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Sample records for adjacent pericarcinomatous foci

  1. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  2. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Malek, M.A.; Hammani, A.; Beneldjouzi, A.; Bitam, I.

    2014-01-01

    In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8%) rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  3. Regulatory foci and the big five

    Bak, Waclaw

    2009-01-01

    The distinction between promotion and prevention focus (Higgins, 1997) have been employed by many researchers dealing with processes of self-regulation. Little is known however about relations between regulatory orientations and more general personality traits. The present paper reports results of the study in which regulatory foci are analyzed in the context of five factor model of personality. To measure personality traits the NEO-FFI was used. Promotion and prevention regulatory foci was a...

  4. Localized air foci in the lower thorax in the patients with pneumothorax: Skip pneumothoraces

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and imaging features of localized air foci in the lower thorax in patients with pneumothorax using thin-section multidetector computed tomography. Materials and methods: Of 10,547 consecutive CT examinations comprising the chest, the CT scans of 146 patients with ordinary pneumothoraces were identified and retrospectively evaluated. The study group included 110 male and 36 female patients (mean age, 50 years; range, 1–93 years). All examinations were performed at our institution between January 2009 and December 2009. Cause of pneumothorax was classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. Localized air foci in the lower thorax were defined as being localized air collections in the lower thorax that did not appear to be adjacent to the lung. If these criteria were met, the shape, size, location laterality, and number of foci were evaluated. Associations with trauma, sex, severity of the pneumothorax, and laterality were evaluated using the χ2 test. All P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Localized air foci in the lower thorax presented as slit-like or small ovoid air collections in the lowest part of the pleural space. These foci were observed in 79/146 (54.1%) patients. The traumatic pneumothoraces group showed a higher prevalence of these features than the non-traumatic group. Some foci that were situated in the anterior part mimicked the appearance of free intraperitoneal air. Conclusion: Patients with pneumothorax commonly had localized air foci in the lower thorax. Because such foci can mimic pneumoperitoneum, accurate recognition of them is required to avoid confusion with free intraperitoneal air, especially in traumatic cases

  5. Localized air foci in the lower thorax in the patients with pneumothorax: Skip pneumothoraces

    Higuchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Takahashi, Naoya, E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takao, E-mail: takakig@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Shiotani, Motoi, E-mail: Shiotani14@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Niigata Cancer Center Hospital, 2-15-3 Chuo-ku, Kawagishicho, Niigata 951-8566 (Japan); Maeda, Haruo, E-mail: h-maeda@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and imaging features of localized air foci in the lower thorax in patients with pneumothorax using thin-section multidetector computed tomography. Materials and methods: Of 10,547 consecutive CT examinations comprising the chest, the CT scans of 146 patients with ordinary pneumothoraces were identified and retrospectively evaluated. The study group included 110 male and 36 female patients (mean age, 50 years; range, 1–93 years). All examinations were performed at our institution between January 2009 and December 2009. Cause of pneumothorax was classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. Localized air foci in the lower thorax were defined as being localized air collections in the lower thorax that did not appear to be adjacent to the lung. If these criteria were met, the shape, size, location laterality, and number of foci were evaluated. Associations with trauma, sex, severity of the pneumothorax, and laterality were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test. All P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Localized air foci in the lower thorax presented as slit-like or small ovoid air collections in the lowest part of the pleural space. These foci were observed in 79/146 (54.1%) patients. The traumatic pneumothoraces group showed a higher prevalence of these features than the non-traumatic group. Some foci that were situated in the anterior part mimicked the appearance of free intraperitoneal air. Conclusion: Patients with pneumothorax commonly had localized air foci in the lower thorax. Because such foci can mimic pneumoperitoneum, accurate recognition of them is required to avoid confusion with free intraperitoneal air, especially in traumatic cases.

  6. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Adjacent segment disease.

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  8. Gordian adjacency for torus knots

    Feller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A knot K is called Gordian adjacent to a knot L if there exists an unknotting sequence for L containing K. We provide a sufficient condition for Gordian adjacency of torus knots via the study of knots in the thickened torus. We also completely describe Gordian adjacency for torus knots of index 2 and 3 using Levine-Tristram signatures as obstructions to Gordian adjacency. Finally, Gordian adjacency for torus knots is compared to the notion of adjacency for plane curve singularities.

  9. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, th...

  10. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  11. Understanding the persistence of plague foci in Madagascar.

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-11-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  12. Molecular mechanisms in DM1 - a focus on foci

    Pettersson, Olof Joakim; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G.; Damgaard, Christian Kroun

    2015-01-01

    -expanded RNA remains in the nuclear compartment, while in dividing cells such as fibroblasts a considerable fraction of the mutant RNA reaches the cytoplasm, consistent with findings that both nuclear and cytoplasmic events are mis-regulated in DM1. Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear aggregates, or...... ribonuclear foci, are more dynamic than previously anticipated and regulated by several proteins, including RNA helicases. In this review, we focus on the homeostasis of DMPK mRNA foci and discuss how their dynamic regulation may affect disease-causing mechanisms in DM1...

  13. Three-dimensional array foci of generalized Fibonacci photon sieves

    Zhang, Junyong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2015-01-01

    We present a new kind of photon sieves on the basis of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. The required numbers and locations of axial foci can be designed by generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS). Furthermore, the three-dimensional array foci can be controllable and adjustable by the optical path difference scaling factor (OPDSF) when the amplitude modulation is replaced with the phase modulation. Multi-focal technologies can be applied to nano-imaging, THZ, laser communications, direct laser writing, optical tweezers or atom trapping, etc.

  14. Multiple hepatic foci in latent porphyria cutanea tarda

    A 41-year-old patient with latent porphyria cutanea tarda is described; 8 years after mastectomy for carcinoma, sonography and CT showed multiple hepatic foci, which were at first interpreted as liver metastases. A liver biopsy was carried out during laparoscopy and u/v fluorescence and subsequent laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Treatment with Resochin produced almost complete resolution of the liver abnormalities within 9 months. Magnetic resonance tomography using proton-weighted SE sequences showed a few foci of high signal intensity. (orig.)

  15. Multiple hepatic foci in latent porphyria cutanea tarda

    Kerjes, W.; Harder, T.; Steudel, A.; Hartlapp, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    A 41-year-old patient with latent porphyria cutanea tarda is described; 8 years after mastectomy for carcinoma, sonography and CT showed multiple hepatic foci, which were at first interpreted as liver metastases. A liver biopsy was carried out during laparoscopy and u/v fluorescence and subsequent laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Treatment with Resochin produced almost complete resolution of the liver abnormalities within 9 months. Magnetic resonance tomography using proton-weighted SE sequences showed a few foci of high signal intensity.

  16. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells.

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  17. Optical imaging of visual cortex epileptic foci and propagation pathways.

    Haglund, Michael M

    2012-06-01

    Precise localization of neocortical epileptic foci is a complex problem that usually requires ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings; high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies; and/or invasive monitoring with implanted grid array electrodes. The exact ictal-onset site must be identified and removed to obtain the best opportunity for a seizure-free outcome. The goal of this study was to determine if high-resolution optical imaging could precisely identify neocortical epileptic foci and what role underlying neuroanatomic pathways played in the seizure propagation. Small acute epileptic foci (0.5 × 0.5 mm(2) ) were created in the primate visual neocortex and single-unit and surface EEG recordings were combined with optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye changes. Brief visual stimulation was used to evoke interictal bursts. In addition, different visually evoked epileptiform bursts were analyzed to determine the location of the epileptic focus. Spike-triggered averaging of the optical images associated with the surface EEG interictal bursts were analyzed to determine the exact location of the epileptic focus. Specific orientations of brief visual stimulation evoked different intensity optical changes and precisely localized the epileptic focus. Optical imaging identified individual epileptic foci that were <3 mm apart. The development of individual epileptic focus was monitored with optical imaging, which demonstrated excitatory activity at the focus with a surrounding zone of inhibitory-like activity. Propagation pathways outside of the inhibitory-like surround demonstrated alternating bands of excitation and inhibition with a pattern orthogonal to the ocular dominance columns. This experimental study demonstrates that optical imaging can precisely localize an epileptic focus, and provides excellent spatial resolution of the changes that

  18. Image-based modeling of radiation-induced foci

    Costes, Sylvain; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chen, James; Chou, William; Gascard, Philippe

    Several proteins involved in the response to DNA double strand breaks (DSB) form microscopically visible nuclear domains, or foci, after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced foci (RIF) are believed to be located where DNA damage occurs. To test this assumption, we used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the spatial distribution of DSB in human nuclei exposed to high or low-LET radiation. We then compared these predictions to the distribution patterns of three DNA damage sensing proteins, i.e. 53BP1, phosphorylated ATM and γH2AX in human mammary epithelial. The probability to induce DSB can be derived from DNA fragment data measured experimentally by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We first used this probability in Monte Carlo simulations to predict DSB locations in synthetic nuclei geometrically described by a complete set of human chromosomes, taking into account microscope optics from real experiments. Simulations showed a very good agreement for high-LET, predicting 0.7 foci/µm along the path of a 1 GeV/amu Fe particle against measurement of 0.69 to 0.82 foci/µm for various RIF 5 min following exposure (LET 150 keV/µm). On the other hand, discrepancies were shown in foci frequency for low-LET, with measurements 20One drawback using a theoretical model for the nucleus is that it assumes a simplistic and static pattern for DNA densities. However DNA damage pattern is highly correlated to DNA density pattern (i.e. the more DNA, the more likely to have a break). Therefore, we generalized our Monte Carlo approach to real microscope images, assuming pixel intensity of DAPI in the nucleus was directly proportional to the amount of DNA in that pixel. With such approach we could predict DNA damage pattern in real images on a per nucleus basis. Since energy is randomly deposited along high-LET particle paths, RIF along these paths should also be randomly distributed. As expected, simulations produced DNA-weighted random (Poisson) distributions. In

  19. [Foci of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Mesostigmata, Macronyssidae) and rat-mite dermatitis in Moscow].

    Lopatina, Iu V; Sokolova, T V; Niiazova, M V

    1992-01-01

    High density of the rat population in Moscow in 1990-1991 resulted in the appearance of Ornithonyssus bacoti foci and of cases of the rat-mite dermatitis in humans. A total of 36 foci of the disease were examined and eradicated. A method for the detection of such foci has been developed. Two types of foci are distinguished, communal and industrial, and their specific features as regards the rodent and mite populations and clinical features of dermatitis in humans are described. A system of measures for liquidation of foci of rat mites is suggested, including rat and mite eradication and treatment of the patients. Specific features of these measures for various types of foci and in case of a focus reappearance are enumerated. PMID:1299760

  20. Ultramicrostructure and clinical implications of satellite foci in front of the head of pterygium

    LIU Haixia; XIANG Nan; ZHOU Xiongwu; HU Weikun; LI Guigang; ZHANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    In our previous studies,grey satellite foci were found in the front of heads of pterygia.This research was designed to investigate the ultramicrostructure and clinical implications of these satellite foci.The satellite foci were observed and counted under slit lamp biomicroscope.The patients with eye pterygia were divided into groups in terms of occupation,sex,age,length of history,grade of congestion,and size of the heads.The SPSS 13.0 software was used for statistical analysis.The cap areas and satellite foci were ultramicrostructurally examined.Among the total 62 eyes with pterygium,satellite foci were found in 34.The overall incidence of satellite foci was 54.8%.There were no significant differences in incidence among the subjects of different sex,age,and length of history.There were significant differences in incidence among the patients of different occupation,grades of congestion,and size of heads.Higher grades of congestion,outdoor occupations and larger pterygium heads were associated with higher incidence of satellite foci.High grades of congestion and bigger heads were also correlated with the number of satellite foci.Length of history bore no correlation with number of satellite foci.Histologically,the components of the cap areas and the foci were identical,with both consisting of mass of active fibroblasts.The activated fibroblasts existed in the natural tissue planes between Bowman's layer and basal cell layer.The fibroblasts in the satellite foci and the cap areas of a pterygium show some features of tumor cells and may play a vital role in the development and progression of a pterygium.The presence and amount of satellite foci around a pterygium can be used as an indicator for the speed of its growth.

  1. Alterations of pH and Pi in seizure foci of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Previous investigations with positron-emission tomography have demonstrated that glucose uptake is diminished in seizure foci. This paper reports on P-31 MR studies performed on patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in order to determine if metabolic alterations were detectablein seizure foci. In seven of eight patients, the pH of the seizure foci was significantly higher than the pH of the control temporal lobe. In addition, the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration was significantly higher in the seizure foci. These metabolic changes indicate that P-31 MR spectroscopymight be useful in the investigation of epilepsy

  2. Incidental high-intensity foci in white matter on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    The clinical significance of high-intensity foci in the white matter on magnetic resonance images of the brain was studied in 351 adults. The foci frequently occurred in the corona radiata and centrum semiovale. The frequency and extent of the foci were closely related to age and to a previous history of cerebrovascular disease. Patients without such a history but with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. Patients without such a history but with risk factors for cerebrovascular disease tended to have these foci more frequently than those without risk factors. (orig.)

  3. Multistability in Chua's circuit with two stable node-foci

    Bao, B. C.; Li, Q. D.; Wang, N.; Xu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    Only using one-stage op-amp based negative impedance converter realization, a simplified Chua's diode with positive outer segment slope is introduced, based on which an improved Chua's circuit realization with more simpler circuit structure is designed. The improved Chua's circuit has identical mathematical model but completely different nonlinearity to the classical Chua's circuit, from which multiple attractors including coexisting point attractors, limit cycle, double-scroll chaotic attractor, or coexisting chaotic spiral attractors are numerically simulated and experimentally captured. Furthermore, with dimensionless Chua's equations, the dynamical properties of the Chua's system are studied including equilibrium and stability, phase portrait, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and attraction basin. The results indicate that the system has two symmetric stable nonzero node-foci in global adjusting parameter regions and exhibits the unusual and striking dynamical behavior of multiple attractors with multistability.

  4. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J.; Alegana, Victor A.; Caughlin, T. Trevor; zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W.; Smith, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model. PMID:27043913

  5. Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Containing Multiple Calcifed Foci: Unusual Presentation

    Leila Aghaghazvini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Schwannomas are benign neural tumors which arise from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the accessory nerve are rare lesions. The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI schwannomas relates to their location and extent: intracranial, jugular foramen, upper neck, or cervical spine. The extra cranial form is the least common reported. Calcified accessory schwannoma is rare. These lesions most often occur in the third to sixth decades of life. These tumors are slightly more common in women. "nCase presentation: We present a 37-year-old woman with a painless right posterior neck space mass which gradually appeared during one year. Except for mild numbness of the overlying skin of the mentioned mass, there were no other associated symptoms. Examination confirmed a 25 × 18mm, firm, mobile, non tender lump in the right posterior neck. Ultrasonography revealed a 30×20 mm hypo-echoic mass with multiple calcified foci and in color Doppler mild vascularity was detected. On contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck a 30×18mm heterogeneous enhancing mass with multiple calcified foci (on non contrast cuts was found posterior to the neck vessels and had displaced them anteriorly. No surrounding fat stranding or any other gross pathology was evident in the other neck spaces. "nAccording to the above findings, lymphadenopathy due to TB or less possibly, fungal infection, hemangioma, lymphangiomam, schwannoma were our differential diagnosis. Mass resection and histopathology revealed schwannoma of the accessory nerve with an unusual calcification presentation. No evidence of recurrence was detected after one year. "nDiscussion: The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI Schwannomas relates to their location and extent. The interesting point of this case was the unusual manifestation of accessory nerve schwannoma, not only because of its rarity but also because of its unusual calcification presentation and symptom-free appearance.  

  6. Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data.

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; DeLeenheer, Patrick; Tatem, Andrew J; Alegana, Victor A; Caughlin, T Trevor; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Lourenço, Christopher; Ruktanonchai, Corrine W; Smith, David L

    2016-04-01

    Humans move frequently and tend to carry parasites among areas with endemic malaria and into areas where local transmission is unsustainable. Human-mediated parasite mobility can thus sustain parasite populations in areas where they would otherwise be absent. Data describing human mobility and malaria epidemiology can help classify landscapes into parasite demographic sources and sinks, ecological concepts that have parallels in malaria control discussions of transmission foci. By linking transmission to parasite flow, it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination, as sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. Here, we identify putative malaria sources and sinks for pre-elimination Namibia using malaria parasite rate (PR) maps and call data records from mobile phones, using a steady-state analysis of a malaria transmission model to infer where infections most likely occurred. We also examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009. This comparison suggests that while transmission was spatially focal pre-elimination, the spatial distribution of cases changed as burden declined. The changing spatial distribution of burden could be due to importation, with cases focused around importation hotspots, or due to heterogeneous application of elimination effort. While this framework is an important step towards understanding progressive changes in malaria distribution and the role of subnational transmission dynamics in a policy-relevant way, future work should account for international parasite movement, utilize real time surveillance data, and relax the steady state assumption required by the presented model. PMID:27043913

  7. Theoretical and empirical linkages between workrelated commitment foci

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available No study has been reported thus far in the commitment literature which clarifies the relationship between six workrelated foci on a comparable theoretical basis. Such a comparison was made possible by the development of six instruments to operationalise involvement, commitment towards work, job, occupation, career, union and school as cognitive predispositions. A random, proportionally stratified sample of 510 teachers was drawn from 184 schools and a population of 4166 teachers from a previous provincial department of education. Only 279 of the 385 usuable questionnaires were fully completed and used for final analysis. A second-order factor analysis yielded four factors which explain about 66 of the total variance. These factors named "workaholism", "organisational-related involvement, commitment", "union commitment", and "work-related alienation" seem to be relative independent factors. No support for the existence of six separate foci could be found. Opsomming Geen studie is tot dusver in die verbondenheidliteratuur gerapporteer wat die verhouding tussen ses werkverwante foki op 'n vergelykbare teoretiese basis ophelder nie. So 'n vergelyking is moontlik gemaak deur die ontwikkeling van ses instrumente om betrokkenheid, verbondenheid tot werk, pos, beroep, loopbaan, vakbond en skool as kognitiewe predisposisies te operasionaliseer. 'n Ewekansige, proporsioneel-gestratifiseerde steekproef van 510 onderwysers is by 184 skole en 'n populasie van 4166 onderwysers van 'n vorige provinsiale onderwysdepartement getrek. Slegs 279 van die 385 bruikbare vraelyste was volledig voltooi en is vir finale ontleding gebruik. 'n Tweedeorde-faktorontleding het vier faktore opgelewer wat ongeveer 66 van die totale variansie verklaar. Hierdie faktore is "werkbeheptheid", "organisasie-verwante betrokkenheid/verbondenheid", "vakbondverbondenheid" en "werk-verwante vervreemding" genoem wat skynbaar relatief-onafhanklike faktore is. Geen steun vir die bestaan van

  8. DIBROMOETHANE EFFECTS ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYL-TRANSPEPTIDASE POSITIVE FOCI IN RAT LIVER

    The initiating and promoting activities of 1.2-dibromoethane in rat liver were investigated using the enzyme-altered foci bioassay. The incidence of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci was used as an early histochemical marker for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine ...

  9. Migratory marker expression in fibroblast foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Ennas Maria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast foci (FF are considered a relevant morphologic marker of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP, and are recognised as sites where fibrotic responses are initiated and/or perpetuated in this severe disease. Despite their relevance, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the formation of FF and their role in tissue remodelling are poorly defined. In previous studies we have provided evidence of abnormal activation of the wnt-signaling-pathway in IPF/UIP that is centred on FF and the overlying epithelium. This important morphogenetic pathway is able to trigger epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT, a mechanism involved in developmental and metastatic processes, which is also potentially involved in pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Since EMT is characterised by enhancement of migratory potential of cells, we investigated the molecular profile of FF in 30 biopsies of IPF/UIP and a variety of control samples, focussing on the immunohistochemical expression of three molecules involved in cell motility and invasiveness, namely laminin-5-γ2-chain, fascin, and heat-shock-protein-27. Results We provide evidence that in UIP these three molecules are abnormally expressed in discrete clusters of bronchiolar basal cells precisely localised in FF. These cellular clusters expressed laminin-5-γ2-chain and heat-shock-protein-27 at very high levels, forming characteristic three-layered lesions defined as "sandwich-foci" (SW-FF. Upon quantitative analysis SW-FF were present in 28/30 UIP samples, representing more than 50% of recognisable FF in 21/30, but were exceedingly rare in a wide variety of lung pathologies examined as controls. In UIP, SW-FF were often observed in areas of microscopic honeycombing, and were also found at the interface between normal lung tissue and areas of dense scarring. Conclusion These molecular abnormalities strongly suggest that SW-FF represent the leading edge of

  10. Preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging, electrocorticography, surgery and pathology

    Objective: The value of preoperative localization of epileptic foci with SPECT brain perfusion imaging was investigated. Methods: The study population consisted of 23 patients with intractable partial seizures which was difficult to control with anticonvulsant for long period. In order to preoperatively locate the epileptic foci, double SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed during interictal and ictal stage. The foci were confirmed with electrocorticography (EcoG), surgery and pathology. Results: The author checked with EcoG the foci shown by SPECT, 23 patients had all typical spike discharge. The regions of radioactivity increase in ictal matched with the abnormal electrical activity areas that EcoG showed. The spike wave originated in the corresponding cerebrum cortex instead of hyperplastic and adherent arachnoid or tumor itself. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging contributes to distinguishing location, size, perfusion and functioning of epileptogenic foci, and has some directive function on to making out a treatment programme at preoperation

  11. Radioimmunoguided imaging of prostate cancer foci with histopathological correlation

    Purpose: We have previously presented a technique that fuses ProstaScint and pelvic CT images for the purpose of designing brachytherapy that targets areas at high risk for treatment failure. We now correlate areas of increased intensity seen on ProstaScint-CT fusion images to biopsy results in a series of 7 patients to evaluate the accuracy of this technique in localizing intraprostatic disease. Methods and Materials: The 7 patients included in this study were evaluated between June 1998 and March 29, 1999 at Metrohealth Medical Center and University Hospitals of Cleveland in Cleveland, Ohio. ProstaScint and CT scans of each patient were obtained before transperineal biopsy and seed implantation. Each patient's prostate gland was biopsied at 12 separate sites determined independently of Prostascint-CT scan results. Results: When correlated with biopsy results, our method yielded an overall accuracy of 80%: with a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 68%, and a negative predictive value of 88%. Conclusion: The image fusion of the pelvic CT scan and ProstaScint scan helped identify foci of adenocarcinoma within the prostate that correlated well with biopsy results. These data may be useful to escalate doses in regions containing tumor by either high-dose rate or low-dose rate brachytherapy, as well as by external beam techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

  12. Irradiation induced foci (IRIF) as a biomarker for radiosensitivity

    Goodarzi, Aaron A. [Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom); Jeggo, Penny A., E-mail: p.a.jeggo@sussex.ac.uk [Genome Damage and Stability Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    It has long been known that the level of radiosensitivity between individuals covers a considerable range. This range is reflected in analysis of patient cell lines with some cell lines showing significantly reduced sensitivity to in vitro radiation exposure. Our increased exposure to radiation from diagnostic medical procedures and other life style changes has raised concerns that there may be individuals who are at an elevated risk from the harmful impact of acute or chronic low dose radiation exposure. Additionally, a subset of patients show an enhanced normal tissue response following radiotherapy, which can cause significant discomfort and, at the extreme, be life threatening. It has long been realised that the ability to identify sensitive individuals and to understand the mechanistic basis underlying the range of sensitivity within the population is important. A reduced ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and/or activate the DSB damage response underlies some, although not necessarily all, of this sensitivity. In this article, we consider the utility of the recently developed {gamma}H2AX foci analysis to provide insight into radiation sensitivity within the population. We consider the nature of sensitivity including the impact of radiation on cell survival, tissue responses and carcinogenesis and the range of responses within the population. We overview the current utility of the {gamma}H2AX assay for assessing the efficacy of the DNA damage response to low and high dose radiation and its potential future exploitation.

  13. Irradiation induced foci (IRIF) as a biomarker for radiosensitivity

    It has long been known that the level of radiosensitivity between individuals covers a considerable range. This range is reflected in analysis of patient cell lines with some cell lines showing significantly reduced sensitivity to in vitro radiation exposure. Our increased exposure to radiation from diagnostic medical procedures and other life style changes has raised concerns that there may be individuals who are at an elevated risk from the harmful impact of acute or chronic low dose radiation exposure. Additionally, a subset of patients show an enhanced normal tissue response following radiotherapy, which can cause significant discomfort and, at the extreme, be life threatening. It has long been realised that the ability to identify sensitive individuals and to understand the mechanistic basis underlying the range of sensitivity within the population is important. A reduced ability to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and/or activate the DSB damage response underlies some, although not necessarily all, of this sensitivity. In this article, we consider the utility of the recently developed γH2AX foci analysis to provide insight into radiation sensitivity within the population. We consider the nature of sensitivity including the impact of radiation on cell survival, tissue responses and carcinogenesis and the range of responses within the population. We overview the current utility of the γH2AX assay for assessing the efficacy of the DNA damage response to low and high dose radiation and its potential future exploitation.

