, Elisabeth [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Wilde, Gregory E. [Lenox Hill Radiology Imaging and Associates, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    To identify the variety of second and third intermetatarsal space (IS) lesions that may coexist with and without adjacent metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) plantar plate (PP) tears. One hundred forefoot MRIs in 96 patients with metatarsalgia obtained between 30 September 2011 and 21 July 2012 using 1.5- or 3-T MRI were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two MSK radiologists and one podiatrist (DPM). MRI was evaluated for second and third MTP PP tear and the presence/nature of second and third IS lesions. Second and third IS neuromas were measured in transverse (trans) dimension. A total of 40 PP tears were identified: 36 at the second and 4 at the third MTP. Second MTP PP tear was identified in 33 % of females and 40.5 % of males. In the 63 female feet there were 21 second MTP PP tears, all of which also had second IS lesions: pericapsular fibrosis (16), bursitis (4), and ganglion (1). In the 37 male feet there were 15 second MTP PP tears, 14 of which had second IS lesions: pericapsular fibrosis (8), bursitis (5), and ganglion (1). There was no definite second IS neuroma adjacent to any second MTP PP tear. In females without PP tear, there were 24 second (3 mm trans average) and 43 third IS neuromas (4.1 mm trans average). In males without PP tear, there were 9 second (3.4 mm trans average) and 16 third IS neuromas (4.1 mm trans average). MTP PP tears occurred in 40 % of our cases, 90 % of which occurred at the second MTP. Almost all coexisted with non-neuromatous second IS lesions. (orig.)

  13. Ambiguities in the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei

    Ratios of the cross sections for elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei are measured over the angular range ∼20 degree - 160 degree for the target pairs 51V/Cr, 59Co/58Ni, Cu/Zn, 89Y/93Nb, 89Y/Zr, 93Nb/Zr, In/Cd and 209Bi/Pb. The observed ratios vary from unity by as much as a factor of ∼2 at some angles for the lighter target pairs. Approximately half the measured ratios are reasonably explained by a simple spherical optical model, including size and isospin contributions. In all cases, the geometry of the real optical--model potential is essentially the same for neighboring nuclei, and the real--potential strengths are consistent with the Lane model. In contrast, it is found that the imaginary potential may be quite different for adjacent nuclei, and the nature of this difference is examined. It is shown that the spin--spin interaction has a negligible effect on the calculation of the elastic--scattering ratios, but that channel coupling, leading to a large reorientation of the target ground state, can be a consideration, particularly in the 59Co/58Ni case. In the A ∼ 50--60 region the calculated ratios are sensitive to spin--orbit effects, but the exact nature of this interaction must await more definitive polarization measurements. The measured and calculated results suggest that the concept of a conventional ''global'' or even ''regional'' optical potential provides no more than a qualitative representation of the physical reality for a number of cases. 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Evidence for a thick oceanic crust adjacent to the Norwegian Margin

    Mutter, John C.; Talwani, Manik; Stoffa, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    The oceanic crust created during this first few million years of accretion in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea lies at an unusually shallow depth for its age, has a smooth upper surface, and in many places the results of multichannel seismic reflection profiling reveal that its upper layers comprise a remarkable sequence of arcuate, seaward-dipping reflectors. These have been attributed to lava flows generated during a brief period of subaerial seafloor spreading. We describe the results of inversions of digitally recorded sonobuoy measurements and two-ship expanded spread profiles collected over the oceanic crust adjacent to the Norwegian passive margin. We find that the crust of the deep Lofoten Basin is indistinguishable from normal oceanic crust in thickness and structure. Closer to the margin we observe up to a four times expansion in thickness of layers with velocities equal to those of oceanic layer 2, while the layer 3 region retains approximately the same thickness. The area over which the seaward-dipping reflectors can be observed on reflection profiles corresponds to the region of greatest expansion in "Layer 2" thickness. In the very oldest crust immediately adjacent to an escarpment that probably marks the continent-ocean boundary, we see evidence for a low velocity zone overlying an indistinct reflector that may mark the dyke-lava interface in the thick crust. Comparing the structure of the thick crust to that of eastern Iceland, we find a strong resemblance, especially in the expansion in thickness of material with layer 2 velocities. These results support the suggestion that during the earliest stages of spreading extrusive volcanism at the ridge crest was unusually voluminous, building a thick pile of lavas erupted from a subaerial spreading center.

