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Sample records for adiposity predicts cognitive

  1. Adiposity predicts cognitive decline in older persons with diabetes: a 2-year follow-up.

    Angela Marie Abbatecola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms related to cognitive impairment in older persons with Type 2 diabetes (DM remains unclear. We tested if adiposity parameters and body fat distribution could predict cognitive decline in older persons with DM vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT. METHODOLOGY: 693 older persons with no dementia were enrolled: 253 with DM in good metabolic control; 440 with NGT (age range:65-85 years. Longitudinal study comparing DM and NGT individuals according to the association of baseline adiposity parameters (body mass index (BMI, waist-hip-ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC and total body fat mass to cognitive change (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a composite score of executive and attention functioning (CCS over time. FINDINGS: At baseline, in DM participants, MMSE correlated with WHR (beta = -0.240; p = 0.043, WC (beta = -0.264; p = 0.041 while CCS correlated with WHR (beta = -0.238; p = 0.041, WC (beta = -0.326; p = 0.013 after adjusting for confounders. In NGT subjects, no significant correlations were found among any adiposity parameters and MMSE, while CCS was associated with WHR (beta = -0.194; p = 0.036 and WC (beta = -0.210; p = 0.024. Participants with DM in the 3(rd tertile of total fat mass showed the greatest decline in cognitive performance compared to those in 1(st tertile (tests for trend: MMSE(p = 0.007, CCS(p = 0.003. Logistic regression models showed that 3(rd vs. 1(st tertile of total fat mass, WHR, and WC predicted an almost two-fold decline in cognitive function in DM subjects at 2(nd yr (OR 1.68, 95%IC 1.08-3.52. CONCLUSIONS: Total fat mass and central adiposity predict an increased risk for cognitive decline in older person with DM.

  2. Bone mineral density, adiposity and cognitive functions

    Hamid R Sohrabi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34 to 87 years old (62.78±9.27, were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after three years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms.

  3. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  4. Effects of adiposity on postural control and cognition.

    Meng, Hao; O'Connor, Daniel P; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    In the U.S., it is estimated that over one-third of adults are obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m(2)). Previous studies suggest that obesity may be associated with deficits in cognitive performance and postural control. Increased BMI may challenge cognitive and postural performance in a variety of populations; however, most relevant studies have classified participants based on BMI values, which cannot be used to accurately assess the effects of adiposity on cognitive performance and postural control. The objective of the current study was to examine motor and cognitive responses for overweight and obese adults compared to normal weight individuals by using both BMI and adiposity measures. Ten normal weight (BMI=18-24.9kg/m(2)), ten overweight (BMI=25-29.9kg/m(2)), and ten obese (BMI=30-40kg/m(2)) adults were evaluated (age: 24±4 years). Participants were classified into three groups based on BMI values at the onset of the study, prior to body composition analysis. Participants performed (1) working memory task while maintaining upright stance, and (2) a battery of sensorimotor evaluations. Working memory reaction times, response accuracy, center-of-pressure (COP) path length, velocity, migration area, time to boundary values in anterior-posterior direction, and ankle-hip strategy-scores were calculated to evaluate cognitive-motor performance. No significant deficits in working memory performance were observed. Overall, measures of motor function deteriorated as BMI and body fat percentage increased. The relationship between deteriorating postural performance indices and body fat percentage were greater than those found between BMI and postural performance indices. PMID:26669948

  5. Can Creativity Predict Cognitive Reserve?

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve relies on the ability to effectively cope with aging and brain damage by using alternate processes to approach tasks when standard approaches are no longer available. In this study, the issue if creativity can predict cognitive reserve has been explored. Forty participants (mean age: 61 years) filled out: the Cognitive Reserve…

  6. Predicting cognitive change within domains

    Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Moser, David J.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized regression based (SRB) formulas, a method for predicting cognitive change across time, traditionally use baseline performance on a neuropsychological measure to predict future performance on that same measure. However, there are instances in which the same tests may not be given at follow-up assessments (e.g., lack of continuity of provider, avoiding practice effects). The current study sought to expand this methodology by developing SRBs to predict performance on different tests...

  7. Midlife adiposity predicts earlier onset of Alzheimer's dementia, neuropathology and presymptomatic cerebral amyloid accumulation.

    Chuang, Y-F; An, Y; Bilgel, M; Wong, D F; Troncoso, J C; O'Brien, R J; Breitner, J C; Ferruci, L; Resnick, S M; Thambisetty, M

    2016-07-01

    Understanding how midlife risk factors influence age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may provide clues to delay disease expression. Although midlife adiposity predicts increased incidence of AD, it is unclear whether it affects AAO and severity of Alzheimer's neuropathology. Using a prospective population-based cohort, Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), this study aims to examine the relationships between midlife body mass index (BMI) and (1) AAO of AD (2) severity of Alzheimer's neuropathology and (3) fibrillar brain amyloid deposition during aging. We analyzed data on 1394 cognitively normal individuals at baseline (8643 visits; average follow-up interval 13.9 years), among whom 142 participants developed incident AD. In two subsamples of BLSA, 191 participants underwent autopsy and neuropathological assessment, and 75 non-demented individuals underwent brain amyloid imaging. Midlife adiposity was derived from BMI data at 50 years of age. We find that each unit increase in midlife BMI predicts earlier onset of AD by 6.7 months (P=0.013). Higher midlife BMI was associated with greater Braak neurofibrillary but not CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease) neuritic plaque scores at autopsy overall. Associations between midlife BMI and brain amyloid burden approached statistical significance. Thus, higher midlife BMI was also associated with greater fibrillar amyloid measured by global mean cortical distribution volume ratio (P=0.075) and within the precuneus (left, P=0.061; right, P=0.079). In conclusion, midlife overweight predicts earlier onset of AD and greater burden of Alzheimer's neuropathology. A healthy BMI at midlife may delay the onset of AD. PMID:26324099

  8. Adiposity is associated with blunted cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and cognitive responses to acute mental stress.

    Alexander Jones

    Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate

  9. Predictive coding as a model of cognition.

    Spratling, M W

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that predictive coding can provide a detailed explanation of a very wide range of low-level perceptual processes. It is also widely believed that predictive coding can account for high-level, cognitive, abilities. This article provides support for this view by showing that predictive coding can simulate phenomena such as categorisation, the influence of abstract knowledge on perception, recall and reasoning about conceptual knowledge, context-dependent behavioural control, and naive physics. The particular implementation of predictive coding used here (PC/BC-DIM) has previously been used to simulate low-level perceptual behaviour and the neural mechanisms that underlie them. This algorithm thus provides a single framework for modelling both perceptual and cognitive brain function. PMID:27118562

  10. Cognitive modeling to predict video interpretability

    Young, Darrell L.; Bakir, Tariq

    2011-06-01

    Processing framework for cognitive modeling to predict video interpretability is discussed. Architecture consists of spatiotemporal video preprocessing, metric computation, metric normalization, pooling of like metric groups with masking adjustments, multinomial logistic pooling of Minkowski pooled groups of similar quality metrics, and estimation of confidence interval of final result.

  11. Diffusion changes predict cognitive and functional outcome

    Jokinen, Hanna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ropele, Stefan; Fazekas, Franz; Gouw, Alida A; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Wallin, Anders; Poggesi, Anna; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Group, LADIS Study; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) predict longitudinal cognitive decline and disability in older individuals independently of the concomitant magnetic resona...

  12. Prenatal Stress due to a Natural Disaster Predicts Adiposity in Childhood: The Iowa Flood Study

    Kelsey N. Dancause

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress can affect lifelong physical growth, including increased obesity risk. However, human studies remain limited. Natural disasters provide models of independent stressors unrelated to confounding maternal characteristics. We assessed degree of objective hardship and subjective distress in women pregnant during severe flooding. At ages 2.5 and 4 years we assessed body mass index (BMI, subscapular plus triceps skinfolds (SS + TR, an index of total adiposity, and SS : TR ratio (an index of central adiposity in their children (n=106. Hierarchical regressions controlled first for several potential confounds. Controlling for these, flood exposure during early gestation predicted greater BMI increase from age 2.5 to 4, as well as total adiposity at 2.5. Greater maternal hardship and distress due to the floods, as well as other nonflood life events during pregnancy, independently predicted greater increase in total adiposity between 2.5 and 4 years. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal stress increases adiposity beginning in childhood and suggest that early gestation is a sensitive period. Results further highlight the additive effects of maternal objective and subjective stress, life events, and depression, emphasizing the importance of continued studies on multiple, detailed measures of maternal mental health and experience in pregnancy and child growth.

  13. Which Psychosocial Factors Best Predict Cognitive Performance in Older Adults?

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older cam...

  14. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  15. Cognitive improvement following transvenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    Dongfei Li; Chun Yang; Rongmei Qu; Huiying Yang; Meichun Yu; Hui Tao; Jingxing Dai; Lin Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation for the repair of traumatic brain injury remain poorly understood. The present study observed neurological functional changes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury following ADMSC transplantation via the tail vein.Cell transplants were observed in injured cerebral cortex, and expression of brain-derived nerve growth factor was significantly increased in the injured hippocampus following transplantation. Results demonstrated that transvenous ADMSC transplants migrated to the injured cerebral cortex and significantly improved cognitive function.

  16. Integrated data mining of transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to predict the secretome of adipose tissue and muscle in ruminants.

    Bonnet, M; Tournayre, J; Cassar-Malek, I

    2016-08-16

    Adipose tissue and muscle are endocrine organs releasing signalling and mediator proteins termed adipokines and myokines, enabling functioning of the organism and its adaption to a wide range of different challenges such as starvation, overfeeding, stress and diseases. They also contribute to the "adipose-muscular" cross-talk for an integrated control of body mass composition. This article integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data available in ruminant species (mainly in bovine, and when available in ovine and caprine) to computationally predict the large-scale secretome of adipose tissues and muscles. For this purpose predictive bioinformatics algorithms were employed to identify proteins putatively secreted by tissues thanks to a signal peptide. We predicted 1749 secreted proteins that were found from adipose tissues and muscles, more than a half of them being already declared as secreted proteins in public repositories. We also identified 188 and 357 proteins in the predictive secretome of adipose tissues and muscles respectively, only a minor part (3-11%) of them being reported in the overlap of public repositories used for comparison. Functional analysis of these proteins highlights their involvement in biological pathways known to sustain tissue growth and functioning. This strategy allowed us to identify some known and putative novel adipomyokines, adipokines and myokines. However their role and their expression signature depending on rearing practices remain largely to be explored. PMID:27374837

  17. Predicting Mass Media Effects: A Cognitive Approach.

    Gordon, Thomas F.

    In this theoretical working paper, an attempt is made to pull together the two areas of cognitive information processing and emotional arousal, in order to provide a fuller framework for examining media effects. The development of a cognitive-behavioral index is proposed as a research tool resulting from this merger of areas, as are a number of…

  18. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  19. Mothers' depressive symptoms and children's cognitive and social agency: Predicting first-grade cognitive functioning.

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-08-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms predict children's low social and cognitive agency-low motivation to initiate social interaction and actively engage in activities. When mothers' depressive symptoms were high in infancy, children displayed poor first-grade cognitive functioning due to (a) tendencies to become socially withdrawn by 36 months and low in mastery motivation by 54 months and (b) tendencies for children's low agency to predict declines in mothers' sensitivity and cognitive stimulation. Findings suggest that mothers' depressive symptoms undermine cognitive development through bidirectional processes centered on children's low motivation to engage in social interaction and initiate and persist at everyday tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27389834

  20. Cognitive flexibility predicts early reading skills

    LynneG.Duncan; PascaleColé

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of learning to read is efficiency in accessing different kinds of linguistic information (orthographic, phonological and semantic) about written words. The present study investigates whether, in addition to the integrity of such linguistic skills, early progress in reading may require a degree of cognitive flexibility in order to manage the coordination of this information effectively. Our study will look for evidence of a link between flexibility and both word reading and...

  1. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    Mariegold E. Wollam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female, we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013 when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms.

  2. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  3. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives: We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population ...

  4. A Simulator Study of CREAM to Predict Cognitive Errors

    It discussed recent experience in the application of the CREAM HRA method to predict error modes during crew simulator trials. Some human errors, such as errors of commission and knowledge-based errors, are not adequately modelled in probabilistic safety assessments. Even qualitative methods for handling these sorts of errors are comparatively underdeveloped. The 'Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method' (CREAM) was developed for prediction of cognitive error modes. It has not yet been comprehensively established how reliable, valid and generally useful it could be to researchers and practitioners. A previous study of CREAM at Halden was promising, showing a relationship between errors predicted in advance and those that actually occurred in simulated fault scenarios. The present study continues this work. CREAM was used to make predictions of cognitive error modes throughout two rather difficult fault scenarios. Predictions were made of the most likely cognitive error mode, were one to occur at all, at several points throughout the expected scenarios, based upon the scenario design and description. Each scenario was then run 15 times with different operators. Error modes occurring during simulations were later scored using the task description for the scenario, videotapes of operator actions, eye-track recording, operators' verbal protocols and an expert's concurrent commentary. The scoring team had no previous substantive knowledge of the experiment or the techniques used, to provide a more stringent test of the data and knowledge needed for scoring. The scored error modes were then compared with the CREAM predictions to assess the degree of agreement. Some cognitive error modes were predicted successfully, but the results were generally not so encouraging as the previous study. Several problems were found with both the CREAM technique and the data needed to complete the analysis. It was felt that further development was needed before this kind of

  5. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  6. Predicting Feelings of Cognitive Competence in Head Start Preschoolers

    DiBiase, Rosemarie; Miller, Patrice M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about what predicts the budding sense of self-competence in preschoolers. This is particularly true of cognitive competence, which may have implications for later schooling. Based on previous research with older children, it was expected that feelings of self-competence would be influenced by attitudes of significant others as well…

  7. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Marianne; Sønderkaer, Signe; Carstensen, Mads Henrik; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  8. Adiposity to muscle ratio predicts incident physical limitation in a cohort of 3,153 older adults—an alternative measurement of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity

    Auyeung, Tung Wai; Lee, Jenny Shun Wah; Leung, Jason; Kwok, Timothy; Woo, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, sarcopenia is defined by muscle mass and physical performance. We hypothesized that the disability caused by sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was related to the amount of adiposity or body weight bearing on a unit of muscle mass, or the adiposity to muscle ratio. We therefore examined whether this ratio could predict physical limitation by secondary analysis of the data in our previous study. We recruited 3,153 community-dwelling adults aged >65 years and their body compositi...

  9. Design of a cognitive neural predictive controller for mobile robot

    Al‐Araji, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University In this thesis, a cognitive neural predictive controller system has been designed to guide a nonholonomic wheeled mobile robot during continuous and non-continuous trajectory tracking and to navigate through static obstacles with collision-free and minimum tracking error. The structure of the controller consists of two layers; the first layer is a neural network system that controls the mo...

  10. Predicting contraceptive behaviour among adolescents : social, cognitive, and contextual influences

    2007-01-01

    Reports from Norway and other western countries show that many adolescents do not protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and sexual transmitted infections (STIs). The incidence of STIs such as chlamydia infections has increased in recent years in Norway and other European countries. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the social, cognitive, and contextual factors that predict adolescents’ decisions about whether or not to use contraception. The study population of this t...

  11. A predictive cognitive error analysis technique for emergency tasks

    This paper introduces an analysis framework and procedure for the support of cognitive error analysis of emergency tasks in nuclear power plants. The framework provides a new perspective in the utilization of error factors into error prediction. The framework can be characterized by two features. First, error factors that affect the occurrence of human error are classified into three groups, 'task characteristics factors (TCF)', 'situation factors (SF)', and 'performance assisting factors (PAF)', and are utilized in the error prediction. This classification aims to support error prediction from the viewpoint of assessing the adequacy of PAF under given TCF and SF. Second, the assessment of error factors is made in the perspective of the performance of each cognitive function. Through this, error factors assessment is made in an integrative way not independently. Furthermore, it enables analysts to identify vulnerable cognitive functions and error factors, and to obtain specific error reduction strategies. Finally, the framework and procedure was applied to the error analysis of the 'bleed and feed operation' of emergency tasks

  12. Cognitive control predicts use of model-based reinforcement learning.

    Otto, A Ross; Skatova, Anya; Madlon-Kay, Seth; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-02-01

    Accounts of decision-making and its neural substrates have long posited the operation of separate, competing valuation systems in the control of choice behavior. Recent theoretical and experimental work suggest that this classic distinction between behaviorally and neurally dissociable systems for habitual and goal-directed (or more generally, automatic and controlled) choice may arise from two computational strategies for reinforcement learning (RL), called model-free and model-based RL, but the cognitive or computational processes by which one system may dominate over the other in the control of behavior is a matter of ongoing investigation. To elucidate this question, we leverage the theoretical framework of cognitive control, demonstrating that individual differences in utilization of goal-related contextual information--in the service of overcoming habitual, stimulus-driven responses--in established cognitive control paradigms predict model-based behavior in a separate, sequential choice task. The behavioral correspondence between cognitive control and model-based RL compellingly suggests that a common set of processes may underpin the two behaviors. In particular, computational mechanisms originally proposed to underlie controlled behavior may be applicable to understanding the interactions between model-based and model-free choice behavior. PMID:25170791

  13. Adiposity and Pathogen Exposure Predict C-Reactive Protein in Filipino Women12

    McDade, Thomas W.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Adair, Linda; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Obesity and infectious agents are both sources of inflammatory stimuli that result in increased production of C-reactive protein (CRP). Rates of overweight and obesity are increasing globally, but for many populations, gains in body fat are set against a backdrop of high levels of pathogen exposure. Our primary objective was to evaluate the extent to which adiposity and pathogenicity contribute to a double burden of inflammation in a population currently undergoing the nutrition transition. M...

  14. Top-down predictions in the cognitive brain

    Kveraga, Kestutis; Ghuman, Avniel S.; Bar, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    The human brain is not a passive organ simply waiting to be activated by external stimuli. Instead, it is proposed tat the brain continuously employs memory of past experiences to interpret sensory information and predict the immediately relevant future. This review concentrates on visual recognition as the model system for developing and testing ideas about the role and mechanisms of top-down predictions in the brain. We cover relevant behavioral, computational and neural aspects. These ideas are then extended to other domains. The basic elements of this proposal include analogical mapping, associative representations and the generation of predictions. Connections to a host of cognitive processes will be made and implications to several mental disorders will be proposed. PMID:17923222

  15. Informant-reported cognitive symptoms that predict amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Malek-Ahmadi Michael

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI from normal cognition is difficult in clinical settings. Self-reported and informant-reported memory complaints occur often in both clinical groups, which then necessitates the use of a comprehensive neuropsychological examination to make a differential diagnosis. However, the ability to identify cognitive symptoms that are predictive of aMCI through informant-based information may provide some clinical utility in accurately identifying individuals who are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods The current study utilized a case-control design using data from an ongoing validation study of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ, an informant-based dementia assessment. Data from 51 cognitively normal (CN individuals participating in a brain donation program and 47 aMCI individuals seen in a neurology practice at the same institute were analyzed to determine which AQ items differentiated aMCI from CN individuals. Results Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis which controlled for age and education showed that 4 AQ items were strong indicators of aMCI which included: repetition of statements and/or questions [OR 13.20 (3.02, 57.66]; trouble knowing the day, date, month, year, and time [OR 17.97 (2.63, 122.77]; difficulty managing finances [OR 11.60 (2.10, 63.99]; and decreased sense of direction [OR 5.84 (1.09, 31.30]. Conclusions Overall, these data indicate that certain informant-reported cognitive symptoms may help clinicians differentiate individuals with aMCI from those with normal cognition. Items pertaining to repetition of statements, orientation, ability to manage finances, and visuospatial disorientation had high discriminatory power.

  16. Identification of behavioural and metabolic factors predicting adiposity sensitivity to both high fat and high carbohydrate diets in rats.

    PatrickChristianEven

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals exhibit a great variation in their body weight gain response to a high-fat diet. Identification of predictive factors would enable better directed intervention towards susceptible individuals to treat obesity, and uncover potential mechanisms for treatment targeting. We set out to identify predictive behavioural and metabolic factors in an outbred rat model. 12 rats were analysed in metabolic cages for a period of 5 days during both high carbohydrate diet (HCD, and transition to a high fat diet (HFD. After a recovery period, rats were given a HFD for 6 days to identify those resistant or sensitive to it according to body weight gain. Rats were dissected at the end of the study to analyse body composition. This showed that in rats fed a HCD during most of their life, small differences in final body weight hid large variations in adiposity, allowing separation of rats into a second classification of carbohydrate-sensitive or -resistant. Meal size and meal number were found to be good predictors of sensitivity to a HFD, intensity of motor activity and ingestion speed good predictors of sensitivity to a HCD. Rats that were sensitive to the HCD could be resistant to the HFD and vice versa. This contributes to the idea that to be “obesity prone” does not necessarily need a HFD, it can also happen under a HCD, and be a hidden adiposity change with stable body weight.