  14. WNT7B in fibroblastic foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Meuten Travis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating interstitial pneumonia causing a loss of respiratory surface area due to a proliferative fibrotic response involving hyperplastic, hypertrophic, and metaplastic epithelium, cystic honeycomb change, septal expansion, and variable inflammation. Wnt (wingless signaling glycoproteins are known to be involved in lung development and tissue repair, and are up-regulated in patients with IPF. Based on previous qRT-PCR data showing increased Wnt7B in lungs of IPF patients, a systematic, quantitative examination of its tissue site distribution was undertaken. Methods Tissue samples from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC of 39 patients diagnosed with mild to severe IPF/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and 19 normal patients were examined for the immunolocalization of Wnt7B. Results In normal lung, moderate Wnt7B reactivity was confined to airway epithelium, smooth muscle of airways and vasculature, and macrophages. IPF lung showed strong Wnt7B reactivity in fibroblastic foci, dysplastic airway and alveolar epithelium, and in highly discrete subepithelial, basement membrane-associated regions. All reactive sites were sized and counted relative to specific microscopic regions. Those in the subepithelial sites were found in significantly greater numbers and larger relative area compared with the others. No reactive sites were present in normal patient controls. Conclusions The results demonstrate Wnt7B to be expressed at high concentrations in regions of active hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrotic change in IPF patients. In this context and its previously established biologic activities, Wnt7B would be expected to be of potential importance in the pathogenesis of IPF.

  15. Concordance and discordance between PET images and foci of scalp EEG

    Epileptic foci were determined by scalp EEG and positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine 18 in 22 children with partial epilepsy (PE, n=13) and Lennoxy-Gastaut syndrome (LGS, n=9). The patients ranged in age from 6 to 18 years. The pattern of hypometabolism was classified into the following 4 categories: non-focal, localized, hemispheric, and diffuse. In the group of PE patients, 11 showed a relative agreement between the EEG foci and region of a low cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) determined by PET. A decreased CMRglc was matched with the EEG foci in 4 patients with LGS. A tendency of a higher relationship between the EEG foci and PET images was significant in PE than LGS. (N.K.)

  16. Ontogenetic development of transition of interictal activity of cortical foci into ictal phases

    Mareš, Pavel

    (2007). [WONOEP /9./. 03.07.2007-06.07.2007, Teluk Nibong, Langkawi ] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interictal activity * cortical foci * development Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  17. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    azoxymethane (AOM) (5 mg/kg body weight) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCI) (20 mg/kg body weight), respectively, one dose a week for two weeks, Animals were killed after four and 10 weeks, After four weeks only the mice dosed with IQ and PhIP had aberrant crypt foci, A much higher number of...... induced a higher percentage of medium or large sized aberrant crypt foci than PhIP or IQ, The interpretation of the aberrant crypt foci as precursor lesions for colon cancer in the PhIP and IQ mice is difficult because PhIP and IQ have not been reported to be colonic carcinogens, If cooked food mutagens...... such as IQ or PhIP are to be used as initiators in the aberrant crypt foci test, the use of rats may be preferable....

  18. An empirical test of multiple foci of commitment in a work team environment

    Bishop, James Wallace

    1995-01-01

    Organizational commitment has been recognized as a multiple foci phenomenon with two of the more important foci being the work team and the organization as a whole. That organizational and team commitment can vary differentially has been established. However, research has not attempted to determine the antecedents that may cause them to do so. At the same time, a number of constructs that have been explored as antecedents of organizational commitment have also been recognized as having partic...

  19. Homogenizing the dose for adjacent fields

    Difficulties are found in radiotherapy in the determination of the gap which should be left among adjacent fields on the skin. In order to homogenize the dose at a given depth, measurements are done with a wood phantom using films, thermoluminescent dosemeters and ionization chambers. Field match is checked according to tables related in the literature and experimental data. Two tables of field separation are built at various depths, one for simultaneous adjacent fields and the other for non-simultaneous adjacent fields. Tables must be checked and the additional distances corrected for each field

  20. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    CS Barbosa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS, and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.

  1. Tall gastrodis tuber combined with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in focal epilepsy

    Weimin Wang; Zhenyu Fan; Yongqin Zhang; Yuxia Yang; Yaqing Liu; Xiaoli Dang; Wenjun Song; Yinping Wu; Jiang Ye

    2013-01-01

    One hundred patients with focal epilepsy were recruited for the present study and their seizures controlled with antiepileptic drugs. The patients then orally received a capsule of tall gastrodis tuber powder, a traditional Chinese drug, and underwent single photon emission computed tomography, long-term electroencephalogram, and CT/MRI. Blood drug levels were monitored throughout the study. Before treatment with tall gastrodis tuber, 35 of the 100 cases had abnormal CT/MRI scans; 79 cases had abnormal single photon emission computed tomography images; 86 cases had abnormal electroencephalogram; and a total of 146 abnormal perfusion foci were observed across the 100 subjects. After treatment, the number of patients with normal single photon emission computed tomography images increased by 12; normal electroencephalogram was observed in an additional 27 cases and the number of patients with epileptiform discharge decreased by 29 (34% of 86); the total number of abnormal perfusion foci decreased by 52 (36%) and changes in abnormal foci were visible in 65 patients. These changes indicate that the administration of tall gastrodis tuber in combination with antiepileptic drugs repairs abnormal perfusion foci in patients with focal epilepsy. Our results demonstrate that traditional Chinese drugs can repair abnormal perfusion foci and, as such, are a promising new pathway in the treatment of focal epilepsy.

  2. Detect Adjacent Well by Analyzing Geomagnetic Anomalies

    Su Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a method of determining the position of adjacent well by analyzing geomagnetic anomalies in the drilling. In the experiment, put a casing in the geomagnetic field respectively to simulate 3 conditions, which are vertical well, deviated well and horizontal well. Study the interference of regional geomagnetic caused by casing, summary the law of the regional geomagnetic field anomalies caused by the adjacent casing. Experimental results show that: magnetic intensity distortion caused by deviated well is similar to that caused by horizontal well, but the distortion is different from vertical well. The scope and amplitude of N and E component magnetic intensity distortion will increase with the increase of casing inclination, meanwhile the scope and amplitude of V component distortion will decrease and the distortion value changes from negative to positive to the southwest of adjacent well. Through the analysis of geomagnetic anomalies, the position of the adjacent wells could be determined.

  3. A Review of Impact of Bam Earthquake on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Status: Epidemic of Old Foci, Emergence of New Foci and Changes in Features of the Disease

    Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global findings indicate that incidence rate of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has significantly in­creased during the past decade, as documented in many countries. This review was aimed to evaluate the trend of CL cases in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics during a decade after the earthquake (2003–2012 com­pared to the corresponding period before the earthquake in Bam (1993–2003.Methods: Direct smear preparations along with different intrinsic methods were used for detection and identification of the causative agents.Results: Overall, 20999 cases of CL have occurred during the last 20 years (1993–2012, 6731 cases before and 14268 cases after the earthquake (P< 0.001.Conclusions: Following a major earthquake, several risk factors could activate epidemics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in old foci and induce emerging foci in new areas.

  4. Effect of microwave and ionizing radiation on formation of DNA of repair foci in lymphocytes from cord blood

    Different types of radiation are affecting us nowadays. Electromagnetic radiation which is produced mainly by mobile phones, Wi-fi and base stations is affecting us practically all of the time. Long term effects of this type of radiation are not fully examined. It is very important to know effects of radiation that influence us so much like electromagnetic radiation. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious types of DNA damage. Several proteins involved in DNA repair and DNA damage signaling have been shown to produce discrete foci in response to ionizing radiation. These foci are believed to co-localize to DSB and referred to as ionizing radiation-induced foci or DNA repair foci. Ionizing radiation is known to induce formation of radiation induced foci which are very hard to analyze exactly. That's why the second aim of this work was to compare two automatized systems for analysis of DNA repair foci, METAFER and ImageStream. (authors)

  5. Adjacency Algebra of Unitary Cayley Graph

    A. Satyanarayana Reddy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A few properties of unitary Cayley graphs are explored using their eigenvalues. It is shown that the adjacency algebra of a unitary Cayley graph is a coherent algebra. Finally, a class of unitary Cayley graphs that are distance regular are also obtained.Key Words: Adjacency Algebra, Circulant Graph, Coherent Algebra, Distance Regular Graph,Ramanujan's sum .AMS(2010: 05C25, 05C50

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in relation to EEG epileptic foci in tuberous sclerosis

    In 20 patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS), who were sequentially treated for epilepsy at our clinic, the high signal lesions in the cerebral cortex and subcortex detected on T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared with the interictal EEG findings. In four cases who showed a unilateral distribution of the MRI lesions, there was a good correlation between the laterality of the affected lobes and the localization of the EEG epileptic foci. Thirteen cases with more than four affected lobes in both hemispheres also showed bilateral epileptic foci on EEG. The MRI lesions in the occipital lobes showed the best correlation with the EEG epileptic foci, while the worst correlation was seen in the frontal lobes. In addition, the cases with four or more affected lobes without laterality on MRI are more likely to show bilateral synchronization on EEG. The prognosis of epilepsy in these cases was found to be rather poor. (author)

  7. DNA damage foci in mitosis are devoid of 53BP1.

    Nelson, Glyn; Buhmann, Matthias; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2009-10-15

    Nuclear DNA damage foci indicate ongoing DNA damage response, which is the major inducer of cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis. 53BP1 is one central mediator of the DNA damage response and a component of active DNA damage foci. Using an AcGFP-53BP1c fluorescent fusion protein that quantitatively reports DNA damage, we show that the recruitment of 53BP1 into gammaH2A.X-containing DNA damage foci was inhibited at G(2)/M. This suggests a possible mechanism for cells to continue through the G(2) checkpoint with gammaH2A.X-flagged double strand breaks via inhibition of 53BP1-mediated DNA damage signalling. PMID:19806024

  8. FOCIS: A forest classification and inventory system using LANDSAT and digital terrain data

    Strahler, A. H.; Franklin, J.; Woodcook, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate, cost-effective stratification of forest vegetation and timber inventory is the primary goal of a Forest Classification and Inventory System (FOCIS). Conventional timber stratification using photointerpretation can be time-consuming, costly, and inconsistent from analyst to analyst. FOCIS was designed to overcome these problems by using machine processing techniques to extract and process tonal, textural, and terrain information from registered LANDSAT multispectral and digital terrain data. Comparison of samples from timber strata identified by conventional procedures showed that both have about the same potential to reduce the variance of timber volume estimates over simple random sampling.

  9. Dynamics of replication foci in early S-phase as visualized by cross-correlation function

    Mašata, Martin; Malínský, Jan; Fidlerová, Helena; Smirnov, Evgeny; Raška, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2005), s. 61-68. ISSN 1047-8477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/1121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Replication sites * Replication foci * Replication timing Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2005

  10. Genetic micro-heterogeneity of Leishmania major in emerging foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Attia, Hanene; Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Bali, Aymen; Schweynoch, Carola; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Mkannez, Ghada; Chlif, Sadok; Belhaj-Hamida, Nabil; Dellagi, Koussay; Schönian, Gabriele; Laouini, Dhafer

    2016-09-01

    Tunisia is endemic for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania (L.) major. ZCL displays a wide clinical polymorphism, with severe forms present more frequently in emerging foci where naive populations are dominant. In this study, we applied the multi-locus microsatellite typing (MLMT) using ten highly informative and discriminative markers to investigate the genetic structure of 35 Tunisian Leishmania (L.) major isolates collected from patients living in five different foci of Central Tunisia (two old and three emerging foci). Phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances showed that nine of the ten tested loci were homogeneous in all isolates with homozygous alleles, whereas one locus (71AT) had a 58/64-bp bi-allelic profile with an allele linked to emerging foci. Promastigote-stage parasites with the 58-bp allele tend to be more resistant to in vitro complement lysis. These results, which stress the geographical dependence of the genetic micro-heterogeneity, may improve our understanding of the ZCL epidemiology and clinical outcome. PMID:27137082

  11. Repair of abnormal perfusion foci in idiopathic epilepsy patients under long-term antiepileptic treatment

    Weimin Wang; Siyu Zhao; Yaqing Liu

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizure control and the disappearance of epileptiform discharge are not indicative of the absence of abnormal perfusion foci.Perfusion abnormalities are a major cause of epileptic discharge, and the existence of abnormal perfusion foci implies possible relapse.Very little is known about perfusion abnormality repair in epilepsy.The present study selected 43 cases of idiopathic epilepsy under antiepileptic drug control for an average of 24 months.Comparisons between interictal single-photon emission CT (SPECT)images and long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) pre- and post-treatment showed that cases of normal SPECT increased by 48% (12/25) following treatment, with a total number of 15 reduced foci (36%, 15/41).Perfusion foci, i.e., region of interest, were altered following treatment.These changes included:normal to abnormal in 3 cases (7%, 3/43; 2 hyperperfusion and 1 hypoperfusion); abnormal to normal in 14 cases (32%, 14/43; 10 pre-treatment hypoperfusion and 4 hyperperfusion); abnormal to abnormal in 7 cases (16%, 7/43; hyperperfusion to hypoperfusion in 5 cases, hypoperfusion to hyperperfusion in 2 cases).Long-term EEG revealed in an increase in the number of normal cases by 20 (40%, 20/39), and there were 25 fewer cases with epileptiform discharges (66%, 25/38).These findings demonstrate that long-term control of anti-epileptic drugs partially repaired cerebral perfusion abnormalities and reduced epileptiform discharges in idiopathic epilepsy.

  12. Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-Induced Foci (IRIF). The assembly of proteins at the DSB-flanking chromatin occurs in a highly ordered and strictly hierarchical fashion. To a large extent, this is achieved by regulation of protein-protein interactions triggered by a variety of post-translational modifications including...

  13. Expanding the Foci of Activity Theory: Accessing the Broader Contexts and Experiences of Mathematics Education Reform

    Venkat, Hamsa; Adler, Jill

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider our use of activity theory to examine empirical data from a study of reform in England--the implementation of the mathematics strand of the Key Stage 3 Strategy in two schools. Our concerns are largely methodological--we consider the aspects of reform that more traditional activity theory methods and foci were able to…

  14. Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci

    The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.

  15. The cell transformation assay: toward a statistical classification of mixed and intermediate foci images.

    Procaccianti, Claudio; Stefanini, Federico M; Urani, Chiara

    2011-03-01

    The human carcinogenicity evaluation of chemicals has a great impact on public health. In vitro methods, such as the cell transformation assay (CTA), allow for a fast and reliable assessment of the carcinogenic potential of a chemical compound in comparison with the standard two-year bioassay. The scoring and classification of foci in selected cell lines is performed, after staining, by light microscopy. Foci can be separated into three classes: type I, which are scored as non-transformed, and types II and III that are considered to include fully transformed foci. However, in a number of cases, even an expert is uncertain about the attribution of a focus to a given class, due to its mixed or intermediate nature. Here, we suggest a simple approach to classifying mixed or intermediate foci by exploiting the quantitative information available from images, which is captured by statistical descriptors. A quantitative index is proposed, to describe the degree of dissimilarity of mixed and intermediate images to the three well-distinguished classes. PMID:21452912

  16. DNA DSB measurements and modelling approaches based on gamma-H2AX foci time evolution

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Campa, Alessandro; Antonelli, Francesca; Mariotti, Luca; Belli, Mauro; Giardullo, Paola; Simone, Giustina; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the main dam-age related to the deleterious consequences in the cells. Unrepaired or mis-repaired DSBs can cause mutations or loss of chromosome regions which can eventually lead to cell death or neo-plastic transformation. Quantification of the number and complexity of DSBs induced by low doses of radiation remains a complex problem. About ten years ago Rogakou et al. proposed an immunofluorescent technique able to detect even a single DSB per cell. This approach is based on the serine 139 phosphorylation of many molecules (up to 2000) of histone H2AX (γg-H2AX) following the induction of a DSB in the DNA. DSB can be visualized as foci by immunofluores-cence by using phospho-specific antibodies, so that enumeration of foci can be used to measure DSB induction and processing. It is still not completely clear how γ-H2AX dephosphorylation takes place; however it has been related with DSB repair, in particular with the efficiency of DSB repair. In this work we analyse the H2AX phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics after irradiation of primary human fibroblasts (AG1522 cell line) with radiation of differing quality, that is γ-rays and α-particles (125 keV/µm), with the aim of comparing the time evolution of γ-H2AX foci. Our results show that, after a dose of 0.5 Gy, both γ-rays and α-particles induce the maximum number of γ-H2AX foci within 30 minutes from irradiation, that this number depends on the radiation type and is consistent with the number of track traversal in α-irradiated nuclei, that the dephosphorylation kinetics are very different, being the α-induced foci rate of disappearence slower than that of γ-induced foci. In this work a modellistic approach to estimate the number of DSB induced by γ-rays detectable by using the γ-H2AX assay is presented. The competing processes of appearance and disappearance of visible foci will be modeled taking into account the

  17. On the complexity of adjacent resource scheduling

    Duin, C.W.; Sluis, van, P.

    2004-01-01

    We study the problem of scheduling resource(s) for jobs in an adjacent manner (ARS). The problem relates to fixed interval scheduling on the one hand, and to the problem of two-dimensional strip packing on the other hand. Further, there is a close relation with multiprocessor scheduling. A distinguishing characteristic is the constraint of resource-adjacency. As an application of ARS, consider an airport where passengers check in for their flight, joining lines before one or more desks; at th...

  18. Adjacent Instability after Instrumented Lumbar Fusion.

    Wen-Jer Chen

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The invention of pedicle screw instrumentation has greatly improved outcomes ofspinal fusion, which has become the treatment of choice for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Asresearchers accumulate experience, both theoretical and clinical advances are continuallybeing reported. A review of the literature and the experience of the authors show that thedevelopment of adjacent instability, as in the breakdown of a neighboring unfixed motionsegment, is a common consequence of an instrumented lumbar spine. This article reviewsthe risk factors and surgical treatment of adjacent instability. The authors believe that properpreoperative planning and complete surgical procedures are imperative to prevent adjacentinstability. For those who need revision surgery, meticulous surgical techniques can achievesatisfactory results.

  19. Adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns considered harmful

    We characterize the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to distinguish changes in internal conductivity distributions, and analyze it as a function of stimulation and measurement patterns. A distinguishability measure, z, is proposed which is related to the signal-to-noise ratio of a medium and to the probability of detection of conductivity changes in a region of interest. z is a function of the number of electrodes, the EIT stimulation and measurement protocol, the stimulation amplitude, the measurement noise, and the size and location of the contrasts. Using this measure we analyze various choices of stimulation and measurement patterns under the constraint of medical electrical safety limits (maximum current into the body). Analysis is performed for a planar placement of 16 electrodes for simulated 3D tank and chest shapes, and measurements in a saline tank. Results show that the traditional (and still most common) adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns have by far the poorest performance (by 6.9 ×). Good results are obtained for trigonometric patterns and for pair drive and measurement patterns separated by over 90°. Since the possible improvement over adjacent patterns is so large, we present this result as a call to action: adjacent patterns are harmful, and should be abandoned. We recommend using pair drive and measurement patterns separated by one electrode less than 180°. We describe an approach to modify an adjacent pattern EIT system by adjusting electrode placement

  20. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  1. Localization and cure of epileptic foci with the use of MEG measurements.

    Anninos, P A; Tsagas, N

    1989-06-01

    Systematic studies with pathological subjects with focal and general epilepsies using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements showed significant brain activities even if they are not present in the electroencephalogram EEG. Using a mapping technique characterized by an isospectral amplitude (ISO-SA) of the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the MEG power spectrum we were able to localize the epileptic foci. This localization of epileptic foci gives us information on the emitted magnetic field intensity and frequency for each focal point on the map of the patient. Using this information we can cure the patient by adjusting an electronic device which can emit back to the specific scalp point a magnetic field of the same intensity and frequency as the one which-is emitted from it. The principle of this technique is based on the physical phenomenon of Young's double-slit experiment by which under certain condition light plus light gives darkness. PMID:2506144

  2. Advances in infectious foci imaging using 99mTc radiolabelled antibiotics

    Conventional methods of infection diagnosis, relying on experimental tests and culture of organisms from infected foci have continued to developing new technologies and automation. Nuclear medicine is a reliable diagnostic technique capable to detect infectious foci in human disease. A wide range of radiolabeled agents have been evaluated for demonstrating their ability to distinguish microbial infectious lesions. New researches continue to be made on the use of radiolabeled antibiotics which as well as being highly specific in the diagnosis of infection would be useful in monitoring of disease treatment. Here, the new approaches of infection scintigraphic imaging by radiolabeled antibiotics are thoroughly discussed in order to assess and compare their diagnostic value as targeting imaging radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  3. Three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci from Greek ladders to generalized Fibonacci sequences.

    Zhang, Junyong

    2015-11-16

    Greek ladder is a technique for approximating Cn by rational numbers where n is a positive integer and C is a positive real number. For the classical Greek ladder, the value isC. Based on the continued fraction theory and algebraic equation, the classical Greek ladder in a special case can be reduced to the generalized Fibonacci sequence. By means of proper switching and binary, ternary or quaternary phase modulation, here we have successfully designed the various kinds of nano-photonic devices to produce three-dimensional array foci whose focusing properties satisfy the above mathematical characteristics. With this technology, the diffraction-limited array foci are freely designed or distributed under the requirement at the desired multiple focal planes. PMID:26698510

  4. Nonequilibrium phenomena in adjacent electrically isolated nanostructures

    Khrapai, V. S.; Ludwig, S.; Kotthaus, J. P.; Tranitz, H. P.; Wegscheider, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on nonequilibrium interaction phenomena between adjacent but electrostatically separated nanostructures in GaAs. A current flowing in one externally biased nanostructure causes an excitation of electrons in a circuit of a second nanostructure. As a result we observe a dc current generated in the unbiased second nanostructure. The results can be qualitatively explained in terms of acoustic phonon based energy transfer between the two mutually isolated circuits.

  5. Immune Responses to Plague Infection in Wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A Role in Foci Persistence?

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity a...

  6. Antecedents of trust across foci: a comparative study of Turkey and China

    Wasti, Arzu S.; Tan, Hwee Hoon; Erdil, Selin

    2010-01-01

    Instead of importing Western models of interpersonal trust, we adopted a qualitative approach to understand trust relationships from indigenous cultures' perspectives. We examined trust relationships directed at different foci in the organization (supervisor, peer, and subordinate) in two different countries, Turkey and China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 Turkish and 30 Chinese employees working for a variety of large-scale organizations located in Istanbul, Turkey and Sh...

  7. Motor correlates of models of secondary bilateral synchrony and multiple epileptic foci

    Jiruška, Přemysl; Prokš, J.; Otáhal, Jakub; Mareš, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2007), s. 627-635. ISSN 1059-1311 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/03/0770; GA ČR GA304/05/2582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : epileptic foci * secondary bilateral synchrony * neocortex Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2007

  8. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Costes, S.V.; Chiolo, I.; Pluth, J.M.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Jakob, B.

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatiotemporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution...

  9. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Florence Stinglhamber; David De Cremer

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural just...

  10. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-...... such as IQ or PhIP are to be used as initiators in the aberrant crypt foci test, the use of rats may be preferable.......The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...

  11. Evaluation of three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung diseases with computed tomography

    Niwa, Masamitsu [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional distribution of foci of diffuse lung disease was evaluated by CT image, and it was examined whether each lung disease could be diagnosed by different distribution. Subjects were 120 cases (idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 15 cases, sarcoidosis 23 cases, miliary tuberculosis 10 cases, diffuse panbronchiolitis 7 cases, chronic pulmonary emphysema 6 cases, pulmonary metastasis 9 cases, SLE 6 cases, PSS 8 cases, dermatomyositis (DM) 6 cases, RA 7 cases, SjS 9 cases and others 14 cases). CT image was obtained from apex to base of lung with 10 mm gapless. The image was divided into three parts in both head-tail direction and back-front direction, and two parts in cortex medulla direction, and the ratio of foci to whole in each part was evaluated in five phases, and the part with the highest ratio was determined as the predominant side. In idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, sarcoidosis, miliary tuberculosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, chronic pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary metastasis, PSS and DM, the predominant side was confirmed, respectively, and usefulness of differential diagnosis was recognized. Constant distribution wasn't recognized in SLE, RA and SjS, because the state of disease was not always same in the foci of these diseases. (K.H.)