  15. Human papilloma viruses and cervical tumours: mapping of integration sites and analysis of adjacent cellular sequences

    In cervical tumours the integration of human papilloma viruses (HPV) transcripts often results in the generation of transcripts that consist of hybrids of viral and cellular sequences. Mapping data using a variety of techniques has demonstrated that HPV integration occurred without obvious specificity into human genome. However, these techniques could not demonstrate whether integration resulted in the generation of transcripts encoding viral or viral-cellular sequences. The aim of this work was to map the integration sites of HPV DNA and to analyse the adjacent cellular sequences. Amplification of the INTs was done by the APOT technique. The APOT products were sequenced according to standard protocols. The analysis of the sequences was performed using BLASTN program and public databases. To localise the INTs PCR-based screening of GeneBridge4-RH-panel was used. Twelve cellular sequences adjacent to integrated HPV16 (INT markers) expressed in squamous cell cervical carcinomas were isolated. For 11 INT markers homologous human genomic sequences were readily identified and 9 of these showed significant homologies to known genes/ESTs. Using the known locations of homologous cDNAs and the RH-mapping techniques, mapping studies showed that the INTs are distributed among different human chromosomes for each tumour sample and are located in regions with the high levels of expression. Integration of HPV genomes occurs into the different human chromosomes but into regions that contain highly transcribed genes. One interpretation of these studies is that integration of HPV occurs into decondensed regions, which are more accessible for integration of foreign DNA

  16. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and along the coast will also be addressed. With the support of Member States and other countries and organizations it has been possible to significantly expand the sea level network thus reducing the amount of time it now takes to verify tsunamis.

  17. Functional importance of different patterns of correlation between adjacent cassette exons in human and mouse

    Zhang Xuegong

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing expands transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in regulation of gene expression. Previous studies focus on the regulation of a single cassette exon, but recent experiments indicate that multiple cassette exons within a gene may interact with each other. This interaction can increase the potential to generate various transcripts and adds an extra layer of complexity to gene regulation. Several cases of exon interaction have been discovered. However, the extent to which the cassette exons coordinate with each other remains unknown. Results Based on EST data, we employed a metric of correlation coefficients to describe the interaction between two adjacent cassette exons and then categorized these exon pairs into three different groups by their interaction (correlation patterns. Sequence analysis demonstrates that strongly-correlated groups are more conserved and contain a higher proportion of pairs with reading frame preservation in a combinatorial manner. Multiple genome comparison further indicates that different groups of correlated pairs have different evolutionary courses: (1 The vast majority of positively-correlated pairs are old, (2 most of the weakly-correlated pairs are relatively young, and (3 negatively-correlated pairs are a mixture of old and young events. Conclusion We performed a large-scale analysis of interactions between adjacent cassette exons. Compared with weakly-correlated pairs, the strongly-correlated pairs, including both the positively and negatively correlated ones, show more evidence that they are under delicate splicing control and tend to be functionally important. Additionally, the positively-correlated pairs bear strong resemblance to constitutive exons, which suggests that they may evolve from ancient constitutive exons, while negatively and weakly correlated pairs are more likely to contain newly emerging exons.

  18. Determining the influence of Itaipu Lake on thermal conditions for soybean development in adjacent lands

    Wagner-Riddle, C.; Werner, S. S.; Caramori, P.; Ricce, W. S.; Nitsche, P.; von Bertoldi, P.; de Souza, E. F.