  17. Prevalence of Endogenous CD34+ Adipose Stem Cells Predicts Human Fat Graft Retention in a Xenograft Model

    Philips, Brian J.; Grahovac, Tara L.; Valentin, Jolene E.; Chung, Christopher W.; Bliley, Jacqueline M.; Pfeifer, Melanie E.; Roy, Sohini B.; Dreifuss, Stephanie; Kelmendi-Doko, Arta; Kling, Russell E.; Ravuri, Sudheer K.; Marra, Kacey G.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Rubin, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting is a promising technique for soft-tissue augmentation, although graft retention is highly unpredictable and factors that affect graft survival have not been well defined. Because of their capacity for differentiation and growth factor release, adipose-derived stem cells may have a key role in graft healing. The authors’ objective was to determine whether biological properties of adipose-derived stem cells present within human fat would correlate with in vivo outcomes of graft volume retention. Methods Lipoaspirate from eight human subjects was processed using a standardized centrifugation technique and then injected subcutaneously into the flanks of 6-week-old athymic nude mice. Graft masses and volumes were measured, and histologic evaluation, including CD31+ staining for vessels, was performed 8 weeks after transplantation. Stromal vascular fraction isolated at the time of harvest from each subject was analyzed for surface markers by multi-parameter flow cytometry, and also assessed for proliferation, differentiation capacity, and normoxic/hypoxic vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Results Wide variation in percentage of CD34+ progenitors within the stromal vascular fraction was noted among subjects and averaged 21.3 ± 15 percent (mean ± SD). Proliferation rates and adipogenic potential among stromal vascular fraction cells demonstrated moderate interpatient variability. In mouse xenograft studies, retention volumes ranged from approximately 36 to 68 percent after 8 weeks, with an overall average of 52 ± 11 percent. A strong correlation (r = 0.78, slope = 0.76, p < 0.05) existed between stromal vascular fraction percentage of CD34+ progenitors and high graft retention. Conclusion Inherent biological differences in adipose tissue exist between patients. In particular, concentration of CD34+ progenitor cells within the stromal vascular fraction may be one of the factors used to predict human fat graft retention. (Plast

  18. Predicting School Achievement from Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables in a Chinese Sample of Elementary School Children

    Lu, Liping; Weber, Heike S.; Spinath, Frank M.; Shi, Jiannong

    2011-01-01

    The present study had two aims: First, to investigate the joint and specific roles of working memory (WM) and intelligence as predictors of school achievement. And second, to replicate and extend earlier findings (Spinath, Spinath, Harlaar, & Plomin, 2006) on the incremental validity of non-cognitive over cognitive abilities in the prediction of…

  19. Echocardiographic Assessment of Epicardial Adipose Tissue - A Marker of Visceral Adiposity

    Singh, Navneet; Singh, Harleen; Khanijoun, Harleen K; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue predicts an unfavorable cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in humans. Existing methods to assess visceral adipose tissue have been limited. Thus, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue as a marker of visceral adiposity was suggested. The technique has been shown to be a very reliable method and an excellent measure of visceral adiposity. In this article, epicardial adipose tissue’s localization on the heart, function, method of assessment and ...

  20. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.; Pelloux, V.; Marquez-Quinones, A.; Holst, C.; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Babalis, D.; Baak, M. A. van; Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Walker, C. G.; Astrup, A.; Saris, W. H. M.; Langin, D.; Viguerie, N.; Zucker, J. D.; Clement, K.; DiOGenes Project

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight loss has been shown to reduce risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes; however, successful maintenance of weight loss continues to pose a challenge. Objective: The present study was designed to assess whether changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (sc......AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...... studied in all individuals before and after the LCD. Energy intake was estimated by using 3-d dietary records. Results: No differences in body weight and fasting insulin were observed between WMs and WRs at baseline or after the LCD period. The LCD resulted in significant decreases in body weight and in...

  1. A Prediction Model for Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Random Forests

    Haewon Byeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a geriatric disease which has emerged as a serious social and economic problem in an aging society and early diagnosis is very important for it. Especially, early diagnosis and early intervention of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI which is the preliminary stage of dementia can reduce the onset rate of dementia. This study developed MCI prediction model for the Korean elderly in local communities and provides a basic material for the prevention of cognitive impairment. The subjects of this study were 3,240 elderly (1,502 males, 1,738 females in local communities over the age of 65 who participated in the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Aging (close conducted in 2012. The outcome was defined as having MCI and set as explanatory variables were gender, age, level of education, level of income, marital status, smoking, drinking habits, regular exercise more than once a week, monthly average hours of participation in social activities, subjective health, diabetes and high blood pressure. The random Forests algorithm was used to develop a prediction model and the result was compared with logistic regression model and decision tree model. As the result of this study, significant predictors of MCI were age, gender, level of education, level of income, subjective health, marital status, smoking, drinking, regular exercise and high blood pressure. In addition, Random Forests Model was more accurate than the logistic regression model and decision tree model. Based on these results, it is necessary to build monitoring system which can diagnose MCI at an early stage.

  2. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  3. Predicting Response to Depression Treatment: The Role of Negative Cognition

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Wells, Tony T.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated experiences with major depressive disorder (MDD) may strengthen associations between negative thinking and dysphoria, rendering negative cognition more accessible and pronounced with each episode. According to cognitive theory, greater negative cognition should lead to a more protracted episode of depression. In this study of 121 adults…

  4. Differences between adiposity indicators for predicting all-cause mortality in a representative sample of United States non-elderly adults.

    Henry S Kahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiposity predicts health outcomes, but this relationship could depend on population characteristics and adiposity indicator employed. In a representative sample of 11,437 US adults (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, ages 18-64 we estimated associations with all-cause mortality for body mass index (BMI and four abdominal adiposity indicators (waist circumference [WC], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and waist-to-thigh ratio [WTR]. In a fasting subsample we considered the lipid accumulation product (LAP; [WC enlargement*triglycerides]. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each adiposity indicator we estimated linear and categorical mortality risks using sex-specific, proportional-hazards models adjusted for age, black ancestry, tobacco exposure, and socioeconomic position. There were 1,081 deaths through 2006. Using linear models we found little difference among indicators (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs] per SD increase 1.2-1.4 for men, 1.3-1.5 for women. Using categorical models, men in adiposity midrange (quartiles 2+3; compared to quartile 1 were not at significantly increased risk (aHRs1.1, especially black men assessed by WTR (aHR 1.9 [1.4-2.6] and black women by LAP (aHR 2.2 [1.4-3.5]. Quartile 4 of WC or WHtR carried no significant risk for diabetic persons (aHRs 0.7-1.1, but elevated risks for those without diabetes (aHRs>1.5. For both sexes, quartile 4 of LAP carried increased risks for tobacco-exposed persons (aHRs>1.6 but not for non-exposed (aHRs<1.0. CONCLUSIONS: Predictions of mortality risk associated with top-quartile adiposity vary with the indicator used, sex, ancestry, and other characteristics. Interpretations of adiposity should consider how variation in the physiology and expandability of regional adipose-tissue depots impacts health.

  5. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed. PMID:27427284

  6. Cognitive Reactivity Versus Dysfunctional Cognitions and the Prediction of Relapse in Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder

    Figueroa, Caroline A.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Koeter, Maarten W.; Spinhoven, Philip; Van der Does, Willem; Bockting, Claudi L.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a burdensome disease that has a high risk of relapse/recurrence. Cognitive reactivity appears to be a risk factor for relapse. It remains unclear, however, whether dysfunctional cognitions alone or the reactivity of such cognitions to mild states of sadn

  7. Mismatch negativity encoding of prediction errors predicts S-ketamine-induced cognitive impairments.

    Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Kometer, Michael; Csomor, Philipp A; Stephan, Klaas E; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-03-01

    Psychotomimetics like the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) agonist psilocybin induce psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers that resemble those of schizophrenia. Recent theories of psychosis posit that aberrant encoding of prediction errors (PE) may underlie the expression of psychotic symptoms. This study used a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to investigate whether the encoding of PE is affected by pharmacological manipulation of NMDAR or 5-HT(2A)R, and whether the encoding of PE under placebo can be used to predict drug-induced symptoms. Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled design, S-ketamine and psilocybin, respectively, were administrated to two groups of healthy subjects. Psychological alterations were assessed using a revised version of the Altered States of Consciousness (ASC-R) questionnaire. As an index of PE, we computed changes in MMN amplitudes as a function of the number of preceding standards (MMN memory trace effect) during a roving paradigm. S-ketamine, but not psilocybin, disrupted PE processing as expressed by a frontally disrupted MMN memory trace effect. Although both drugs produced positive-like symptoms, the extent of PE processing under placebo only correlated significantly with the severity of cognitive impairments induced by S-ketamine. Our results suggest that the NMDAR, but not the 5-HT(2A)R system, is implicated in PE processing during the MMN paradigm, and that aberrant PE signaling may contribute to the formation of cognitive impairments. The assessment of the MMN memory trace in schizophrenia may allow detecting early phases of the illness and might also serve to assess the efficacy of novel pharmacological treatments, in particular of cognitive impairments. PMID:22030715

  8. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey;

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined.......Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  9. Large Size Cells in the Visceral Adipose Depot Predict Insulin Resistance in the Canine Model

    Kabir, Morvarid; Stefanovski, Darko; Hsu, Isabel R.; Iyer, Malini; Woolcott, Orison O.; Zheng, Dan; Catalano, Karyn J.; Chiu, Jenny D.; Kim, Stella P.; Lisa N Harrison; Ionut, Viorica; Lottati, Maya; Richard N Bergman; Richey, Joyce M.

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte size plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance. We examined longitudinal changes in adipocyte size and distribution in visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat during obesity-induced insulin resistance and after treatment with CB-1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant (RIM) in canines. We also examined whether adipocyte size and/or distribution is predictive of insulin resistance. Adipocyte morphology was assessed by direct microscopy and analysis of digital images in pre...

  10. The Prospective Role of Cognitive Appraisals and Social Support in Predicting Children’s Posttraumatic Stress

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Ellis, Alicia A.; Williamson, Paul; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2015-01-01

    Although both social support and cognitive appraisals are strong predictors of children’s posttraumatic adjustment, understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited. We assessed whether cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between social support and symptom development, as predicted by cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ninety seven children (Mean age = 12.08 years) were assessed at one month and six months following a single incident trauma. We...

  11. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI.

    Calitri, Raff; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Tapper, Katy; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot probe. However, for the emotional Stroop, cognitive bias to unhealthy foods predicted an increase in BMI whereas cognitive bias to healthy foods was associated with a decrease in BMI. Results parallel findings in substance abuse research; cognitive biases appear to predict behavior change. Accordingly, future research should consider strategies for attentional retraining, encouraging individuals to reorient attention away from unhealthy eating cues. PMID:20379149

  12. Predicting cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: an integrated analysis

    Lopez, Oscar L; Schwam, Elias; Cummings, Jeffrey; Gauthier, Serge; Jones, Roy; Wilkinson, David; Waldemar, Gunhild; Zhang, Richard; Schindler, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous patient- and disease-related factors increase the risk of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of pharmacological treatment to attenuate this risk remains undefined....

  13. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    Garland, Eric L.; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emot...

  14. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D predicts cognitive performance in adults

    Darwish H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hala Darwish,1 Pia Zeinoun,2 Husam Ghusn,3,4 Brigitte Khoury,2 Hani Tamim,5 Samia J Khoury6 1Hariri School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Geriatrics Department, Ain Wazein Hospital, El Chouf, Lebanon; 5Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 6Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon Background: Vitamin D is an endogenous hormone known to regulate calcium levels in the body and plays a role in cognitive performance. Studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment in older adults. Lebanon has a high 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD deficiency prevalence across all age groups. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we explored the cognitive performance and serum 25(OHD levels using an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay in 254 older (>60 years as well as younger (30–60 years adults. Subjects’ characteristics, including age, years of education, wearing of veil, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical exercise, were collected. Participants were screened for depression prior to cognitive screening using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Arabic version. Visuospatial memory was tested using the Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial, and speed of processing was assessed using the Symbol Digit Modalities test. Results: Pearson’s correlation and stepwise linear regression analyses showed that a low vitamin D level was associated with greater risk of cognitive impairment in older as well as younger adults. Conclusion: These findings suggest that correction of vitamin D needs to be explored as an intervention to prevent cognitive impairment. Prospective

  15. Posterior Beta and Anterior Gamma Oscillations Predict Cognitive Insight

    Sheth, Bhavin R.; Sandkühler, Simone; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    Pioneering neuroimaging studies on insight have revealed neural correlates of the emotional “Aha!” component of the insight process, but neural substrates of the cognitive component, such as problem restructuring (a key to transformative reasoning), remain a mystery. Here, multivariate electroencephalogram signals were recorded from human participants while they solved verbal puzzles that could create a small-scale experience of cognitive insight. Individuals responded as soon as they reached...

  16. Walking ability to predict future cognitive decline in old adults: A scoping review.

    Kikkert, Lisette H.J.; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Van Campen, Jos; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J.

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of individuals at risk for cognitive decline may facilitate the selection of those who benefit most from interventions. Current models predicting cognitive decline include neuropsychological and/or biological markers. Additional markers based on walking ability might improve acc

  17. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  18. Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance

    Gijselaers, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M. (2015, 20 October). Biological lifestyle factors in adult distance education: predicting cognitive and learning performance. Presentation given for the inter-faculty Data Science group at the Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  19. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Harvey, Philippe-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study's aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs = −0.48; p < 0.05) and visual memory (rs = −0.46; p < 0.05). The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients. PMID:27516906

  20. Does the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale Predict Response to Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia?

    Audrey Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT has emerged as a viable treatment option for people diagnosed with schizophrenia presenting disabling cognitive deficits. However, it is important to determine which variables can influence response to CRT in order to provide cost-effective treatment. This study’s aim was to explore cognitive insight as a potential predictor of cognitive improvement after CRT. Twenty patients with schizophrenia completed a 24-session CRT program involving 18 hours of computer exercises and 6 hours of group discussion to encourage generalization of cognitive training to everyday activities. Pre- and posttest assessments included the CogState Research Battery and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS. Lower self-certainty on the BCIS at baseline was associated with greater improvement in speed of processing (rs=-0.48; p<0.05 and visual memory (rs=-0.46; p<0.05. The results of this study point out potential associations between self-certainty and cognitive improvement after CRT, a variable that can easily be measured in clinical settings to help evaluate which patients may benefit most from the intervention. They also underline the need to keep investigating the predictors of good CRT outcomes, which can vary widely between patients.

  1. Predictably irrational: assaying cognitive inflexibility in mouse models of schizophrenia

    Jonathan L Brigman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of sophisticated, translatable mouse-based assays modeling the behavioral manifestations of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia has lagged the advances in molecular and genomic techniques. Our laboratory has made efforts to fill this gap by investing in the development of novel assays, including adapting a touchscreen-based method for measuring cognitive and executive functions for use in mice. As part of these efforts, a recent study by Brigman et al. (2009 investigated the effects of subchronic phencyclidine (PCP treatment on mouse touchscreen-based pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning. Here, we summarize the results of that study and place them in the larger context of ongoing efforts to develop valid mouse ‘models’ of schizophrenia, with a focus on reversal learning and other measures of cognitive flexibility. Touchscreen-based systems could provide a tractable platform for fully utilizing the mouse to elucidate the pathophysiology of cognitive inflexibility in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Cognitive impairment as assessed by a short form of MMSE was predictive of mortality

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Kreiner, Svend; Avlund, Kirsten; Holst, Claus

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study explores the association between cognitive impairment and mortality in late senescence. A specific purpose was to validate the ability of a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in predicting mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The cognition-mortality link......, as assessed by the original MMSE and D-MMSE (a subscale associated to dementia) was estimated on a community sample of 1,111 older people using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Impaired cognitive function as assessed by both the original MMSE and D-MMSE predicted mortality in older men and...

  3. Depressive symptoms predict slow cognitive decline in mild dementia

    Janzing, J.; Naarding, P.; Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis but have mainly considered syndromal depression. In this prospective study thirty-two subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12 m

  4. Cognitive vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of depression

    Struijs, Sascha Y.; Groenewold, Nynke A.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined the association of cognitive vulnerability to depression with changes in homogeneous measures of depressive symptoms. Methods: Baseline and 1-year follow-up data were obtained from 2981 participants of the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety. Multivariate regression a

  5. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  6. Predictably irrational: assaying cognitive inflexibility in mouse models of schizophrenia

    Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of sophisticated, translatable mouse-based assays modeling the behavioral manifestations of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia has lagged the advances in molecular and genomic techniques. Our laboratory has made efforts to fill this gap by investing in the development of novel assays, including adapting a touchscreen-based method for measuring cognitive and executive functions for use in mice. As part of these efforts, a recent study by Brigman et al. (2009) inv...

  7. Multivariate Screening Model for Later Word Reading Achievement: Predictive Utility of Prereading Skills and Cognitive Ability

    MacDonald, Heidi H.; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used multiple regression to determine the predictive value of Kindergarten phonemic awareness, rapid serial naming, letter knowledge, and cognitive ability for predicting first-grade word reading and fluency. Participants were 131 first-grade students from a mid-Atlantic school system. A combination of predictor variables was…

  8. Prediction of time trends in recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury

    Müller, Kay; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Wilsgaard, Tom;

    2009-01-01

    . There was significant improvement of performance after 6 months. APOE-epsilon4 genotype was the only independent factor significantly predicting less improvement. CONCLUSION: The presence of the APOE-epsilon4 allele predicts less recovery of cognitive function after mild head injury....... change. RESULTS: A Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than 15, traumatic brain injury demonstrated with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and serum S-100B greater than 0.14 microg/L predicted impaired cognitive performance both at baseline and after 6 months; APOE genotype did not...

  9. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  10. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  11. Application of the PredictAD Software Tool to Predict Progression in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Simonsen, Anja H; Mattila, Jussi; Hejl, Anne-Mette;

    2012-01-01

    diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Baseline data from 140 patients with mild cognitive impairment were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Study. Three clinical raters classified patients into 6 categories of confidence in the prediction of early Alzheimer's disease, in 4 phases of...

  12. Does Cognition Predict Treatment Response and Remission in Psychotherapy for Late-Life Depression?

    Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Rideaux, Tiffany; O'Hara, Ruth; Arean, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify cognitive predictors of geriatric depression treatment outcome. Method Older participants completed baseline measures of memory and executive function, health, and baseline and posttreatment Hamilton Depression Scales (HAM-D) in a 12-week trial comparing psychotherapies (problem-solving vs. supportive; n = 46). We examined cognitive predictors to identify treatment responders, i.e., HAM-D scores reduced by ≥50%, and remitters, i.e., posttreatment HAM-D score ≤ 10. Results Empirically-derived decision trees identified poorer performance on switching (i.e. Trails B), with a cut-score of ≥82” predicting psychotherapy responders. No other cognitive or health variables predicted psychotherapy outcomes in the decision trees. Conclusions Psychotherapies that support or improve the executive skill of switching may augment treatment response for older patients exhibiting executive dysfunction in depression. If replicated, Trails B has potential as a brief cognitive tool for clinical decision-making in geriatric depression. PMID:25441055

  13. SVM-Based Spectrum Mobility Prediction Scheme in Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    Yao Wang; Zhongzhao Zhang; Lin Ma; Jiamei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum mobility as an essential issue has not been fully investigated in mobile cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a novel support vector machine based spectrum mobility prediction (SVM-SMP) scheme is presented considering time-varying and space-varying characteristics simultaneously in mobile CRNs. The mobility of cognitive users (CUs) and the working activities of primary users (PUs) are analyzed in theory. And a joint feature vector extraction (JFVE) method is proposed based...

  14. Predicting Alzheimer's disease development: a comparison of cognitive criteria and associated neuroimaging biomarkers

    Callahan, Brandy L.; Ramirez, Joel; Berezuk, Courtney; Duchesne, Simon; Black, Sandra E.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The definition of “objective cognitive impairment” in current criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) varies considerably between research groups and clinics. This study aims to compare different methods of defining memory impairment to improve prediction models for the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from baseline to 24 months. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of six methods of defining episodic memory impairment (< −1, −1.5 or −2 standard deviations [SD] on ...