  12. PCNA-dependent accumulation of CDKN1A into nuclear foci after ionizing irradiation

    Wiese, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rudolph, Jeanette Heede [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Jakob, Burkhard [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Fink, Daniela [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Tobias, Frank [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Blattner, Christine [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. of Toxicology and Genetics; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-03-26

    The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/p21 confers cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage and inhibits DNA replication through its direct interaction with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. Previously, we reported that in response to densely ionizing radiation CDKN1A rapidly is recruited to the sites of particle traversal, and that CDKN1A foci formation in response to heavy ions is independent of its transactivation by TP53. In this paper, we show that exposure of normal human fibroblasts to X-rays or to H2O2 also induces nuclear accumulations of CDKN1A. We find that CDKN1A foci formation in response to radiation damage is dependent on its dephosphorylation and on its direct physical interaction with PCNA. Live cell imaging analyses of ectopically expressed EGFP-CDKN1A and dsRed-PCNA show rapid recruitment of both proteins into foci after radiation damage. Detailed dynamic measurements reveal a slightly delayed recruitment of CDKN1A compared to PCNA, which is best described by bi-exponential curve fitting, taking the preceding binding of PCNA to DNA into account. Finally, we propose a regulatory role for CDKN1A in mediating PCNA function after radiation damage, and provide evidence that this role is distinct from its involvement in nucleotide excision repair and unrelated to double-strand break repair.

  13. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2010 BEST and BSIERP Study 1WE10/WE10-08

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecosystem & Fisheries-Oceanography Coordinated Investigations (Eco-FOCI) is an effort by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and associated...

  14. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  15. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Adachi, Y.; Yagishita, A. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, N. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Institute, Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  16. Kauffman's adjacent possible in word order evolution

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Word order evolution has been hypothesized to be constrained by a word order permutation ring: transitions involving orders that are closer in the permutation ring are more likely. The hypothesis can be seen as a particular case of Kauffman's adjacent possible in word order evolution. Here we consider the problem of the association of the six possible orders of S, V and O to yield a couple of primary alternating orders as a window to word order evolution. We evaluate the suitability of various competing hypotheses to predict one member of the couple from the other with the help of information theoretic model selection. Our ensemble of models includes a six-way model that is based on the word order permutation ring (Kauffman's adjacent possible) and another model based on the dual two-way of standard typology, that reduces word order to basic orders preferences (e.g., a preference for SV over VS and another for SO over OS). Our analysis indicates that the permutation ring yields the best model when favoring pa...

  17. Factory waste influence on Elbrus adjacent area

    Complete text of publication follows. Two major burials of waste from concentrating mill of The Tyrnauz Tungsten-Molybdic Plant are situated at the recreation area of Elbrus adjacent territory. But it is significant that the strong winds periods are available here at the river Baksan valley constantly, which are transfers the particles of burials along that valley. The waste pollutes pastures and agricultural lands. The sampling of the buried material on the surface and of the soil of adjacent territory was fulfilled here in order to check up that assumption. The chemical analyses of the buried waste were performed at the X-ray spectrometer Philips PW2400. The results received showed the high quantity of some environmental threat elements. The soil sample analyses on 20 elements (including Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, P, S, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Pb, As, Mo, W, Sn) showed the excess of maximum permissible concentrations (according to Russian Federation hygienic regulations 2.1.7.2041-06) of some investigated elements in the all researched samples. Some results of the investigations are shown below in the table 1. The excesses of maximum permissible concentrations were observed for phosphorus from 5.3 to 11.3 times as much; for sulphur from 3 to 8.75 times as much; for cobalt from 2.6 to 4.6 times as much; for nickel from 8.25 to 15.25 times as much; for copper from 9.3 to 22 times as much; for arsenic up to 10 and at one sample - to 28 times as much. At the MPC level was the lead contents and also at single instances - the manganese and vanadium contents. The excess of background contents were observed for molybdenum up to 8, tungsten - up to 38 and tin - up to 7 times as much. Presented data confirmed the supposition that buried waste pollutes pastures and agricultural lands of Elbrus adjacent area and that means the necessity of either more careful burial of these waste products, or their full recycling.

  18. Foci of cyclin A2 interact with actin and RhoA in mitosis

    Abdelhalim Loukil; Fanny Izard; Mariya Georgieva; Shaereh Mashayekhan; Jean-Marie Blanchard; Andrea Parmeggiani; Marion Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin A2 is a key player in the regulation of the cell cycle. Its degradation in mid-mitosis depends primarily on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), while autophagy also contributes. However, a fraction of cyclin A2 persists beyond metaphase. In this work, we focus on cyclin A2-rich foci detected in mitosis by high resolution imaging and analyse their movements. We demonstrate that cyclin A2 interacts with actin and RhoA during mitosis, and that cyclin A2 depletion induces a dramatic dec...

  19. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries

  20. Detecting Adjacent Relativity of Engineering Drawing Entities with Container Window

    林福严; 邱友申; 秦吉胜

    2001-01-01

    Automatic recognition and interpretation of engineering drawing plays an important role in computer aided engineering. Detecting the positional relation between entities is an important topic in this research field. In this paper the concepts of adjacent relativity and container window of drawing entities were proposed. By means of container window, the adjacent irrelative entities can be detected quickly and effectively, which speeds up the process of adjacent relativity detection. Meanwhile, the algorithm of adjacent relativity detection was discussed.

  1. Characteristics of {gamma}-H2AX foci at DNA double-strand breaks sites

    Pilch, D.R.; Sedelnikova, O.A.; Redon, C. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Celeste, A.; Nussenzweig, A. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Experimental Immunology Branch, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bonner, W.M. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Lab. of Molecular Pharmacology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}-H2AX) is essential to the efficient recognition and (or) repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and many molecules, often thousands, of H2AX become rapidly phosphorylated at the site of each nascent DSB. An antibody to {gamma}-H2AX reveals that this highly amplified process generates nuclear foci. The phosphorylation site is a serine four residues from the C-terminus which has been evolutionarily conserved in organisms from giardia intestinalis to humans. Mice and yeast lacking the conserved serine residue demonstrate a variety of defects in DNA DSB processing. H2AX{sup {delta}}{sup /{delta}} mice are smaller, sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in class switch recombination and spermatogenesis while cells from the mice demonstrate substantially increased numbers of genomic defects. {gamma}-H2AX foci formation is a sensitive biological dosimeter and presents new and exciting opportunities to understand important biological processes, human diseases, and individual variations in radiation sensitivity. These potentialities demonstrate the importance of understanding the parameters and functions of {gamma}-H2AX formation. (author)

  2. Characteristics of γ-H2AX foci at DNA double-strand breaks sites

    Phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) is essential to the efficient recognition and (or) repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and many molecules, often thousands, of H2AX become rapidly phosphorylated at the site of each nascent DSB. An antibody to γ-H2AX reveals that this highly amplified process generates nuclear foci. The phosphorylation site is a serine four residues from the C-terminus which has been evolutionarily conserved in organisms from giardia intestinalis to humans. Mice and yeast lacking the conserved serine residue demonstrate a variety of defects in DNA DSB processing. H2AXΔ/Δ mice are smaller, sensitive to ionizing radiation, defective in class switch recombination and spermatogenesis while cells from the mice demonstrate substantially increased numbers of genomic defects. γ-H2AX foci formation is a sensitive biological dosimeter and presents new and exciting opportunities to understand important biological processes, human diseases, and individual variations in radiation sensitivity. These potentialities demonstrate the importance of understanding the parameters and functions of γ-H2AX formation. (author)

  3. Intracranial EEG electrodes. Localization by means of three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging data for use in characterization of epileptic foci before surgery

    Subdural strip electrodes or intracerebral electrodes are required in order to precisely localize epileptic foci, which is mandatory for epilepsy surgery. The subdural electrodes are inserted via a borehole and thus precise positioning cannot be directly monitored. Therefore, the location of the electrodes in relation to the gyri and sulci has to be determined by imaging techniques. In this study, a three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) technique was used for visualization of intracranial EEG electrodes. A 3D gradient echo sequence with thin slices of 1 mm is required for the assessment of the gyral anatomy of the brain surface. Using a short repetition time of 30 ms good image quality within an acceptable acquisition time of about 15 min was possible. Post-processing with 3D surface reconstruction was performed using a Sun workstation. Three-dimensional reconstruction allows a more precise delineation of the localization of the EEG electrodes and the simultaneous display of the adjacent brain structures. Misplacement of intracranial electrodes is readily detected. 3D MRI with 3D surface reconstruction proved superior to 2D imaging and CT for the assessment of EEG electrode localization. (orig.)

  4. Imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes in the brain on susceptibility-weighted MRI

    Niwa, Tetsu [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aida, Noriko; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Shishikura, Ayako [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Takahara, Taro; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Miyata, Daiki [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Circulation Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Microsusceptibility changes in the brain are well known to correspond with microbleeds or micrometal fragments in adults, but this phenomenon has not been explored well in children. To assess imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Between 2006 and 2008, 12 children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility on SWI without corresponding abnormal signal on conventional MRI were identified and were retrospectively assessed. The locations of foci of microsusceptibility included the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar white matter, without any clear systematic anatomic distribution. CT (n = 5) showed no calcification at the locations corresponding to the microsusceptibility on SWI. Conventional MR imaging showed white matter volume loss (n = 5), delayed myelination (n = 2), acute infarction (n = 1), chronic infarction (n = 1), meningitis (n = 1), slight signal abnormality in the white matter (n = 1) and no abnormal findings (n = 1). Follow-up SWI (n = 3) showed no change of the microsusceptibility foci. Interestingly, all children had a history of heart surgery under extracorporeal circulation for congenital heart disease. Multiple foci of microsusceptibility can be seen in the brain on SWI in children with congenital heart disease who underwent heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation. (orig.)

  5. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Keller, Lani C.; Alberts, Jonathan B.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2011-04-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713-22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed.

  6. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713–22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed

  7. The foci of DNA double strand break-recognition proteins localize with γH2AX after heat treatment

    Recently, there have been many reports concerning proteins which can recognize DNA double strand break (DSBs), and such proteins include histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phospho-serine 1981, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phospho-threonine 2609, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) phospho-serine 343, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), phospho-threonine 68, and structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) phospho-serine 966. Thus, it should be possible to follow the formation of DSBs and their repair using immunohistochemical methods with multiple antibodies to detect these proteins. When normal human fibroblasts (AG1522 cells) were exposed to 3 Gy of X-rays as a control, clearly discernable foci for these proteins were detected, and these foci localized with γH2AX foci. After heat treatment at 45.5 deg C for 20 min, these proteins are partially localized with γH2AX foci. Here we show that there were slight differences in the localization pattern among these proteins, such as a disappearance from the nucleus (phospho-ATM) and translocation to the cytoplasm (phospho-NBS1) at 30 min after heat treatment, and some foci (phospho-DNA-PKcs and phospho-CHK2) appeared at 8 h after heat treatment. These results are discussed from perspectives of heat-induced denaturation of proteins and formation of DSBs. (author)

  8. Effects of separate and combined treatments with gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine in neonatal rats on the induction of altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors

    To characterize the effects of combined treatments with gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) on the induction of histochemically detectable altered hepatocyte foci and hepatic tumors, we assessed the yields of these lesions in the livers of 150-day-old rats that had been treated neonatally with a single dose of gamma radiation and i.p.-injected DEN, either separately or in combination. The focus population was examined for two histochemical markers (elevated gamma glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT(+)] and iron exclusion [FE(-)] ), giving rise to three detectable focus phenotypes, i.e. GGT(+) foci, FE(-) foci, and GGT(+), FE(-) foci. These results suggest that (i) phenotypically distinguishable lesions, including foci with different histochemical marker patterns and tumors, originate from specific types of damage at different genetic loci and are developmentally independent; and (ii) the expression of the GGT(+) market per se in altered hepatocyte foci is not a reliable index of incipient hepatic neoplasia. (author)

  9. Cytoplasmic CUG RNA foci are insufficient to elicit key DM1 features.

    Warunee Dansithong

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1 is the expansion of a CTG tract located in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. Expression of mutant RNAs encoding expanded CUG repeats plays a central role in the development of cardiac disease in DM1. Expanded CUG tracts form both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates, yet the relative significance of such aggregates in eliciting DM1 pathology is unclear. To test the pathophysiology of CUG repeat encoding RNAs, we developed and analyzed mice with cardiac-specific expression of a beta-galactosidase cassette in which a (CTG(400 repeat tract was positioned 3' of the termination codon and 5' of the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal. In these animals CUG aggregates form exclusively in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells. A key pathological consequence of expanded CUG repeat RNA expression in DM1 is aberrant RNA splicing. Abnormal splicing results from the functional inactivation of MBNL1, which is hypothesized to occur due to MBNL1 sequestration in CUG foci or from elevated levels of CUG-BP1. We therefore tested the ability of cytoplasmic CUG foci to elicit these changes. Aggregation of CUG RNAs within the cytoplasm results both in Mbnl1 sequestration and in approximately a two fold increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic Cug-bp1 levels. Significantly, despite these changes RNA splice defects were not observed and functional analysis revealed only subtle cardiac dysfunction, characterized by conduction defects that primarily manifest under anesthesia. Using a human myoblast culture system we show that this transgene, when expressed at similar levels to a second transgene, which encodes expanded CTG tracts and facilitates both nuclear focus formation and aberrant splicing, does not elicit aberrant splicing. Thus the lack of toxicity of cytoplasmic CUG foci does not appear to be a consequence of low expression levels. Our results therefore demonstrate that the cellular location of CUG RNA

  10. Nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci in euchromatin and heterochromatin

    Chiolo, Irene; Georgescu, Walter; Tang, Jonathan; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2013-09-03

    Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment.

  11. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Florence Stinglhamber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural justice judgments, which in turn influenced their affective commitment to the organisation. Similarly, co-workers' interactional justice judgments increased employee's own interactional justice judgments, which in turn impacted on their affective commitment to both the supervisor and the organisation. As a whole, findings suggest that coworkers' justice judgments strengthened employee's affective attachments toward the justice sources by reinforcing employee's own justice perceptions.

  12. 16-year remission of rheumatoid arthritis after unusually vigorous treatment of closed dental foci.

    Breebaart, A C; Bijlsma, J W J; van Eden, W

    2002-01-01

    This report describes a remission of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of 16 years duration, apparently caused by the extraction of endodontically well-treated, healthy looking teeth. The only clue that the teeth were contributing to the disease pathogenesis in this case of RA was that the patient was able to reproducibly induce severe attacks of arthritis after prolonged, heavy pressure on some of his teeth treated with root canal fillings. After extraction, a small pus layer was found to cover the apices of the clinically healthy looking teeth. The rheumatoid factor (RF) became negative and the patient remained symptom free for the next 16 years. The possible connections between micro-organisms in closed dental foci under constant pressure and the chronicity and exacerbations of RA are discussed. PMID:12175115

  13. Mammalian nuclei contain foci which are highly enriched in components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery.

    Carmo-Fonseca, M; Tollervey, D; Pepperkok, R; Barabino, S M; Merdes, A; Brunner, C; Zamore, P. D.; Green, M R; Hurt, E; Lamond, A. I.

    1991-01-01

    The organization of the major snRNP particles in mammalian cell nuclei has been analysed by in situ labelling using snRNA-specific antisense probes made of 2'-OMe RNA. U3 snRNA is exclusively detected in the nucleolus while all the spliceosomal snRNAs are found in the nucleoplasm outside of nucleoli. Surprisingly, U2, U4, U5 and U6 snRNAs are predominantly observed in discrete nucleoplasmic foci. U1 snRNA is also present in foci but in addition is detected widely distributed throughout the nu...

  14. From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence

    Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Chanteau, Suzanne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Re-emergence of human cases of plague after decades of silence does not necessarily mean that plague foci are re-emerging. Most often, Yersinia pestis bacteria have been maintained and circulating at low levels in the rodent populations. It seems therefore more appropriate to speak in terms of expansion or regression phases for sylvatic rodent plague foci and to reserve the term re-emergence for human cases. From the analysis of well-documented human plague cases in Madagascar, we underline t...

  15. The Focinator - a new open-source tool for high-throughput foci evaluation of DNA damage

    The quantitative analysis of foci plays an important role in many cell biological methods such as counting of colonies or cells, organelles or vesicles, or the number of protein complexes. In radiation biology and molecular radiation oncology, DNA damage and DNA repair kinetics upon ionizing radiation (IR) are evaluated by counting protein clusters or accumulations of phosphorylated proteins recruited to DNA damage sites. Consistency in counting and interpretation of foci remains challenging. Many current software solutions describe instructions for time-consuming and error-prone manual analysis, provide incomplete algorithms for analysis or are expensive. Therefore, we aimed to develop a tool for costless, automated, quantitative and qualitative analysis of foci. For this purpose we integrated a user-friendly interface into ImageJ and selected parameters to allow automated selection of regions of interest (ROIs) depending on their size and circularity. We added different export options and a batch analysis. The use of the Focinator was tested by analyzing γ-H2.AX foci in murine prostate adenocarcinoma cells (TRAMP-C1) at different time points after IR with 0.5 to 3 Gray (Gy). Additionally, measurements were performed by users with different backgrounds and experience. The Focinator turned out to be an easily adjustable tool for automation of foci counting. It significantly reduced the analysis time of radiation-induced DNA-damage foci. Furthermore, different user groups were able to achieve a similar counting velocity. Importantly, there was no difference in nuclei detection between the Focinator and ImageJ alone. The Focinator is a costless, user-friendly tool for fast high-throughput evaluation of DNA repair foci. The macro allows improved foci evaluation regarding accuracy, reproducibility and analysis speed compared to manual analysis. As innovative option, the macro offers a combination of multichannel evaluation including colocalization analysis and the

  16. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats

    Orner Gayle A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlorophyllin (CHL is a promising chemopreventive agent believed to block cancer primarily by inhibiting carcinogen uptake through the formation of molecular complexes with the carcinogens. However, recent studies suggest that CHL may have additional biological effects particularly when given after the period of carcinogen treatment. This study examines the post-initiation effects of CHL towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci of the liver and colon. The single concentration of CHL tested in this study (0.1% in the drinking water had no significant effects on AFB1-induced foci of the liver and colons of rats.

  17. Specific targeting of infectious foci with radioiodinated human recombinant interleukin-1 in an experimental model

    In the present study, radioiodinated human recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1) was investigated for its potential to image infectious foci in vivo in an animal model of infection. Twenty-four hours after induction of a Staphylococcus aureus abscess in the left calf muscle, mice were i.v. injected with both iodine-125 labelled IL-1 and iodine-131 labelled myoglobin, a size-matched control agent. The animals were killed for tissue biodistribution studies at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h p.i. Gamma camera images were obtained at 6, 24 and 48 h after injecting mice with 123I-IL-1. Radioiodinated IL-1 rapidly cleared from the body; after 12 h the abscess was the organ with the highest activity. The absolute abscess uptake of 125I-IL-1 remained high compared to 131I-myoglobin, resulting in significantly higher abscess-to-muscle ratios of 125I-IL-1 compared to 131I-myoglobin. The ratios of 125I-IL-1 reached the ultimate value of 44.4 ± 10.8 at 48 h p.i., whereas the ratios of 131I-myoglobin did not exceed 5.9 ± 0.7. Gamma camera imaging revealed clearly visible abscesses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate specific retention of radioiodinated IL-1 in the abscess, presumably by interaction of IL-1 with its receptor on the inflammatory cells. The high target-to-background ratios that were obtained over the course of time indicate that the IL-1 receptor may be a valuable target for the imaging of infectious foci. (orig.)

  18. PIV Measurements and Mechanisms of Adjacent Synthetic Jets Interactions

    LUO Zhen-Bing; XIA Zhi-Xun

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of adjacent synthetic jet actuators with varying relative amplitude and the relative phase of driving voltage are measured using a particle image velocimetry(PIV).Varying relative amplitude or relative phase of driving voltage of the adjacent actuators vectors the direction of the ensuing merged jet of the adjacent synthetic jets.The vectoring mechanism of the adjacent vortex pairs,attract-impact causing deflection(AICD),is provided to explain why the merged jet is generally vectored to the side of the phase-leading synthetic jet or the synthetic jet with higher driving voltage.

  19. Aflatoxin B1-Associated DNA Adducts Stall S Phase and Stimulate Rad51 foci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Michael Fasullo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AFB1 is a potent recombinagen in budding yeast. AFB1 exposure induces RAD51 expression and triggers Rad53 activation in yeast cells that express human CYP1A2. It was unknown, however, when and if Rad51 foci appear. Herein, we show that Rad53 activation correlates with cell-cycle delay in yeast and the subsequent formation of Rad51 foci. In contrast to cells exposed to X-rays, in which Rad51 foci appear exclusively in G2 cells, Rad51 foci in AFB1-exposed cells can appear as soon as cells enter S phase. Although rad51 and rad4 mutants are mildly sensitive to AFB1, chronic exposure of the NER deficient rad4 cells to AFB1 leads to increased lag times, while rad4 rad51 double mutants exhibit synergistic sensitivity and do not grow when exposed to 50 μM AFB1. We suggest RAD51 functions to facilitate DNA replication after replication fork stalling or collapse in AFB1-exposed cells.

  20. A spherical harmonics intensity model for 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci.

    Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Ott, Katharina; Hahn, Matthias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Schotta, Gunnar; Rippe, Karsten; Rohr, Karl

    2016-08-01

    The genome is partitioned into regions of euchromatin and heterochromatin. The organization of heterochromatin is important for the regulation of cellular processes such as chromosome segregation and gene silencing, and their misregulation is linked to cancer and other diseases. We present a model-based approach for automatic 3D segmentation and 3D shape analysis of heterochromatin foci from 3D confocal light microscopy images. Our approach employs a novel 3D intensity model based on spherical harmonics, which analytically describes the shape and intensities of the foci. The model parameters are determined by fitting the model to the image intensities using least-squares minimization. To characterize the 3D shape of the foci, we exploit the computed spherical harmonics coefficients and determine a shape descriptor. We applied our approach to 3D synthetic image data as well as real 3D static and real 3D time-lapse microscopy images, and compared the performance with that of previous approaches. It turned out that our approach yields accurate 3D segmentation results and performs better than previous approaches. We also show that our approach can be used for quantifying 3D shape differences of heterochromatin foci. PMID:27037463

  1. Novel characteristics of CtIP at damage-induced foci following the initiation of DNA end resection

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yajima, Hirohiko, E-mail: hyajima@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CtIP becomes hyperphosphorylated and forms foci following cell irradiation. • CtIP accumulates in foci subsequent to the peak of hyperphosphorylation. • CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state at later times. • CtIP is continuously recruited to DNA double strand breaks downstream of resection. • CtIP presumably have a distinct role following the initiation of resection. - Abstract: Homologous recombination (HR) is a major repair pathway for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and end resection, which generates a 3′-single strand DNA tail at the DSB, is an early step in the process. Resection is initiated by the Mre11 nuclease together with CtIP. Here, we describe novel characteristics of CtIP at DSBs. At early times following exposure of human cells to ionizing radiation, CtIP localized to the DSB, became hyperphosphorylated and formed foci in an ATM-dependent manner. At later times, when the initiation of resection had occurred, CtIP foci persist but CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state, which is dependent on ATM and ATR. Exposure to cycloheximide revealed that CtIP turns over at DSB sites downstream of resection. Our findings provide strong evidence that CtIP is continuously recruited to DSBs downstream of both the initiation and extension step of resection, strongly suggesting that CtIP has functions in addition to promoting the initiation of resection during HR.

  2. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2011 Gulf of Alaska Late Larval Survey DY11-02/2DY11

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A total of 70 stations were occupied. The standard FOCI grid and line 8 were samped. At each station we sampled using paired 20 and 60 cm Bongo frames (150 and 500...

  3. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Erk, M.J. van; Doornbos, R.P.; Krul, C.A.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2% curcum

  4. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once a...

  5. On spectral hypergraph theory of the adjacency tensor

    Pearson, Kelly J.; Zhang, Tan

    2012-01-01

    We study both $H$ and $E/Z$-eigenvalues of the adjacency tensor of a uniform multi-hypergraph and give conditions for which the largest positive $H$ or $Z$-eigenvalue corresponds to a strictly positive eigenvector. We also investigate when the $E$-spectrum of the adjacency tensor is symmetric.

  6. FindFoci: a focus detection algorithm with automated parameter training that closely matches human assignments, reduces human inconsistencies and increases speed of analysis.

    Alex D Herbert

    Full Text Available Accurate and reproducible quantification of the accumulation of proteins into foci in cells is essential for data interpretation and for biological inferences. To improve reproducibility, much emphasis has been placed on the preparation of samples, but less attention has been given to reporting and standardizing the quantification of foci. The current standard to quantitate foci in open-source software is to manually determine a range of parameters based on the outcome of one or a few representative images and then apply the parameter combination to the analysis of a larger dataset. Here, we demonstrate the power and utility of using machine learning to train a new algorithm (FindFoci to determine optimal parameters. FindFoci closely matches human assignments and allows rapid automated exploration of parameter space. Thus, individuals can train the algorithm to mirror their own assignments and then automate focus counting using the same parameters across a large number of images. Using the training algorithm to match human assignments of foci, we demonstrate that applying an optimal parameter combination from a single image is not broadly applicable to analysis of other images scored by the same experimenter or by other experimenters. Our analysis thus reveals wide variation in human assignment of foci and their quantification. To overcome this, we developed training on multiple images, which reduces the inconsistency of using a single or a few images to set parameters for focus detection. FindFoci is provided as an open-source plugin for ImageJ.