    2015-10-01

    Previous numerical simulations have suggested that the area adjacent to Itaipu Lake in Southern Brazil is significantly affecting the local thermal regime through development of a lake breeze. This has led to concerns that soybean growth and development, and consequently yield, has been affected by the creation of the artificial lake in this important agricultural region, but a systematic climatological study of the thermal effects of Itaipu Lake has not been conducted. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial pattern of minimum and maximum air temperatures in a 10-km-wide area adjacent to Itaipu Lake as affected by distance from the water. Measurements were conducted over 3 years in seven transects along the shore of Itaipu Lake, with five weather stations placed in each transect. Phenological observations in soybean fields surrounding the weather stations were also conducted. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) analysis indicated no difference in the temperature time series as distance from water increased. Semivariograms showed that the random components in the air temperature were predominant and that there was no spatial structure to the signal. Wind direction measured over the three growing seasons demonstrated that, on average, the development of a lake breeze is limited to a few locations and a few hours of the day, supporting the temporal and spatial analysis. Phenological observations did not show differences in the timing of critical soybean stages. We suggest that the concerns that soybean development is potentially affected by the presence of Itaipu Lake are not supported by the thermal environment observed.

  19. A modified Kelvin impact model for pounding simulation of base-isolated building with adjacent structures

    Ye Kun; Li Li; Zhu Hongping

    2009-01-01

    Base isolation can effectively reduce the seismic forces on a superstructure, particularly in low- to medium-rise buildings. However, under strong near-fault ground motions, pounding may occur at the isolation level between the base-isolated building (BIB) and its surrounding retaining walls. To effectively investigate the behavior of the BIB pounding with adjacent structures, after assessing some commonly used impact models, a modified Kelvin impact model is proposed in this paper. Relevant parameters in the modified Kelvin model are theoretically derived and numerically verified through a simple pounding case. At the same time, inelasticity of the isolated superstructure is introduced in order to accurately evaluate the potential damage to the superstructure caused by the pounding of the BIB with adjacent structures. The reliability of the modified Kelvin impact model is validated through numerical comparisons with other impact models. However, the difference between the numerical results from the various impact analytical models is not significant. Many numerical simulations of BIBs are conducted to investigate the influence of various design parameters and conditions on the peak inter-story drills and floor accelerations during pounding. It is shown that pounding can substantially increase floor accelerations, especially at the ground floor where impacts occur. Higher modes of vibration are excited during poundings, increasing the inter-story drifts instead of keeping a nearly rigid-body motion of the superstructure. Furthermore, higher ductility demands can be imposed on lower floors of the superstructure. Moreover, impact stiffness seems to play a significant role in the acceleration response at the isolation level and the inter-story drifts of lower floors of the superstructure. Finally, the numerical results show that excessive flexibility of the isolation system used to minimize the floor accelerations may cause the BIB to be more susceptible to pounding

  20. Exploration and Study of Deep Crustal Structure in the Quanzhou Basin and Its Adjacent Area

    Zhu Jinfang; Fang Shengming; Zhang Xiankang; Qu Guosheng; Huang Zonglin; Hong Xing; Liu Baojin; Yang Zhuoxin; Duan Yonghong

    2006-01-01

    The Quanzhou basin and its adjacent areas locate in the middle of the southeastern coast seismic belt on the Chinese mainland. The very fine geometry structure of this area from near ground to Moho interface and the relationship between the deep and shallow faults are obtained based on deep seismic reflection profiling. This profile is the first deep seismic reflection profile in this area and it indicates that the crust can be divided into the upper crust and the lower crust and the thickness of crust is from 29.5 km to 31 km in this area. The upper crust and the lower crust can be also divided into two layers. There are shallow normal faults developed in the upper crust and extending to the depth from 6 km to 12 km. The angle of those listric faults decreases with depth and the faults joint into the C1 interface (detachment surface). There is a high angle fault under the Yong'an-Jinjiang fault belt which cuts off the interface of the upper crust and the lower crust and the Moho interface. Although there is no connection between the shallow and the deep faults, it offers deep structural environment for moderate and strong earthquake because of the deep high angle fault. This exploration result improves the reliability and precision of explanation of deep crustal structure in this area. The pull-apart and listric normal fault model indicates that the upper crust structure accords to the dynamic process of Taiwan Straits. This is helpful for seismicity estimation of Quanzhou and its adjacent area and important for obtaining more of the dynamic process of the southeast coast seismic belt.