  15. Cognitive biases to healthy and unhealthy food words predict change in BMI

    Calitri, R.; Pothos, E. M.; Tapper, K; Brunstrom, J M; Rogers, P J

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the predictive value of cognitive biases to food cues (assessed by emotional Stroop and dot probe tasks) on weight change over a 1-year period. This was a longitudinal study with undergraduate students (N = 102) living in shared student accommodation. After controlling for the effects of variables associated with weight (e.g., physical activity, stress, restrained eating, external eating, and emotional eating), no effects of cognitive bias were found with the dot pr...

  16. Specific Measures of Executive Function Predict Cognitive Decline in Older Adults

    Clark, Lindsay R.; Schiehser, Dawn M.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Salmon, David P.; Delis, Dean C.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Decline in executive function has been noted in the prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may presage more global cognitive declines. In this prospective longitudinal study, five measures of executive function were used to predict subsequent global cognitive decline in initially nondemented older adults. Of 71 participants, 15 demonstrated significant decline over a 1-year period on the Dementia Rating Scale (Mattis, 1988) and the remaining participants remained stable. In the year ...

  17. Deep brain stimulation and cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease: The predictive value of electroencephalography.

    Markser, A; Maier, Franziska; Lewis, C J; Dembek, T A; Pedrosa, D; Eggers, C; Timmermann, L; Kalbe, E; Fink, G R; Burghaus, Lothar

    2015-10-01

    Some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) develop new-onset cognitive decline. We examined whether clinical EEG recordings can be used to predict cognitive deterioration in PD patients undergoing STN-DBS. In this retrospective study, we used the Grand Total EEG (GTE)-score (short and total) to evaluate pre- and postoperative EEGs. In PD patients undergoing STN-DBS (N = 30), cognitive functioning was measured using Mini-Mental State Test and DemTect before and after surgery. Severity of motor impairment was assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III. Patients were classified into patients with or without cognitive decline after STN-DBS surgery. Epidemiological data, pre- and postoperative EEG recordings as well as neuropsychological and neurological data, electrode positions and the third ventricle width were compared. A logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of cognitive decline. Motor deficits significantly improved from pre- to post-surgery, while the mean GTE-scores increased significantly. Six patients developed cognitive deterioration 4-12 months postoperatively. These patients had significantly higher preoperative GTE-scores than patients without cognitive deterioration, although preoperative cognitive functioning was comparable. Electrode positions, brain atrophy and neurological data did not differ between groups. Logistic regression analysis identified the GTE-score as a significant predictor of postoperative cognitive deterioration. Data suggest that the preoperative GTE-score can be used to identify PD patients that are at high risk for developing cognitive deterioration after STN-DBS surgery even though their preoperative cognitive state was normal. PMID:26159102

  18. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. PMID:26471802

  19. SVM-based spectrum mobility prediction scheme in mobile cognitive radio networks.

    Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhongzhao; Ma, Lin; Chen, Jiamei

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum mobility as an essential issue has not been fully investigated in mobile cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, a novel support vector machine based spectrum mobility prediction (SVM-SMP) scheme is presented considering time-varying and space-varying characteristics simultaneously in mobile CRNs. The mobility of cognitive users (CUs) and the working activities of primary users (PUs) are analyzed in theory. And a joint feature vector extraction (JFVE) method is proposed based on the theoretical analysis. Then spectrum mobility prediction is executed through the classification of SVM with a fast convergence speed. Numerical results validate that SVM-SMP gains better short-time prediction accuracy rate and miss prediction rate performance than the two algorithms just depending on the location and speed information. Additionally, a rational parameter design can remedy the prediction performance degradation caused by high speed SUs with strong randomness movements. PMID:25143975

  20. Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Svensson Leif

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI was recently described as a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD. Methods rCBF was investigated in 54 MCI subjects using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO. An automated analysis software (BRASS was applied to analyze the relative blood flow (cerebellar ratios of 24 cortical regions. After the baseline examination, the subjects were followed clinically for an average of two years. 17 subjects progressed to Alzheimer's disease (PMCI and 37 subjects remained stable (SMCI. The baseline SPECT ratio values were compared between PMCI and SMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied for the discrimination of the two subgroups at baseline. Results The conversion rate of MCI to AD was 13.7% per year. PMCI had a significantly decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex, as compared to SMCI. Left posterior cingulate rCBF ratios were entered into a logistic regression model for ROC curve calculation. The area under the ROC curve was 74%–76%, which indicates an acceptable discrimination between PMCI and SMCI at baseline. Conclusion A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.

  1. Visceral adiposity index (VAI is predictive of an altered adipokine profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Marco C Amato

    Full Text Available AIMS: Although there is still no clear definition of "adipose tissue dysfunction" or ATD, the identification of a clinical marker of altered fat distribution and function may provide the needed tools for early identification of a condition of cardiometabolic risk. Our aim was to evaluate the correlations among various anthropometric indices [BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Hip Circumference (HC, Waist/Hip ratio (WHR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and Visceral adiposity Index (VAI] and several adipocytokines [Visfatin, Resistin, Leptin, Soluble leptin receptors (sOB-R, Adiponectin, Ghrelin, Adipsin, PAI-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-18] in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one DM2 patients (age: 65.25 ± 6.38 years; 42 men and 49 women in stable treatment for the last six months with metformin in monotherapy (1.5-2 g/day were cross-sectionally studied. Clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Serum adipocytokine levels were assayed with Luminex based kits. RESULTS: At the Pearson's correlation, among all the indices investigated, VAI showed a significant correlation with almost all adipocytokines analyzed [Visfatin, Resistin and hsCRP (all p<0.001; Adiponectin, sOb-R, IL-6, IL-18, HGF (all p<0.010; Ghrelin and VEGF (both p<0.05]. Through a two-step cluster analysis, 55 patients were identified with the most altered adipocytokine profile (patients with ATD. At a ROC analysis, VAI showed the highest C-statistic [0.767 (95% CI 0.66-0.84] of all the indices. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the VAI, among the most common indexes of adiposity assessment, shows the best correlation with the best known adipocytokines and cardiometabolic risk serum markers. Although to date we are still far from clearly identifying an ATD, the VAI would be an easy tool for clearly mirroring a condition of cardiometabolic risk, in the absence of an

  2. Cortical and subcortical predictive dynamics and learning during perception, cognition, emotion and action

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    An intimate link exists between the predictive and learning processes in the brain. Perceptual/cognitive and spatial/motor processes use complementary predictive mechanisms to learn, recognize, attend and plan about objects in the world, determine their current value, and act upon them. Recent neural models clarify these mechanisms and how they interact in cortical and subcortical brain regions. The present paper reviews and synthesizes data and models of these processes, and outlines a unifi...

  3. Cognitive Models of Risky Choice: Parameter Stability and Predictive Accuracy of Prospect Theory

    Glockner, Andreas; Pachur, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    In the behavioral sciences, a popular approach to describe and predict behavior is cognitive modeling with adjustable parameters (i.e., which can be fitted to data). Modeling with adjustable parameters allows, among other things, measuring differences between people. At the same time, parameter estimation also bears the risk of overfitting. Are…

  4. The temporal stability and predictive validity of affect-based and cognition-based intentions

    Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Putte, B. van den; Neijens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has revealed individual differences in the extent to which people base their intentions on affect and cognition. Two studies are presented that assess whether such differences predict the strength of individuals' intention-behaviour relationships. Participants completed measures of a

  5. From the Perspective of Loneliness and Cognitive Absorption Internet Addiction as Predictor and Predicted

    Celik, Vehbi; Yesilyurt, Etem; Korkmaz, Ozgen; Usta, Ertugrul

    2014-01-01

    In this research internet addiction has been dealt with as predictor and predicted variable, this situation has been analyzed from the perspectives of loneliness and cognitive absorption and a tangible model has been put forth. Participant group has been constituted by 338 teacher candidates. Research data were collected using loneliness scale…

  6. Predictive Models of Cognitive Outcomes of Developmental Insults

    Chan, Yupo; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Chowdhury, Parimal; Leszczynska, Danuta; Patterson, Tucker A.; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Representatives of Arkansas medical, research and educational institutions have gathered over the past four years to discuss the relationship between functional developmental perturbations and their neurological consequences. We wish to track the effect on the nervous system by developmental perturbations over time and across species. Except for perturbations, the sequence of events that occur during neural development was found to be remarkably conserved across mammalian species. The tracking includes consequences on anatomical regions and behavioral changes. The ultimate goal is to develop a predictive model of long-term genotypic and phenotypic outcomes that includes developmental insults. Such a model can subsequently be fostered into an educated intervention for therapeutic purposes. Several datasets were identified to test plausible hypotheses, ranging from evoked potential datasets to sleep-disorder datasets. An initial model may be mathematical and conceptual. However, we expect to see rapid progress as large-scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions. These genes ultimately control behavior. By using a validated model we endeavor to make useful predictions.

  7. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    York eHagmayer; Neele eEngelmann

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic...

  8. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  9. Cognitive styles and life events interact to predict bipolar and unipolar symptomatology.

    Reilly-Harrington, N A; Alloy, L B; Fresco, D M; Whitehouse, W G

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the interaction of cognitive style (as assessed self-report and information-processing battery) and stressful life events in predicting the clinician-rated depressive and manic symptomatology of participants with Research Diagnostic Criteria lifetime diagnoses of bipolar disorder (n = 49), unipolar depression (n = 97), or no lifetime diagnosis (n = 23). Bipolar and unipolar participants' attributional styles, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative self-referent information processing as assessed at Time 1 interacted significantly with the number of negative life events that occurred between Times 1 and 2 to predict increases in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. Within the bipolar group, participants' Time 1 attributional styles and dysfunctional attitudes interacted significantly, and their self-referent information processing interacted marginally, with intervening life events to predict increases in manic symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. These findings provide support for the applicability of cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression to bipolar spectrum disorders. PMID:10609421

  10. Derivation and validation of simple anthropometric equations to predict adipose tissue mass and total fat mass with MRI as the reference method.

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Govan, Lindsay; Gallagher, Dympna; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lean, Michael E J

    2015-12-14

    The reference organ-level body composition measurement method is MRI. Practical estimations of total adipose tissue mass (TATM), total adipose tissue fat mass (TATFM) and total body fat are valuable for epidemiology, but validated prediction equations based on MRI are not currently available. We aimed to derive and validate new anthropometric equations to estimate MRI-measured TATM/TATFM/total body fat and compare them with existing prediction equations using older methods. The derivation sample included 416 participants (222 women), aged between 18 and 88 years with BMI between 15·9 and 40·8 (kg/m2). The validation sample included 204 participants (110 women), aged between 18 and 86 years with BMI between 15·7 and 36·4 (kg/m2). Both samples included mixed ethnic/racial groups. All the participants underwent whole-body MRI to quantify TATM (dependent variable) and anthropometry (independent variables). Prediction equations developed using stepwise multiple regression were further investigated for agreement and bias before validation in separate data sets. Simplest equations with optimal R (2) and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement without bias in the validation analyses: men: TATM (kg)=0·198 weight (kg)+0·478 waist (cm)-0·147 height (cm)-12·8 (validation: R 2 0·79, CV=20 %, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=3·8 kg) and women: TATM (kg)=0·789 weight (kg)+0·0786 age (years)-0·342 height (cm)+24·5 (validation: R (2) 0·84, CV=13 %, SEE=3·0 kg). Published anthropometric prediction equations, based on MRI and computed tomographic scans, correlated strongly with MRI-measured TATM: (R (2) 0·70-0·82). Estimated TATFM correlated well with published prediction equations for total body fat based on underwater weighing (R (2) 0·70-0·80), with mean bias of 2·5-4·9 kg, correctable with log-transformation in most equations. In conclusion, new equations, using simple anthropometric measurements, estimated MRI-measured TATM with correlations and

  11. Relative roles of cognitive ability and practical intelligence in the prediction of success.

    Taub, G E; Hayes, B G; Cunningham, W R; Sivo, S A

    2001-06-01

    Initial investigations into the construct of practical intelligence have identified a new general factor of practical intelligence (gp), which is believed to be independent of general cognitive ability. This construct, gp, is also believed to be a better predictor of success than cognitive ability, personality, or any combination of variables independent of gp. The existence of this construct and its independence from Spearman's g is, however, under debate. The purpose of the present study is to investigate both the relationship between gp and g and the relative roles of practical intelligence and cognitive ability in the prediction of success. The participants included 197 college students. Each completed both the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery and Sternberg and Wagner's measure of practical intelligence in academic psychology. The results of structural equation modeling support Sternberg and Wagner's assertion that practical intelligence and general cognitive ability are relatively independent constructs. Results of regression analysis, however, do not support their contention that practical intelligence is related to success after controlling for general cognitive ability. Implications of these results for research and theory on practical intelligence are discussed. PMID:11508047

  12. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Moritz Lehne

    Full Text Available Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc. is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman" subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus, lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference.

  13. The application of cognitive models to the evaluation and prediction of human reliability

    The first section of the paper provides a brief overview of a number of important principles relevant to human reliability modeling that have emerged from cognitive models, and presents a synthesis of these approaches in the form of a Generic Error Modeling System (GEMS). The next section illustrates the application of GEMS to some well known nuclear power plant (NPP) incidents in which human error was a major contributor. The way in which design recommendations can emerge from analyses of this type is illustrated. The third section describes the use of cognitive models in the classification of human errors for prediction and data collection purposes. The final section addresses the predictive modeling of human error as part of human reliability assessment in Probabilistic Risk Assessment

  14. Reliability, Validity, and Predictive Utility of the 25-Item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS).

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Furukawa, Emi; Kopelovich, Sarah; Meyer, Patrick; Cosby, Brandon

    2012-10-01

    Theory, research, and clinical reports suggest that moral cognitions play a role in initiating and sustaining criminal behavior. The 25 item Criminogenic Cognitions Scale (CCS) was designed to tap 5 dimensions: Notions of entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes Toward Authority. Results from 552 jail inmates support the reliability, validity, and predictive utility of the measure. The CCS was linked to criminal justice system involvement, self-report measures of aggression, impulsivity, and lack of empathy. Additionally, the CCS was associated with violent criminal history, antisocial personality, and clinicians' ratings of risk for future violence and psychopathy (PCL:SV). Furthermore, criminogenic thinking upon incarceration predicted subsequent official reports of inmate misconduct during incarceration. CCS scores varied somewhat by gender and race. Research and applied uses of CCS are discussed. PMID:24072946

  15. Reading a suspenseful literary text activates brain areas related to social cognition and predictive inference.

    Lehne, Moritz; Engel, Philipp; Rohrmeier, Martin; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Stories can elicit powerful emotions. A key emotional response to narrative plots (e.g., novels, movies, etc.) is suspense. Suspense appears to build on basic aspects of human cognition such as processes of expectation, anticipation, and prediction. However, the neural processes underlying emotional experiences of suspense have not been previously investigated. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants read a suspenseful literary text (E.T.A. Hoffmann's "The Sandman") subdivided into short text passages. Individual ratings of experienced suspense obtained after each text passage were found to be related to activation in the medial frontal cortex, bilateral frontal regions (along the inferior frontal sulcus), lateral premotor cortex, as well as posterior temporal and temporo-parietal areas. The results indicate that the emotional experience of suspense depends on brain areas associated with social cognition and predictive inference. PMID:25946306

  16. Toward an online cognitive and emotional battery to predict treatment remission in depression

    Gordon E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Evian Gordon,1 A John Rush,2 Donna M Palmer,3,4 Taylor A Braund,3 William Rekshan1 1Brain Resource, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Duke-NUS, Singapore; 3Brain Resource, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Brain Dynamics Center, Sydney Medical School – Westmead and Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a cognitive and emotional test battery in a representative sample of depressed outpatients to inform likelihood of remission over 8 weeks of treatment with each of three common antidepressant medications. Patients and methods: Outpatients 18–65 years old with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (17 sites were randomized to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR (extended release. Participants scored ≥12 on the baseline 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report and completed 8 weeks of treatment. The baseline test battery measured cognitive and emotional status. Exploratory multivariate logistic regression models predicting remission (16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology – Self-Report score ≤5 at 8 weeks were developed independently for each medication in subgroups stratified by age, sex, or cognitive and emotional test performance. The model with the highest cross-validated accuracy determined the participant proportion in each arm for whom remission could be predicted with an accuracy ≥10% above chance. The proportion for whom a prediction could be made with very high certainty (positive predictive value and negative predictive value exceeding 80% was calculated by incrementally increasing test battery thresholds to predict remission/non-remission. Results: The test battery, individually developed for each medication, improved identification of remitting and non-remitting participants by ≥10% beyond chance for 243 of 467 participants. The overall remission rates were escitalopram: 40.8%, sertraline: 30.3%, and

  17. Does Cognitive Ability Predict Mortality in the Ninth Decade? The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    Murray, Catherine; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    To test whether cognitive ability predicts survival from age 79 to 89 years data were collected from 543 (230 male) participants who entered the study at a mean age of 79.1 years. Most had taken the Moray House Test of general intelligence (MHT) when aged 11 and 79 years from which, in addition to intelligence measures at these two time points,…

  18. Prediction as a Humanitarian and Pragmatic Contribution from Human Cognitive Neuroscience

    Gabrieli, John D. E.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has greatly enhanced the cognitive neuroscience understanding of the human brain and its variation across individuals (neurodiversity) in both health and disease. Such progress has not yet, however, propelled changes in educational or medical practices that improve people’s lives. We review neuroimaging findings in which initial brain measures (neuromarkers) are correlated with or predict future (1) education, learning, and performance in children and adults; (2) criminality; (3)...

  19. EVENT PREDICTION AND AFFECTIVE FORECASTING IN DEPRESSIVE COGNITION: USING EMOTION AS INFORMATION ABOUT THE FUTURE

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a bleak view of the future, but the mechanisms through which depressed mood is integrated into basic processes of future-oriented cognition are unclear. We hypothesized that dysphoric individuals’ predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how the future will feel (affective forecasting) are attributable to individual differences in incorporating present emotion as judgment-relevant information. Dysphoric individuals (n = 77) made ...

  20. Location Prediction-Based Data Dissemination Using Swarm Intelligence in Opportunistic Cognitive Networks

    Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm intelligence is widely used in the application of communication networks. In this paper we adopt a biologically inspired strategy to investigate the data dissemination problem in the opportunistic cognitive networks (OCNs. We model the system as a centralized and distributed hybrid system including a location prediction server and a pervasive environment deploying the large-scale human-centric devices. To exploit such environment, data gathering and dissemination are fundamentally based on the contact opportunities. To tackle the lack of contemporaneous end-to-end connectivity in opportunistic networks, we apply ant colony optimization as a cognitive heuristic technology to formulate a self-adaptive dissemination-based routing scheme in opportunistic cognitive networks. This routing strategy has attempted to find the most appropriate nodes conveying messages to the destination node based on the location prediction information and intimacy between nodes, which uses the online unsupervised learning on geographical locations and the biologically inspired algorithm on the relationship of nodes to estimate the delivery probability. Extensive simulation is carried out on the real-world traces to evaluate the accuracy of the location prediction and the proposed scheme in terms of transmission cost, delivery ratio, average hops, and delivery latency, which achieves better routing performances compared to the typical routing schemes in OCNs.

  1. Rehabilitation after stroke: predictive power of Barthel Index versus a cognitive and a motor index

    Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...... power than Barthel Index alone. A combination of EG motor index and CT50 had at least the same predictive power as the combination of Barthel Index and CT50. The usefulness of a simple diagram for individual prognostication was demonstrated....

  2. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the M...

  3. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  4. Conflict adaptation is predicted by the cognitive, but not the affective alexithymia dimension

    Michiel ede Galan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced response conflict (e.g., in Simon or Stroop tasks is often reduced after conflict trials—the Gratton effect. It is generally assumed that this effect is due to a strengthening of the representation of the current intention or goal, which in turn increases the degree of stimulus and/or response control. Recent evidence suggests that the motivational signal driving the Gratton effect might be affective in nature. If so, individual differences in either the strength of affective signals and/or the ability to interpret such signals might explain individual differences in cognitive-control adjustments as reflected in the Gratton effect. We tested this hypothesis by relating individual sizes of the Gratton effect in a Simon task to scores on the affective and the cognitive dimension of the Bermond/Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ—which we assumed to assess individual differences in affective-signal strength and ability to interpret affective signals, respectively. Results show that the cognitive, but not the affective dimension predicted control adjustment, while the accuracy of heartbeat detection was only (and only weakly related to online control. This suggests that the motivation to fine-tune one’s cognitive-control operations is mediated by, and may depend on one’s ability to interpret one’s own affective signals.