  7. Study on Optimization of Phase Offset at Adjacent Intersections

    Yuanli GU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the phase offset at adjacent intersections is the key parameter regarding coordinated control of traffic signal for adjacent intersections, which decides the effect of the coordinated control for adjacent intersections. According to characters of saturated traffic flow of Chinese urban road, this thesis establishes a model for optimization of phase offset for adjacent interactions and finds a solution from such model by adopting genetic algorithm. The model is verified by actual traffic flow datum of two adjacent signal intersections on Changan Avenue. Then a comparison is made between the optimization result of such model and that of the existing mathematical method and SYNCHRO model, which indicates that the model established by this thesis can reduce the delay suffered by vehicles at the intersections and increase the traffic efficiency of the intersections.

  8. A review of Web information seeking research: considerations of method and foci of interest

    Konstantina Martzoukou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This review shows that Web information seeking research suffers from inconsistencies in method and a lack of homogeneity in research foci. Background. Qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to produce a comprehensive view of information seeking. Studies also recommend observation as one of the most fundamental ways of gaining direct knowledge of behaviour. User-centred research emphasises the importance of holistic approaches, which incorporate physical, cognitive, and affective elements. Problems. Comprehensive studies are limited; many approaches are problematic and a consistent methodological framework has not been developed. Research has often failed to ensure appropriate samples that ensure both quantitative validity and qualitative consistency. Typically, observation has been based on simulated rather than real information needs and most studies show little attempt to examine holistically different characteristics of users in the same research schema. Research also deals with various aspects of cognitive style and ability with variant definitions of expertise and different layers of user experience. Finally the effect of social and cultural elements has not been extensively investigated. Conclusion. The existing limitations in method and the plethora of different approaches allow little progress and fewer comparisons across studies. There is urgent need for establishing a theoretical framework on which future studies can be based so that information seeking behaviour can be more holistically understood, and results can be generalised.

  9. Radioiodination and Biological Evaluation of some Drugs for Inflammatory Foci Imaging

    A radiopharmaceutical is defined as a chemical or pharmaceutical preparation labeled with a radionuclide in tracer or therapeutic concentration, used as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. A radiopharmaceutical agent is usually administrated into a vein. Depending on which type of scan is being performed, the imaging will be done either immediately, a few hours later, or even several days after the injection. Imaging time varies, generally ranging from 20 to 45 minutes.In this thesis, we are more interested in the drugs that can be used for the treatment of all kinds of inflammation whether septic or aseptic. The inflammation by itself can be a controllable disease, but as the inflammation, specially the chronic type, can be the reason and the beginning of many more serious diseases as autoimmune disease, pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and cancer, the study and the early diagnosis of the inflammation can prevent many future problems for the patient. The study of the inflammation has been discussed before by labeling drugs with Iodine-125 for the imaging of inflammatory foci like etodolac, meloxicam, piroxicam and other drugs.

  10. Latent Trypanosoma brucei gambiense foci in Uganda: a silent epidemic in children and adults?

    Wastling, S L; Picozzi, K; Wamboga, C; VON Wissmann, B; Amongi-Accup, C; Wardrop, N A; Stothard, J R; Kakembo, A; Welburn, S C

    2011-10-01

    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness follows a long asymptomatic phase and persists in ancient foci from which epidemic clinical disease arises. A putative focus of T. b. gambiense infections has been identified, initially in mothers and young children, on the Lake Albert shoreline of Western Uganda leading to mass screening of 6207 individuals in September 2008. T. b. gambiense infections were identified by Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT) and sub-species-specific PCR although parasitological methods failed to confirm any patent trypanosome infections. In April 2009, CATT positives were re-visited; diagnosis of individuals by CATT and PCR was unstable over the two time points and parasites remained undetected, even using mini Anion Exchange Centrifugation Technique (mAECT). These observations suggest the possibility of a silent focus of disease, where all infected individuals are in a latent stage, and highlight our limited understanding of the local natural history and disease progression of T. b. gambiense in children and adults. PMID:21554841

  11. Azoxymethane-induced rat aberrant crypt foci: Relevance in studying chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Jayadev Raju

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colon cancer involves sequential and multistep progression of epithelial cells initiated to a cancerous state with defined precancerous intermediaries.Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) represent the earliest identifiable intermediate precancerous lesions during colon carcinogenesis in both laboratory animals and humans.ACF are easily induced by colon-specific carcinogens in rodents and can be used to learn more about the process of colon carcinogenesis.For over two decades,since its first discovery,azoxymethane(AOM)-induced rodent ACF have served as surrogate biomarkers in the screening of various anticarcinogens and carcinogens.Several dietary constituents and phytochemicals have been tested for their colon cancer chemopreventive efficacy using the ACF system.There has been substantial effort in defining and refining ACF in terms of understanding their molecular make-up,and extensive research in this field is currently in progress.In chemoprevention studies,AOM-induced rat ACF have been very successful as biomarkers,and have provided several standardized analyses of data.There have been several studies that have reported that ACF data do not correlate to actual colon tumor outcome,however,and hence there has been an ambiguity about their role as biomarkers.The scope of this mini-review is to provide valuable insights and limitations of AOM-induced rat ACF as biomarkers in colon cancer chemoprevention studies.The role of the dynamics and biological heterogeneity of ACF is critical in understanding them as biomarkers in chemoprevention studies.

  12. Relationship of pelvic bone fracture pattern and bleeding foci on angiography

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the patterns of pelvic bone fracture and location of hemorrhage on angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 56 patients with pelvic bone fracture and active bleeding. Fractures were classified according to Tile classification. Locations of bleedings were divided into four groups; main trunk/anterior/posterior divisions of internal iliac artery, and other locations. The relationship between the fracture pattern and bleedings were analyzed statistically. Forty one bleedings were in 22 patients with type A fracture. Twenty (49%) were at the anterior division, 12 (29%) were at the posterior division, and 9 (22%) were found in other location. Thirty three bleedings were in 23 patients with type B fracture. Fifteen (45%) were at the posterior division, 10 (30%) were at the anterior division, 3 (9%) were at the main trunk of the internal iliac artery, and 5 (16%) were at other location. Eighteen bleedings were in 11 patients with type C fracture. Thirteen (72%) were at the posterior division, 4 (22%) were at the anterior division, and 1 (6%) was at main trunk of internal iliac artery. Anterior divisional bleedings were more common in type A, posterior divisional bleedings were more common in type B and C fractures (p = 0.014). The distribution of bleeding is significantly related to the fracture patterns. Fracture pattern may help in predicting the location of bleeding foci on embolization

  13. High-LET Patterns of DSBs in DNA Loops, the HPRT Gene and Phosphorylation Foci

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    We present new results obtained with our model based on the track structure and chromatin geometry that predicts the DSB spatial and genomic distributions in a cell nucleus with the full genome represented. The model generates stochastic patterns of DSBs in the physical space of the nucleus filled with the realistic configuration of human chromosomes. The model was re-used to find the distribution of DSBs in a physical volume corresponding to a visible phosphorylation focus believed to be associated with a DSB. The data shows whether there must more than one DSB per foci due to finite size of the visible focus, even if a single DSB is radiochemically responsible for the phosphorylation of DNA in its vicinity. The same model can predict patterns of closely located DSBs in a given gene, or in a DNA loop, one of the large-scale chromatin structures. We demonstrated for the example of the HPRT gene, how different sorts of radiation lead to proximity effect in DSB locations, which is important for modeling gene deletions. The spectrum of intron deletions and total gene deletions was simulated for the HPRT gene. The same proximity effect of DSBs in a loop can hinder DSB restitutions, as parts of the loop between DSBs is deleted with a higher likelihood. The distributions of DSBs and deletions of DNA in a loop are presented.

  14. Aberrant crypt foci in patients with a positive family history of sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Stevens, Richard G; Swede, Helen; Heinen, Christopher D; Jablonski, Melissa; Grupka, Michael; Ross, Barry; Parente, Melissa; Tirnauer, Jennifer S; Giardina, Charles; Rajan, Thiruchandurai V; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Levine, Joel

    2007-04-18

    Early detection is crucial in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) deaths. The earliest detectable neoplastic lesion in the colon is the aberrant crypt foci (ACF). A major question is whether ACF are precursors of CRC, and thus, early biomarkers for CRC risk. If so, we hypothesized that the number of ACF would be higher in patients who had a family history of CRC compared to patients without. We counted ACF in the distal 20cm of colon/rectum during 103 colonoscopic examinations using a prototype Close Focus Colonoscope (Olympus Corp.) with methylene blue chromendoscopy. Each patient was asked whether they had a family history of CRC in a first degree relative, or a personal history of CRC or adenoma. Patients answering 'no' to these questions (n=17) had a mean number of ACF of 4.4; the mean was significantly higher in the patients with a positive family history of CRC (9.0, p<0.01; n=43) or a personal history of advanced adenoma (7.5, p<0.05; n=34). PMID:16950561

  15. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Population genetics of Glossina palpalis palpalis from central African sleeping sickness foci

    Solano Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae is widespread in west Africa, and is the main vector of sleeping sickness in Cameroon as well as in the Bas Congo Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, little is known on the structure of its populations. We investigated G. p. palpalis population genetic structure in five sleeping sickness foci (four in Cameroon, one in Democratic Republic of Congo using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Results A strong isolation by distance explains most of the population structure observed in our sampling sites of Cameroon and DRC. The populations here are composed of panmictic subpopulations occupying fairly wide zones with a very strong isolation by distance. Effective population sizes are probably between 20 and 300 individuals and if we assume densities between 120 and 2000 individuals per km2, dispersal distance between reproducing adults and their parents extends between 60 and 300 meters. Conclusions This first investigation of population genetic structure of G. p. palpalis in Central Africa has evidenced random mating subpopulations over fairly large areas and is thus at variance with that found in West African populations of G. p. palpalis. This study brings new information on the isolation by distance at a macrogeographic scale which in turn brings useful information on how to organise regional tsetse control. Future investigations should be directed at temporal sampling to have more accurate measures of demographic parameters in order to help vector control decision.

  17. Lens-Prism Correctors For Ritchey-Chretien And Quasi Ritchey-Chretien Foci

    Ding-qiang, Su; Ming, Liang

    1986-08-01

    Two new lens-prism correctors are designed for secondary foci, of which the diameter of the primary is 7.5 meter, the f-ratio of the primary is 2 and the final f-ratio is about 5.4. The field of view of the R-C system is 46 and that of the quasi R-C system is 1°. These correctors can be used for the correction of both the aberrations and the atmospheric disper-sion. They consist of two cemented lenses. Each cemented lens is made of two different kinds of glasses, of which the indexes of refraction are near and the dispersions are different. The cemented surface is tilted. The two cemented lenses can rotate oppositly around the optical axis for correcting the atmospheric dispersion at different zenith distance. All of surfaces of these correctors are spherical. Spot diagrams of two systems are given for three relative orientations of two cemented lenses, each at nine positions in the field of view, which show both the monochromatic image quality and the effect of correcting the atmospheric dispersion are excellent.

  18. Delayed acquisition of non-adjacent vocalic distributional regularities.

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two non-adjacent vowels. Experiments 1 and 2 show that a preference for PA over AP (anterior-posterior) words emerges between 10 and 13 months in French-learning infants. Control experiments show that this bias cannot be explained by adjacent or positional preferences. The present study demonstrates that infants become sensitive to non-adjacent vocalic distributional regularities between 10 and 13 months, showing the existence of a delay for the acquisition of non-adjacent vocalic regularities compared to equivalent non-adjacent consonantal regularities. These results are consistent with the CV hypothesis, according to which consonants and vowels play different roles at different linguistic levels. PMID:25786491

  19. Interactions of adjacent pulsating, erupting and creeping solitons

    Song Li-Jun; Li Lu; Zhou Guo-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the adjacent interactions of three novel solitons for the quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, which are plain pulsating, erupting and creeping solitons. It is found that different performances are presented for different solitons due to isolated regions of the parameter space where they exist. For example, plain pulsating and erupting solitons exhibit mutual annihilation during collisions with the decrease of total energy, but for creeping soliton,the two adjacent pulses present soliton fusion without any loss of energy. Otherwise, the method for restraining the interactions is also found and it can suppress interacions between these two adjacent pulses effectively.

  20. Griset: Pottery of the Great Basin and Adjacent Areas

    Forsyth, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    Pottery of the Great Basin and Adjacent Areas. Suzanne Griset, ed. University of Utah Anthropological Papers No. Ill, 1986, 170 pp., 34 figs., 5 tables, annotated and indexed bibliography, $17.50 (paper).

  1. PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-FOCI SYSTEMS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST (GEOMECHANICS AND TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Boris M. Chikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study, an earthquake focus is viewed as a 3D zone of the Earth’s crust, wherein the discharge of mechanical loading is accompanied by recordable destruction and qualitative transformation of the geological medium. The purpose of the present publication is to make an attempt to reveal a direct relationship between seismicity and deformation-metamorphic processes which took place in the Earth’s crust. Traditional and alternative interpretations of geomechanics of seismic-foci situations are discussed. The problems of geodynamics and geostatics of the seismic-foci systems and their concentrations, as well as anthropogenic models and mechanisms of focus medium structuring are reviewed. The relationship between seismicity and mechanisms of «regional shearing» or formation of crustal deformation-metamorphic structures of lineament type is outlined in the example of the Chuya seismic system of earthquakes which occurred in 2003 and afterwards in the Altai region.

  2. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast with foci of morphologic malignancy: a case of PASH with malignant transformation?

    Nassar, Hind; Elieff, Michelle P; Kronz, Joseph D; Argani, Pedram

    2010-12-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign proliferation of the hormonally responsive, specialized mammary stroma characterized by slit-like pseudovascular spaces lined by bland spindle cells. It is usually an incidental microscopic finding but in some cases it may present as a slowly growing mass. A malignant counterpart for this lesion has not been reported. We describe a case of PASH with foci of malignant histologic features presenting as a slowly growing mass in a 30-year-old woman. The previously reported variants of PASH and the other mammary stromal lesions related to PASH are also discussed. This is perhaps the first case of PASH with foci of malignant histologic features reported in the literature and represents a rare sarcoma derived from specialized hormonally responsive mammary stroma. PMID:18611932

  3. Typical features of the foci in case of largescale radiation accidents and their influence on organization of medical care

    The paper studied typical features of foci in case of large-scale radiation accidents, which differ from foci after nuclear explosion by the components of radioactive substances, small particle dispersity, their higher solubility, longer period of radiation contamination and its irregularity. It complicates special treatment, creates difficulties in evaluation of radiation situation and in carrying out sanitary-hygienic measures. The leading radiation factor is external radiation exposure, but in the initial period close to Nuclear Power Plant, the contribution of internal radiation exposure due to inhalation of radioactive substances is very important and should be taken into consideration when rating radiation exposure Besides, there must be taken into account considerable contribution of non-radiation factors (stress, toxic effects, social-economic conditions etc.) in aggravation of health condition of people. The above specific features require corrections in classic approach to prophylaxis and treatment of radiation injuries. 18 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats.

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1-3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  5. Effects of corn oil and benzyl acetate on number and size of azaserine-induced foci in the pancreas of LEW and F344 rats

    Longnecker, D.S.; Roebuck, B.D.; Curphey, T.J.; Lhoste, E.; Coon, C.I.; MacMillan, D.

    1986-09-01

    The response of LEW and F344 strain rats to the pancreatic carcinogen azaserine was compared using the size and number of azaserine-induced acidophilic acinar cell foci and nodules as parameters in a 4-month experiment. A second experiment compared the effect of corn oil intake by gavage and dietary routes on the growth of azaserine-induced pancreatic lesions in LEW rats. A third experiment tested the activity of benzyl acetate in regard to its ability to induce acinar cell foci or to promote the growth of such foci in azaserine-treated rats. The results showed that equivalent doses of azaserine induce two to seven times more foci in LEW than in F344 rats, and that LEW rats have a higher incidence of spontaneous foci than F344 rats. Azaserine-treated LEW rats that were given 5 mL corn oil/kg body weight 5 days per week by gavage developed more acinar cell foci than rats fed a basal diet (chow). Addition of an equivalent amount of corn oil to chow had a similar effect of enhancing the development of foci. Rats of neither strain developed acinar cell foci when benzyl acetate was given by gavage or in the diet nor was there evidence that benzyl acetate has a significant effect on the development of foci in azaserine-treated rats. These studies also demonstrate that the azaserine/rat model of pancreatic carcinogenesis which was developed in LEW rats can be adapted for use with F344 rats.

  6. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-07-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure.

  7. Establishment of a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose of radon to red bone marrow in rats

    Wang, Jing; He, Linfeng; Fan, Dunhuang; Ding, Defang; Wang, Xufei; Gao, Yun; Zhang, Xuxia; Li, Qiang; Chen, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1–3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs). When the cumulative doses of radon inhaled by rats reached 14, 30 and 60 working level months (WLM), the yields of three types of foci markedly increased in both PBLs and BMLs, and γ-H2AX foci-based dose estimates to RBM were 0.97, 2.06 and 3.94 mGy, respectively. Notably, BMLs displayed a more profound increase of three types of foci than PBLs, and the absorbed dose ratio between BMLs and PBLs was similar between rats exposed to 30 and 60 WLM of radon. Taken together, γ-H2AX foci quantitation in PBLs is able to estimate RBM-absorbed doses with the dose-response curve of γ-H2AX foci after in vitro radon exposure and the ratio of RBM- to PBL-absorbed doses in rats following radon exposure. PMID:27445126

  8. RNA/MBNL1-containing foci in myoblast nuclei from patients affected by myotonic dystrophy type 2: an immunocytochemical study

    C. Pellicciari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2 is a dominantly inherited autosomal disease with multi-systemic clinical features and it is caused by expansion of a CCTG tetranucleotide repeat in the first intron of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9 gene in 3q21.The expanded-CCUG-containing transcripts are retained in the cell nucleus and accumulate in the form of focal aggregates which specifically sequester the muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1 protein, a RNA binding factor involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. The structural organization and composition of the foci are still incompletely known. In this study, the nuclear foci occurring in cultured myoblasts from DM2 patients were characterised at fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy by using a panel of antibodies recognizing transcription and processing factors of pre-mRNAs. MBNL1 proved to co-locate in the nuclear foci with snRNPs and hnRNPs, whereas no co-location was observed with RNA polymerase II, the non-RNP splicing factor SC35, the cleavage factor CStF and the PML protein. At electron microscopy the MBNL1-containing nuclear foci appeared as roundish domains showing a rather homogeneous structure and proved to contain snRNPs and hnRNPs. The sequestration of splicing factors involved in early phases of pre-mRNA processing supports the hypothesis of a general alteration in the maturation of several mRNAs, which could lead to the multiple pathological dysfunctions observed in dystrophic patients.

  9. Dose-response relationship of γ-H2AX foci induction in human lymphocytes after X-rays exposure

    Biological dosimeters are recommended for dose estimation in case of human overexposure to ionising radiation. Rapid measurement of γ-H2AX foci as a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) induction has been recently tested with this purpose. Here we reported a dose-response relationship after X-ray irradiation at different times post-exposure. Blood samples were obtained from several healthy donors and exposed to doses between 0 and 2 Gy. After irradiation, blood samples were incubated at 37 deg. C during 0.5 h, 5 h, and 8 h. Scoring of cells and γ-H2AX foci was performed by software. The dose-response curves for different incubation times were as follows: Y(0.5h) = 11.66D + 0.15 (R2 = 0.99), Y(5h) = 2.44D + 0.15 (R2 = 0.99), Y(8h) = 1.57D + 0.22 (R2 = 0.99). At 0.5 h post-exposure, the dose-response relationship for X-irradiated lymphocytes was similar to the one obtained after gamma-irradiation using the same protocol. On the other hand, the results were not similar after 8 h due to different kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation. Our results confirm the possibilities of using γ-H2AX foci method for dose estimation in a period from 0.5 h up to 8 h post X-irradiation and support the hypothesis of differences in γ-H2AX foci kinetics after gamma- and X-irradiation in vitro.

  10. Inducibility of nuclear Rad51 foci after DNA damage distinguishes all Fanconi anemia complementation groups from D1/BRCA2

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a cancer susceptibility disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. So far 11 complementation groups have been identified, from which only FA-D1/BRCA2 and FA-J are defective downstream of the central FANCD2 protein as cells from these groups are capable of monoubiquitinating FANCD2. In this study we show that cells derived from patients from the new complementation groups, FA-I, FA-J and FA-L are all proficient in DNA damage induced Rad51 foci formation, making the cells from FA-D1/BRCA2 patients that are defective in this process the sole exception. Although FA-B patient HSC230 was previously reported to also have biallelic BRCA2 mutations, we found normal Rad51 foci formation in cells from this patient, consistent with the recent identification of an X-linked gene being mutated in four unrelated FA-B patients. Thus, our data show that none of the FA proteins, except BRCA2, are required to sequester Rad51 into nuclear foci. Since cells from the FA-D1 and FA-J patient groups are both able to monoubiquitinate FANCD2, the 'Rad51 foci phenotype' provides a convenient assay to distinguish between these two groups. Our results suggest that FANCJ and FANCD1/BRCA2 are part of the integrated FANC/BRCA DNA damage response pathway or, alternatively, that they represent sub-pathways in which only FANCD1/BRCA2 is directly connected to the process of homologous recombination

  11. Identification of endemic foci of Lyme disease: isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis).

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A; Hyde, F W

    1985-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from the blood, kidneys, spleens, eyes, or livers of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) (n = 19 of 22) and from the blood, kidneys, or spleens of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) (n = 2 of 2) captured at three foci for Lyme disease in eastern Connecticut. These bacteria were cultured most frequently from spleens (n = 19) and kidneys (n = 15). B. burgdorferi persisted in one mouse for at least 60 days. One spiroc...

  12. Development and validation of 'AutoRIF': software for the automated analysis of radiation-induced foci

    McVean Andrew; Kent Simon; Bakanov Alexei; Hobbs Tom; Anderson Rhona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The quantification of radiation-induced foci (RIF) to investigate the induction and subsequent repair of DNA double strands breaks is now commonplace. Over the last decade systems specific for the automatic quantification of RIF have been developed for this purpose, however to ask more mechanistic questions on the spatio-temporal aspects of RIF, an automated RIF analysis platform that also quantifies RIF size/volume and relative three-dimensional (3D) distribution of RIF w...

  13. Chemoprevention of aberrant crypt foci in the colon of rats by dietary onion.

    Taché, Sylviane; Ladam, Aélis; Corpet, Denis E

    2007-01-01

    Onion intake might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to epidemiology. However, Femia showed in 2003 that diets with a 20% onion intake increase carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated this dose was too high. Prevention of initiation was thus tested in 60 rats given a 5% dried onion diet or AIN76 diet, and initiated 12 days later with azoxymethane (AOM, 1x20 mg/kg i.p.), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ, 2x200 mg/kg p.o.), or N-nitroso-N-methylurea (2x50 mg/kg p.o.). Prevention of promotion was tested in 38 rats given AOM, then randomised to: AIN76 diet; 5% onion diet; phytochemicals diet (supplemented with propyl-disulfide, quercetine-glycosides and oligofructose); 1% pluronic F68 diet (a potent chemopreventive PEG-like block-polymer, used as a positive control). Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were scored 30 days (initiation) or 100 days (promotion) after carcinogen injection. The onion diet given during initiation reduced the number of AOM-induced ACF (60 versus 86, p=0.03), and the size of IQ-induced ACF (1.33 versus 1.97, p=0.02). Given post-initiation, the onion diet reduced the number of ACF (34 versus 59, p=0.008) and of large ACF (6 versus 15, p=0.02). Phytochemicals diet and pluronic diet reduced ACF growth similarly. Data show that a 5% onion diet reduced carcinogenesis during initiation and promotion stages, and suggest this chemoprevention is due to known phytochemicals. PMID:17188859

  14. The historical distribution of main malaria foci in Spain as related to water bodies.

    Sousa, Arturo; García-Barrón, Leoncio; Vetter, Mark; Morales, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS), using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura), the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae) besides A. atroparvus (Levante) or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia). In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe. PMID:25101771

  15. Epidemiology of colonic aberrant crypt foci: review and analysis of existing studies.

    Stevens, Richard G; Swede, Helen; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2007-07-18

    Since first described in a rodent model in 1987, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon have been shown to exhibit many of the molecular features of the more advanced colonic neoplasms including cancer. Therefore, they may be early lesions with potential for progression, and be valuable biomarkers for reduction of risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). For this review, we searched PubMed, and reference lists of recent publications, for studies which reported on associations of features of ACF in humans, such as number or size, with subject characteristics, such as age or family history of CRC. Over 150 papers have reported on ACF in humans. However, the vast majority of these publications are concerned with molecular and morphological features of biopsied lesions, and not their epidemiology. None of the epidemiological studies were of optimum design, primarily due to their absence of a well-defined subject sampling frame or method. Given their 'first-generation' nature, consistent findings were of increased ACF number with age and with synchronous advanced colonic neoplasia. One study reported a higher mean number of ACF in subjects with a family history of CRC than in those without. The strongest evidence on the ability of ACF to predict a diagnosis of CRC will be from prospective studies with baseline ACF assessment in a large sample of disease-free persons (many thousands) who are followed carefully for many years. In the interim, because ACF are asymptomatic, well-designed cross-sectional studies are feasible and will yield valuable information on the relation of ACF to the known risk factors for CRC. This information can then be used to improve the design of prospective studies, and of clinical intervention trials that use ACF as an intermediate endpoint. PMID:17182176

  16. Experiences with the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two foci in Central Africa

    B. Gryseels

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with population-based chemotherapy and other methods for the control of schistosomiasis mansoni in two subsaharan foci are described. In the forest area of Maniema (Zaire, intense transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, high prevalences and intensities of infection, and important morbidity have been documental. Taking into account the limited financial means and the poor logistic conditions, the control strategy has been based mainly on targeted chemotherapy of heavily infected people (>600 epg. After ten years of intervention, prevalences and intensities have hardly been affected, but the initial severe hepatosplenic morbidity has almost disappeared. In Burundi, a national research and control programme has been initiated in 1982. Prevalences, intensities and morbidity were moderate, transmission was focal and erratic in time and space. A more structural control strategy was developed, based on screening and selective therapy, health education, sanitation and domestic water supply. Prevalences and intensities have been considerably reduced, though the results show focal and unpredicatable variations. Transmission and reinfection were not signifcantly affected by chemotherapy alone, and eventual outcome of repeated selective treatment appears to be limited by the sensitivity of the screening method. Intestinal morbidity was strongly reduced by community-based selective treatment, but hepatosplenic enlargement was hardly affected; this is possibly due to the confounding impact of increasing malaria morbidity. The experiences show the importance of local structures and conditions for the development of an adapted control strategy. It is further concluded that population-based chemotherapy is a highly valid tool for the rapid control of morbidity, but should in most operational conditions not be considered as a tool for transmission control. Integration of planning, execution and surveillance in regular health services...