  5. Cognitive declines precede and predict functional declines in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Laura B Zahodne

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD. DESIGN AND SETTING: A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, France (the Predictors Study. PARTICIPANTS: 3,443 initially non-demented older adults (612 with eventual incident dementia and 517 patients with AD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Exam and composite scores of memory and language derived from a standardized neuropsychological battery. Function was measured with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, completed by the participant (in the sample of non-demented older adults or an informant (in the sample of prevalent AD patients. Data were analyzed with autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis. RESULTS: Cognitive scores more consistently predicted subsequent functional abilities than vice versa in non-demented older adults, participants with eventual incident dementia, and patients with prevalent AD. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive declines appear to precede and cause functional declines prior to and following dementia diagnosis. Standardized neuropsychological tests are valid predictors of later functional changes in both non-demented and demented older adults.

  6. Does cognitive functioning predict chronic pain? Results from a prospective surgical cohort.

    Attal, Nadine; Masselin-Dubois, Anne; Martinez, Valéria; Jayr, Christian; Albi, Aline; Fermanian, Jacques; Bouhassira, Didier; Baudic, Sophie

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that chronic pain impairs cognition, particularly memory, attention and mental flexibility. Overlaps have been found between the brain regions involved in pain modulation and cognition, including in particular the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, which are involved in executive function, attention and memory. However, whether cognitive function may predict chronic pain has not been investigated. We addressed this question in surgical patients, because such patients can be followed prospectively and may have no pain before surgery. In this prospective longitudinal study, we investigated the links between executive function, visual memory and attention, as assessed by clinical measurements and the development of chronic pain, its severity and neuropathic symptoms (based on the 'Douleur Neuropathique 4' questionnaire), 6 and 12 months after surgery (total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis or breast surgery for cancer). Neuropsychological tests included the Trail-Making Test A and B, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure copy and immediate recall, which assess cognitive flexibility, visuospatial processing and visual memory. Anxiety, depression and coping strategies were also evaluated. In total, we investigated 189 patients before surgery: 96% were re-evaluated at 6 months, and 88% at 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression (stepwise selection) for the total group of patients indicated that the presence of clinical meaningful pain at 6 and 12 months (pain intensity ≥ 3/10) was predicted by poorer cognitive performance in the Trail Making Test B (P = 0.0009 and 0.02 for pain at 6 and 12 months, respectively), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure copy (P = 0.015 and 0.006 for pain at 6 and 12 months, respectively) and recall (P = 0.016 for pain at 12 months), independently of affective variables. Linear regression analyses indicated that impaired scores on these tests predicted pain intensity (P < 0.01) and neuropathic

  7. Frontal responses during learning predict vulnerability to the psychotogenic effects of ketamine - Linking cognition, brain activity, and psychosis

    Corlett, Philip R.; Honey, Garry D.; Aitken, Michael R. F.; Dickinson, Anthony; Shanks, David R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Lee, Michael; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Murray, Graham K.; McKenna, Peter J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Establishing a neurobiological account of delusion formation that links cognitive processes, brain activity, and symptoms is important to furthering our understanding of psychosis. Objective: To explore a theoretical model of delusion formation that implicates prediction error - dependent a

  8. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP.

    Heiner Rindermann

    Full Text Available The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000. The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups' (White average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic, and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic or 102 (pessimistic. The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ. Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ. Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Deficiency Independently Predicts Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Sen Hee Tay

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in 20-80% of SLE patients. Converging evidence has indicated the importance of vitamin D as a neuroimmunomodulator for cognitive function. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and cognitive dysfunction.Consecutive age- and gender-matched SLE patients and healthy controls (HCs were administered Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics in this cross-sectional study. The primary outcome was the total throughput score (TTS. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD3 and total 25(OHD] were measured using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.In total, 61 SLE patients and 61 HCs were studied. SLE patients scored significantly lower than HCs in the TTS (p = 0.004. There were no statistically significant differences in 25(OHD3 levels, total 25(OHD levels and total 25(OHD deficiency between SLE patients and HCs. However, more SLE patients had 25(OHD3 deficiency compared to HCs [12 (19.7% versus 2 (3.3%, p = 0.003]. Deficiency of 25(OHD3 (β = -63.667, SE = 27.456, p = 0.025, but not other vitamin D variables, independently predicted worse TTS after adjusting for age, education, gender, ethnicity, HADS-Total, duration of SLE, SELENA-SLEDAI, SLICC/ACR Damage Index and cumulative steroid dose in SLE patients. Age (β = -4.261, SE = 0.866, p < 0.001 was the only predictor of TTS after adjusting for education, gender, ethnicity, HADS-Total, vitamin D levels or status in HCs.Deficiency of 25(OHD3, a potentially modifiable risk factor, independently predicted cognitive impairment in SLE patients.

  11. Mood Reactivity Rather than Cognitive Reactivity Is Predictive of Depressive Relapse: A Randomized Study with 5.5-Year Follow-Up

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Hollon, Steven D.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity following preventive cognitive therapy (PCT)…

  12. Physical Activity, Sleep and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Hieronymus eGijselaers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological lifestyle factors such as physical activity, sleep and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between biological lifestyle factors and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these biological lifestyle factors to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df=0.8, CFI=1.00, RMSEA<.001, SRMR=.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df=2.75, CFI=0.95, RMSEA<.056, SRMR=.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle aged adults.

  13. Predicting volumes of metabolically important whole-body adipose tissue compartments in overweight and obese adolescents by different MRI approaches and anthropometry

    Objectives: To evaluate 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI approaches and anthropometric measures as predictors for metabolically relevant whole-body adipose tissue (AT) compartments in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods: Forty adolescents (22 males, age 11.4–16.1 years) were included with a BMI above the 90th percentile. Volumes of whole-body AT compartments, i.e. total AT (TAT), subcutaneous AT (SCAT) and visceral AT (VAT), were determined using a breath-hold T1-weighted-FSE-MR-sequence and semi-automated segmentation serving as the gold standard. SCAT, VAT and TAT was estimated by either axially oriented single-slices or 5-slice-stacks centred at specific anatomic landmarks (umbilicus, head of femur and humerus). Furthermore, anthropometric measures were also evaluated as predictors of whole-body AT compartments. Results: Strong correlations were found for both genders between TAT/SCAT and single-slice evaluation (e.g. whole-body SCAT-SCAT at umbilicus level: r = 0.91 (m), r = 0.92 (f)) or anthropometry (SCAT-BMI: r = 0.93 (m, f)). VAT was correlated to VAT at umbilicus (r = 0.71 (m), r = 0.94 (f)) but only weakly to anthropometry. Conclusions: Anthropometric measures and single-slice MRI can accurately predict TAT/SCAT which cannot be improved by evaluation of 5-slice stacks. Prediction of VAT by 5-slice stack/single-slice MRI protocols seems only to be accurate in females. Anthropometry cannot be reliably used for prediction of VAT in both genders. Thus, MRI seems to be necessary for quantification of VAT in overweight/obese adolescents of both genders.

  14. Predicting Mathematical Performance: The Effect of Cognitive Processes and Self-Regulation Factors

    Mariel Musso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A substantial number of research studies have investigated the separate influence of working memory, attention, motivation, and learning strategies on mathematical performance and self-regulation in general. There is still little understanding of their impact on performance when taken together, understanding their interactions, and how much each of them contributes to the prediction of mathematical performance. With the emergence of new methodologies and technologies, such as the modelling with predictive systems, it is now possible to study these effects with approaches which use a wide range of data, including student characteristics, to estimate future performance without the need of traditional testing (Boekaerts and Cascallar, 2006. This research examines the different cognitive patterns and complex relations between cognitive variables, motivation, and background variables associated with different levels of mathematical performance using artificial neural networks (ANNs. A sample of 800 entering university students was used to develop three ANN models to identify the expected future level of performance in a mathematics test. These ANN models achieved high degree of precision in the correct classification of future levels of performance, showing differences in the pattern of relative predictive weight amongst those variables. The impact on educational quality, improvement, and accountability is highlighted.

  15. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.;

    2011-01-01

    AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...... fatty acid metabolism, citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and apoptosis were regulated differently by the LCD in WM and WR subjects. Conclusion: This study suggests that LCD-induced changes in insulin secretion and scAT gene expression may have the potential to predict successful short...

  16. Fear recognition ability predicts differences in social cognitive and neural functioning in men

    Corden, B.; & Critchley, H.D.; Skuse, D; Dolan, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    By testing the facial fear-recognition ability of 341 men in the general population, we show that 8.8% have deficits akin to those seen with acquired amygdala damage. Using psychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we tested the hypothesis that poor fear recognition would predict deficits in other domains of social cognition and, in response to socially relevant stimuli, abnormal activation in brain regions that putatively reflect engagement of the “social brain.” O...

  17. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness. PMID:25642722

  18. Predicting Students' Skills in the Context of Scientific Inquiry with Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociodemographic Variables

    Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger

    2015-06-01

    Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.

  19. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  20. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  1. Background rhythm frequency and theta power of quantitative EEG analysis: predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment post-cerebral infarcts.

    Song, Yang; Zang, Da-Wei; Jin, Yan-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Hong-Yan; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Ji, Dong-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In clinical settings, cerebral infarct is a common disease of older adults, which usually increases the risk of cognitive impairment. This study aims to assess the quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a predictive biomarker for the development of cognitive impairment, post-cerebral infarcts, in subjects from the Department of Neurology. They underwent biennial EEG recording. Cerebral infarct subjects, with follow-up cognitive evaluation, were analyzed for qEEG measures of background rhythm frequency (BRF) and relative δ, θ, α, and β band power. The relationship between cognitive impairment and qEEG, and other possible predictors, was assessed by Cox regression. The results showed that the risk hazard of developing cognitive impairment was 14 times higher for those with low BRF than for those with high BRF (P BRF, and relative power in θ band, are potential predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. These biomarkers might be valuable in early prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. PMID:24699438

  2. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Schlindwein, Sarah; Bruggen, Thomas van; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Essig, Marco [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  3. Automated MR morphometry to predict Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is challenging but essential for early treatment. This study aims to investigate the use of hippocampal atrophy markers for the automatic detection of MCI converters and to compare the predictive value to manually obtained hippocampal volume and temporal horn width. A study was performed with 15 patients with Alzheimer and 18 patients with MCI (ten converted, eight remained stable in a 3-year follow-up) as well as 15 healthy subjects. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and evaluated with an automated system for scoring of hippocampal atrophy. The predictive value of the automated system was compared with manual measurements of hippocampal volume and temporal horn width in the same subjects. The conversion to AD was correctly predicted in 77.8% of the cases (sensitivity 70%, specificity 87.5%) in the MCI group using automated morphometry and a plain linear classifier that was trained on the AD and healthy groups. Classification was improved by limiting analysis to the left cerebral hemisphere (accuracy 83.3%, sensitivity 70%, specificity 100%). The manual linear and volumetric approaches reached rates of 66.7% (40/100%) and 72.2% (60/87.5%), respectively. The automatic approach fulfills many important preconditions for clinical application. Contrary to the manual approaches, it is not observer-dependent and reduces human resource requirements. Automated assessment may be useful for individual patient assessment and for predicting progression to dementia. (orig.)

  4. Predictive validity of five cognitive skills tests among women receiving engineering training

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin; Hennix Sasse, Sharon; Giacomi, Jean

    This article addresses two sets of theoretical and practical issues related to increasing the percentage of women engineers. First, the measurement of women's aptitude for and changes in skills during engineering training was assessed. Five cognitive skills tests were administered in a one-group pretest-posttest design to 24 baccalaureate women enrolled in an eleven-month engineering training course. Significant increases in skills were shown on three of the five assessments. Scores on a mathematics anxiety scale and a measure of conservation of horizontality are also reported. Second, the relationship of academic and demographic information and cognitive skills to degree of success in the program is reported. Pretraining spatial visualization scores predicted posttraining GPA group membership. The results are compared and contrasted with those of studies of male undergraduates. Implications are drawn concerning the ways in which evaluations of such programs can contribute to our understanding of the changes in skills that occur with training in engineering and of the factors that predict success in such programs.

  5. Relative value of diverse brain MRI and blood-based biomarkers for predicting cognitive decline in the elderly

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Ver Steeg, Greg; Daianu, Madelaine; Mezher, Adam; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Hua, Xue; Gutman, Boris A.; Galstyan, Aram; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive decline accompanies many debilitating illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In old age, brain tissue loss also occurs along with cognitive decline. Although blood tests are easier to perform than brain MRI, few studies compare brain scans to standard blood tests to see which kinds of information best predict future decline. In 504 older adults from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we first used linear regression to assess the relative value of different types of data to predict cognitive decline, including 196 blood panel biomarkers, 249 MRI biomarkers obtained from the FreeSurfer software, demographics, and the AD-risk gene APOE. A subset of MRI biomarkers was the strongest predictor. There was no specific blood marker that increased predictive accuracy on its own, we found that a novel unsupervised learning method, CorEx, captured weak correlations among blood markers, and the resulting clusters offered unique predictive power.

  6. Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood.

    Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne

    2008-05-01

    The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of language, cognition, and working memory. Speed of spoken word recognition and vocabulary size at 25 months each accounted for unique variance in linguistic and cognitive skills at 8 years, effects that were attributable to strong relations between both infancy measures and working memory. These findings suggest that processing speed and early language skills are fundamental to intellectual functioning, and that language development is guided by learning and representational principles shared across cognitive and linguistic domains. PMID:18466367

  7. Usefulness of the driveABLE cognitive assessment in predicting the driving risk factor of stroke patients

    Choi, Seong Youl; Yoo, Doo Han; Lee, Jae Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the usefulness of the DriveABLE cognitive assessment tool (DCAT) in predicting the driving risk factor of stroke patients, and compared the cognitive and driving functions of two groups discriminated by DCAT. [Subjects and Methods] A total of forty-two stroke patients with a driver’s license participated in this study. Two participants with communication problems were excluded. DCAT was used to evaluate the risk potential to the driver, and the subjects were clas...

  8. Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of languag...

  9. Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?

    Lindner, Philip; Carlbring, Per; Flodman, Erik; Hebert, Amanda; Poysti, Stephanie; Hagkvist, Filip; Johansson, Robert; Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela; Berger, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment ga...

  10. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development.

    Hauser, Tobias U; Iannaccone, Reto; Walitza, Susanne; Brandeis, Daniel; Brem, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with quickly changing environmental demands which require excellent adaptive skills and high cognitive flexibility. Feedback-guided adaptive learning and cognitive flexibility are driven by reward prediction error (RPE) signals, which indicate the accuracy of expectations and can be estimated using computational models. Despite the importance of cognitive flexibility during adolescence, only little is known about how RPE processing in cognitive flexibility deviates between adolescence and adulthood. In this study, we investigated the developmental aspects of cognitive flexibility by means of computational models and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the neural and behavioral correlates of cognitive flexibility in healthy adolescents (12-16years) to adults performing a probabilistic reversal learning task. Using a modified risk-sensitive reinforcement learning model, we found that adolescents learned faster from negative RPEs than adults. The fMRI analysis revealed that within the RPE network, the adolescents had a significantly altered RPE-response in the anterior insula. This effect seemed to be mainly driven by increased responses to negative prediction errors. In summary, our findings indicate that decision making in adolescence goes beyond merely increased reward-seeking behavior and provides a developmental perspective to the behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying cognitive flexibility in the context of reinforcement learning. PMID:25234119

  11. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers in prediction of cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke: a prospective follow-up study

    Mehrabian S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shima Mehrabian,1 Margarita Raycheva,1 Neli Petrova,2 Armina Janyan,3,4 Mariya Petrova,1 Latchezar Traykov1 1Clinic of Neurology, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Sofia, 2Clinic of Neurology, MHAT “Ruse”, Ruse, 3Research Center for Cognitive Science, Department of Cognitive Science and Psychology, New Bulgarian University, Sofia, Bulgaria; 4Laboratory for Cognitive Studies in Language, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia Background: There are few longitudinal studies with controversial results examining delayed changes in cognition after ischemic stroke and predictive values of neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the delayed changes in cognition in poststroke patients and their relationship to the neuropsychological and neuroimaging markers measured during the acute poststroke phase. Methods: Eighty-five first-ever stroke inpatients (mean age 65.6±5.6 years without previous cognitive complaints were prospectively evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at the 5th day and the 1st, 6th, and 12th months. A wide range of clinical, radiological, and neuropsychological variables were examined. Results: Our results showed significantly poorer performance on mini–mental state examination, memory, attention/executive functions, and processing speed in patients with stroke in comparison with stroke-free cognitively intact controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that hippocampal atrophy is the strongest predictor of delayed cognitive impairment. Secondary divided subgroups according to Isaacs Set Test (IST score showed that patients with IST score ≤28 had different patterns of cognitive and neurological impairment after 1 year. Baseline impairments in attention/executive functions and memory were associated with development of dementia in poststroke patients. Conclusion: Executive functioning deficit appears to have a predictive power

  12. Predicting condom use in adolescents: a test of three socio-cognitive models using a structural equation modeling approach

    Espada, José P.; Morales, Alexandra; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Ballester, Rafael; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Background The theory of planned behavior (TPB), socio-cognitive model (SCM), and information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model are effective in predicting condom use. However, the adequacy of these three theoretical models in predicting the frequency of condom use (FCU) among young people has not been compared. This cross-sectional study tested the applicability and suitability of these three models in predicting the FCU, and analyzed the relationships among the postulated constructs....

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the prediction of early conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to dementia: a prospective cohort study

    Pedro J. Modrego; Fayed, Nicolas; Sarasa, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of an amnestic type is a common condition in older people and highly predictive of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, there is no clear consensus regarding the best antecedent biomarker to predict early conversion to AD. Objective The aim of the study is to demonstrate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in MCI patients may predict early conversion to dementia within the 2-year period after baseline assessment. Methods A cohort...

  14. The Power of Personality: The Comparative Validity of Personality Traits, Socioeconomic Status, and Cognitive Ability for Predicting Important Life Outcomes

    Roberts, Brent W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Shiner, Rebecca; Caspi, Avshalom; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of personality traits to predict important life outcomes has traditionally been questioned because of the putative small effects of personality. In this article, we compare the predictive validity of personality traits with that of socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive ability to test the relative contribution of personality traits to predictions of three critical outcomes: mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment. Only evidence from prospective longitudinal studies was ...

  15. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    Roehr, Susanne; Luck, Tobias; Heser, Kathrin; Fuchs, Angela; Ernst, Annette; Wiese, Birgitt; Werle, Jochen; Bickel, Horst; Brettschneider, Christian; Koppara, Alexander; Pentzek, Michael; Lange, Carolin; Prokein, Jana; Weyerer, Siegfried; Mösch, Edelgard; König, Hans-Helmut; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia in primary care patients over 75 years covering an observation period of 7.5 years. We used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to examine the relationship of SCD and mortality. Further, we estimated survival times by the Kaplan Meier method and case-fatality rates with regard to SCD. Results Among 971 individuals without objective cognitive impairment, 233 (24.0%) incidentally expressed SCD at follow-up I. Incident SCD was not significantly associated with increased mortality in the univariate (HR = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.3, p = .90) as well as in the multivariate analysis (HR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2, p = .40). The same applied for SCD in relation to concerns. Mean survival time with SCD was 8.0 years (SD = 0.1) after onset. Conclusion Incident SCD in memory in individuals with unimpaired cognitive performance does not predict mortality. The main reason might be that SCD does not ultimately lead into future cognitive decline in any case. However, as prevalence studies suggest, subjectively perceived decline in non-memory cognitive domains might be associated with increased mortality. Future studies may address mortality in such other cognitive domains of SCD in incident cases. PMID:26766555

  16. Predicting loss of employment over three years in multiple sclerosis: clinically meaningful cognitive decline.

    Morrow, Sarah A; Drake, Allison; Zivadinov, Robert; Munschauer, Frederick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the magnitude of change on objective neuropsychological (NP) tests that is clinically meaningful is unclear. We endeavored to determine NP markers of the transition from employment to work disability in MS, as indicated by degree of decline on individual tests. Participants were 97 employed MS patients followed over 41.3 ± 17.6 months with a NP battery covering six domains of cognitive function. Deterioration at follow-up was designated as documented and paid disability benefits (conservative definition) or a reduction in hours/work responsibilities (liberal definition). Using the conservative definition, 28.9% reported deteriorated employment status and for the liberal definition, 45.4%. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and California Verbal Learning Test, Total Learning (CVLT2-TL) measures distinguished employed and disabled patients at follow-up. Controlling for demographic and MS characteristics, the odds ratio of a deterioration based on a change of 2.0 on the CVLT2-TL was 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-11.4 and SDMT by 4.0 was 4.2 (95% CI 1.2-14.8), accounting for 86.7% of the area under the ROC curve. We conclude that decline on NP testing over time is predictive of deterioration in vocational status, establishing a magnitude of decline on NP tests that is clinically meaningful. PMID:20830649

  17. The validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders in predicting dietary restraint.

    Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The study examined the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. The aim was to determine if the maintaining mechanisms of clinical perfectionism, core low self esteem, mood intolerance and interpersonal difficulties have a direct impact on dietary restraint or an indirect impact via eating, shape and weight concerns. The model was tested in a community sample of 224 females recruited via the internet. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data. The relationship between maintaining mechanisms and dietary restraint was due to maintaining mechanisms impacting indirectly on dietary restraint via eating disorder psychopathology. The results lend support for the validity of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders as the maintaining mechanisms lead to restraint via the core psychopathology of eating concerns, weight concerns and shape concerns. The findings suggest the four maintaining mechanisms alone are not enough to lead to dietary restraint, the core psychopathology of eating disorders needs to be present, which supports the predictions of the theory. These results help establish the validity of the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders. PMID:22365794

  18. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. The...

  19. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features.

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  20. Prediction of Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease Using MRI and Structural Network Features

    Wei, Rizhen; Li, Chuhan; Fogelson, Noa; Li, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD. PMID:27148045

  1. Cognitive performance predicts treatment decisional abilities in mild to moderate dementia

    Gurrera, R.J.; Moye, J.; Karel, M.J.; Azar, A.R.; Armesto, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of neuropsychological test performance to treatment decision-making capacity in community volunteers with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The authors recruited volunteers (44 men, 44 women) with mild to moderate dementia from the community. Subjects completed a battery of 11 neuropsychological tests that assessed auditory and visual attention, logical memory, language, and executive function. To measure decision making capacity, the authors administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Interview, the Hopemont Capacity Assessment Interview, and the MacCarthur Competence Assessment Tool—Treatment. Each of these instruments individually scores four decisional abilities serving capacity: understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and expression of choice. The authors used principal components analysis to generate component scores for each ability across instruments, and to extract principal components for neuropsychological performance. Results Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that neuropsychological performance significantly predicted all four abilities. Specifically, it predicted 77.8% of the common variance for understanding, 39.4% for reasoning, 24.6% for appreciation, and 10.2% for expression of choice. Except for reasoning and appreciation, neuropsychological predictor (β) profiles were unique for each ability. Conclusions Neuropsychological performance substantially and differentially predicted capacity for treatment decisions in individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Relationships between elemental cognitive function and decisional capacity may differ in individuals whose decisional capacity is impaired by other disorders, such as mental illness. PMID:16682669

  2. Agent-based model of therapeutic adipose-derived stromal cell trafficking during ischemia predicts ability to roll on P-selectin.

    Alexander M Bailey

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous delivery of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs is a promising option for the treatment of ischemia. After delivery, hASCs that reside and persist in the injured extravascular space have been shown to aid recovery of tissue perfusion and function, although low rates of incorporation currently limit the safety and efficacy of these therapies. We submit that a better understanding of the trafficking of therapeutic hASCs through the microcirculation is needed to address this and that selective control over their homing (organ- and injury-specific may be possible by targeting bottlenecks in the homing process. This process, however, is incredibly complex, which merited the use of computational techniques to speed the rate of discovery. We developed a multicell agent-based model (ABM of hASC trafficking during acute skeletal muscle ischemia, based on over 150 literature-based rules instituted in Netlogo and MatLab software programs. In silico, trafficking phenomena within cell populations emerged as a result of the dynamic interactions between adhesion molecule expression, chemokine secretion, integrin affinity states, hemodynamics and microvascular network architectures. As verification, the model reasonably reproduced key aspects of ischemia and trafficking behavior including increases in wall shear stress, upregulation of key cellular adhesion molecules expressed on injured endothelium, increased secretion of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, quantified levels of monocyte extravasation in selectin knockouts, and circulating monocyte rolling distances. Successful ABM verification prompted us to conduct a series of systematic knockouts in silico aimed at identifying the most critical parameters mediating hASC trafficking. Simulations predicted the necessity of an unknown selectin-binding molecule to achieve hASC extravasation, in addition to any rolling behavior mediated by hASC surface expression of CD15s, CD34, CD62e, CD62p

  3. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Glacier Hazards Assessment: Application to Predicting the Potential for Glacier Lake Outbursts

    Furfaro, R.; Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Bishop, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are among the largest unstable parts of the solid Earth. Generally, glaciers are devoid of resources (other than water), are dangerous, are unstable and no infrastructure is normally built directly on their surfaces. Areas down valley from large alpine glaciers are also commonly unstable due to landslide potential of moraines, debris flows, snow avalanches, outburst floods from glacier lakes, and other dynamical alpine processes; yet there exists much development and human occupation of some disaster-prone areas. Satellite remote sensing can be extremely effective in providing cost-effective and time- critical information. Space-based imagery can be used to monitor glacier outlines and their lakes, including processes such as iceberg calving and debris accumulation, as well as changing thicknesses and flow speeds. Such images can also be used to make preliminary identifications of specific hazardous spots and allows preliminary assessment of possible modes of future disaster occurrence. Autonomous assessment of glacier conditions and their potential for hazards would present a major advance and permit systematized analysis of more data than humans can assess. This technical leap will require the design and implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms specifically designed to mimic glacier experts’ reasoning. Here, we introduce the theory of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) as an AI tool for predicting and assessing natural hazards in alpine glacier environments. FCM techniques are employed to represent expert knowledge of glaciers physical processes. A cognitive model embedded in a fuzzy logic framework is constructed via the synergistic interaction between glaciologists and AI experts. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed AI methodology as applied to predicting hazards in glacier environments, we designed and implemented a FCM that addresses the challenging problem of autonomously assessing the Glacier Lake Outburst Flow

  4. Mood reactivity rather than cognitive reactivity is predictive of depressive relapse : a randomized study with 5.5-year follow-up

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W J; Ruhe, Eric; Hollon, Steven D; Schene, Aart H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivi

  5. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  6. Bright minds and dark attitudes: lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice through right-wing ideology and low intergroup contact.

    Hodson, Gordon; Busseri, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Despite their important implications for interpersonal behaviors and relations, cognitive abilities have been largely ignored as explanations of prejudice. We proposed and tested mediation models in which lower cognitive ability predicts greater prejudice, an effect mediated through the endorsement of right-wing ideologies (social conservatism, right-wing authoritarianism) and low levels of contact with out-groups. In an analysis of two large-scale, nationally representative United Kingdom data sets (N = 15,874), we found that lower general intelligence (g) in childhood predicts greater racism in adulthood, and this effect was largely mediated via conservative ideology. A secondary analysis of a U.S. data set confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills on antihomosexual prejudice, a relation partially mediated by both authoritarianism and low levels of intergroup contact. All analyses controlled for education and socioeconomic status. Our results suggest that cognitive abilities play a critical, albeit underappreciated, role in prejudice. Consequently, we recommend a heightened focus on cognitive ability in research on prejudice and a better integration of cognitive ability into prejudice models. PMID:22222219

  7. Psychiatric comorbidity and aspects of cognitive coping negatively predict outcome in cognitive behavioral treatment of psychophysiological insomnia

    Laar, M. van de; Pevernagie, D.; Mierlo, P. van; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral treatment is the gold standard treatment for insomnia, although a substantial group does not respond. We examined possible predictors for treatment outcome in psychophysiological insomniacs, with a focus on the presence of clearly defined psychiatric comorbidity. This was a long

  8. Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Dementia Using Clinical, MRI, and Plasma Biomarkers via Probabilistic Pattern Classification.

    Igor O Korolev

    Full Text Available Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI have a substantially increased risk of developing dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD. In this study, we developed a multivariate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression at the individual patient level.Using baseline data from 259 MCI patients and a probabilistic, kernel-based pattern classification approach, we trained a classifier to distinguish between patients who progressed to AD-type dementia (n = 139 and those who did not (n = 120 during a three-year follow-up period. More than 750 variables across four data sources were considered as potential predictors of progression. These data sources included risk factors, cognitive and functional assessments, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, and plasma proteomic data. Predictive utility was assessed using a rigorous cross-validation framework.Cognitive and functional markers were most predictive of progression, while plasma proteomic markers had limited predictive utility. The best performing model incorporated a combination of cognitive/functional markers and morphometric MRI measures and predicted progression with 80% accuracy (83% sensitivity, 76% specificity, AUC = 0.87. Predictors of progression included scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Functional Activities Questionnaire, as well as volume/cortical thickness of three brain regions (left hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal cortex. Calibration analysis revealed that the model is capable of generating probabilistic predictions that reliably reflect the actual risk of progression. Finally, we found that the predictive accuracy of the model varied with patient demographic, genetic, and clinical characteristics and could be further improved by taking into account the confidence of the predictions.We developed an accurate prognostic model for predicting MCI-to-dementia progression

  9. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  10. Cumulative biomedical risk and social cognition in the second year of life: prediction and moderation by responsive parenting

    Mark eWade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and social cognition. A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited at the time of the child’s birth. Cumulative biomedical risk was measured as a count of 10 prenatal/birth complications. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point social-cognitive data was collected on children’s joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition using previously-validated tasks. Concurrently, responsive maternal behavior was assessed through observational coding of mother-child interactions. After controlling for covariates (e.g. age, gender, child language, socioeconomic variables, both cumulative biomedical risk and maternal responsivity significantly predicted social cognition at 18 months. Above and beyond these main effects, there was also a significant interaction between biomedical risk and maternal responsivity, such that higher biomedical risk was significantly associated with compromised social cognition at 18 months, but only in children who experienced low levels of responsive parenting. For those receiving comparatively high levels of responsive parenting, there was no apparent effect of biomedical risk on social cognition. This study shows that cumulative biomedical risk may be one source of inter-individual variability in social cognition at 18 months. However, positive postnatal experiences, particularly high levels of responsive parenting, may protect children against the deleterious effects of these risks on social

  11. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico; Study, LADIS

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  12. Predicting Long-Term Growth in Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Unique Contributions of Motivation and Cognitive Strategies

    Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how motivation (perceived control, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation), cognitive learning strategies (deep and surface strategies), and intelligence jointly predict long-term growth in students' mathematics achievement over 5 years. Using longitudinal data from six annual waves (Grades 5 through 10;…

  13. Applying Social Cognitive Career Theory to Predict Interests and Choice Goals in Statistics among Spanish Psychology Students

    Blanco, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of social cognitive career theory--SCCT (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 1994) in predicting interests and goals relating to statistics among psychology students. The participants were 1036 Spanish students who completed measurements of statistics-related mastery experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations,…

  14. Predicting Occupational Interests and Choice Aspirations in Portuguese High School Students: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Lent, Robert W.; Paixao, Maria Paula; da Silva, Jose Tomas; Leitao, Ligia Mexia

    2010-01-01

    The predictive utility of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) interest and choice models was examined in a sample of 600 Portuguese high school students. Participants completed measures of occupational self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, social supports and barriers, and choice consideration across the six Holland (1997) RIASEC…

  15. The Role of Thought Suppression, Meta-Cognitive Factors and Negative Emotions in Prediction of Substance Dependency Disorder

    Omid Saed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140. Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MCQ-30, White Bear Suppression Inventory, and Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Questionnaires. For data analysis, discriminant analysis were used. Results: Negative meta-cognitive beliefs about worry, depression, and thought suppression were the most significant predictors of substance dependence disorder. Conclusion: Through meta-cognitive beliefs, thought suppression and negative emotion (especially depression, substance dependency disorder can be predicted. Based on this model can be used to take a substance dependency disorder prevention approach and psychotherapy approach (based on cognitive and meta-cognitive therapies. In addition, the findings of this research can be applied in clinical and counseling environments to help substance dependant clients.

  16. Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients

    Jared P. Schprechman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF. Methods. Older adults (N=119 with heart failure (69.84±9.09 years completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P<.05 but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed.

  17. Does Self-perceived Mood Predict More Variance in Cognitive Performance Than Clinician-Rated Symptoms in Schizophrenia?

    Halari, Rozmin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Sharma, Tonmoy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms are known to account for a small variance in some cognitive functions in schizophrenia, but the influence of self-perceived mood remains largely unknown. The authors examined the influence of subjective mood states, psychopathology, and depressive symptoms in cognitive performance in a single investigation in schizophrenia. A group of 40 stable medicated patients with schizophrenia (20 men, 20 women) and 30 healthy comparison subjects (15 men, 15 women) were assessed on neurocognitive measures of verbal abilities, attention, executive functioning, language, memory, motor functioning, and information processing. All subjects provided self-ratings of mood prior to cognitive testing. Patients were also rated on psychopathology and depressive symptoms. Patients performed worse than comparison subjects on most cognitive domains. Within the patient group, subjective feelings of depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion, and tension-anxiety predicted (controlling for symptoms) poor performance on measures of attention, executive function, and verbal memory. In the same group of patients, clinician-rated symptoms of psychopathology and depression predicted significantly poor performance only on tests of motor function. In comparison subjects, vigor related to better, and fatigue and inertia to worse, spatial motor performance. Self-perceived negative mood state may be a better predictor of cognitive deficits than clinician-rated symptoms in chronic schizophrenia patients. PMID:16760421

  18. Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients

    Schprechman, Jared P.; Gathright, Emily C.; Goldstein, Carly M.; Guerini, Kate A.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P cognitive function predicted e-mail (P cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

  19. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  20. The modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status is more predictive of memory abilities than the Mini Mental State Examination

    Duff, Kevin; Tometich, Danielle; Dennett, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Although not as popular as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) has some distinct advantages when screening cognitive functioning in older adults. The current study compared these two cognitive screening measures in their ability to predict performance on a memory composite (i.e., delayed recall of verbal and visual information) in a cohort of 121 community-dwelling older adults, both at baseline and after one year. Both the MMSE and mTICS significantly correlated with the memory composite at baseline (r’s of 0.41 and 0.62, respectively) and one year (r’s of 0.36 and 0.50, respectively). At baseline, stepwise linear regression indicated that the mTICS and gender best predicted the memory composite score (R2=0.45, p<.001), and the MMSE and other demographic variables did not significantly improve the prediction. At one year, the results were very similar. Despite its lesser popularity, the mTICS may be a more attractive option when screening for cognitive abilities in this age range. PMID:25722349

  1. Comparison of body mass index (BMI) with the CUN-BAE body adiposity estimator in the prediction of hypertension and type 2 diabetes

    Martín, Vicente; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Castilla, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Soldevila, Nuria; Antonio J. Molina; Fernandez-Villa, Tania; ASTRAY, Jenaro; Castro, Ady; González-Candelas, Fernando; Mayoral, José María; Quintana, José María; Domínguez, Angela; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a world-wide epidemic whose prevalence is underestimated by BMI measurements, but CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra - Body Adiposity Estimator) estimates the percentage of body fat (BF) while incorporating information on sex and age, thus giving a better match. Our aim is to compare the BMI and CUN-BAE in determining the population attributable fraction (AFp) for obesity as a cause of chronic diseases. Methods We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient betwe...

  2. Brain metabolic maps in Mild Cognitive Impairment predict heterogeneity of progression to dementia

    Chiara Cerami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [18F]FDG-PET imaging has been recognized as a crucial diagnostic marker in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, supporting the presence or the exclusion of Alzheimer's Disease (AD pathology. A clinical heterogeneity, however, underlies MCI definition. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the predictive role of single-subject voxel-based maps of [18F]FDG distribution generated through statistical parametric mapping (SPM in the progression to different dementia subtypes in a sample of 45 MCI. Their scans were compared to a large normal reference dataset developed and validated for comparison at single-subject level. Additionally, Aβ42 and Tau CSF values were available in 34 MCI subjects. Clinical follow-up (mean 28.5 ± 7.8 months assessed subsequent progression to AD or non-AD dementias. The SPM analysis showed: 1 normal brain metabolism in 14 MCI cases, none of them progressing to dementia; 2 the typical temporo-parietal pattern suggestive for prodromal AD in 15 cases, 11 of them progressing to AD; 3 brain hypometabolism suggestive of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD subtypes in 7 and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB in 2 subjects (all fulfilled FTLD or DLB clinical criteria at follow-up; and 4 7 MCI cases showed a selective unilateral or bilateral temporo-medial hypometabolism without the typical AD pattern, and they all remained stable. In our sample, objective voxel-based analysis of [18F]FDG-PET scans showed high predictive prognostic value, by identifying either normal brain metabolism or hypometabolic patterns suggestive of different underlying pathologies, as confirmed by progression at follow-up. These data support the potential usefulness of this SPM [18F]FDG PET analysis in the early dementia diagnosis and for improving subject selection in clinical trials based on MCI definition.

  3. Negative Social Relationships Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among War-Affected Children Via Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R

    2016-07-01

    Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships. PMID:26362037

  4. Modeling radiation dosimetry to predict cognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors including medulloblastoma

    Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts

  5. PREDICTION BASED CHANNEL-HOPPING ALGORITHM FOR RENDEZVOUS IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

    Dhananjay Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most common works for rendezvous in cognitive radio networks deal only with two user scenarios involving two secondary users and variable primary users and aim at reducing the time-to-rendezvous. A common control channel for the establishment of communication is not considered and hence the work comes under the category of ‘Blind Rendezvous’. Our work deal with multi-user scenario and provides a methodology for the users to find each other in the very first time slot spent for rendezvous or otherwise called the firstattempt- rendezvous. The secondary users make use of the history of past communications to enable them to predict the frequency channel that the user expects the rendezvous user to be. Our approach prevents greedy decision making between the users involved by the use of a cut-off time period for attempting rendezvous. Simulation results show that the time-to-rendezvous (TTR is greatly reduced upon comparison with other popular rendezvous algorithms.

  6. Identification of cognitive and non-cognitive predictive variables related to attrition in baccalaureate nursing education programs in Mississippi

    Hayes, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    This study sought to identify a variable or variables predictive of attrition among baccalaureate nursing students. The study was quantitative in design and multivariate correlational statistics and discriminant statistical analysis were used to identify a model for prediction of attrition. The analysis then weighted variables according to their predictive value to determine the most parsimonious model with the greatest predictive value. Three public university nursing education programs in Mississippi offering a Bachelors Degree in Nursing were selected for the study. The population consisted of students accepted and enrolled in these three programs for the years 2001 and 2002 and graduating in the years 2003 and 2004 (N = 195). The categorical dependent variable was attrition (includes academic failure or withdrawal) from the program of nursing education. The ten independent variables selected for the study and considered to have possible predictive value were: Grade Point Average for Pre-requisite Course Work; ACT Composite Score, ACT Reading Subscore, and ACT Mathematics Subscore; Letter Grades in the Courses: Anatomy & Physiology and Lab I, Algebra I, English I (101), Chemistry & Lab I, and Microbiology & Lab I; and Number of Institutions Attended (Universities, Colleges, Junior Colleges or Community Colleges). Descriptive analysis was performed and the means of each of the ten independent variables was compared for students who attrited and those who were retained in the population. The discriminant statistical analysis performed created a matrix using the ten variable model that was able to correctly predicted attrition in the study's population in 77.6% of the cases. Variables were then combined and recombined to produce the most efficient and parsimonious model for prediction. A six variable model resulted which weighted each variable according to predictive value: GPA for Prerequisite Coursework, ACT Composite, English I, Chemistry & Lab I, Microbiology

  7. Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized c...

  8. Prevalence and predictive factors of sleep bruxism in children with and without cognitive impairment

    Cristina Batista Miamoto; Luciano José Pereira; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge; Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-01-01

    Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI); lip competence...

  9. Does cognitive flexibility predict treatment gains in Internet-delivered psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder, depression, or tinnitus?

    Lindner, Philip; Carlbring, Per; Flodman, Erik; Hebert, Amanda; Poysti, Stephanie; Hagkvist, Filip; Johansson, Robert; Zetterqvist Westin, Vendela; Berger, Thomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the individual factors that predict outcomes in Internet-administered psychological treatments. We hypothesized that greater cognitive flexibility (i.e. the ability to simultaneously consider several concepts and tasks and switch effortlessly between them in response to changes in environmental contingencies) would provide a better foundation for learning and employing the cognitive restructuring techniques taught and exercised in therapy, leading to greater treatment gains. Participants in three trials featuring Internet-administered psychological treatments for depression (n = 36), social anxiety disorder (n = 115) and tinnitus (n = 53) completed the 64-card Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) prior to treatment. We found no significant associations between perseverative errors on the WCST and treatment gains in any group. We also found low accuracy in the classification of treatment responders. We conclude that lower cognitive flexibility, as captured by perseverative errors on the WCST, should not impede successful outcomes in Internet-delivered psychological treatments. PMID:27114881

  10. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward: Clinical risk factors and prediction by bedside cognitive tests.