  17. Detecting Foci of Malaria Transmission with School Surveys: A Pilot Study in the Gambia.

    Ebako N Takem

    Full Text Available In areas of declining malaria transmission such as in The Gambia, the identification of malaria infected individuals becomes increasingly harder. School surveys may be used to identify foci of malaria transmission in the community.The survey was carried out in May-June 2011, before the beginning of the malaria transmission season. Thirty two schools in the Upper River Region of The Gambia were selected with probability proportional to size; in each school approximately 100 children were randomly chosen for inclusion in the study. Each child had a finger prick blood sample collected for the determination of antimalarial antibodies by ELISA, malaria infection by microscopy and PCR, and for haemoglobin measurement. In addition, a simple questionnaire on socio-demographic variables and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets was completed. The cut-off for positivity for antimalarial antibodies was obtained using finite mixture models. The clustered nature of the data was taken into account in the analyses.A total of 3,277 children were included in the survey. The mean age was 10 years (SD = 2.7 [range 4-21], with males and females evenly distributed. The prevalence of malaria infection as determined by PCR was 13.6% (426/3124 [95% CI = 12.2-16.3] with marked variation between schools (range 3-25%, p<0.001, while the seroprevalence was 7.8% (234/2994 [95%CI = 6.4-9.8] for MSP119, 11.6% (364/2997 [95%CI = 9.4-14.5] for MSP2, and 20.0% (593/2973 [95% CI = 16.5-23.2 for AMA1. The prevalence of all the three antimalarial antibodies positive was 2.7% (79/2920.This survey shows that malaria prevalence and seroprevalence before the transmission season were highly heterogeneous.

  18. Spatiotemporal characterization of ionizing radiation induced DNA damage foci and their relation to chromatin organization

    Costes, Sylvain V; Chiolo, Irene; Pluth, Janice M.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Jakob, Burkhard

    2009-09-15

    DNA damage sensing proteins have been shown to localize to the sites of DSB within seconds to minutes following ionizing radiation (IR) exposure, resulting in the formation of microscopically visible nuclear domains referred to as radiation-induced foci (RIF). This review characterizes the spatio-temporal properties of RIF at physiological doses, minutes to hours following exposure to ionizing radiation, and it proposes a model describing RIF formation and resolution as a function of radiation quality and nuclear densities. Discussion is limited to RIF formed by three interrelated proteins ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated), 53BP1 (p53 binding protein 1) and ?H2AX (phosphorylated variant histone H2AX). Early post-IR, we propose that RIF mark chromatin reorganization, leading to a local nuclear scaffold rigid enough to keep broken DNA from diffusing away, but open enough to allow the repair machinery. We review data indicating clear kinetic and physical differences between RIF emerging from dense and uncondensed regions of the nucleus. At later time post-IR, we propose that persistent RIF observed days following exposure to ionizing radiation are nuclear ?scars? marking permanent disruption of the chromatin architecture. When DNA damage is resolved, such chromatin modifications should not necessarily lead to growth arrest and it has been shown that persistent RIF can replicate during mitosis. Thus, heritable persistent RIF spanning over tens of Mbp may affect the transcriptome of a large progeny of cells. This opens the door for a non DNA mutation-based mechanism of radiation-induced phenotypes.

  19. Medical Research Council dyspnea scale does not relate to fibroblast foci profusion in IPF

    Kagouridis Konstantinos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF irreversibly progressive fibrosing parenchymal damage, leads to defects in mechanics and gas exchange, manifesting with disabling exertional dyspnea. Previous studies have shown a relationship between fibroblast foci (FF profusion and severity and survival and a relationship between dyspnea grade and severity and outcome. We hypothesized a relationship between Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea scale with FF, and a relationship between FF and functional parameters and survival. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 24 histologically documented IPF patients. Profusion of FF was semiquantitatively evaluated by two scores, Brompton and Michigan. Survival analysis was performed by fitting Cox regression models to examine the relationship of the two scores with survival and the non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated to describe the relationships of FF scores with dyspnea scores and functional parameters. Results No statistically significant correlation between FF scores and the MRC scores was observed (p = 0.96 and p = 0.508 respectively. No significant correlation between FF scores and survival (p = 0.438 and p = 0.861 respectively or any functional parameter was observed. Conclusions The lack of relationship between the MRC dyspnea scale and the FF might relate to the fact that dyspnea in IPF better reflects the overall of lung damage and its related consequences on mechanics and gas exchange whereas FF, one of its histological hallmarks, may not reflect its entire histology derangement also constrained by the geographically limited sampled tissue. This might be also valid for the observed lack of association between FF and survival or functional parameters.

  20. The Historical Distribution of Main Malaria Foci in Spain as Related to Water Bodies

    Arturo Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible connectivity between the spatial distribution of water bodies suitable for vectors of malaria and endemic malaria foci in Southern Europe is still not well known. Spain was one of the last countries in Western Europe to be declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1964. This study combines, by means of a spatial-temporal analysis, the historical data of patients and deceased with the distribution of water bodies where the disease-transmitting mosquitos proliferate. Therefore, data from historical archives with a Geographic Information System (GIS, using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation method, was analyzed with the aim of identifying regional differences in the distribution of malaria in Spain. The reasons, why the risk of transmission is concentrated in specific regions, are related to worse socioeconomic conditions (Extremadura, the presence of another vector (Anopheles labranchiae besides A. atroparvus (Levante or large areas of water bodies in conditions to reproduce theses vectors (La Mancha and Western Andalusia. In the particular case of Western Andalusia, in 1913, the relatively high percentage of 4.73% of the surface, equal to 202362 ha, corresponds to wetlands and other unhealthy water bodies. These wetlands have been reduced as a result of desiccation policies and climate change such as the Little Ice Age and Global Climate Change. The comprehension of the main factors of these wetland changes in the past can help us interpret accurately the future risk of malaria re-emergence in temperate latitudes, since it reveals the crucial role of unhealthy water bodies on the distribution, endemicity and eradication of malaria in southern Europe.

  1. EFFECT OF COADMINISTRATION OF PHENOBARBITAL SODIUM ON N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE-INDUCED GAMMA-GLYTAMYLTRANSFERASE-POSITIVE FOCI AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA IN RATS

    The effect of concurrent administration of phenobarbital on the hepatocarcinogenicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine; DENA) in rats was investigated by determination of the incidence of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase) (GGT)-positive foci and...

  2. Larval ecology of mosquitoes in sylvatic arbovirus foci in southeastern Senegal

    Diallo Diawo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adult mosquito vectors of sylvatic arbovirus [yellow fever (YFV, dengue-2 (DENV-2 and chikungunya (CHIKV] have been studied for the past 40 years in southeastern Senegal, data are still lacking on the ecology of larval mosquitoes in this area. In this study, we investigated the larval habitats of mosquitoes and characterized their seasonal and spatial dynamics in arbovirus foci. Methods We searched for wet microhabitats, classified in 9 categories, in five land cover classes (agriculture, forest, savannah, barren and village from June, 2010 to January, 2011. Mosquito immatures were sampled monthly in up to 30 microhabitats of each category per land cover and bred until adult stage for determination. Results No wet microhabitats were found in the agricultural sites; in the remaining land covers immature stages of 35 mosquito species in 7 genera were sampled from 9 microhabitats (tree holes, fresh fruit husks, decaying fruit husks, puddles, bamboo holes, discarded containers, tires, rock holes and storage containers. The most abundant species was Aedes aegypti formosus, representing 30.2% of the collections, followed by 12 species, representing each more than 1% of the total, among them the arbovirus vectors Ae. vittatus (7.9%, Ae. luteocephalus (5.7%, Ae. taylori (5.0%, and Ae. furcifer (1.3%. Aedes aegypti, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Er. chrysogster and Ae. vittatus were the only common species collected from all land covers. Aedes furcifer and Ae. taylori were collected in fresh fruit husks and tree holes. Species richness and dominance varied significantly in land covers and microhabitats. Positive associations were found mainly between Ae. furcifer, Ae. taylori and Ae. luteocephalus. A high proportion of potential enzootic vectors that are not anthropophilic were found in the larval mosquito fauna. Conclusions In southeastern Senegal, Ae. furcifer and Ae. taylori larvae showed a more

  3. Characterization of enzootic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in western Venezuela.

    Barrera, R; Torres, N; Freier, J E; Navarro, J C; García, C Z; Salas, R; Vasquez, C; Weaver, S C

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of the sylvatic subtype ID Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) viruses in the lowland tropical forests of western Venezuela was investigated using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to study the reflectance patterns of VEE endemic foci and to identify other locations with similar reflectance patterns. Enzootic VEE virus variants isolated during this study are the closest genetic relatives of the epizootic viruses that emerged in western Venezuela during 1992-1993. VEE virus surveillance was conducted by exposing sentinel hamsters to mosquito bites and trapping wild vertebrates in seven forests identified and located by means of the satellite image. We isolated VEE viruses from 48 of a total of 1,363 sentinel hamsters in two of the forests on six occasions, in both dry and wet seasons. None of the 12 small vertebrates captured in 8,190 trap-nights showed signs of previous VEE virus infection. The satellite image was classified into 13 validated classes of land use/vegetation using unsupervised and supervised techniques. Data derived from the image consisted of the raw digital values of near- and mid-infrared bands 4, 5, and 7, derived Tasseled Cap indices of wetness, greenness, and brightness, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Digitized maps provided ancillary data of elevation and soil geomorphology. Image enhancement was applied using Principal Component Analysis. A digital layer of roads together with georeferenced images was used to locate the study sites. A cluster analysis using the above data revealed two main groups of dense forests separated by spectral properties, altitude, and soil geomorphology. Virus was isolated more frequently from the forest type identified on flat flood plains of main rivers rather than the forest type found on the rolling hills of the study area. The spatial analysis suggests that mosquitoes carrying the enzootic viruses

  4. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  5. Spontaneous γH2AX Foci in Human Solid Tumor-Derived Cell Lines in Relation to p21WAF1 and WIP1 Expression

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation of H2AX on Ser139 (γH2AX after exposure to ionizing radiation produces nuclear foci that are detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy. These so-called γH2AX foci have been adopted as quantitative markers for DNA double-strand breaks. High numbers of spontaneous γH2AX foci have also been reported for some human solid tumor-derived cell lines, but the molecular mechanism(s for this response remains elusive. Here we show that cancer cells (e.g., HCT116; MCF7 that constitutively express detectable levels of p21WAF1 (p21 exhibit low numbers of γH2AX foci (<3/nucleus, whereas p21 knockout cells (HCT116p21−/− and constitutively low p21-expressing cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231 exhibit high numbers of foci (e.g., >50/nucleus, and that these foci are not associated with apoptosis. The majority (>95% of cells within HCT116p21−/− and MDA-MB-231 cultures contain high levels of phosphorylated p53, which is localized in the nucleus. We further show an inverse relationship between γH2AX foci and nuclear accumulation of WIP1, an oncogenic phosphatase. Our studies suggest that: (i p21 deficiency might provide a selective pressure for the emergence of apoptosis-resistant progeny exhibiting genomic instability, manifested as spontaneous γH2AX foci coupled with phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of p53; and (ii p21 might contribute to positive regulation of WIP1, resulting in dephosphorylation of γH2AX.

  6. RAD18 and associated proteins are immobilized in nuclear foci in human cells entering S-phase with ultraviolet light-induced damage

    Proteins required for translesion DNA synthesis localize in nuclear foci of cells with replication-blocking lesions. The dynamics of this process were examined in human cells with fluorescence-based biophysical techniques. Photobleaching recovery and raster image correlation spectroscopy experiments indicated that involvement in the nuclear foci reduced the movement of RAD18 from diffusion-controlled to virtual immobility. Examination of the mobility of REV1 indicated that it is similarly immobilized when it is observed in nuclear foci. Reducing the level of RAD18 greatly reduced the focal accumulation of REV1 and reduced UV mutagenesis to background frequencies. Fluorescence lifetime measurements indicated that RAD18 and RAD6A or polη only transferred resonance energy when these proteins colocalized in damage-induced nuclear foci, indicating a close physical association only within such foci. Our data support a model in which RAD18 within damage-induced nuclear foci is immobilized and is required for recruitment of Y-family DNA polymerases and subsequent mutagenesis. In the absence of damage these proteins are not physically associated within the nucleoplasm

  7. Advantages and limitations of stereological estimation of placental glutathione S-transferase-positive rat liver cell foci by computerized three-dimensional reconstruction.

    Imaida, K; Tatematsu, M; Kato, T; Tsuda, H; Ito, N

    1989-04-01

    The applicability to a medium-term bioassay for liver carcinogens of mathematical formulae for the calculation of numbers of foci per volume was examined in F344 rats. Two weeks after initiation with diethylnitrosamine, animals were given test compounds for 6 weeks, partial hepatectomy being performed at week 3. At week 8, the rats were killed, the livers removed and stained immunohistochemically for assessment of glutathione S-transferase P form (GST-P)-positive foci development. Numbers and areas of lesions were measured two-dimensionally using a color image analyzer, and the Enzmann and Campbell formulae for estimation of number and volume per cm3 were applied to the results. In addition, three-dimensional reconstruction of individual foci was performed using up to 150 GST-P stained foci, with the aid of a computerized graphic system. Both two- and three-dimensionally expressed quantitative results were found to adequately demonstrate the modifying potential of test chemicals on hepatocarcinogenesis. The three-dimensional approach was only more accurate if most of the foci were small and the liver was enlarged by compound treatment. Stereological reconstruction revealed that the shape of GST-P-positive foci, especially if relatively large, is not always spherical but that many demonstrate irregular branching forms, so that the assumptions behind stereological estimation are not met. The results therefore show that care must be taken in applying mathematical formulae for the calculation of three-dimensional data. PMID:2501249

  8. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  9. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci

    Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Samy, Abdallah M.; Frah, Ehab A.; ElMubarak, Wigdan A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Results Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in

  10. From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence.

    Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Chanteau, Suzanne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Re-emergence of human cases of plague after decades of silence does not necessarily mean that plague foci are re-emerging. Most often, Yersinia pestis bacteria have been maintained and circulating at low levels in the rodent populations. It seems therefore more appropriate to speak in terms of expansion or regression phases for sylvatic rodent plague foci and to reserve the term re-emergence for human cases. From the analysis of well-documented human plague cases in Madagascar, we underline the causes of re-emergence that can be generalized to most world foci, and can help define environments at risk where the threat of new emergence lurks. In all recent plague outbreaks, usually more than one risk factor was at the origin of the re-emergence. The reduction or discontinuance of surveillance and control, as well as poverty and insalubrity are the main factors in the re-emergence of human cases, allowing increased contacts with infected rodents and fleas. Environment changes (i.e. climatic changes, deforestation, urbanization) induce changes in flea and rodent populations by (i) extension of rodent habitats (for example by replacing forests by steppes or farmlands); (ii) modifications in population dynamics (possible outbreaks due to an increase of available food resources); but also, (iii) emergence of new vectors, reservoirs and new Y. pestis genotypes. Numerous and spontaneous genomic rearrangements occur at high frequencies in Y. pestis, which may confer selective advantages, enhancing the ability of Y. pestis to survive, to be transmitted to new hosts, and to colonize new environments. Therefore, any environmental change should be taken as a warning signal and active surveillance programs should be initiated. PMID:15845233

  11. The p150 subunit of CAF-1 causes association of SUMO2/3 with the DNA replication foci

    Uwada, Junsuke [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tanaka, Niina; Yamaguchi, Yutaro; Uchimura, Yasuhiro [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shibahara, Kei-ichi [Department of Integrated Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Mishima (Japan); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-related modifier 2/3 (SUMO2/3) can be post-translationally conjugated to a wide variety of proteins constituting chromatin, the platform for genetic and epigenetic regulation. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SUMO2/3 and SUMO2/3-modified proteins are delivered to the chromatin fibers. Here we report that the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), human p150, interacts directly and preferentially with SUMO2/3. Amino acid residue of 98-105 in p150 is essential and sufficient for SUMO2/3 interaction. p150-SUMO2/3 interaction coincided with regions that replicate chromatin fibers, because accumulation of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were detected at foci co-localized with both p150 and SUMO2/3 during the S-phase in a cell line expressing epitope-tagged p150. Although inhibition of SUMO2/3 expression had only a small effect on p150 deposition on the replication sites, depletion of p150 led to delocalization of SUMO2/3 from the replication foci. Furthermore, p150 mutants deficient in SUMO2/3 interaction, caused a major reduction of SUMO2/3 at the replication foci. Thus, our findings suggest an expanded role of p150 as a SUMO2/3-interacting factor, and raise the intriguing possibility that p150 plays a role in promoting delivery of SUMO2/3 or SUMO2/3-modified proteins (or both) on chromatin fibers during replication.

  12. DNA-damage foci to detect and characterize DNA repair alterations in children treated for pediatric malignancies.

    Nadine Schuler

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies.

  13. Feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: first evidence from studies in Mali and Senegal.

    Lamine Diawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass treatment with ivermectin is a proven strategy for controlling onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it is not known if it can also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient. A longitudinal study was undertaken in three hyperendemic foci in Mali and Senegal with 15 to 17 years of annual or six-monthly ivermectin treatment in order to assess residual levels of infection and transmission and test whether ivermectin treatment could be safely stopped in the study areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin snip surveys were undertaken in 126 villages, and 17,801 people were examined. The prevalence of microfilaridermia was <1% in all three foci. A total of 157,500 blackflies were collected and analyzed for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus larvae using a specific DNA probe, and vector infectivity rates were all below 0.5 infective flies per 1,000 flies. Except for a subsection of one focus, all infection and transmission indicators were below postulated thresholds for elimination. Treatment was therefore stopped in test areas of 5 to 8 villages in each focus. Evaluations 16 to 22 months after the last treatment in the test areas involved examination of 2,283 people using the skin snip method and a DEC patch test, and analysis of 123,000 black flies. No infected persons and no infected blackflies were detected in the test areas, and vector infectivity rates in other catching points were <0.2 infective flies per 1,000. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the first empirical evidence that elimination of onchocerciasis with ivermectin treatment is feasible in some endemic foci in Africa. Although further studies are needed to determine to what extent these findings can be extrapolated to other endemic areas in Africa, the principle of elimination has been established. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control has adopted an additional

  14. Genomic instability of human aberrant crypt foci measured by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR and array-CGH.

    Alrawi, Sadir J; Carroll, Robert E; Hill, Hank C; Gibbs, John F; Tan, Dongfeng; Brenner, Bruce M; Nowak, Norma J; Swede, Helen; Stoler, Daniel L; Anderson, Garth R

    2006-10-10

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest identifiable neoplastic lesions in the colon. Thirty-two ACFs were examined for genomic instability in forms detectable either by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR or by array comparative genomic hybridization [array-CGH]. One-fourth of ACFs revealed moderate instability by inter-(simple sequence repeat) PCR; none showed amplifications or deletions on array-CGH. The absence of genomic events detectible by BAC array-CGH indicates early events in colorectal tumor progression are typically smaller than the approximate 150 kb size of a BAC clone insert. PMID:16806294

  15. [Outstanding Soviet zoologist and parasitologist E. N. Pavlovsky--the creator of the theory of natural foci of disease].

    Pavlovskyĭ, L N

    2011-01-01

    The article presents information on the outstanding Soviet Zoology and Parasitology, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lieutenant-General of the Medical Service E. N. Pavlovsky, the author of more than 1500 scientific papers, the founder of scientific school, one of the few scholars the twentieth century, approaching the level of scientists and encyclopedists. Considered its contribution to the study of natural foci of diseases has promoted the development of environmental trends in parasitology. PMID:22606908

  16. PET/CT detection of incidental colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake: Correlation with colonoscopy results

    Purpose: F.D.G.-PET is an established tool for the diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Several case series suggest that F.D.G.-PET often detects incidental adenomatous polyps or colorectal adenocarcinomas. The aim of this study was to correlate unexpected colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake to pathology findings after systematic colonoscopy. Patients and methods: We reviewed the records of 3541 patients who underwent F.D.G. PET/CT in our institution over a 30-month period for the assessment of a known or suspected malignancy. In 85 of them, incidental, nodular shaped and well-circumscribed foci of abnormal uptake were identified in the area of the colon or rectum. Patients with segmental or diffuse abnormal colorectal uptake were excluded, as well as patients with known benign or malignant colorectal disease. Colonoscopy and complete pathology report was available in 29 patients. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured in all lesions. Results: Unexpected colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake were associated with colonoscopic abnormalities in 23 patients (true positive rate: 79 %). Adenocarcinomas were found in six patients (SUVmax = 7.3 ± 2.6), tubular adenomas in four patients (SUVmax = 7.3 ± 4.9) and tubulovillous adenomas in 12 patients (SUVmax = 4.2 ± 1.1). Hyperplasic polyps with no sign of dysplasia were found in the last patient (SUVmax 3.3). Concomitant CT abnormalities were found on PET/CT fusion in eight patients and consisted of wall thickening (n = 5) or nodular mass (n = 3). Conversely, PET was falsely positive in six patients (21 %), with no concomitant CT abnormalities and no abnormal findings at endoscopy (SUVmax 6.2 ± 2.8, no significant difference with true positive lesions). Conclusion: Our findings emphasize the need to perform a colonoscopy in front of incidental nodular colorectal foci of F.D.G. uptake because malignant or pre-malignant neoplasms, which are not clinically apparent, are found in more than

  17. Group edge choosability of planar graphs without adjacent short cycles

    Xin ZHANG; Liu, Guizhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to introduce the group version of edge coloring and list edge coloring, and prove that all 2-degenerate graphs along with some planar graphs without adjacent short cycles is group $(\\Delta(G)+1)$-edge-choosable while some planar graphs with large girth and maximum degree is group $\\Delta(G)$-edge-choosable.

  18. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  19. PROBABILISTIC ZONING OF ADJACENT CATCHMENTS BY PHYSICAL MODELING

    Yu. B. Andreev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Now the probabilistic zoning of avalanche sites is being made either on the basis of the available field data, or using the mathematical and physical modeling of avalanche dynamics processes. The work purpose consisted in research of interaction and compiling probabilistic zoning maps of two adjacent avalanche sites by a physical modeling method. For the two adjacent sites № 9 and 10 on the slope of northern exposition ofTchegetMountain(Elbrus region,Caucasus the model of this slope with the scale of 1: 2 500 was created. The model dimension is 0,82 × 1,1 ×0,57 m. This model was produced using the 4-mm plywood sheets imposed against each other. The model horizontals correspond to the10 mnatural ones. The model slope was also surfaced by thin gypsum lay and then varnished. The fine-grained sawdust (0.1 mm with a natural friction angle of 43º has been chosen as the loose material modeling snow. A series of experiments on modeling avalanche releases from the two sites were carried out resulted in the measurements of avalanche deposit parameters such as run-out distance and length, width and thickness of deposits. The similarity criteria were used during the experiments. The morphometric features of adjacent sites interaction are revealed. The basic result of the carried out work will consist in the probabilistic zoning map of two adjacent sites № 9 and 10.

  20. Evaluation of agents to detect inflammatory foci using an experimental animal model

    We have evaluated the propensities of four agents- two metal complexes and two protein species, viz. 67Ga-citrate, 99mTc-citrate, 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (99mTc-HIG); and 99mTc-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA), for localization of (turpentine- induced) inflammatory lesions in a rat and rabbit animal model systems. All these radiopharmaceuticals showed fairly good uptake in inflammatory lesions. 99mTc-HIG, 99mTc-HSA and 67Ga-citrate showed slower blood clearance and higher liver uptakes. On the other hand 99mTc-citrate demonstrated faster blood clearance and negligible liver and gut accumulation. The respective inflamed/normal muscle (IM/NM) ratios obtained with these agents in this animal model were in the following order: 99mTc-HIG>99mTc-HSA> 67Ga-citrate>99mTc-citrate at 5 h post injection. Although the IM/NM was relatively low in the case of 99mTc-citrate as compared with other radiopharmaceuticals the inflammation could be detected within 1-3 h. post injection because of the higher activities that could be injected with this radiopharmaceutical. Since 99mTc-citrate is predominantly excreted via renal pathway it is rapidly cleared from blood and shows fairly good accumulation in infection/inflammatory lesions at early time periods along with low uptakes in liver and adjacent organs. This agent can therefore be beneficially used to detect the abdominal abscess(es)/inflammation(s) within 1-3 h post injection. Because of its favourable characteristics, physical, biological, clinical, and even cost-effectiveness, it is suggested that 99mTc-citrate could be tried out as an agent for detection of inflammation including abdominal and vertebral abscess(es). (author)

  1. [Slow Formation and Degradation of γH2AX Foci in Human Skin Fibroblasts Exposed to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation].

    Grekhova, A K; Eremin, P S; Osipov, A N; Eremin, I I; Pustovalova, M V; Ozerov, I V; Smetanina, N M; Lazareva, N L; Vorobyeva, N Yu; Pulin, A A; Maksimova, O A; Gordeev, A V; Bushmanov, A Yu; Kotenko, K V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that the kinetics of changes of γH2AX foci number (marker of DNA double-strand breaks) in human skin fibroblasts after exposure to low doses of X-ray radiation (20, 40 and 80 mGy) differs from that observed after exposure to medium-low doses (160 and 240 mGy). After exposure to 160 and 240 mGy the highest number of γH2AX foci was detected at 30 min after exposure (first experimental point) and further their decrease was observed. At the same time we observed a fast phase of repair (upto 4 h), in which there was a decrease of the foci amount to ~50-60% and a slow phase of repair (from 4 h to 24 h). After 24 h only ~3-5% of the foci amount observed at 30 min after irradiation was left. After exposure to low doses, the foci number did not decrease during 2 h and even 24 h after exposure their amount was ~25% from that observed at maximum points (1 h after irradiation at 40 and 80 mGy and 2 h after irradiation at 20 mGy). PMID:26601539

  2. XRCC2 is Required for the Formation of Rad51 Foci Induced by Ionizing Radiation and DNA Cross-Linking Agent Mitomycin C

    Liu Nan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available XRCC2 protein shares weak amino acid sequence similarity with Rad51, which is a central player in homologous recombinational repair (HRR. Rad51 proteins assemble at the sites of HRR and form visible nuclear foci in response to DNA damage. Xrcc2 hamster mutant irs1 cells are incapable of forming Rad51 foci after ionizing irradiation or DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C treatment, though the Rad51 protein level is normal in the mutant. The defect can be corrected in an XRCC2 transformant. Time course study showed that the irs1 cells primarily lacked the early response (2 hours after irradiation to form small Rad51 foci (type 1 and later response (8 hours after irradiation to form large foci (type 2. These results suggested that XRCC2 is essential for the assembly of the DNA damage-induced Rad51 foci and that XRCC2 may play an important role in the early stage of HRR.

  3. Improvement parameters in dynamic compaction adjacent to the slopes

    Elham Ghanbari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic compaction is a cost-effective method commonly used for improvement of sandy soils. A number of researchers have investigated experimentally and numerically the improvement parameters of soils using dynamic compaction, such as crater depth, improvement depth, and radial improvement, however, these parameters are not studied for improvement adjacent to the slopes or trenches. In this research, four different slopes with different inclinations are modeled numerically using the finite element code ABAQUS, and impact loads of dynamic compaction are applied. The static factors of safety are kept similar for all trenches and determined numerically by application of gravity loads to the slope using strength reduction method (SRM. The analysis focuses on crater depth and improvement region which are compared to the state of flat ground. It can be observed that compacted area adjacent to the slopes is narrower and slightly away from the slope compared to the flat state. Moreover, crater depth increases with increase in slope inclination.

  4. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    S Mahadevan; P Prema; S K Agarwalla; B Sahu; C S Shastry

    2006-09-01

    We examine the behavior of transmission coefficient across the rectangular barrier when attractive potential well is present on one or both sides and also the same is studied for a smoother barrier with smooth adjacent wells having Woods–Saxon shape. We find that presence of well with suitable width and depth can substantially alter at energies below the barrier height leading to resonant-like structures. In a sense, this work is complementary to the resonant tunneling of particles across two rectangular barriers, which is being studied in detail in recent years with possible applications in mind. We interpret our results as due to resonant-like positive energy states generated by the adjacent wells. We describe in detail the possible potential application of these results in electronic devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices.

  5. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  6. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    Amancio, Diego R.; Filipi N. Silva; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-01-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the wo...

  7. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Mahmoud Yahyai; Masoud Mirtaheri; Mehrab Mahoutian; Amir S. Daryan

    2008-01-01

    In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance bet...

  8. Disrupted Turn Adjacency and Coherence Maintenance in Instant Messaging Conversations

    Berglund, Therese Örnberg

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of coherence in text-based log files from 120 two-party Instant Messaging (IM) conversations among a group of international students at a design school. The goals of the study were to investigate whether disrupted turn adjacency was an obstacle to coherence and to identify the linguistic strategies employed to maintain coherence. Additional signs of problematic coherence creation were also investigated, focusing on explicit signs of miscommunication. In this pa...

  9. On heavy machines dynamical loading under adjacent links shocks

    Трубачев, Сергей Иванович; Лысюк, Дмитрий Степанович; Талимонова, Ольга Юрьевна

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical model, describing the dynamics under collision of heavy machinery adjacent links in the presence of gaps and other elements with a dead or smoothness zone of transfer functions of kinematic chains, is given. The model is designed using a procedure of "smoothing" discontinuous functions and regarding a variable structure. The specific example of a dynamic system and its numerical calculation is considered. The pressure between the roller and a workpiece is expressed by means o...

  10. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  11. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  12. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  13. MR imaging evaluation of ductal carcinoma in situ and ductal carcinoma in situ with small invasive foci of breast

    Objective: To retrospectively assess diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of local extent of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and DCIS with small invasive foci, compared with the mammography and uhrasonography (US) imagings. Methods: Results of MRI, mammography, and US imaging from 17 consecutive women with known breast DCIS and DCIS with invasive foci were analyzed, and then compared with pathologic examination. Results: (1) Fourteen lesions showed enhancement on dynamic breast MRI, of which 11 lesions were no-mass-like enhancement. Six of 11 lesions appeared segmental enhancement, and 2 were regional enhancement. Ductal and multiple focal areas enhancement were 1 case respectively. Symmetric diffuse enhancement in bilateral breast was showed in 1 patient. Ductal dilation was visible in ipsilateral breast on pre-contrast MRI in 2 cases, which manifested bloody nipple discharge in clinical examination, and duct enhanced on post- contrast imaging in one of them. Two lesions appeared mass enhancement with irregular shape and homogeneous signal. Linear enhancement surrounding the oval homogeneous mass with smooth margin found in 1 case. (2) Thirteen of 17 patients underwent bilateral mammography. There were various findings in mammograms, including microcalcifications (6 cases), normal mammograms (2 cases), calcifications with other appearance (2 cases), and non-calcification ahnormity (3 cases). In 8 lesions with calcifications, 5 were noted higher' probability of malignancy calcifications and 3 intermediate concern calcifications. Calcifications distributed clustered (5 cases), regional (2 cases) and diffuse (1 case) shape. (3) Sixteen of 17 patients were performed breast US examination. Eleven lesions, which were correct diagnosed, appeared higher echo spots within irregular lower echo area. One lesion diagnosed benign and 4 were negative on US examination. (4) Regarded the size measured on pathologic examination

  14. Ionizing radiation-induced foci formation of mammalian Rad51 and Rad54 depends on the Rad51 paralogs, but not on Rad52

    Homologous recombination is of major importance for the prevention of genomic instability during chromosome duplication and repair of DNA damage, especially double-strand breaks. Biochemical experiments have revealed that during the process of homologous recombination the RAD52 group proteins, including Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54, are involved in an essential step: formation of a joint molecule between the broken DNA and the intact repair template. Accessory proteins for this reaction include the Rad51 paralogs and BRCA2. The significance of homologous recombination for the cell is underscored by the evolutionary conservation of the Rad51, Rad52 and Rad54 proteins from yeast to humans. Upon treatment of cells with ionizing radiation, the RAD52 group proteins accumulate at the sites of DNA damage into so-called foci. For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54 is abrogated in the absence of Rad52, while Rad51 foci formation does occur in the absence of the Rad51 paralog Rad55. By contrast, we show here that in mammalian cells, Rad52 is not required for foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54. Furthermore, radiation-induced foci formation of Rad51 and Rad54 is impaired in all Rad51 paralog and BRCA2 mutant cell lines tested, while Rad52 foci formation is not influenced by a mutation in any of these recombination proteins. Despite their evolutionary conservation and biochemical similarities, S. cerevisiae and mammalian Rad52 appear to differentially contribute to the DNA-damage response

  15. Novel Image Processing Interface to Relate DSB Spatial Distribution from Immunofluorescence Foci Experiments to the State-of-the-Art Models of DNA Breakage

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed software (NASARadiationTrackImage) allows a quick and automatic segmentation of foci that indicate spatial localization of specific proteins that are visualized by immunofluorescence. Of interest are the spatial and temporal distribution of foci such as gammaH2AX, a signal of the phosphorylation of a variant of the histone H2A that has been shown to correspond to DSBs, or proteins involved in DSB processing, such as ATM, Rad51, and p53, following exposures of human cells to high charge and energy (HZE) ion irradiation. Experimental data are recorded as sets of two-dimensional images in color with cells and foci of gammaH2AX, ATM, Rad51 or others shown. Different cells, levels of radiation and timing after radiation were recorded. The software allows us to calculate the number of foci per cell, overall intensity of light in foci and their spatial organization. A simple statistical model allows for testing of foci overlap (eclipse). A more complex statistical model previously known as DNAbreak simulates track structure and random chromosome geometry. It has one adjustable parameter corresponding to an average intensity of DSB creation in cubic micrometers of DNA volume per particle track or unit dose. Its limitation is the low-resolution limit both in physical space and DSB's along DNA. It works adequately on the scale of a cell and provides further insights on how the geometry of tracks and DNA affects genomic damage of the cell and subsequent repair. Future developments of the model for the description of the time evolution of DNA damage response proteins, and more robust track structure models will be discussed.

  16. γ-H2AX foci are increased in lymphocytes in vivo in young children 1 h after very low-dose X-irradiation: a pilot study

    Halm, Brunhild M.; Franke, Adrian A.; Lai, Jennifer F. [University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turner, Helen C.; Brenner, David J.; Zohrabian, Vatche M. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Radiological Research, New York, NY (United States); DiMauro, Robert [Kapi' olani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality involving ionizing radiation. The presence of γ-H2AX foci after low to moderate ionizing radiation exposure has been demonstrated; however it is unknown whether very low ionizing radiation exposure doses from CT exams can induce γ-H2AX formation in vivo in young children. To test whether very low ionizing radiation doses from CT exams can induce lymphocytic γ-H2AX foci (phosphorylated histones used as a marker of DNA damage) formation in vivo in young children. Parents of participating children signed a consent form. Blood samples from three children (ages 3-21 months) undergoing CT exams involving very low blood ionizing radiation exposure doses (blood doses of 0.22-1.22 mGy) were collected immediately before and 1 h post CT exams. Isolated lymphocytes were quantified for γ-H2AX foci by a technician blinded to the radiation status and dose of the patients. Paired t-tests and regression analyses were performed with significance levels set at P < 0.05. We observed a dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci post-CT exams (P = 0.046) among the three children. Ionizing radiation exposure doses led to a linear increase of foci per cell in post-CT samples (102% between lowest and highest dose). We found a significant induction of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from post-CT samples of three very young children. When possible, CT exams should be limited or avoided by possibly applying non-ionizing radiation exposure techniques such as US or MRI. (orig.)

  17. γ-H2AX foci are increased in lymphocytes in vivo in young children 1 h after very low-dose X-irradiation: a pilot study

    Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging modality involving ionizing radiation. The presence of γ-H2AX foci after low to moderate ionizing radiation exposure has been demonstrated; however it is unknown whether very low ionizing radiation exposure doses from CT exams can induce γ-H2AX formation in vivo in young children. To test whether very low ionizing radiation doses from CT exams can induce lymphocytic γ-H2AX foci (phosphorylated histones used as a marker of DNA damage) formation in vivo in young children. Parents of participating children signed a consent form. Blood samples from three children (ages 3-21 months) undergoing CT exams involving very low blood ionizing radiation exposure doses (blood doses of 0.22-1.22 mGy) were collected immediately before and 1 h post CT exams. Isolated lymphocytes were quantified for γ-H2AX foci by a technician blinded to the radiation status and dose of the patients. Paired t-tests and regression analyses were performed with significance levels set at P < 0.05. We observed a dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci post-CT exams (P = 0.046) among the three children. Ionizing radiation exposure doses led to a linear increase of foci per cell in post-CT samples (102% between lowest and highest dose). We found a significant induction of γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes from post-CT samples of three very young children. When possible, CT exams should be limited or avoided by possibly applying non-ionizing radiation exposure techniques such as US or MRI. (orig.)

  18. Computer-aided diagnosis of interictal 18F-FDG PET images for presurgical evaluation of epileptic foci in extratemporal lobe epilepsy

    Interictal 18F-FDG PET is beneficial to patients with epilepsy to define the epileptic foci before operation, especially to decide the laterality of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However usefulness has not been clearly established in extra TLE. We retrospectively applied Z-score analysis to interictal preoperative 18F-FDG PET images for detection of the epileptic foci in order to achieve better performance. Seventeen epileptic patients (women/men; 8/9, age; 11-55 yrs) underwent resection of epileptic foci with good outcome (Engel's stage of I or II) even after more than a year from operation. Presurgical 18F-FDG PET images were spatially normalized using statistical parametric mapping 99 (SPM99) with an original Japanese template for 18F-FDG and compared with normal database constructed from 31 healthy volunteers (women/men; 14/17, age; 19-59 yrs). A software program, easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS), for analysis of patient data was developed by calculating Z-score in each voxel and visualizing the score in a standardized stereotactic space; Z-score=(normal mean-patient's value)/a standard deviation of normal data. Detectability of epileptic foci for this computer-aided analysis was compared with visual inspection of original 18F-FDG PET images by five radiologists without any clinical information. In all cases, there was significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the operated area. The sensitivities of the detection of epileptic foci obtained from visual inspection were 47-59%. In contrast to, computer analysis by eZIS showed 71% sensitivity when we defined the highest Z-score in the cerebrum to be the focus diagnosed by eZIS. Computer-aided diagnosis with eZIS for 18F-FDG PET study is useful for detecting epileptic foci in extra TLE. (author)

  19. The IEC-publication 336/1981 - new formulation of the standards for X-ray foci

    With the new IEC-standard for foci a clear distinction has been made between application oriented focus classification, expressed by the focus nominal value as a dimensionless number and the detectable real geometric focus measured in the sense of the principle 'Truth in advertising'. Now, even regions of a size < 0.3 can be included into the size standard by substituting of the operture camera with the more accurate slit aperture. Furthermore in future the user obtains additional information like resolution values and modulation transfer function: information, that can directly be converted into image-delivering factors, and that allow quantitatively the integration of the tube into the complete radiologic system, above the sole specification control. (orig.)

  20. X-ray induced formation of γ-H2AX foci after full-field digital mammography and digital breast-tomosynthesis.

    Siegfried A Schwab

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine in-vivo formation of x-ray induced γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes of patients undergoing full-field digital mammography (FFDM and to estimate foci after FFDM and digital breast-tomosynthesis (DBT using a biological phantom model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and was performed following approval by the ethic committee of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Written informed consent was obtained from every patient. For in-vivo tests, systemic blood lymphocytes were obtained from 20 patients before and after FFDM. In order to compare in-vivo post-exposure with pre-exposure foci levels, the Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used. For in-vitro experiments, isolated blood lymphocytes from healthy volunteers were irradiated at skin and glandular level of a porcine breast using FFDM and DBT. Cells were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX, and foci representing distinct DNA damages were quantified. RESULTS: Median in-vivo foci level/cell was 0.086 (range 0.067-0.116 before and 0.094 (0.076-0.126 after FFDM (p = 0.0004. In the in-vitro model, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell after FFDM was 0.120 (range 0.086-0.140 at skin level and 0.035 (range 0.030-0.050 at glandular level. After DBT, the median x-ray induced foci level/cell was 0.061 (range 0.040-0.081 at skin level and 0.015 (range 0.006-0.020 at glandular level. CONCLUSION: In patients, mammography induces a slight but significant increase of γ-H2AX foci in systemic blood lymphocytes. The introduced biological phantom model is suitable for the estimation of x-ray induced DNA damages in breast tissue in different breast imaging techniques.

  1. {gamma}H2AX foci as a measure of DNA damage: A computational approach to automatic analysis

    Ivashkevich, Alesia N. [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Martin, Olga A. [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, D.H.H.S., Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Smith, Andrea J. [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Redon, Christophe E.; Bonner, William M. [Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Health, D.H.H.S., Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Martin, Roger F. [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Lobachevsky, Pavel N., E-mail: pavel.lobachevsky@petermac.org [Trescowthick Research Laboratories, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrew' s Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2011-06-03

    The {gamma}H2AX focus assay represents a fast and sensitive approach for the detection of one of the critical types of DNA damage - double-strand breaks (DSB) induced by various cytotoxic agents including ionising radiation. Apart from research applications, the assay has a potential in clinical medicine/pathology, such as assessment of individual radiosensitivity, response to cancer therapies, as well as in biodosimetry. Given that generally there is a direct relationship between numbers of microscopically visualised {gamma}H2AX foci and DNA DSB in a cell, the number of foci per nucleus represents the most efficient and informative parameter of the assay. Although computational approaches have been developed for automatic focus counting, the tedious and time consuming manual focus counting still remains the most reliable way due to limitations of computational approaches. We suggest a computational approach and associated software for automatic focus counting that minimises these limitations. Our approach, while using standard image processing algorithms, maximises the automation of identification of nuclei/cells in complex images, offers an efficient way to optimise parameters used in the image analysis and counting procedures, optionally invokes additional procedures to deal with variations in intensity of the signal and background in individual images, and provides automatic batch processing of a series of images. We report results of validation studies that demonstrated correlation of manual focus counting with results obtained using our computational algorithm for mouse jejunum touch prints, mouse tongue sections and human blood lymphocytes as well as radiation dose response of {gamma}H2AX focus induction for these biological specimens.

  2. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  3. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  4. Effect of vanadium on colonic aberrant crypt foci induced in rats by 1,2 Dimethyl hydrazine

    P Suresh Kanna; CB Mahendrakumar; T Chakraborty; P Hemalatha; Pratik Banerjee; M Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the chemo preventive effects of vanadium on rat colorectal carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH).METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley Rats were randomly divided into four groups. Rats in Group A received saline vehicle alone for 16 weeks. Rats in Group B were given DMH injection once a week intraperitoneally for 16 weeks;rats in Group C, with the same DMH treatment as in the Group B, but received 0.5-ppm vanadium in the form ammonium monovanadate ad libitum in drinking water. Rats in the Group D received vanadium alone as in the Group C without DMH injection.RESULTS: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were formed in animals in DMH-treated groups at the end of week 16.Compared to DMH group, vanadium treated group had less ACF (P<0.001). At the end of week 32, all rats in DMH group developed large intestinal tumors. Rats treated with vanadium contained significantly few colonic adenomas and carcinomas (P<0.05) compared to rats administered DMH only. In addition, a significant reduction (P<0.05) in colon tumor burden (sum of tumor sizes per animal) was also evident in animals of Group C when compared to those in rats of carcinogen control Group B. The results also showed that vanadium significantly lowered PCNA index in ACF (P<0.005). Furthermore, vanadium supplementation also elevated liver GST and Cyt P-450 activities (P<0.001 and P<0.02, respectively).CONCLUSION: Vanadium in the form of ammonium monovanadate supplemented in drinking water ad libitum has been found to be highly effective in reducing tumor incidence and preneoplastic foci on DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings suggest that vanadium administration can suppress colon carcinogenesis in rats.

  5. Space Radiation Effects on Human Cells: Modeling DNA Breakage, DNA Damage Foci Distribution, Chromosomal Aberrations and Tissue Effects

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Huff, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Future long-tem space travel will face challenges from radiation concerns as the space environment poses health risk to humans in space from radiations with high biological efficiency and adverse post-flight long-term effects. Solar particles events may dramatically affect the crew performance, while Galactic Cosmic Rays will induce a chronic exposure to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. These types of radiation, not present on the ground level, can increase the probability of a fatal cancer later in astronaut life. No feasible shielding is possible from radiation in space, especially for the heavy ion component, as suggested solutions will require a dramatic increase in the mass of the mission. Our research group focuses on fundamental research and strategic analysis leading to better shielding design and to better understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation damage. We present our recent effort to model DNA damage and tissue damage using computational models based on the physics of heavy ion radiation, DNA structure and DNA damage and repair in human cells. Our particular area of expertise include the clustered DNA damage from high-LET radiation, the visualization of DSBs (DNA double strand breaks) via DNA damage foci, image analysis and the statistics of the foci for different experimental situations, chromosomal aberration formation through DSB misrepair, the kinetics of DSB repair leading to a model-derived spectrum of chromosomal aberrations, and, finally, the simulation of human tissue and the pattern of apoptotic cell damage. This compendium of theoretical and experimental data sheds light on the complex nature of radiation interacting with human DNA, cells and tissues, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis later in human life after the space mission.

  6. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  7. An ElGamal Encryption Scheme of Adjacency Matrix and

    B. Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Cryptography is the combination of Mathematics and Computer science. Cryptography is used for encryption and decryption of data using mathematics. Cryptography transit the information in an illegible manner such that only intended recipient will be able to decrypt the information. In the recent years, researchers developed several new encryption methods. Among such ElGamal encryption is the one laid a concede platform for the researchers in Cryptography. Ever science several mathematical models were applied for encryption/decryption. In this paper, we introduced an ElGamal encryption, which uses points on the elliptic curve, and finite state machines and adjacency matrix.

  8. Historical Earthquakes in the Yellow Sea and Its Adjacent Area

    Wu Ge; Wang Andong; Wu Di

    2005-01-01

    As a result of sorting out, estimating and cataloging of historical earthquakes, from the year of 2 A.D. to Aug., 1949, we found that there were 2187 earthquakes with M≥3.0 in the area of the Yellow Sea and its adjacent area. Among the earthquakes, the number of earthquakes with M ≥ 5.0 is 209, and at least 43 of the earthquakes caused serious losses, 20 of the earthquakes caused human causalities. It is demonstrated that there were 3 areas of historical earthquake concentration and the earthquake activity was higher in the 16th century and the first half if the 20th century.

  9. The kernel of the adjacency matrix of a rectangular mesh

    Tomei, Carlos; Vieira, Tania

    2002-01-01

    Given an m x n rectangular mesh, its adjacency matrix A, having only integer entries, may be interpreted as a map between vector spaces over an arbitrary field K. We describe the kernel of A: it is a direct sum of two natural subspaces whose dimensions are equal to $\\lceil c/2 \\rceil$ and $\\lfloor c/2 \\rfloor$, where c = gcd (m+1,n+1) - 1. We show that there are bases to both vector spaces, with entries equal to 0, 1 and -1. When K = Z/(2), the kernel elements of these subspaces are described...

  10. Experimental Tape Casting of Adjacently Graded Materials for Magnetic Refrigeration

    Bulatova, Regina

    graded thin films. The motivation to create such adjacently segmented structures stemmed from a search of material and a materials design alternative to the expensive rare earth element gadolinium which is widely used as a magnetic regenerator in the emerging magnetic refrigeration technology....... Conventional tape casting involves the preparation of specially formulated slurry, which is cast by a blade to a thin flat tape, then dried into flexible so-called green solid tape and can be subsequently sintered into a hard ceramic material. The principal difference and, at the same time, a challenge...