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Koerner, Ejnar Alex; Schultz, Helga Holm; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2016-08-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent psychiatric complication to cancer, but rarely recognized by oncologists. Aims 1. To estimate the prevalence of delirium among inpatients admitted at an oncological cancer ward 2. To investigate whether simple clinical factors predict delirium 3. To examine the value of cognitive testing in the assessment of delirium. Methods On five different days, we interviewed and assessed patients admitted to a Danish cancer ward. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases Version 10, WHO ICD-10 Diagnostic System and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious participants were CAM positive. Poor performance on the cognitive tests was associated with delirium. Medical records describing CNS metastases, benzodiazepine or morphine treatment were associated with delirium. Conclusions Delirium is prevalent among cancer inpatients. The Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test can be used as screening tools for delirium among inpatients with cancer, but even in synergy, they lack specificity. Combining cognitive testing and attention to nurses' records might improve detection, yet further studies are needed to create a more detailed patient profile for the detection of delirium. PMID:26882016

  11. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  12. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Ward, L. C.; Essex, T.; Gaw, R.; Czerniec, S.; Dylke, E.; Abell, B.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  13. Can the Components of a Cognitive Model Predict the Severity of Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

    Dugas, Michel J.; Savard, Pierre; Gaudet, Adrienne; Turcotte, Julie; Laugesen, Nina; Robichaud, Melisa; Francis, Kylie; Koerner, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, a number of well-controlled studies have supported the validity of a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) that has four main components: intolerance of uncertainty, positive beliefs about worry, negative problem orientation, and cognitive avoidance. Although these studies have shown that the model components…

  14. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    Donnelly, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.

  15. Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the personalized advantage index approach

    Huibers, Marcus J. H.; Zachary D Cohen; Lemmens, Lotte H. J. M.; Arnoud Arntz; Peeters, Frenk P. M. L.; Pim Cuijpers; DeRubeis, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT) and inte...

  16. Predictive factors of successful self treatment for social anxiety - with or without elements of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy

    Braun, Ulrike; Borg, Elisabet; Carlbring, Per

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) and self-help books have proven to be effective treatments for social anxiety. These treatments can increase the opportunity for more people to access evidence-based psychological treatment. More knowledge of the factors that predict treatment outcomes is needed for individuals to get the right type of treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if education level, recruitment mechanism, or previous psychological or psychopharmacolo...

  17. Adolescent Aggression and Social Cognition in the Context of Personality: Impulsivity as a Moderator of Predictions from Social Information Processing

    Fite, Jennifer E.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    This study asked how individual differences in social cognition and personality interact in predicting later aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that the relationship between immediate response evaluations in social information processing (SIP) and later aggressive behavior would be moderated by impulsivity. In particular, the immediate positive evaluations of aggressive responses would be more strongly related to later aggressive behavior for high-impulsive than for low-impulsive indivi...

  18. The Role of Thought Suppression, Meta-Cognitive Factors and Negative Emotions in Prediction of Substance Dependency Disorder

    Omid Saed; Somayeh Purehsan; Jalil Aslani; Mohammad Zargar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140). Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MC...

  19. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  20. Development of a Medical School Admissions Interview Phase 2: Predictive Validity of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Attributes

    Streyffeler, Lisa; Altmaier, Elizabeth M.; Kuperman, Samuel; Patrick, Luke E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interest in improving medical school admissions processes led to the development of a structured admissions interview to eliminate potential bias and provide valid information for selection. This article reports on the degree to which this interview, along with other admissions variables, predicted later student performance during medical school. Methods: All applicants considered for admission participated in the new interview. Interview scores and regular admissions data were co...

  1. Cognitive psychology

    Anderson, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The author considers the following areas of cognitive psychology: architectural principles of the human mind; knowledge representation; spreading activation; control of cognition; memory; learning; language; and prediction. He tries to provide pointers to the field at large learning the view of his book the architecture of cognition (Anderson 1983) for those who require a more detailed treatment. 76 references.

  2. Higher self-control capacity predicts lower anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examination...

  3. Onboard Interference Prediction for the Cognitive Medium Access in the LEO Satellite Uplink Transmission

    Zhuochen Xie; Huijie Liu; Xuwen Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is an efficient way to increase spectrum efficiency for the small low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communication system. Due to the implementation difficulties, we focus on the CR in the uplink transmission. In CR, the cognitive medium access (CMA) is designed to enable the coexistence with the interferences from other systems. However, the CMA schemes designed for the terrestrial system cannot deal well with the global history of interferences in our system. Here, we desi...

  4. Parental Depression and Child Cognitive Vulnerability Predict Children’s Cortisol Reactivity

    Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; SHEIKH, HAROON I.; Jordan, Patricia L.; Dozois, David J.A.; Singh, Shiva M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Badanes, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk for depression is expressed across multiple levels of analysis. For example, parental depression and cognitive vulnerability are known markers of depression risk, but no study has examined their interactive effects on children’s cortisol reactivity, a likely mediator of early depression risk. We examined relations across these different levels of vulnerability using cross-sectional and longitudinal methods in two community samples of children. Children were assessed for cognitive vulnera...

  5. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  6. Epicardial adipose tissue and coronary artery disease: an article review

    Sareh Mousavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue surrounding the heart may contribute in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis due to its proximity to the coronary arteries. In addition, epicardial adipose tissue has paracrine and endocrine functions. It can secrete numerous bioactive molecules. Most previous studies examined the relation between coronary artery disease and epicardial adipose tissue have used echocardiography and have reported controversial results, probably due to differences in measurement techniques and study populations. This study aimed to give a brief review on the value of echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue in the prediction of coronary artery disease severity.Epicardial adipose tissue, easily and non-invasively evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography, can be considered as an adjunctive marker to classical risk factors despite all the limitations. Moreover, it might be recommended as a useful quantitative screening examination for the prediction of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease and the extent of atherosclerosis.

  7. The Predictive Value of Cognitive Impairments Measured at the Start of Clinical Rehabilitation for Health Status 1 Year and 3 Years Poststroke

    Verhoeven, Clara L.; Schepers, Vera P.; Post, Marcel W.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of screening for cognitive functions at the start of an inpatient rehabilitation programme to predict the health status 1 and 3 years poststroke. In this longitudinal cohort study of stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation data of 134 participants were analysed. Cognitive and clinical…

  8. Predictive validity of a MK-801-induced cognitive impairment model in mice: implications on the potential limitations and challenges of modeling cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia preclinically.

    Brown, Jordan W; Rueter, Lynne E; Zhang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is a major and disabling symptom domain of the disease that is generally unresponsive to current pharmacotherapies. Critically important to the discovery of novel therapeutics for CIAS is the utilization of preclinical models with robust predictive validity. We investigated the predictive validity of MK-801-induced memory impairments in mouse inhibitory avoidance (MK-IA) as a preclinical model for CIAS by investigating compounds that have been tested in humans, including antipsychotics, sodium channel blocker mood stabilizers, and putative cognitive enhancers. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine, as well as risperidone and olanzapine (see Brown et al., 2013), had no effect on MK-801-induced memory impairments. For sodium channel blockers, carbamazepine significantly attenuated memory impairments induced by MK-801, whereas lamotrigine had no effect. Nicotine, donepezil, modafinil, and xanomeline all significantly attenuated MK-801-induced memory impairments, but the magnitude of effects and the dose-responses observed varied across compounds. Clinically, only acute administration of nicotine has demonstrated consistent positive effects on CIAS, while inconsistent results have been reported for lamotrigine, donepezil, and modafinil; atypical antipsychotics produce only moderate improvements at best. A positive clinical signal has been observed with xanomeline, but only in a small pilot trial. The results presented here suggest that the MK-IA model lacks robust predictive validity for CIAS as the model is likely permissive and may indicate false positive signals for compounds and mechanisms that lack clear clinical efficacy for CIAS. Our findings also highlight the potential limitations and challenges of using NMDA receptor antagonists in rodents to model CIAS. PMID:24269664

  9. Health literacy and global cognitive function predict e-mail but not internet use in heart failure patients.

    Schprechman, Jared P; Gathright, Emily C; Goldstein, Carly M; Guerini, Kate A; Dolansky, Mary A; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W

    2013-01-01

    Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

  10. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    Tracy eAir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition in isolation and in combination with prosody and body language interpretation. While no associations between the diagnostic status (MDD vs controls and any of the social cognition measures were found, severity of depressive and anxious symptoms predicted performance on all social cognition subscales in currently depressed participants, controlling for age, gender, education and psychotropic medication. Moreover, in the current MDD group, an affective depressive symptom cluster was inversely related to performance on the more complex ACS Pairs and Prosody tasks, while a somatic symptom cluster was inversely related to ACS Affect Recognition and Total scores. In contrast, there were no associations between symptom severity or symptom clusters and the WAIS ACS in remitted depression participants. Given the state like nature social deficits in this study, these impairments may cause problems with day to day functioning and have implications in targeted therapeutic interventions.

  11. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents. PMID:25856805

  12. White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.

    Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

    2016-03-01

    Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation. PMID:25432771

  13. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Predicting Balance and Fall Risk in a Neuro-Rehabilitation Setting

    Saverino, A.; Waller, D.; Rantell, K.; Parry, R.; Moriarty, A.; Playford, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a consistent body of evidence supporting the role of cognitive functions, particularly executive function, in the elderly and in neurological conditions which become more frequent with ageing. The aim of our study was to assess the role of different domains of cognitive functions to predict balance and fall risk in a sample of adults with various neurological conditions in a rehabilitation setting. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study conducted in a single centre in the UK. 114 participants consecutively admitted to a Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit were prospectively assessed for fall accidents. Baseline assessment included a measure of balance (Berg Balance Scale) and a battery of standard cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed of information processing, verbal and visual memory, visual perception and intellectual function. The outcomes of interest were the risk of becoming a faller, balance and fall rate. Results Two tests of executive function were significantly associated with fall risk, the Stroop Colour Word Test (IRR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.03) and the number of errors on part B of the Trail Making Test (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03–1.49). Composite scores of executive function, speed of information processing and visual memory domains resulted in 2 to 3 times increased likelihood of having better balance (OR 2.74 95% CI 1.08 to 6.94, OR 2.72 95% CI 1.16 to 6.36 and OR 2.44 95% CI 1.11 to 5.35 respectively). Conclusions Our results show that specific subcomponents of executive functions are able to predict fall risk, while a more global cognitive dysfunction is associated with poorer balance. PMID:27115880

  14. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    Xavier eLópez-Gil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26 and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in 2 different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and grey matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional 3-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent.

  15. A longitudinal study on dual-tasking effects on gait: cognitive change predicts gait variance in the elderly.

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather C; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory). Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait step time. These

  16. The Ethical Intention and Prediction Matrix: Reducing Perceptual and Cognitive Biases for Learning

    Payne, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive biases are significant factors influencing ethical judgment, conduct, and learning. These biases inhibit the quality of students' personal engagement, inquiry, and learning on cases and exercises assigned in business ethics courses. The purpose of this article is to describe certain common biases involved in the perception…

  17. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  18. Predicting Preschool Cognitive Development from Infant Temperament, Maternal Sensitivity, and Psychosocial Risk

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Tarabulsy, George M.; Provost, Marc A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relative contributions of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk to individual differences in preschool children's cognitive development. It also examined specific moderating effects between predictors as well as the specific mediating role of maternal sensitivity in the relation…

  19. Longitudinal Prediction of Adolescent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examination of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model

    Guerry, John D.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    Virtually no longitudinal research has examined psychological characteristics or events that may lead to adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study tested a cognitive vulnerability-stress model as a predictor of NSSI trajectories. Clinically-referred adolescents (n = 143; 72% girls) completed measures of NSSI, depression, attributional…

  20. Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

  1. Racial Ideology in Predicting Social Cognitive Career Variables for Black Undergraduates

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study expanded Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) by incorporating the personal variable of racial ideology (Sellers, Rowley, Chavous, Shelton, & Smith, 1997). The association of racial ideology (i.e., nationalist, humanist, assimilationist, and oppressed minority) to self-efficacy variables,…

  2. Metacognitive capacity predicts severity of trauma-related dysfunctional cognitions in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Davis, Louanne W; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Siegel, Alysia; Brustuen, Beth; Luedtke, Brandi; Vohs, Jennifer L; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-30

    Deficits in metacognition have been proposed as a barrier to adaptive responding to trauma. However, little is known about how different aspects of metacognitive capacity relate to responses to trauma and whether their potential link to such responses is independent of the overall level of psychopathology. To explore both issues, negative trauma-related cognitions about the self, the world, and self-blame, as measured by the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI), were correlated with concurrent measures of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and two forms of metacognition; the Metacognitions questionnaire (MCQ-30), which focuses on specific thoughts, and the Metacognition Assessment Scale Abbreviated (MAS-A) which focuses on the degree to which persons can form complex representations of self and other. Participants were 51 veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who had a PTSD diagnosis primarily involving a combat-related index trauma. Correlations revealed that being younger and more depressed were linked with greater levels of negative cognitions about self and the world. Lower levels of self-reflectivity on the MAS-A and higher levels of cognitive self-consciousness on the MCQ-30 were uniquely related to greater levels of self-blame even after controlling for age, level of depression, and PTSD. Implications for research and treatment are discussed. PMID:26837477

  3. Predicting the Job and Life Satisfaction of Italian Teachers: Test of a Social Cognitive Model

    Lent, Robert W.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ginevra, Maria C.; Duffy, Ryan D.; Brown, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a social cognitive model of work and life satisfaction (Lent & Brown, 2006, 2008) in a sample of 235 Italian school teachers. The model offered good overall fit to the data, though not all individual path coefficients were significant. Three of five predictors (favorable work conditions, efficacy-relevant supports, and…

  4. Cognitive ability is heritable and predicts the success of an alternative mating tactic

    Smith, Carl; Philips, A.; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 1809 (2015), s. 1809. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : alternative mating tactics * cognition * learning * mating system * sexual selection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  5. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI. PMID:27235850

  6. Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum

    Kamalini G. Ranasinghe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD, cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum − 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD.

  7. Predictive value of developmental testing in the second year for cognitive development at five years of age

    Alastair G Sutcliffe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mixed evidence about the predictive validity of the Griffiths mental developmental scales. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of developmental assessments of children in their second year using the Griffiths mental development scales for neuro-developmental status at five years using the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, revised (WPPSI-R. In a longitudinal study 253 children were assessed in their second year of life using the Griffiths scales and again at five years using the WPPSI-R. The scores were compared and the predictability of the WPPSI-R outcome on the basis of Griffiths scores was assessed. The WPPSI-R full scale IQ and the performance IQ at age five could be predicted moderately by the Griffiths general quotient (GQ and by the personal/social scale. The Griffiths GQ was not a significant predictor of verbal IQ at age 5. The Griffiths performance scale predicted subsequent WPPSI-R performance IQ, and marginally the Full Scale IQ. For the early identification of children at risk for language delay, the Griffiths scales may not be suitable. However, a shortened form would be useful to predict overall cognitive development from the second year to school entry, focussing on the personal-social and performance scales.

  8. Old wine in new bottles: validating the clinical utility of SPECT in predicting cognitive performance in mild traumatic brain injury.

    Romero, Kristoffer; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Black, Sandra E; Ehrlich, Lisa; Feinstein, Anthony

    2015-01-30

    The neural underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not fully understood. Consequently, patient prognosis using existing clinical imaging is somewhat imprecise. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a frequently employed investigation in this population, notwithstanding uncertainty over the clinical utility of the data obtained. In this study, subjects with mild TBI underwent (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT scanning, and were administered a brief battery of cognitive tests and self-report symptom scales of concussion and emotional distress. Testing took place 2 weeks (n=84) and 1 year (n=49) post-injury. Multivariate analysis (i.e., partial least squares analysis) revealed that frontal perfusion in right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri predicted poorer performance on the Stroop test, an index of executive function, both at initial and follow-up testing. Conversely, SPECT scans categorized as normal or abnormal by radiologists did not differentiate cognitively impaired from intact subjects. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of SPECT in mild TBI, but only when data are subjected to blood flow quantification analysis. PMID:25466236

  9. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P breakfast, and high-GI meals increased cortisol levels (P cognition appear to be domain specific. On balance, it would appear that the low-GI high-GL breakfast may help to improve learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast. PMID:21736777

  10. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  11. Optimal Predictions in Everyday Cognition: The Wisdom of Individuals or Crowds?

    Mozer, Michael C.; Pashler, Harold; Homaei, Hadjar

    2008-01-01

    Griffiths and Tenenbaum (2006) asked individuals to make predictions about the duration or extent of everyday events (e.g., cake baking times), and reported that predictions were optimal, employing Bayesian inference based on veridical prior distributions. Although the predictions conformed strikingly to statistics of the world, they reflect…

  12. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success

    Julia eRahe; Jutta eBecker; Fink, Gereon R.; Josef eKessler; Juraj eKukolja; Andreas eRahn; Rosen, Jan B.; Florian eSzabados; Brunhilde eWirth; Elke eKalbe

    2015-01-01

    Data is inconsistent concerning the question whether cognitive-physical training (CPT) yields stronger cognitive gains than cognitive training (CT). Effects of additional counseling, neurobiological mechanisms, and predictors have scarcely been studied. Healthy older adults were trained with CT (n = 20), CPT (n = 25), or CPT with counseling (CPT+C; n = 23). Cognition, physical fitness, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were assessed at pre- and post-test. No interaction effects were found except for one ...

  13. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Broman, Jan-Erik; Gordh, Torsten; Fredrikson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments. PMID:26323054

  14. Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI...

  15. Longitudinal Prediction of Adolescent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examination of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model

    2010-01-01

    Virtually no longitudinal research has examined psychological characteristics or events that may lead to adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study tested a cognitive vulnerability-stress model as a predictor of NSSI trajectories. Clinically-referred adolescents (n =143; 72% girls) completed measures of NSSI, depression, attributional style, and interpersonal stressors during baseline hospitalization. Levels of NSSI were reassessed 3, 6, 9, 15, and 18 months later. Latent growth cu...

  16. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    David G. Weissman; Schriber, Roberta A.; Catherine Fassbender; Olivia Atherton; Cynthia Krafft; Robins, Richard W.; Hastings, Paul D.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Method: Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolesc...

  17. Cognitive Declines Precede and Predict Functional Declines in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Anna MacKay-Brandt; Yaakov Stern

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN AND SETTING: A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project) and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, an...

  18. Sleep Disturbances and Predictive Factors in Caregivers of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Lee, Dongwhane; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Yoon, Sung-Sang; Chang, Dae-Il; Lee, Sangeui; Rhee, Hak-Young; Ku, Bon D.; Park, Key-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examined the characteristics of sleep disturbances and sleep patterns in the caregivers of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and dementia. Methods We prospectively studied 132 patients (60 with aMCI and 72 with dementia) and their caregivers, and 52 noncaregiver controls. All caregivers and controls completed several sleep questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The patients were administered neuropsychological tests...

  19. Prevalence and predictive factors of sleep bruxism in children with and without cognitive impairment

    Cristina Batista Miamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found a higher prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB in individuals with cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with the clinical manifestation of SB in children with and without cognitive impairment. The sample was made up of 180 individuals: Group 1 - without cognitive impairment; Group 2 - with Down syndrome; Group 3 - with cerebral palsy. Malocclusions were assessed based on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI; lip competence was assessed based on Ballard's description. The bio-psychosocial characteristics were assessed via a questionnaire and clinical exam. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of bruxism was 23%. There were no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.970. Individuals with sucking habits (OR [95% CI] = 4.44 [1.5 to 13.0], posterior crossbite (OR [95% CI] = 3.04 [1.2 to 7.5] and tooth wear facets (OR [95% CI] = 3.32 [1.2 to 8.7] had a greater chance of exhibiting SB. Sucking habits, posterior crossbite and tooth wear facets were identified as being directly associated with the clinical manifestations of bruxism.

  20. Impaired Activation in Cognitive Control Regions Predicts Reversal Learning in Schizophrenia.

    Culbreth, Adam J; Gold, James M; Cools, Roshan; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-03-01

    Reinforcement learning deficits have been associated with schizophrenia (SZ). However, the pathophysiology that gives rise to these abnormalities remains unclear. To address this question, SZ patients (N = 58) and controls (CN; N = 36) completed a probabilistic reversal-learning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During the task, participants choose between 2 stimuli. Initially, 1 stimulus was frequently rewarded (80%); the other was infrequently rewarded (20%). The reward contingencies reversed periodically because the participant learned the more rewarded stimulus. The results indicated that SZ patients achieved fewer reversals than CN, and demonstrated decreased winstay-loseshift decision-making behavior. On loseshift compared to winstay trials, SZ patients showed reduced Blood Oxygen Level Dependent activation compared to CN in a network of brain regions widely associated with cognitive control, and striatal regions. Importantly, relationships between group membership and behavior were mediated by alterations in the activity of cognitive control regions, but not striatum. These findings indicate an important role for the cognitive control network in mediating the use and updating of value representations in SZ. Such results provide biological targets for further inquiry because researchers attempt to better characterize decision-making neural circuitry in SZ as a means to discover new pathways for interventions. PMID:26049083

  1. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  2. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  3. Predicting Optimal Outcomes in Cognitive Therapy or Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Individuals Using the Personalized Advantage Index Approach.