  11. The formation of adjacent triplex-duplex domainsin DNA.

    Nam, K. H.; Abhiraman, S; Wartell, R M

    1999-01-01

    The ability of single-stranded DNA oligomers to form adjacent triplex and duplex domains with two DNA structural motifs was examined. Helix-coil transition curves and a gel mobility shift assay were used to characterize the interaction of single-stranded oligomers 12-20 nt in length with a DNA hairpin and with a DNA duplex that has a dangling end. The 12 nt on the 5'-ends of the oligomers could form a triplex structure with the 12 bp stem of the hairpin or the duplex portion of the DNA with a...

  12. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Koshi Ninomiya; Koichi Iwatsuki; Yu-ichiro Ohnishi; Toshika Ohkawa; Toshiki Yoshimine

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to...

  13. Three-dimensional visualization of intracranial vessels and adjacent structures

    MR three-dimensional-Fourier-transform, gradient-echo sequences are available that allow the acquisition of high-quality data sets, suitable for three- dimensional image processing. Most recently, flow- compensated measurement sequences are used to achieve a three-dimensional perspective of the vascular anatomy. Spatial relationships between vessels and adjacent structures can be revealed by three-dimensional displays, showing both vessels and tissue surfaces (brain, tumor) in a three- dimensional manner. The image-processing techniques are based on the ray-tracing principle. The method can be used for the optimization of neurosurgical planning in the sellar region

  14. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  15. The Analysis of the Patterns of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage Foci by a Stochastic Monte Carlo Model of DNA Double Strand Breaks Induction by Heavy Ions and Image Segmentation Software

    Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    To create a generalized mechanistic model of DNA damage in human cells that will generate analytical and image data corresponding to experimentally observed DNA damage foci and will help to improve the experimental foci yields by simulating spatial foci patterns and resolving problems with quantitative image analysis. Material and Methods: The analysis of patterns of RIFs (radiation-induced foci) produced by low- and high-LET (linear energy transfer) radiation was conducted by using a Monte Carlo model that combines the heavy ion track structure with characteristics of the human genome on the level of chromosomes. The foci patterns were also simulated in the maximum projection plane for flat nuclei. Some data analysis was done with the help of image segmentation software that identifies individual classes of RIFs and colocolized RIFs, which is of importance to some experimental assays that assign DNA damage a dual phosphorescent signal. Results: The model predicts the spatial and genomic distributions of DNA DSBs (double strand breaks) and associated RIFs in a human cell nucleus for a particular dose of either low- or high-LET radiation. We used the model to do analyses for different irradiation scenarios. In the beam-parallel-to-the-disk-of-a-flattened-nucleus scenario we found that the foci appeared to be merged due to their high density, while, in the perpendicular-beam scenario, the foci appeared as one bright spot per hit. The statistics and spatial distribution of regions of densely arranged foci, termed DNA foci chains, were predicted numerically using this model. Another analysis was done to evaluate the number of ion hits per nucleus, which were visible from streaks of closely located foci. In another analysis, our image segmentaiton software determined foci yields directly from images with single-class or colocolized foci. Conclusions: We showed that DSB clustering needs to be taken into account to determine the true DNA damage foci yield, which helps to

  16. Adjacent stage impurity ratio in rare earth countercurrent extraction process

    CHENG Fuxiang; WU Sheng; LIAO Chunsheng; YAN Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Impurity components decrease stage by stage in a cascade of rare earth (RE) extraction separation,and adjacent stage impurity ratio (ASIR) which is defined as the ratio of an impurity's contents in the aqueous/organic phase of two adjacent stages can be used to evaluate the capacity of impurity removal for the two stages.On the basis of extraction equilibrium and mass balance,the ASIR in a two-component extraction separation was deducted and its simplified expressions were given for different process sections according to reasonable assumptions.The calculation simulation was then carried out to obtain the ASIR distribution in the cascade.The results showed that in both the extraction and scrubbing sections the ASIR principally increased with the decrease of the molar proportion of the impurity but along with a flat appearing in the purification zone located in the middle of the cascade.The ASIR intuitively exhibits the nmning status of RE extraction separation and purification,which could provide a theoretic guide for investigating the influence factors of RE extraction separation process in practical industry.

  17. Adjacent segment disease in degenerative pathologies with posterior instrumentation

    Ana Guadalupe Ramírez Olvera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the real incidence of adjacent segment disease after fusion, and to identify the levels and predisposing factors for the pathology, as well as the functional results. METHODS: a retrospective case series study with level of evidence IIB, in a sample of 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine, spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis, submitted to surgery in the period 2005 to December 2013, with posterior instrumentation and posterolateral fusion, with follow-up from 2007 until May 2014, in which the symptomology and radiographic findings were evaluated, to establish the diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: the study included 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine (n=116, isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis (n=50 and degenerative scoliosis (n=13; during the study, 20 cases of adjacent level segment were identified, 80% of which were treated surgically with extension of the instrumentation, while 20% were treated conservatively with NSAIDs and therapeutic blocks. CONCLUSION: An incidence of 11% was found, with an average of 3.25 years in diagnosis and treatment, a prevalence of females and diagnosis of stenosis of the lumbar canal on posterior instrumentation, a predominance of levels L4-L5; 80% were treated with extension of the instrumentation. The complications were persistent radiculopathy, infection of the surgical wound, and one death due to causes not related to the lumbar pathology.

  18. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  19. Absorbed dose distribution analyses in irradiation with adjacent fields

    Because the special irradiation technique with adjacent fields is the most used in the case of medulloblastoma treatment, we consider very important to specify some general information about medulloblastoma. This malignant disease has a large incidence in children with age between 5-7 years. This tumor usually originates in the cerebellum and is referred to as primitive undifferentiated tumor. It may spread contiguously to the cerebellar peduncle, floor of the fourth ventricle, into the cervical spine. In addition, it may spread via the cerebrospinal fluid intracranially and/or to the spinal cord. For this purpose it is necessary to perform a treatment technique with cranial tangential fields combined with adjacent fields for the entire spinal cord to achieve a perfect coverage of the zones with malignant cells. The treatment in this case is an association between surgery-radio-chemotherapy, where the radiotherapy has a very important roll and a curative purpose. This is due to the fact that the migration of malignant cells in the body can't be controlled by surgery. Because of this special irradiation technique used in medulloblastoma treatment, we chase to describe in this paper this complex type of irradiation where the implications of the beams divergence in doses distribution are essentials

  20. EFFECTS OF STRAIN, SEX, ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION AND PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY ON THE INDUCTION BY CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE FOCI IN RAT LIVER

    The incidence of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive foci induced by 0.3 mmol/kg diethylnitrosamine (DENA) followed by promotion with 500 ppm sodium phenobarbital in drinking water and was the same in Fischer 344, Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Lewis rats. There was no differe...

  1. EFFECT OF SINGLE VERSUS SPLIT DOSES OF DIETHYINITROSAMINE ON THE INDUCTION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSPEPTIDASE-FOCI IN THE LIVERS OF ADULT AND JUVENILE RATS

    The induction of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-foci by single and by split doses of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) was evaluated in the livers of juvenile and young adult male, Sprague-Dawley rats. A single dose of DENA was administered at either 32, 41 or 52 days of age and foll...

  2. Mutations in DEPDC5 cause Familial Focal Epilepsywith Variable Foci and are a common cause of familial non-lesional focal epilepsy

    Pandolfo, Massimo; Dibbens, Leanne; De Vries, Boukje; Donatello, Simona; Heron, Sarah; Hodgson, Bree; Chintawar, Satyan; Crompton, Douglas; Hughes, James; Bellows, Susannah; Klein, Karl Martin; Callenbach, Petra; Corbett, Mark; Gardner, Alison; Kivity, Sarah; Iona, Xenia; Regan, Brigid; Weller, Claudia; Crimmins, Denis; O'Brien, Terence; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Mulley, John; Dubeau, Francois; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Cossette, Patrick; Thomas, Paul; Gecz, Jozef; Serratosa, Jose; Brouwer, Oebele; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; Van Den Maagdenberg, Arn; Berkovic, Samuel; Scheffer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the genetic cause of autosomal dominant Familial Focal Epilepsy with Variable Foci (FFEVF), to investigate the prevalence of mutations in the FFEVF causative gene in familial cases of non-lesional focal epilepsy, to study the expression in the brain and the subcellular localiz

  3. γ-H2AX foci analysis in human lymphocytes: a biological tool for assessment of early triage during mass exposure of radiation

    Emergence of nuclear terrorism and increased use of nuclear technology for industry, energy production, and defence purpose has also increased the risk of mass exposure to radiation. During these scenarios of mass exposure to radiation, an efficient system which would measure the dose absorbed by an individual is required for early triage management. The present study aims to establish γ-H2AX as a biomarker for management of early triage. Radiation induced DNA DSB studied in lymphocytes isolated from 10 healthy individuals and challenged with 2 Gy of X-rays in vitro showed a gradual decrease in number of foci signals. As the persistence of foci signals is important for biodosimetry, phosphatase inhibitors like Calyculin A, Fostriecin and Okadiac Acid were used. Calyculin A was found to be the better inhibitor showing a 2 fold increase in retention of foci signals at 6 hours. The dose response curve was performed in lymphocytes isolated from healthy individuals by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Although both the methods indicated a linear increase in foci signals, microscopic analysis was found to be more sensitive. Influence of age and gender on dose response curve was studied and no significant difference was found. The effect of confounding factors like genetic factors and smoking habits on the dose response curve is being investigated. (author)

  4. mRNA decay proteins are targeted to poly(A+ RNA and dsRNA-containing cytoplasmic foci that resemble P-bodies in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Itzel López-Rosas

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies. In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A(+ RNA and (ii during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P

  5. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  6. Cytokeratin 8/18 overexpression and complex formation as an indicator of GST-P positive foci transformation into hepatocellular carcinomas

    Screening of the proteome of microdissected glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci and normal-appearing liver on anionic (Q10), and cationic (CM10) surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) ProteinChip arrays demonstrated significant overexpression of cytokeratin 8 (CK8; m/z 54,020), cytokeratin 18 (CK18; m/z 47,760), microsomal cytochrome 5A (m/z 15,224) and histone type 2 H2aa3 (m/z 15,964) in the livers of rats initiated with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) followed by 10 weeks on phenobarbital (PB) at a dose of 500 ppm. Furthermore, formation of CK8 and CK18 complexes due to CK8 phosphorylation at Ser73 and Ser431 was found to be strongly associated with promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by PB and the development of hepatocellular carcinomas. The data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and real-time Q-PCR and profound overexpression of CK8 and CK18 (CK8/18) proteins and mRNAs were detected in several large size GST-P positive foci and liver tumors. A strong correlation between CK8/18 positive foci development and multiplicity of hepatocellular carcinomas was further observed. Moreover, elevation of CK8/18 was strongly associated with induction of cell proliferation in GST-P positive foci and tumors. In conclusion, our data imply that CK8/18 overexpression, those two cytokeratins complex formation associated with histone type 2 H2aa3 up-regulation and intermediate filament reorganization may drive neoplastic transformation of GST-P positive foci during rat hepatocarcinogenesis leading to the formation of hepatocellular carcinomas.

  7. Replication protein A and γ-H2AX foci assembly is triggered by cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks

    Human replication protein A (RPA p34), a crucial component of diverse DNA excision repair pathways, is implicated in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. To evaluate its role in DSB repair, the intranuclear dynamics of RPA was investigated after DNA damage and replication blockage in human cells. Using two different agents [ionizing radiation (IR) and hydroxyurea (HU)] to generate DSBs, we found that RPA relocated into distinct nuclear foci and colocalized with a well-known DSB binding factor, γ-H2AX, at the sites of DNA damage in a time-dependent manner. Colocalization of RPA and γ-H2AX foci peaked at 2 h after IR treatment and subsequently declined with increasing postrecovery times. The time course of RPA and γ-H2AX foci association correlated well with the DSB repair activity detected by a neutral comet assay. A phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, completely abolished both RPA and γ-H2AX foci formation triggered by IR. Additionally, radiosensitive ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells harboring mutations in ATM gene product were found to be deficient in RPA and γ-H2AX colocalization after IR. Transfection of AT cells with ATM cDNA fully restored the association of RPA foci with γ-H2AX illustrating the requirement of ATM gene product for this process. The exact coincidence of RPA and γ-H2AX in response to HU specifically in S-phase cells supports their role in DNA replication checkpoint control. Depletion of RPA by small interfering RNA (SiRNA) substantially elevated the frequencies of IR-induced micronuclei (MN) and apoptosis in human cells suggestive of a role for RPA in DSB repair. We propose that RPA in association with γ-H2AX contributes to both DNA damage checkpoint control and repair in response to strand breaks and stalled replication forks in human cells

  8. Acyclic 6-choosability of planar graphs without adjacent short cycles

    WANG WeiFan; ZHANG Ge; CHEN Min

    2014-01-01

    A proper vertex coloring of a graph G is acyclic if G contains no bicolored cycles.Given a list assignment L={L(v)|v∈V}of G,we say that G is acyclically L-colorable if there exists a proper acyclic coloringπof G such thatπ(v)∈L(v)for all v∈V.If G is acyclically L-colorable for any list assignment L with|L(v)|k for all v∈V(G),then G is acyclically k-choosable.In this paper,we prove that every planar graph G is acyclically 6-choosable if G does not contain 4-cycles adjacent to i-cycles for each i∈{3,4,5,6}.This improves the result by Wang and Chen(2009).

  9. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Koshi Ninomiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted.

  10. New adjacent vertebral body fracture after percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty is widely used as a treatment for painful osteoporotic compression fractures and malignant osteolytic tumors. Although the procedure appears to provide dramatic pain relief promote life quality but also with some complications. Additional adjacent vertebral body fracture are frequently reported after vertebroplasty but the cause relationship between the procedure and new-onset vertebral fracture remains unknown. New compression fractures following percutaneous vertebroplasty may not be a complication of the procedure itself, but rather as a part of the course of underlying pathology. The crucial point of discussion in this paper is whether vertebroplasty predisposes the development of additional vertebral fractures, at a rate higher than that seen in the absence of vertebroplasty, but no definitive answer to this question is yet to come. This review explores and attempts to comprehend the data both of supporting and refuting a relationship between vertebroplasty and the development of subsequent fractures. (authors)

  11. Migration of PCBs from Sealants to Adjacent Material

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Kampmann, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    PCB in sealants can migrate into porous surfaces like concrete and brick and contaminate these materials. The study focuses on an analysis of concentration profiles in relation to alleviation of PCB contamination. The PCB content was determined in 20 samples of concrete and 6 samples of brick...... concentration of the adjacent material. The profiles of PCB concentration into the materials showed some variation, though in general there is a tendency of relative higher concentration near the primary source in concrete and longer migration at low concentrations in brick. The concentration profiles seemed to...... fit an exponential function for concrete and a power function for brick. Based on the sample series, a worst case scenario for migration was defined. For concrete, it showed that a concentration of less than 50 ppm in the material (hazardous waste) was reached at a distance of 5 cm, whereas for bricks...

  12. Analysis of blasting damage in adjacent mining excavations

    Nick Yugo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a small-scale wedge failure at Yukon Zinc's Wolverine Mine in Yukon, Canada, a vibration monitoring program was added to the existing rockbolt pull testing regime. The failure in the 1150 drift occurred after numerous successive blasts in an adjacent tunnel had loosened friction bolts passing through an unmapped fault. Analysis of blasting vibration revealed that support integrity is not compromised unless there is a geological structure to act as a failure plane. The peak particle velocity (PPV rarely exceeded 250 mm/s with a frequency larger than 50 Hz. As expected, blasting more competent rock resulted in higher PPVs. In such cases, reducing the round length from 3.5 m to 2.0 m was an effective means of limiting potential rock mass and support damage.

  13. Soil Structure Interaction between Two Adjacent Buildings under Earthquake Load

    Mahmoud Yahyai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In some cases, tall buildings are located in geotechnically unsuitable places, due to their high ratio of height to width; there is risk of uplift and other effects such as overturning and reduction structure serviceability during earthquake. This research is aimed to evaluate the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI on seismic behavior of two adjacent 32 story buildings such as time period, base shear and displacements. The interaction effects are investigated for variable distance between the two buildings. Three types of soil such as soft clay, sandy gravel and compacted sandy gravel are considered for this study. The result obtained that the interaction effect increases time period of both buildings base shear and lateral displacement of the structures increases.

  14. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  15. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H2O2-induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O2−; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H2O2-induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX+ cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents. This also indicates that oxidative stress

  16. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  17. Is the technetium-99m-fluoroquinolone complex discriminates between septic and aseptic inflammatory foci? in -vitro evaluation

    Aim: in-vitro evaluation of 99mTc-L-Flox and 99mTc-Cipro complexes. Method: four steps technique was used: 1-determination of the complexion capability of the tracers with the free purified DNA of both e. coli and s. aureus . 2- estimation the binding efficiency of the tracers to live and heat killed bacteria of different standard .3- comparing the bioactivity of the labeled and the non labeled fluoroquinolones using dick diffusion test.4- determination of the percent binding of the labeled fluoroquinolones to the plasma proteins using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method. Results:the gathered results revealed the effective binding of the labeled fluoroquinolones to the purified DNA with high percent (65-68% for each species). High localization and binding of the tracers to the DNA of the live bacterial cell, which is the site of action of topoisomerase ll and IV, were observed, and not to the DNA of the dead one. High uptake of the tracers by the live resistant bacterial strain was noticed with low localization in their DNA. high bioavailability and plasma protein binding were observed. Conclusion: 99mTc- fluoroquinolones, in the present study, retained their antimicrobial activities and exhibited high targeting to the DNA of live sensitive bacteria and not to dead or resistant strains. These results lead to the ability of the labeled fluoroquinolones to image and identify septic foci from aseptic one

  18. Abdominal Angiostrongylosis in Southern Brazil - Prevalence and Parasitic Burden in Mollusc Intermediate Hosts from Eighteen Endemic Foci

    Rambo Paulo R

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Nocturnal collection of molluscs and search for infective third stage larvae of A. costaricensis was carried out in 18 endemic foci identified by the notification of a confirmed diagnosis in human biopsies or surgical specimens. Molluscs were digested in acidic solution and isolation of larvae eventually present was done in a Baermann funnel. Larvae identified by the presence of a delicate groove in the tail were counted to assess the individual parasitic burden. Four species were found infected, with ranges of prevalence in parenthesis: Phyllocaulis variegatus (7% to 33.3%; Bradybaena similaris (11.7% to 24.1%; Belocaulus angustipes (8.3% and Phyllocaulis soleiformis (3.3% to 14.2%. Parasitic burden varied from 1 to 75 with P. variegatus, 1 to 98 with B. similaris, 1 to 13 with B. angustipes and 1 larvae in each of two specimens of P. soleiformis. P. variegatus was present in all sites and was found infected with the highest prevalence figures and the highest individual parasitic burdens. These data stress the importance of veronicellid slugs as intermediate hosts for A. costaricensis in the endemic areas in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

  19. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0–3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120–200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system

  20. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    week for to or 20 weeks. Throughout the study the animals were fed I) semisynthetic casein-based control diet, 2) control diet with 20% lard, 3) control diet with 20% lard and 20% dietary fiber, or 4) control diet where most of the carbohydrate pool was substituted with sucrose and dextrin. The...... significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of ACF and number of small and medium ACF. Adding lard to the standard diet did not cause an increase in ACF, bur if the dietary fiber was added to the high-fat diet, a statistically significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in......The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once a...

  1. Illumination of a spherical fusion pellet displaced from the geometric foci of focused laser beams: vector-analysis method

    The illumination of a spherical fusion pellet displaced from the foci of a refractive laser-fusion system is investigated based on the vector-analysis method. This method is more accurate than the phase-shift approximation for the spherical wave functions in the displaced frame and reduces the computation time and capacity more greatly than does the method of translational addition theorems for spherical wave functions. Two transformation matrices are derived through analyzing the EM-field vector in three different frames of coordinates. The two matrices are used to calculate the efficiency, kurtosis, and skewness of illumination distribution at the pellet surface. The numerical results of the illumination efficiency are in a good agreement with the results of othe workers. In addition, the pellet displacement corresponding to maximal illumination flatness near the focus is determined quantitatively. The illumination asymmetry that is due to the perpendicular pellet displacement is aggravated by using larger lens aperture or short light wavelength and/or by displacing the pellet on the positive axial side of the focus

  2. Use of γ-H2AX Foci Assay on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Sensitive Biomarker of Exposure

    In modern medicine, it is impossible to imagine diagnostics and treatments without equipment that emit radiation (X-ray, CT, PET, etc.). At the same time there is a need to minimize the amount of radiation that the patient will gain during such medical examination. In that manner ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle and dosimetry are the bases of assuring patients safety. The induction of gamma phosphorylated H2AX histone is newly developed tool in biodosimetry, which is more sensitive for the detection of radiation caused DNA damage than currently used micronucleus and comet assay. Gamma phosphorylation of H2AX histone is a consequence of DNA double strand breaks and its role is to trigger the DNA repair mechanisms. In this study, we tested the effect of 2 and 4 Gy X-rays on human peripheral blood lymphocytes from two healthy volunteers using γ-H2AX foci assay. The FITC signal from labelled antibodies was monitored using flow cytometry and clearly demonstrated the difference in control samples and irradiated samples. There was also the difference between the exposed blood samples from the two volunteers. The results of present study reveal new sensitive method that is capable of detecting changes in DNA when exposed to different doses of radiation, and thus potentially optimizing the ALARA principle.(author)

  3. Molecular Evidence of a Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sylvatic Cycle in the Human African Trypanosomiasis Foci of Equatorial Guinea

    Carlos eCordon-Obras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gambiense trypanosomiasis is considered an anthroponotic disease. Consequently, control programs are generally aimed at stopping transmission of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T. b. gambiense by detecting and treating human cases. However, the persistence of numerous foci despite efforts to eliminate this disease questions this strategy as unique tool to pursue the eradication. The role of animals as a reservoir of T. b. gambiense is still controversial, but could partly explain maintenance of the infection at hypo-endemic levels. In the present study, we evaluated the presence of T. b. gambiense in wild animals in Equatorial Guinea. The infection rate ranged from 0.8% in the insular focus of Luba to more than 12% in Mbini, a focus with a constant trickle of human cases. The parasite was detected in a wide range of animal species including four species never described previously as putative reservoirs. Our study comes to reinforce the hypothesis that animals may play a role in the persistence of T. b. gambiense transmission, being particularly relevant in low transmission settings. Under these conditions the integration of sustained vector control and medical interventions should be considered to achieve the elimination of Gambiense trypanosomiasis.

  4. Incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infections in high-endemic foci in India and Nepal: a prospective study.

    Bart Ostyn

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Leishmania donovani infection and Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL was assessed in a prospective study in Indian and Nepalese high-endemic villages. DAT-seroconversion was used as marker of incident infection in 3 yearly surveys. The study population was followed up to month 30 to identify incident clinical cases. In a cohort of 9034 DAT-negative individuals with neither active signs nor history of VL at baseline, 42 VL cases and 375 asymptomatic seroconversions were recorded in the first year, giving an infection:disease ratio of 8.9 to 1. In the 18 months' follow-up, 7 extra cases of VL were observed in the seroconverters group (N=375, against 14 VL cases among the individuals who had not seroconverted in the first year (N=8570 (RR=11.5(4.5foci in India and Nepal is nine times more frequent than incident VL disease. About 1 in 50 of these new but latent infections led to VL within the next 18 months.

  5. Spatial prediction and analysis of Himalayan marmot plague natural epidemic foci in China based on HJ-1 satellite data

    2010-01-01

    Plague,caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis,is a serious and rapidly progressing illness in humans that can be fatal if not treated effectively.The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the largest area of natural Himalayan marmot(Marmota himalayana) plague foci in China and covers more than 630000 km2.Akesai County in Gansu Province is a part of this natural focus of plague and was chosen as a study area.Our study used an ecological niche modeling(ENM) approach to predict the potential distribution of the Himalayan marmot.Environment and Disaster Monitor Satellite(HJ-1) data was used to investigate environment factors that affect plague host animal activity.Host animal point data from active surveillance was combined with environmental variables from the HJ-1 satellite and other databases,and the models of the potential distribution of Himalayan marmot were produced with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production(GARP).The probability of marmot presence was divided into 0-5%,5%-20%,20%-40%,40%-80%,and 80%-100% subgroups.Areas with 80%-100% probability exhibited the greatest potential for the presence of Himalayan marmot.According to the predicted potential distribution of Himalayan marmot in the study area,active surveillance of plague hosts and plague control and prevention could be more efficient.

  6. Bi-directional routing of DNA mismatch repair protein human exonuclease 1 to replication foci and DNA double strand breaks

    Liberti, Sascha Emilie; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Wang, Jing;

    2011-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA metabolism, including replication, recombination and repair, substantiated by its interactions with PCNA, DNA helicases BLM and WRN, and several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We investigated the sub-nuclear localization of hEXO1 during S......-phase progression and in response to laser-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We show that hEXO1 and PCNA co-localize in replication foci. This apparent interaction is sustained throughout S-phase. We also demonstrate that hEXO1 is rapidly recruited to DNA DSBs. We have identified a PCNA interacting protein...... 390-490 and 787-846) are required to direct the protein to the DNA damage site. Our results reveal that protein domains in hEXO1 in conjunction with specific protein interactions control bi-directional routing of hEXO1 between on-going DNA replication and repair processes in living cells...

  7. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours.

    Wijnands, M V W; van Erk, M J; Doornbos, R P; Krul, C A M; Woutersen, R A

    2004-10-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2% curcumin (CUR), 4% rutin (RUT) or 0.04% benzyl isothiocyanate (BIT) for 8 months. ACF were counted after 7, 15 and 26 weeks. Tumours were scored after 26 weeks and 8 months. We found that the WB and CUR diets inhibited the development of colorectal tumours. In contrast, the RUT and BIT diets rather enhanced (although not statistically significantly) colorectal carcinogenesis. In addition, the various compounds caused different effects on the development of ACF. In most cases the number or size of ACF was not predictive for the ultimate tumour yield. The expression of some tumour-related genes was significantly different in tumours from the control group as compared to tumours from the treated groups. It was concluded that WB and CUR, as opposed to RUT and BIT, protects against colorectal cancer and that ACF are unsuitable as biomarker for colorectal cancer. Effects of the different dietary compounds on metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) expression correlated well with the effects of the dietary compounds on the ultimate tumour yield. PMID:15304309

  8. Assessing ‘radiosensitivity’ with kinetic profiles of γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and BRCA1 foci

    Background and purpose: DNA repair assays to identify radiosensitive patients have had limited clinical implementation due to long turn-around times or limited specificity. This study evaluates γ-H2AX-Irradiation Induced Foci (IRIF) kinetics as a more rapid surrogate for the ‘gold standard’ colony survival assay (CSA) using several known DNA repair disorders as reference models. Materials and methods: Radiosensitive cells of known and unknown etiology were studied. γ-H2AX-IRIFs were quantified over 24 h, and the curves were fitted by combining logarithmic growth and exponential decay functions. Fitted values that differed from radionormal controls were considered aberrant and compared to CSA results. Results: We observed 87% agreement of IRIF data with the CSA for the 14 samples tested. Analysis of γ-H2AX-IRIF kinetics for known repair disorders indicated similarities between an RNF168−/− cell line and an RS cell of unknown etiology. These cell lines were further characterized by a reduction in BRCA1-IRIF formation and G2/M checkpoint activation. Conclusions: γ-H2AX-IRIF kinetics showed high concordance with the CSA in RS populations demonstrating its potential as a more rapid surrogate assay. This method provides a means to globally identify defective DNA repair pathways in RS cells of unknown etiology through comparison with known DNA repair defects.

  9. The potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing the radiosensitivity of carbon beam in human tumor cell lines

    Carbon ions (12C6+) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The assessment of tumour radiosensitivity would be particularly useful in optimizing the radiation dose during radiotherapy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing 12C6+ radiosensitivity of tumour cells. The doses of 12C6+ and X-rays used in the present study were 2 and 4 Gy. The survival fraction, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and repair kinetics of DSB were assayed with clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma MEC-1 cells at the time points of 0.5, 4, 16 and 24 h after 12C6+ and X-rays irradiation. The survival fraction for 12C6+ irradiation was much more inhibited than for X-rays (p < 0.05) in all three tumour cell lines tested. Substantial amounts of residual damage, assessed by the neutral comet assay, were present after irradiation (p < 0.05). The highest residual damage was observed at 0.5 or 4 h, both for 12C6+ and X-ray irradiation. However, the residual damage in HeLa and MEC-1 cells was higher for 12C6+ than X-rays (p < 0.05). The strongest induction of γH2AX foci was observed after 30 min, for all three tumour cell lines (p < 0.01). The franction of γH2AX foci persisted for at least 24 h after 12C6+ irradiation; in HeLa cells and MEC-1 was higher than after X-ray irradiation (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between the clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay were not statistically significant, except for some tumour cells at individual irradiation doses and types. Our study demonstrated that the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX foci assay could be used to assess the radiosensitivity of 12C6+ in human tumour cells

  10. Adjacent-cell preconditioners for accelerating multidimensional neutron transport methods

    The Adjacent-cell Preconditioner (AP) is derived for accelerating generic fixed-weight, Weighted Diamond Difference (WDD) neutron transport methods in multidimensional Cartesian geometry. The AP is determined by requiring: (a) the eigenvalue of the combined mesh sweep-AP iterations to vanish in the vicinity of the origin in Fourier space; and (b) the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the preconditioner to satisfy a diffusion-like condition. The spectra of the resulting iterations for a wide range of problem parameters exhibit a spectral radius smaller than .25, that vanishes implying immediate convergence for very large computational cells. More importantly, unlike other unconditionally stable acceleration schemes, the AP is cell-centered and its spectral radius remains small when the cell aspect ratio approaches 0 or ∞. Testing of the AP and comparison of its rate of convergence to the standard Source Iterations (SI) for Burre's Suite of Test Problems (BSTeP) demonstrates its high efficiency in reducing the number of iterations required to achieve convergence, especially for optically thick cells where acceleration is most needed

  11. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  12. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  13. A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete of all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogue. The synthetic seismograms have been generated by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (DMAX), maximum velocity (VMAX), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid of 0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg. over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and found in good agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have the DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. (author)

  14. Characterization of adjacent breast tumors using oligonucleotide microarrays

    Current methodology often cannot distinguish second primary breast cancers from multifocal disease, a potentially important distinction for clinical management. In the present study we evaluated the use of oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis in determining the clonality of tumors by comparing gene expression profiles. Total RNA was extracted from two tumors with no apparent physical connection that were located in the right breast of an 87-year-old woman diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The RNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Genome U95A Gene Chip® (12,500 known human genes) and analyzed using the Gene Chip Analysis Suite® 3.3 (Affymetrix, Inc, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and JMPIN® 3.2.6 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC, USA). Gene expression profiles of tumors from five additional patients were compared in order to evaluate the heterogeneity in gene expression between tumors with similar clinical characteristics. The adjacent breast tumors had a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.987, and were essentially indistinguishable by microarray analysis. Analysis of gene expression profiles from different individuals, however, generated a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.710. Transcriptional profiling may be a useful diagnostic tool for determining tumor clonality and heterogeneity, and may ultimately impact on therapeutic decision making

  15. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  16. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  17. Can Logging in Equatorial Africa Affect Adjacent Parks?

    Jeremy W. Lichstein

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation can cause fundamental regional-scale shifts in vegetation structure and diversity. This is particularly true in Africa. Although national parks are being established to protect areas from deforestation and to conserve biodiversity, these parks are not immune to disturbances outside their boundaries. We used regional-scale atmospheric simulation experiments to investigate how deforestation in timber concessions might affect precipitation inside adjacent, undisturbed national parks in the equatorial African countries of Gabon and the Republic of Congo. The experiments revealed a complex response. Some parks showed rainfall reduced as much as 15%, while others showed slight increases. Rainfall inside parks was particularly sensitive to upwind deforestation along the path of airborne moisture traveling inland from the ocean. A variety of shortcomings in the current modeling procedures limit the ability to extrapolate from experiments such as ours to provide spatially explicit, long-term forecasts of climate. We describe what advances in modeling are needed to produce regional-scale predictions that are robust enough to be useful to managers and policy makers.

  18. Analysis of Lymphocytic DNA Damage in Early Multiple Sclerosis by Automated Gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 Foci Detection: A Case Control Study

    Rasche, Ludwig; Heiserich, Lisa; Behrens, Janina Ruth; Lenz, Klaus; Pfuhl, Catherina; Wakonig, Katharina; Gieß, René Markus; Freitag, Erik; Eberle, Caroline; Wuerfel, Jens; Dörr, Jan; Bauer, Peter; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Paul, Friedemann; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to DNA double-strand breaks, the histone protein H2AX becomes phosphorylated at its C-terminal serine 139 residue, referred to as γ-H2AX. Formation of γ-H2AX foci is associated with recruitment of p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), a regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. γ-H2AX expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was recently proposed as a diagnostic and disease activity marker for multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective To evaluate the significance of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in PBMCs as diagnostic and disease activity markers in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) using automated γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci detection. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs of patients with CIS/early RRMS (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 27) with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 specific antibodies. Nuclear γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci were determined using a fully automated reading system, assessing the numbers of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 foci per total number of cells and the percentage of cells with foci. Patients underwent contrast enhanced 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical examination including expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 were also compared in previously frozen PBMCs of each 10 CIS/early RRMS patients with and without contrast enhancing lesions (CEL) and 10 healthy controls. Results The median (range) number of γ-H2AX (0.04 [0–0.5]) and 53BP1 (0.005 [0–0.2]) foci per cell in freshly isolated PBMCs across all study participants was low and similar to previously reported values of healthy individuals. For both, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, the cellular focus number as well as the percentage of positive cells did not differ between patients with CIS/RRMS and healthy controls. γ-H2AX and 53BP1 levels neither correlated with number nor volume of T2-weighted lesions on MRI, nor with the EDSS. Although γ-H2AX, but not

  19. High levels of γ-H2AX foci and cell membrane oxidation in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Giovannini, Caterina [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Piaggi, Simona [Sezione di Patologia Sperimentale, Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Federico, Giovanni [Unità di Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Diabete, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale Pisa University, Pisa (Italy); Scarpato, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.scarpato@unipi.it [Unità di Genetica, Dipartimento di Biologia, Pisa University, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We aimed to detect signs of very early damage in peripheral cells of T1DM adolescents. • T1DM patients had high levels of oxidized cells and reduced expression of iNOS and NO. • Highly mutagenic lesions were markedly increased in the diabetic group, mainly in females. • The observed damage might increase the risk of cancer in the patients later in life. - Abstract: Oxidative stress caused by an excess of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in turn, it can lead to genome damage, especially in the form of DNA double-strand break (DSB). The DNA DSB is a potentially carcinogenic lesion for human cells. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether the level of oxidative stress was increased in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of affected adolescents. In 35 T1DM adolescents and 19 healthy controls we assessed: (1) spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced oxidation of cell membrane using a fluorescence lipid probe; (2) spontaneous and LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein and indirect NO determination via cytofluorimetric analysis of O{sub 2}{sup −}; (3) immunofluorescent detection of the basal level of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX foci), a well-validated marker of DNA DSB. In T1DM, the frequencies of oxidized cells, both spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced (47.13 ± 0.02) were significantly higher than in controls (35.90 ± 0.03). Patients showed, in general, both a reduced iNOS expression and production of NO. Furthermore, the level of spontaneous nuclear damage, quantified as γ-H2AX foci, was markedly increased in T1DM adolescents (6.15 ± 1.08% of γ-H2AX{sup +} cells; 8.72 ± 2.14 γ-H2AXF/n; 9.26 ± 2.37 γ-H2AXF/np), especially in females. In the present study, we confirmed the role that oxidative stress plays in the disease damaging lipids of cell membrane and, most importantly, causing genomic damage in circulating white blood cells of affected adolescents

  20. Integrating corporate social responsibility and other strategic foci in a distributed production system: a transaction cost perspective on the North Sea offshore petroleum industry

    Midttun, Atle; Dirdal, Tore; Gautesen, Kristian; Omland, Terje; Wenstøp, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the challenges of integrating CSR with other strategic foci into the supply/contractor chain, both conceptually and empirically, with a focus on one sectorial case: the Norwegian upstream petroleum industry. It compares contradictory theories of strategic focus and explores their implications for the organisation of the supply chain and discusses challenges and solutions for operative CSR oriented supply chain manage­ment Design/methodology/approach The empirical ana...

  1. Hepatic Stellate Cell–Targeted Delivery of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Transgene via Bile Duct Infusion Enhances Its Expression at Fibrotic Foci to Regress Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Fibrosis

    Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani; Kang,Yuzhan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Peng, Qiwen; Sakban, Rashidah Binte; Nugraha, Bramasta; Jiang, Xuan; Bunte, Ralph M.; So, Peter T. C.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Mao, Hai-Quan; Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis generates fibrotic foci with abundant activated hepatic stellate cells and excessive collagen deposition juxtaposed with healthy regions. Targeted delivery of antifibrotic therapeutics to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) might improve treatment outcomes and reduce adverse effects on healthy tissue. We delivered the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene specifically to activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrotic liver using vitamin A–coupled liposomes by retrograde intrabiliary infu...

  2. Frequency of gamma H2AX foci in healthy volunteers and health workers occupationally exposed to X-irradiation and its relevance in biological dosimetry.

    Raavi, Venkateswarlu; Basheerudeen, Safa Abdul Syed; Jagannathan, Vijayalakshmi; Joseph, Santosh; Chaudhury, Nabo Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-H2AX (γ-H2AX) assay is a marker to measure double-strand breaks in the deoxyribonucleic acid. Variables such as age, oxidative stress, temperature, genetic factors and inter-individual variation have been reported to influence the baseline γ-H2AX focus levels. Therefore, knowledge on baseline frequency of γ-H2AX foci in a targeted population would facilitate reliable radiation triage and dose estimation. The objective of the present study was to establish the baseline data using blood samples from healthy volunteers (n = 130) differing in age, occupation and lifestyle as well as from occupationally exposed health workers (n = 20). The γ-H2AX focus assay was performed using epifluorescence microscopy. In vitro dose-response curve for γ-H2AX foci was constructed in blood samples (n = 3) exposed to X-rays (30 min post-exposure). The mean γ-H2AX focus frequency obtained in healthy volunteers was 0.042 ± 0.001 and showed an age-related increase (p healthy volunteers. A sub-group analysis did not show a significant (p > 0.1) difference in γ-H2AX focus frequency among sexes. Blood exposed in vitro to X-rays showed dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX foci frequency (Y = 0.1902 ± 0.1363 + 2.9020 ± 0.3240 * D). Baseline frequency of γ-H2AX foci obtained from different age groups showed a significant (p lifestyle factors. PMID:27287768

  3. Development and validation of 'AutoRIF': software for the automated analysis of radiation-induced foci

    McVean Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantification of radiation-induced foci (RIF to investigate the induction and subsequent repair of DNA double strands breaks is now commonplace. Over the last decade systems specific for the automatic quantification of RIF have been developed for this purpose, however to ask more mechanistic questions on the spatio-temporal aspects of RIF, an automated RIF analysis platform that also quantifies RIF size/volume and relative three-dimensional (3D distribution of RIF within individual nuclei, is required. Results A java-based image analysis system has been developed (AutoRIF that quantifies the number, size/volume and relative nuclear locations of RIF within 3D nuclear volumes. Our approach identifies nuclei using the dynamic Otsu threshold and RIF by enhanced Laplacian filtering and maximum entropy thresholding steps and, has an application 'batch optimisation' process to ensure reproducible quantification of RIF. AutoRIF was validated by comparing output against manual quantification of the same 2D and 3D image stacks with results showing excellent concordance over a whole range of sample time points (and therefore range of total RIF/nucleus after low-LET radiation exposure. Conclusions This high-throughput automated RIF analysis system generates data with greater depth of information and reproducibility than that which can be achieved manually and may contribute toward the standardisation of RIF analysis. In particular, AutoRIF is a powerful tool for studying spatio-temporal relationships of RIF using a range of DNA damage response markers and can be run independently of other software, enabling most personal computers to perform image analysis. Future considerations for AutoRIF will likely include more complex algorithms that enable multiplex analysis for increasing combinations of cellular markers.

  4. Evaluation of 99mTcN-moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate, as a potential radiopharmaceutical for scintigraphic localization of infectious foci

    In the current study radio complexation of the moxifloxacin dithiocarbamate (MXND) with technetium-99m (99mTc) using the [99mTc-N]2+ core through legend exchange reaction was explored. The 99mTcN-MXND complex was biologically evaluated as a potential radiopharmaceutical for in vivo scintigraphy using artificially infected male sprague-dawley rats (MSDR) with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The radiochemistry of the complex was explored in terms of radiochemical purity (RCP), in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C for 16 h, in vitro binding with S. aureus and biodistribution in artificially infected with S. aureus MSDR. It was observed that the complex showed stability of more than 90% up to 4 h after reconstitution with a maximum RCP value of 97.55 ± 0.42% at 30 min. The complex showed significantly in vitro stability in serum at 37 deg C with an insignificant free species up to 16.50% within 16 h. In vitro saturated binding with S. aureus was noted up to 120 min with maximum value of 73.25% at 90 min of incubation. Almost sixfold uptake was noted in the infected muscle of the MSDR as compared to inflamed and normal muscle. The 97.55 ± 0.42% RCP values, stability in serum with insignificant untagged 16.50% species, 73.25% in vitro binding with S. aureus and sixfold uptake in the target organ posed the 99mTcN-MXND complex as a promising radiopharmaceutical for S. aureus infectious foci. (author)

  5. Kdr mutations in Triatoma infestans from the Gran Chaco are distributed in two differentiated foci: Implications for pyrethroid resistance management.

    Sierra, Ivana; Capriotti, Natalia; Fronza, Georgina; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Ons, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides, have been associated with the resistance in Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas' disease. Hence, the sustainability of vector control programs requires the implementation of resistance management strategies. We determined the sensitivity of the molecular assays previously designed for early resistance detection to be used in pooled samples from a wide area of the endemic region, and validated them for their routine use in control campaigns for the monitoring of insecticide resistance in T. infestans. Consequently, we used these methods to examine the distribution of resistance-associated mutations in the sodium channel gene in populations of T. infestans from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco. The PASA and REA assays tested proved sensitive enough to detect kdr SNPs in pooled samples, indicating these assays are suitable for routine screening in insecticide resistance surveillance. Two geographically differentiated foci were detected in T. infestans populations from the Argentinean and Bolivian Gran Chaco, with populations on the Bolivian-Argentinean border carrying L1014F mutation, and those from the Argentinean Chaco carrying L925I mutation. In all highly resistant populations analyzed, one of both kdr mutations was present, and toxicological assays determined that all pyrethroid resistant populations analyzed herein were sensitive to fenitrothion. The principal cause of pyrethroid resistance in T. infestans from the Gran Chaco ecoregion is kdr mutations in the sodium channel. Different levels of resistance occur in different populations carrying identical mutation, suggesting the existence of contributory mechanisms. PMID:26992297

  6. Could prominent airway-centered fibroblast foci in lung biopsies predict underlying chronic microaspiration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients?

    Bois, Melanie C; Hu, Xiaowen; Ryu, Jay H; Yi, Eunhee S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic occult aspiration of small droplets (microaspiration) due to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or hiatal hernia is postulated to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the histopathologic correlate of IPF. We hypothesized that chronic microaspiration may manifest as prominent airway-centered fibroblastic foci (FFs) in IPF. UIP cases diagnosed by wedge biopsies over a 6-year period (2006-2011) were identified and scored (1-3) for the prominence of airway-centered FFs by 2 authors blinded for clinical history. Relevant clinical information was obtained. Thirty-seven patients (22 men) were diagnosed with IPF by multidisciplinary approach. Thirteen cases (35.1%) demonstrated high airway-centered FF score (score 3). Twenty (54.1%) patients carried a clinical diagnosis of GERD, and 3 patients (8.1%) had hiatal hernia. High airway-centered FF score was significantly associated with hiatal hernia diagnosis (P=.037) but not with a diagnosis of GERD or the use of proton pump inhibitors/histamine-2 receptor antagonists. High airway-centered FF score was associated with airway-centered acute inflammation (P=.028) and peribronchiolar granulomas (P=.042). In summary, IPF cases with hiatal hernia were more likely to have a prominent airway-centered FF. Given the strong association between hiatal hernia and GERD and their risk for developing chronic microaspiration, the prominent airway-centered FF in UIP might predict the presence of chronic microaspiration, acknowledging that GERD and proton pump inhibitor/histamine-2 receptor antagonist use failed to demonstrate a significant association. Larger studies are warranted for further investigation. PMID:26980038

  7. γ-H2AX foci as in vivo effect biomarker in children emphasize the importance to minimize X-ray doses in paediatric CT imaging

    Vandevoorde, C.; Franck, C.; Bacher, K.; Thierens, H. [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Gent (Belgium); Breysem, L.; Smet, M.H. [University Hospital Louvain, Radiology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Ernst, C. [University Hospital Brussels, Radiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Backer, A. de [General Hospital Sint-Lucas Ghent, Radiology Department, Ghent (Belgium); Moortele, K. van de [General Hospital Sint-Jan Bruges, Radiology Department, Bruges (Belgium); Smeets, P. [Ghent University Hospital, Radiology Department, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-10-30

    Investigation of DNA damage induced by CT x-rays in paediatric patients versus patient dose in a multicentre setting. From 51 paediatric patients (median age, 3.8 years) who underwent an abdomen or chest CT examination in one of the five participating radiology departments, blood samples were taken before and shortly after the examination. DNA damage was estimated by scoring γ-H2AX foci in peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Patient-specific organ and tissue doses were calculated with a validated Monte Carlo program. Individual lifetime attributable risks (LAR) for cancer incidence and mortality were estimated according to the BEIR VII risk models. Despite the low CT doses, a median increase of 0.13 γ-H2AX foci/cell was observed. Plotting the induced γ-H2AX foci versus blood dose indicated a low-dose hypersensitivity, supported also by an in vitro dose-response study. Differences in dose levels between radiology centres were reflected in differences in DNA damage. LAR of cancer mortality for the paediatric chest CT and abdomen CT cohort was 0.08 and 0.13 permille respectively. CT x-rays induce DNA damage in paediatric patients even at low doses and the level of DNA damage is reduced by application of more effective CT dose reduction techniques and paediatric protocols. (orig.)

  8. Protective effect of WR2721 against the induction of altered hepatocyte foci in rats treated once with gamma irradiation within one day after birth

    The authors investigated the protective effects of WR2721 on the induction by radiation of altered hepatocyte foci in 150-day-old Sprague Dawley rats. One hundred micrograms of WR2721 per gram of body weight were administered to selected groups of neonatal animals 30 min prior to the administration of single doses of γ irradiation (150 or 300 rad). Focus pheotypes, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and/or the iron exclusion histochemical markers, were quantitated through the use of serial frozen sectioning techniques and computer-assisted image analysis. Radiation was effective in inducing foci formation. Induction was much more effective in female as compared to male rats. WR2721 reduced the frequencies of radiation-induced foci at both radiation doses, with the greatest effect apparent in female rats. The protective effect of WR2721 in this system suggests that this compound and related aminothiols may be useful probes for examining mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis induced by radiation or chemicals

  9. Sensitive immunodetection of radiotoxicity after iodine-131 therapy for thyroid cancer using γ-H2AX foci of DNA damage in lymphocytes

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the degree of radiotoxicity to lymphocytes in thyroid cancer after iodine-131 (I-131) therapy using γ-H2AX foci immunodetection. This study focused on 15 patients who underwent I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer after surgery. All patients received 3.7 GBq of I-131. Venous blood samples were collected from each patient before therapy and 4 days thereafter. Lymphocytes were isolated from the blood samples and subjected to γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The number (mean±standard deviation (SD)) of foci per lymphocyte nucleus was 0.41±0.51 before and 6.19±1.80 after radioiodine therapy, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.001<0.05). Absorbed doses estimated for the 15 patients were 0.77±0.31 Gy applying standard line in vitro external radiation doses. γ-H2AX foci immunodetection in lymphocytes may detect radiation-induced DNA damage associated with I-131 therapy for thyroid cancer, and may facilitate estimation of the radiation doses absorbed with this therapy. (author)

  10. Wall shear stress in intracranial aneurysms and adjacent arteries

    Fuyu Wang; Bainan Xu; Zhenghui Sun; Chen Wu; Xiaojun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic parameters play an important role in aneurysm formation and growth. However, it is difficult to directly observe a rapidly growing de novo aneurysm in a patient. To investigate possible associations between hemodynamic parameters and the formation and growth of intracranial aneurysms, the present study constructed a computational model of a case with an internal carotid artery aneurysm and an anterior communicating artery aneurysm, based on the CT angiography findings of a patient. To simulate the formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm and the growth of the internal carotid artery aneurysm, we then constructed a model that virtually removed the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, and a further two models that also progressively decreased the size of the internal carotid artery aneurysm. Computational simulations of the fluid dynamics of the four models were performed under pulsatile flow conditions, and wall shear stress was compared among the different models. In the three aneurysm growth models, increasing size of the aneurysm was associated with an increased area of low wall shear stress, a significant decrease in wall shear stress at the dome of the aneurysm, and a significant change in the wall shear stress of the parent artery. The wall shear stress of the anterior communicating artery remained low, and was significantly lower than the wall shear stress at the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery or the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. After formation of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm, the wall shear stress at the dome of the internal carotid artery aneurysm increased significantly, and the wall shear stress in the upstream arteries also changed significantly. These findings indicate that low wall shear stress may be associated with the initiation and growth of aneurysms, and that aneurysm formation and growth may influence hemodynamic parameters in the local and adjacent arteries.