    Marcus J H Huibers

    Full Text Available Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT.134 depressed patients completed the pre- and post-treatment BDI-II assessment. First, we identified baseline predictors and moderators. Second, individual treatment recommendations were generated by combining the identified predictors and moderators in an algorithm that produces the Personalized Advantage Index (PAI, a measure of the predicted advantage in one therapy compared to the other, using standard regression analyses and the leave-one-out cross-validation approach.We found five predictors (gender, employment status, anxiety, personality disorder and quality of life and six moderators (somatic complaints, cognitive problems, paranoid symptoms, interpersonal self-sacrificing, attributional style and number of life events of treatment outcome. The mean average PAI value was 8.9 BDI points, and 63% of the sample was predicted to have a clinically meaningful advantage in one of the therapies. Those who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment (either CT or IPT had an observed mean end-BDI of 11.8, while those who received their predicted non-optimal treatment had an end-BDI of 17.8 (effect size for the difference = 0.51.Depressed patients who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment fared much better than those randomized to their predicted non-optimal treatment. The PAI provides a great opportunity for formal decision-making to improve individual patient outcomes in depression. Although the utility of the PAI

  4. PREDICTION BASED CHANNEL-HOPPING ALGORITHM FOR RENDEZVOUS IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

    Dhananjay Kumar; A. Magesh; U. Mohammed Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Most common works for rendezvous in cognitive radio networks deal only with two user scenarios involving two secondary users and variable primary users and aim at reducing the time-to-rendezvous. A common control channel for the establishment of communication is not considered and hence the work comes under the category of ‘Blind Rendezvous’. Our work deal with multi-user scenario and provides a methodology for the users to find each other in the very first time slot spent for rendezvous or o...

  5. Exploring the knowledge behind predictions in everyday cognition: an iterated learning study.

    Stephens, Rachel G; Dunn, John C; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Making accurate predictions about events is an important but difficult task. Recent work suggests that people are adept at this task, making predictions that reflect surprisingly accurate knowledge of the distributions of real quantities. Across three experiments, we used an iterated learning procedure to explore the basis of this knowledge: to what extent is domain experience critical to accurate predictions and how accurate are people when faced with unfamiliar domains? In Experiment 1, two groups of participants, one resident in Australia, the other in China, predicted the values of quantities familiar to both (movie run-times), unfamiliar to both (the lengths of Pharaoh reigns), and familiar to one but unfamiliar to the other (cake baking durations and the lengths of Beijing bus routes). While predictions from both groups were reasonably accurate overall, predictions were inaccurate in the selectively unfamiliar domains and, surprisingly, predictions by the China-resident group were also inaccurate for a highly familiar domain: local bus route lengths. Focusing on bus routes, two follow-up experiments with Australia-resident groups clarified the knowledge and strategies that people draw upon, plus important determinants of accurate predictions. For unfamiliar domains, people appear to rely on extrapolating from (not simply directly applying) related knowledge. However, we show that people's predictions are subject to two sources of error: in the estimation of quantities in a familiar domain and extension to plausible values in an unfamiliar domain. We propose that the key to successful predictions is not simply domain experience itself, but explicit experience of relevant quantities. PMID:25837024

  6. An evaluation of volume-based morphometry for prediction of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Daniel Schmitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry from conventional T1-weighted images has proved effective to quantify Alzheimer's disease (AD related brain atrophy and to enable fairly accurate automated classification of AD patients, mild cognitive impaired patients (MCI and elderly controls. Little is known, however, about the classification power of volume-based morphometry, where features of interest consist of a few brain structure volumes (e.g. hippocampi, lobes, ventricles as opposed to hundreds of thousands of voxel-wise gray matter concentrations. In this work, we experimentally evaluate two distinct volume-based morphometry algorithms (FreeSurfer and an in-house algorithm called MorphoBox for automatic disease classification on a standardized data set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Results indicate that both algorithms achieve classification accuracy comparable to the conventional whole-brain voxel-based morphometry pipeline using SPM for AD vs elderly controls and MCI vs controls, and higher accuracy for classification of AD vs MCI and early vs late AD converters, thereby demonstrating the potential of volume-based morphometry to assist diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups. PMID:25535099

  8. Changes in Cognitive Content During and Following Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression: Substantial and Enduring, but Not Predictive of Change in Depressive Symptoms

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Doyle, Kimberly; Clark, Lee Anna

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the amount and durability of change in the cognitive content of 156 adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder after treatment with cognitive therapy. The pre–post magnitude of change was large for the Attributional Style Questionnaire Failure composite (d = 0.79), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (d = 1.05), and Self-Efficacy Scale (d = 0.83), and small for the Attributional Style Questionnaire Success composite (d = 0.30). Changes in cognitive content were ...

  9. Empathy and motivation for justice: Cognitive empathy and concern, but not emotional empathy, predict sensitivity to injustice for others.

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Why do people tend to care for upholding principles of justice? This study examined the association between individual differences in the affective, motivational and cognitive components of empathy, sensitivity to justice, and psychopathy in participants (N 265) who were also asked to rate the permissibility of everyday moral situations that pit personal benefit against moral standards of justice. Counter to common sense, emotional empathy was not associated with sensitivity to injustice for others. Rather, individual differences in cognitive empathy and empathic concern predicted sensitivity to justice for others, as well as the endorsement of moral rules. Psychopathy coldheartedness scores were inversely associated with motivation for justice. Moreover, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-focused and other-focused orientations toward justice had opposing influences on the permissibility of moral judgments. High scores on psychopathy were associated with less moral condemnation of immoral behavior. Together, these results contribute to a better understanding of the information processing mechanisms underlying justice motivation, and may guide interventions designed to foster justice and moral behavior. In order to promote justice motivation, it may be more effective to encourage perspective taking and reasoning than emphasizing emotional sharing with the misfortune of others. PMID:25768232

  10. Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) predict anxiety reduction during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)?

    Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. PMID:23545482

  11. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24821509

  12. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin.

    Aiello, Brett R; Stewart, Thomas A; Hale, Melina E

    2016-03-16

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a 'precaudal flow sensor'. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  13. Changes in Cognitive Content during and Following Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression: Substantial and Enduring, but Not Predictive of Change in Depressive Symptoms

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Doyle, Kimberly; Clark, Lee Anna

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the amount and durability of change in the cognitive content of 156 adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder after treatment with cognitive therapy. The pre-post magnitude of change was large for the Attributional Style Questionnaire Failure composite (d = 0.79), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (d = 1.05), and…

  14. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  15. Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science.

    Clark, Andy

    2013-06-01

    Brains, it has recently been argued, are essentially prediction machines. They are bundles of cells that support perception and action by constantly attempting to match incoming sensory inputs with top-down expectations or predictions. This is achieved using a hierarchical generative model that aims to minimize prediction error within a bidirectional cascade of cortical processing. Such accounts offer a unifying model of perception and action, illuminate the functional role of attention, and may neatly capture the special contribution of cortical processing to adaptive success. This target article critically examines this "hierarchical prediction machine" approach, concluding that it offers the best clue yet to the shape of a unified science of mind and action. Sections 1 and 2 lay out the key elements and implications of the approach. Section 3 explores a variety of pitfalls and challenges, spanning the evidential, the methodological, and the more properly conceptual. The paper ends (sections 4 and 5) by asking how such approaches might impact our more general vision of mind, experience, and agency. PMID:23663408

  16. Developmental ethanol exposure-induced sleep fragmentation predicts adult cognitive impairment.

    Wilson, D A; Masiello, K; Lewin, M P; Hui, M; Smiley, J F; Saito, M

    2016-05-13

    Developmental ethanol (EtOH) exposure can lead to long-lasting cognitive impairment, hyperactivity, and emotional dysregulation among other problems. In healthy adults, sleep plays an important role in each of these behavioral manifestations. Here we explored circadian rhythms (activity, temperature) and slow-wave sleep (SWS) in adult mice that had received a single day of EtOH exposure on postnatal day 7 and saline littermate controls. We tested for correlations between slow-wave activity and both contextual fear conditioning and hyperactivity. Developmental EtOH resulted in adult hyperactivity within the home cage compared to controls but did not significantly modify circadian cycles in activity or temperature. It also resulted in reduced and fragmented SWS, including reduced slow-wave bout duration and increased slow-wave/fast-wave transitions over 24-h periods. In the same animals, developmental EtOH exposure also resulted in impaired contextual fear conditioning memory. The impairment in memory was significantly correlated with SWS fragmentation. Furthermore, EtOH-treated animals did not display a post-training modification in SWS which occurred in controls. In contrast to the memory impairment, sleep fragmentation was not correlated with the developmental EtOH-induced hyperactivity. Together these results suggest that disruption of SWS and its plasticity are a secondary contributor to a subset of developmental EtOH exposure's long-lasting consequences. PMID:26892295

  17. Deficits in Attention and Visual Processing but not Global Cognition Predict Simulated Driving Errors in Drivers Diagnosed With Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Yamin, Stephanie; Stinchcombe, Arne; Gagnon, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    This study sought to predict driving performance of drivers with Alzheimer's disease (AD) using measures of attention, visual processing, and global cognition. Simulated driving performance of individuals with mild AD (n = 20) was contrasted with performance of a group of healthy controls (n = 21). Performance on measures of global cognitive function and specific tests of attention and visual processing were examined in relation to simulated driving performance. Strong associations were observed between measures of attention, notably the Test of Everyday Attention (sustained attention; r = -.651, P = .002) and the Useful Field of View (r = .563, P = .010), and driving performance among drivers with mild AD. The Visual Object and Space Perception Test-object was significantly correlated with the occurrence of crashes (r = .652, P = .002). Tests of global cognition did not correlate with simulated driving outcomes. The results suggest that professionals exercise caution when extrapolating driving performance based on global cognitive indicators. PMID:26655744

  18. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  19. The prediction of success in an ever-changing world : assessing cognitive flexibility through dynamic testing.

    Beckmann, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using tests to assess intellectual capability is seen as a double-edged sword. On one hand it is considered an instrument of perpetuating socio-economic injustice, on the other hand, as it turns out, intelligence tests are the most successful tools available to predict a range of relevant success criteria in education and vocation. It seems that practitioners and educators who are confronted with the challenge of providing professional judgements regarding individuals’ educational futur...

  20. Prediction of leisure-time walking: an integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors

    Blanchard Chris M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is the primary focus of population-based physical activity initiatives but a theoretical understanding of this behaviour is still elusive. The purpose of this study was to integrate personality, the perceived environment, and planning into a theory of planned behaviour (TPB framework to predict leisure-time walking. Methods Participants were a random sample (N = 358 of Canadian adults who completed measures of the TPB, planning, perceived neighbourhood environment, and personality at Time 1 and self-reported walking behaviour two months later. Results Analyses using structural equation modelling provided evidence that leisure-time walking is largely predicted by intention (standardized effect = .42 with an additional independent contribution from proximity to neighbourhood retail shops (standardized effect = .18. Intention, in turn, was predicted by attitudes toward walking and perceived behavioural control. Effects of perceived neighbourhood aesthetics and walking infrastructure on walking were mediated through attitudes and intention. Moderated regression analysis showed that the intention-walking relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and proximity to neighbourhood recreation facilities but not planning. Conclusion Overall, walking behaviour is theoretically complex but may best be addressed at a population level by facilitating strong intentions in a receptive environment even though individual differences may persist.

  1. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in x-ray detection efficiency are common. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques were investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. These new methods are discussed and compared with conventional ultrasonic measurement techniques

  2. Independent Stem Cell Lineages Regulate Adipose Organogenesis and Adipose Homeostasis

    Yuwei Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA-mural cell-fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments: developmental and adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both developmental and adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct microanatomical, functional, morphogenetic, and molecular profiles. Furthermore, the two compartments derive from different lineages; whereas adult adipose progenitors fate-map from an SMA+ mural lineage, developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the developmental cells and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide a discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity.

  3. Predicting the STEM outcomes of academically qualified women: A longitudinal examination of social cognitive career theory

    Wasson, Jillian Woodford

    There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.

  4. Prediction of progression in patients with mild cognitive impairment using IMP-SPECT

    To examine the difference in functional brain imaging between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal aging, we measured rCBF on functional brain imaging using 123I-IMP single photon emission computed tomography (IMP-SPECT) in 19 MCI patients who progressed to develop AD on follow-up and 23 probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as well as 15 age-matched normal subjects. Baseline MMSE score was 25.3 (SD 1.2) in the MCI group and 17.5 (SD 3.3) in the AD group. The regions of interest (ROI) in the posterior cingulate gyrus, frontal, temporal and parietal cortices were drawn on the image of IMP-SPECT with reference to an individual MRI image. The rCBF ratio was calculated using ROI value in the cerebellum as a reference. Voxel-based analysis was also preformed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The rCBF ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly reduced in the MCI group (mean 0.956, SD 0.080) and the AD group (mean 0.833, SD 0.118) compared to that in the normal group (mean 1.083, SD 0.084). In the frontal, temporal and parietal cortices, the rCBF ratio was significantly reduced only in the AD group compared to the normal group. At a fixed specificity of 80%, the diagnostic sensitivity in the discrimination between MCI patients and normal subjects was 80.5% when using rCBF ratio in posterior cingulate gyrus. In the SPM analysis, significant reduction of the rCBF in MCI group was observed only in the posterior cingulate gyrus, compared with normal subject group. Our results suggest that MCI patients presenting with a posterior cingulate hypoperfusion are at higher risk for transition from MCI to clinically recognizable AD. (author)

  5. Independent Stem Cell Lineages Regulate Adipose Organogenesis and Adipose Homeostasis

    Yuwei Jiang; Daniel C. Berry; Wei Tang; Jonathan M. Graff

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-mural cell-fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments: developmental and adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both developmental and adult pr...

  6. Incident Subjective Cognitive Decline Does Not Predict Mortality in the Elderly – Results from the Longitudinal German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe)

    Susanne Roehr; Tobias Luck; Kathrin Heser; Angela Fuchs; Annette Ernst; Birgitt Wiese; Jochen Werle; Horst Bickel; Christian Brettschneider; Alexander Koppara; Michael Pentzek; Carolin Lange; Jana Prokein; Siegfried Weyerer; Edelgard Mösch

    2016-01-01

    Objective Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) might represent the first symptomatic representation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is associated with increased mortality. Only few studies, however, have analyzed the association of SCD and mortality, and if so, based on prevalent cases. Thus, we investigated incident SCD in memory and mortality. Methods Data were derived from the German AgeCoDe study, a prospective longitudinal study on the epidemiology of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and...

  7. Prediction of attendance at fitness center : a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed...

  8. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population. PMID:27235636

  9. Predicting long-term outcome of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder using fMRI and support vector machine learning

    Mansson, K.N.; Frick, A.; Boraxbekk, C.J.; Marquand, A.F.; Williams, S.C.; Carlbring, P.; Andersson, G.; Furmark, T.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD), but many patients do not respond sufficiently and a substantial proportion relapse after treatment has ended. Predicting an individual's long-term clinical response therefore remains an important challenge.

  10. Do Cognitive Models Help in Predicting the Severity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Phobia, and Depression after Motor Vehicle Accidents? A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months…

  11. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    T. Ehring; A. Ehlers; E. Glucksman

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their acciden

  12. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  13. Prefrontal neuronal integrity predicts symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia and is sensitive to genetic heterogeneity

    Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M.; Heguy, Adriana; Harroch, Sheila; Mazgaj, Robert; Rothman, Karen; Berns, Adam; Hasan, Sumya; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Chao, Moses V.; Gonen, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically complex syndrome with substantial inter-subject variability in multiple domains. Person-specific measures to resolve its heterogeneity could focus on the variability in prefrontal integrity, which this study indexed as relative rostralization within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Twenty-two schizophrenia cases and 11 controls underwent rigorous diagnostic procedures, symptom assessments (PANSS, Deficit Syndrome Scale) and intelligence testing. All underwent multivoxel MRSI at 3 T to measure concentrations of the neuronal-specific biomarker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in all of the voxels of the ACC. The concentrations of NAA were separately calculated and then compared across the rostral and caudal subregions to generate a rostralization ratio, which was examined with respect to the study measures and to which cases carried a missense coding polymorphism in PTPRG, SCL39A13, TGM5, NTRK1 or ARMS/KIDINS220. Rostralization significantly differed between cases and controls (χ2 = 18.40, p < .0001). In cases, it predicted verbal intelligence (r = .469, p = .043) and trait negative symptoms (diminished emotional range (r = −.624, p = .010); curbed interests, r = −.558, p = .025). Rostralization was similar to controls for missense coding variants in TGM5 and was significantly greater than controls for the PTPRG variant carrier. This is the first study examining the utility of MRS metrics in describing pathological features at both group and person-specific levels. Rostralization predicted core illness features and differed based on which signaling genes were disrupted. While future studies in larger populations are needed, ACC rostralization appears to be a promising measure to reduce the heterogeneity of schizophrenia for genetic research and selecting cases for treatment studies. PMID:26925801

  14. Potential of Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Systems

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive computing and cognitive technologies are game changers for future engineering systems, as well as for engineering practice and training. They are major drivers for knowledge automation work, and the creation of cognitive products with higher levels of intelligence than current smart products. This paper gives a brief review of cognitive computing and some of the cognitive engineering systems activities. The potential of cognitive technologies is outlined, along with a brief description of future cognitive environments, incorporating cognitive assistants - specialized proactive intelligent software agents designed to follow and interact with humans and other cognitive assistants across the environments. The cognitive assistants engage, individually or collectively, with humans through a combination of adaptive multimodal interfaces, and advanced visualization and navigation techniques. The realization of future cognitive environments requires the development of a cognitive innovation ecosystem for the engineering workforce. The continuously expanding major components of the ecosystem include integrated knowledge discovery and exploitation facilities (incorporating predictive and prescriptive big data analytics); novel cognitive modeling and visual simulation facilities; cognitive multimodal interfaces; and cognitive mobile and wearable devices. The ecosystem will provide timely, engaging, personalized / collaborative, learning and effective decision making. It will stimulate creativity and innovation, and prepare the participants to work in future cognitive enterprises and develop new cognitive products of increasing complexity. http://www.aee.odu.edu/cognitivecomp

  15. Prefrontal neuronal integrity predicts symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia and is sensitive to genetic heterogeneity.

    Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M; Heguy, Adriana; Harroch, Sheila; Mazgaj, Robert; Rothman, Karen; Berns, Adam; Hasan, Sumya; Antonius, Daniel; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Chao, Moses V; Gonen, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically complex syndrome with substantial inter-subject variability in multiple domains. Person-specific measures to resolve its heterogeneity could focus on the variability in prefrontal integrity, which this study indexed as relative rostralization within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Twenty-two schizophrenia cases and 11 controls underwent rigorous diagnostic procedures, symptom assessments (PANSS, Deficit Syndrome Scale) and intelligence testing. All underwent multivoxel MRSI at 3T to measure concentrations of the neuronal-specific biomarker N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in all of the voxels of the ACC. The concentrations of NAA were separately calculated and then compared across the rostral and caudal subregions to generate a rostralization ratio, which was examined with respect to the study measures and to which cases carried a missense coding polymorphism in PTPRG, SCL39A13, TGM5, NTRK1 or ARMS/KIDINS220. Rostralization significantly differed between cases and controls (χ(2)=18.40, pintelligence (r=.469, p=.043) and trait negative symptoms (diminished emotional range (r=-.624, p=.010); curbed interests, r=-.558, p=.025). Rostralization was similar to controls for missense coding variants in TGM5 and was significantly greater than controls for the PTPRG variant carrier. This is the first study examining the utility of MRS metrics in describing pathological features at both group and person-specific levels. Rostralization predicted core illness features and differed based on which signaling genes were disrupted. While future studies in larger populations are needed, ACC rostralization appears to be a promising measure to reduce the heterogeneity of schizophrenia for genetic research and selecting cases for treatment studies. PMID:26925801

  16. Bioengineering beige adipose tissue therapeutics

    Kevin eTharp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of UCP1-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable brown adipose tissues for human therapeutic purposes at this time.Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit WAT derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of beige adipose tissue implants and their potential for the metabolic

  17. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  18. The predictive value of somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms for cytokine changes in patients with major depression

    Dannehl K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Dannehl,1 Winfried Rief,1 Markus J Schwarz,2 Annika Hennings,1 Sabine Riemer,1 Verena Selberdinger,3 Theresa Stapf,3 Frank Euteneuer11Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Institute for Laboratory Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian Universität, Munich, GermanyContext: Elevated concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines have been hypothesized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of depression. Depression itself is considered to be a heterogeneous disorder. Current findings suggest that “cognitive” and “somatic” symptom dimensions are related to immune function in different ways. So far, little research has been done on the longitudinal aspects of inflammation in patients with major depression, especially with respect to different symptom dimensions of depression. Therefore, we investigated which aspects of depression may predict changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 over 4 weeks. Methods: Forty-one patients with major depression diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 45 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum measurements of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks later. Psychometric measures included the assessment of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms during the last 7 days as well as somatic symptoms during the last 2 years. Results: Patients with depression showed increased levels of TNF-alpha (P<0.05 compared to healthy controls. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that neither depressive nor somatic symptoms predict changes in proinflammatory cytokines in the whole sample of depressed patients. Moderation analyses and subsequent sex-stratified regression analyses indicated that higher somatoform symptoms during the last 2 years

  19. Reductions in the diurnal rigidity of anxiety predict treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Fisher, Aaron J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-04-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling disorder which is characterized by worrisome mentation about future outcomes. Because the evocative stimuli in GAD are largely internally derived, the feared outcomes contained in worry episodes can be invoked - and responded to - regardless of external context. We hypothesized that individuals with GAD would be entrained to internally-regulated, fixed patterns of anxiety on a day-to-day basis and that successful therapeutic intervention would serve to mitigate this entrainment. Thus, the present study examined the constructs of flexibility and rigidity as they apply to the daily fluctuation of anxious symptoms in individuals with GAD. We aimed to demonstrate that an apparently variable system can be conceptualized as rigid when the variability maps onto stable and predictable periodic oscillations. Sixty-nine individuals completed cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD. Average age was 36.62 years (SD = 11.56), and participants were mostly Caucasian (89.5%) and female (68.4%). Daily-diary data indicating level of anxiety on a 0 to 100-point scale and collected four times per day were subjected to spectral analysis in order to determine the spectral power attributable to daily oscillations - which was related to the degree of rigidity in daily anxiety. Diurnal rigidity decreased throughout therapy and the degree to which rigidity was reduced significantly predicted reliable change at post-treatment. Thus, symptom rigidity can be conceptualized as stable periodic fluctuation and is discernible from other metrics of volatility in repeated measures data. Moreover, diurnal rigidity is significantly reduced during treatment, facilitating flexible responding to environmental demands. PMID:26953959

  20. Impairments in goal-directed actions predict treatment response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder.

    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive fear and habitual avoidance of social situations. Decision-making models suggest that patients with anxiety disorders may fail to exhibit goal-directed control over actions. We therefore investigated whether such biases may also be associated with social anxiety and to examine the relationship between such behavior with outcomes from cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patients diagnosed with social anxiety and controls completed an instrumental learning task in which two actions were performed to earn food outcomes. After outcome devaluation, where one outcome was consumed to satiety, participants were re-tested in extinction. Results indicated that, as expected, controls were goal-directed, selectively reducing responding on the action that previously delivered the devalued outcome. Patients with social anxiety, however, exhibited no difference in responding on either action. This loss of a devaluation effect was associated with greater symptom severity and poorer response to therapy. These findings indicate that variations in goal-directed control in social anxiety may represent both a behavioral endophenotype and may be used to predict individuals who will respond to learning-based therapies.

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive–compulsive disorder: access to treatment, prediction of long-term outcome with neuroimaging

    O’Neill J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Joseph O'Neill,1 Jamie D Feusner,2 1Division of Child Psychiatry, 2Division of Adult Psychiatry, UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This article reviews issues related to a major challenge to the field for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD: improving access to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. Patient-related barriers to access include the stigma of OCD and reluctance to take on the demands of CBT. Patient-external factors include the shortage of trained CBT therapists and the high costs of CBT. The second half of the review focuses on one partial, yet plausible aid to improve access – prediction of long-term response to CBT, particularly using neuroimaging methods. Recent pilot data are presented revealing a potential for pretreatment resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to forecast OCD symptom severity up to 1 year after completing CBT. Keywords: follow-up, access to treatment, relapse, resting-state fMRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  2. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  3. Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid β1-42, Tau, and Alpha-Synuclein Predict the Heterogeneous Progression of Cognitive Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

    Kang, Ju-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with heterogeneous pathological and clinical features. Cognitive dysfunction, a frequent non-motor complication, is a risk factor for poor prognosis and shows inter-individual variation in its progression. Of the clinical studies performed to identify biomarkers of PD progression, the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is the largest study that enrolled drug-naïve and very early stage PD patients. The baseline characteristics of the PPMI cohort were recently published. The diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, including alpha-synuclein (α-syn), total tau, phosphorylated tau at Thr181, and amyloid β1-42, was not satisfactory. However, the baseline data on CSF biomarkers in the PPMI study suggested that the measurement of the CSF biomarkers enables the prediction of future cognitive decline in PD patients, which was consistent with previous studies. To prove the hypothesis that the interaction between Alzheimer’s pathology and α-syn pathology is important to the progression of cognitive dysfunction in PD, longitudinal observational studies must be followed. In this review, the neuropathological nature of heterogeneous cognitive decline in PD is briefly discussed, followed by a summarized interpretation of baseline CSF biomarkers derived from the data in the PPMI study. The combination of clinical, biochemical, genetic and imaging biomarkers of PD constitutes a feasible strategy to predict the heterogeneous progression of PD. PMID:27240810

  4. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses

    Wright, Christian D.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved…

  5. Physical activity, sleep, and nutrition do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Barberà, Elena; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisc

  6. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  7. Do cognitive models help in predicting the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder, phobia and depression after motor vehicle accidents? A prospective longitudinal study

    Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Diagnoses were established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV. Predictors included initial symptom severities; variables estab...

  8. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study

    Richard, Edo; Ben A. Schmand; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective. Design Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis. Participants Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=181) ...

  9. MRI and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a diagnostic accuracy study

    E. Richard; Schmand, B.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Gool, van, A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the incremental value of MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis after a short memory test for predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease from a pragmatic clinical perspective. DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study in a multicentre prospective cohort study. SETTING: Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with complete data on neuropsychological assessment, MRI of the brain and CSF analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n=1...

  10. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362351

  11. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization). In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal o...

  12. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cogn...

  13. Negative Cognitive Styles Synergistically Predict Suicidal Ideation in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: A Three-Year Prospective Study

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Burke, Taylor A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; O’Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Seligman, Nicole D.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Sevent...

  14. Does Self-perceived Mood Predict More Variance in Cognitive Performance Than Clinician-Rated Symptoms in Schizophrenia?

    Halari, Rozmin; Mehrotra, Ravi; Sharma, Tonmoy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-01-01

    Symptoms are known to account for a small variance in some cognitive functions in schizophrenia, but the influence of self-perceived mood remains largely unknown. The authors examined the influence of subjective mood states, psychopathology, and depressive symptoms in cognitive performance in a single investigation in schizophrenia. A group of 40 stable medicated patients with schizophrenia (20 men, 20 women) and 30 healthy comparison subjects (15 men, 15 women) were assessed on neurocognitiv...

  15. Symptom severity, affective and somatic symptom clusters predict poorer social cognition performance in current but not remitted major depressive disorder

    Tracy eAir; Michael James Weightman; Bernhard Theodor Baune

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social cognitive functioning of participants with major depressive disorder when compared with healthy controls, and to assess the impact of symptom severity and affective and somatic symptom clusters on social cognition. One hundred and eight adult patients with depression (66 remitted and 42 current) and 52 healthy controls were assessed using the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions: Social Perception Subtest, measuring facial affect recognition ...

  16. Cumulative biomedical risk and social cognition in the second year of life: prediction and moderation by responsive parenting

    Wade, Mark; Madigan, Sheri; Akbari, Emis; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and soc...

  17. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  18. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Miroslav Šram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1 the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2 determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  19. CSF β-Amyloid 1-42 Predicts Progression to Cognitive Impairment in Newly Diagnosed Parkinson Disease.

    Terrelonge, Mark; Marder, Karen S; Weintraub, Daniel; Alcalay, Roy N

    2016-01-01

    Low CSF β-amyloid 1-42 has been associated with cognitive decline in advanced Parkinson's disease; data from a single cohort suggest β-amyloid 1-42 may be an early marker of cognitive impairment. Newly diagnosed Parkinson's participants (mean duration, 6.9 months) in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (n = 341) were assessed at baseline (untreated state) and followed for 2 years. CSF β-amyloid 1-42, α-synuclein, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 were collected at baseline. Participants were classified as having cognitive impairment (CI) if scores on two of six cognitive tests were 1.5 standard deviations below the standardized mean based on published norms in healthy controls. Multivariable regression analyses were used to determine the association between baseline CSF markers with cognitive impairment, defined by neuropsychological testing performance at 2-year follow-up. Fifty-five participants (16.1 %) had CI at baseline and were not included in further analyses. Thirty-seven of the 286 participants without CI at baseline (12.9 %) developed CI at 2 years. Participants with CI at 2 years had significantly lower mean baseline CSF β-amyloid 1-42 levels than non-CI participants (343.8 vs. 380.4 pg/mL, p onset is an independent predictor of cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease. PMID:26330275

  20. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiolog...

  1. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. PMID:27215839

  2. Hippocampal Aβ expression, but not phosphorylated tau, predicts cognitive deficits following repeated peripheral poly I:C administration.

    White, J D; Eimerbrink, M J; Hayes, H B; Hardy, A; Van Enkevort, E A; Peterman, J L; Chumley, M J; Boehm, G W

    2016-10-15

    Alzheimer's disease is marked by the accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, and increases in phosphorylation of the microtubule associated protein, tau. Changes in these proteins are considered responsible, in part, for the progressive neuronal degeneration and cognitive deficits seen in AD. We examined the effect of repeated consecutive peripheral poly I:C injections on cognitive deficits, central Aβ, and phosphorylated tau accumulation, following three treatment durations: 7, 14, and 21 days. Forty-eight hours after the final injection, animals were trained in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm, and tested 24h later. Immediately after testing, the hippocampus was collected to quantify Aβ and phosphorylated tau accumulation. Results showed that, although poly I:C-induced Aβ was significantly elevated at all time points examined, poly I:C only disrupted cognition after 14 and 21 days of administration. Moreover, elevations in phosphorylated tau were not seen until the 14-day time point. Interestingly, phosphorylated tau expression then declined at the 21-day time point. Finally, we demonstrated that Aβ levels are a stronger predictor of cognitive dysfunction, explaining 37% of the variance, whereas phosphorylated tau levels only accounted for 0.2%. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that inflammation-induced elevation in Aβ disrupts cognition, independently of phosphorylated tau, and suggest that long-term administration of poly I:C may provide a model to investigate the contribution of long-term inflammation toward the development of Alzheimer's-like pathology. PMID:27449203

  3. Maternal Education Level Predicts Cognitive, Language, and Motor Outcome in Preterm Infants in the Second Year of Life.

    Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL. PMID:26890439

  4. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    Maria-Jesus eObregon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases. The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. Brite or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2 and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that activate UCP1 in WAT and

  5. Dopamine D1 Sensitivity in the Prefrontal Cortex Predicts General Cognitive Abilities and is Modulated by Working Memory Training

    Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D.

    2013-01-01

    A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to…

  6. Predicting Outcomes Following Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Child Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Genetic, Demographic and Clinical Information

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Lester, Kathryn J.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Tropeano, Maria; Creswell, Cathy; Collier, David A.; Cooper, Peter; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Rapee, Ronald M.; Roberts, Susanna; Donald, Jennifer A.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Within a therapeutic gene by environment (G × E) framework, we recently demonstrated that variation in the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism; "5HTTLPR" and marker rs6330 in Nerve Growth Factor gene; "NGF" is associated with poorer outcomes following cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for child anxiety…

  7. The Role of Early Symptom Trajectories and Pretreatment Variables in Predicting Treatment Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has focused on 2 different approaches to answering the question, "Which clients will respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression?" One approach focuses on rates of symptom change within the 1st few weeks of treatment, whereas the 2nd approach looks to pretreatment client variables (e.g., hopelessness) to…

  8. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  9. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality factor

  10. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A.; Zhang, Qixu; Elisabeth K. Beahm

    2013-01-01

    Repair of soft-tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft-tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM, incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were p...

  11. A problem with problem solving: motivational traits, but not cognition, predict success on novel operant foraging tasks

    van Horik, Jayden O.; Madden, Joah R.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of innovative foraging behaviours and success on problem-solving tasks are often used to assay differences in cognition, both within and across species. Yet the cognitive features of some problem-solving tasks can be unclear. As such, explanations that attribute cognitive mechanisms to individual variation in problem-solving performance have revealed conflicting results. We investigated individual consistency in problem-solving performances in captive-reared pheasant chicks, Phasianus colchicus, and addressed whether success depends on cognitive processes, such as trial-and-error associative learning, or whether performances may be driven solely via noncognitive motivational mechanisms, revealed through subjects' willingness to approach, engage with and persist in their interactions with an apparatus, or via physiological traits such as body condition. While subjects' participation and success were consistent within the same problems and across similar tasks, their performances were inconsistent across different types of task. Moreover, subjects' latencies to approach each test apparatus and their attempts to access the reward were not repeatable across trials. Successful individuals did not improve their performances with experience, nor were they consistent in their techniques in repeated presentations of a task. However, individuals that were highly motivated to enter the experimental chamber were more likely to participate. Successful individuals were also faster to approach each test apparatus and more persistent in their attempts to solve the tasks than unsuccessful individuals. Our findings therefore suggest that individual differences in problem-solving success can arise from inherent motivational differences alone and hence be achieved without inferring more complex cognitive processes.

  12. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA. PMID:26721459

  13. Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

    Lyon, Christopher J; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2003-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, including hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. Several adipokines are preferentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue, and the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines is elevated with increasing adiposity. Not surprisingly, approaches that reduce adipose tissue depots, including surgical fat removal, exercise, and reduced caloric intake, improve proinflammatory adipokine levels and reduce the severity of their resultant pathologies. Systemic adipokine levels can also be favorably altered by treatment with several of the existing drug classes used to treat insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Greater understanding of adipokine regulation, however, should result in the design of improved treatment strategies to control disease states associated with increase adiposity, an important outcome in view of the growing worldwide epidemic of obesity. PMID:12746274

  14. Engineering of vascularized adipose constructs.

    Wiggenhauser, Paul S; Müller, Daniel F; Melchels, Ferry P W; Egaña, José T; Storck, Katharina; Mayer, Helena; Leuthner, Peter; Skodacek, Daniel; Hopfner, Ursula; Machens, Hans G; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Schantz, Jan T

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current surgical techniques for the treatment of soft tissue defects. It is a challenge to find the appropriate scaffold that not only represents a suitable environment for cells but also allows fabrication of customized tissue constructs, particularly in breast surgery. We investigated two different scaffolds for their potential use in adipose tissue regeneration. Sponge-like polyurethane scaffolds were prepared by mold casting with methylal as foaming agent, whereas polycaprolactone scaffolds with highly regular stacked-fiber architecture were fabricated with fused deposition modeling. Both scaffold types were seeded with human adipose tissue-derived precursor cells, cultured and implanted in nude mice using a femoral arteriovenous flow-through vessel loop for angiogenesis. In vitro, cells attached to both scaffolds and differentiated into adipocytes. In vivo, angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout both constructs after 2 and 4 weeks, with angiogenesis being comparable in seeded and unseeded constructs. Fibrous tissue formation and adipogenesis were more pronounced on polyurethane foam scaffolds than on polycaprolactone prototyped scaffolds. In conclusion, both scaffold designs can be effectively used for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21850493

  15. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. Despite several methodological limitations inherent to both techniques, the results strongly suggest that microdialysis and catheterization provide similar estimates of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in steady-state experimental settings like rest and...

  16. Effects of Prior Knowledge and Piagetian Cognitive Development on the Process Skill of Prediction in the Learning Cycle.

    Lavoie, Derrick R.

    This study examined the science process skill of prediction problem solving using naturalistic research methodology and information-processing theory. The think-aloud interview led to the identification of several specific program exploration and prediction behaviors. A total of 14 high school biology students made predictions concerning the…

  17. Vibrational and structural investigations on adipose tissues

    Giarola, Marco; Guella, G.; Mariotto, G.; Monti, Francesca; Rossi, Barbara; Sanson, Andrea; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Two types of adipose tissue are found in mammals, including humans: the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). The WAT has a major role in lipid storage and body thermal insulation, while the BAT is a thermogenic tissue that produces heat by oxidizing fatty acids. Both structural characterization and spectroscopic discrimination of these different adipose tissues are matter of current interest, also in view of possible medical and ...

  18. Adiposity, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease

    Luchsinger, José A.; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic evidence linking the continuum of adiposity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanisms relating adiposity and T2D to AD may include hyperinsulinemia, advanced products of glycosilation, cerebrovascular disease, and products of adipose tissue metabolism. Elevated adiposity in middle age is related to a higher risk of AD but the data on this association in old age is conflicting. Several studies ha...

  19. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Harry J. Mersmann; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. ...

  20. Can an 18-point clock-drawing scoring system predict dementia in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment?

    Babins, Lennie; Slater, Marie-Eve; Whitehead, Victor; Chertkow, Howard

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a clock-drawing scoring system better suited to detecting possible early markers of dementia in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We modified the scoring system of Freedman et al. (1994), in which the major components are integrity of the circle, placement and size of the hands, and placement and sequence of the numbers. We rescored the clock-drawing test using a novel 18-point scoring system, which emphasizes hand elements-number of hands, direction indicated, and size differences. We retrospectively assessed 123 individuals (ages 58-88 years) selected from the Memory Clinic at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal. These consisted of 21 normal elderly individuals (NORM group), 41 participants with mild cognitive impairment who did not develop dementia on follow-up visits (MCI-NP), 41 participants with mild cognitive impairment who became demented after a 48-month follow-up (MCI-D), and 20 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). On the 18-point system, the MCI-NP and the MCI-D did not show any difference on overall total score (p = .166), However, using Pearson chi-squares to examine the within-categories effects comparing the mildly cognitively impaired groups (MCI-NP and MCI-D), there were three significant hand items that appear to be possible early markers of progression to dementia. The clock has two hands (p = .043), hour hand is towards correct number (p = .023), and size difference of the hands is respected (p = .004), all showed significant differences between progressors and nonprogressors. The 18-point clock-drawing scoring system may have advantages in better indicating MCI individuals more likely to progress to dementia. PMID:18938669

  1. Evidence that the blood biomarker SNTF predicts brain imaging changes and persistent cognitive dysfunction in mild TBI patients

    Robert eSiman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, or concussion, is not typically associated with abnormalities on computed tomography (CT, it nevertheless causes persistent cognitive dysfunction for many patients. Consequently, new prognostic methods for mTBI are needed to identify at-risk cases, especially at an early and potentially treatable stage. Here, we quantified plasma levels of the neurodegeneration biomarker calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF from 38 participants with CT-negative mTBI, orthopedic injury (OI and normal uninjured controls (age range 12-30 years, and compared them with findings from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI and long-term cognitive assessment. SNTF levels were at least twice the lower limit of detection in 7 of 17 mTBI cases and in 3 of 13 OI cases, but in none of the uninjured controls. An elevation in plasma SNTF corresponded with significant differences in fractional anisotropy and the apparent diffusion coefficient in the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus measured by DTI. Furthermore, increased plasma SNTF on the day of injury correlated significantly with cognitive impairment that persisted for at least 3 months, both across all study participants and also among the mTBI cases by themselves. The elevation in plasma SNTF in the subset of OI cases, accompanied by corresponding white matter and cognitive abnormalities, raises the possibility of identifying undiagnosed cases of mTBI. These data suggest that the blood level of SNTF on the day of a CT-negative mTBI may identify a subset of patients at risk of white matter damage and persistent disability. SNTF could have prognostic and diagnostic utilities in the assessment and treatment of mTBI.

  2. Poststroke dementia predicting survival in longterm follow-up: influence of prestroke cognitive decline and previous stroke

    Melkas, Susanna; Oksala, Niku KJ; Jokinen, Hanna; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Vataja, Risto; Oksala, Anni; Kaste, Markku; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of poststroke dementia on longterm survival after acute stroke, focusing also on the possible influence of prestroke cognitive decline and previous stroke. Methods: A total of 451 consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients admitted to hospital were included in the study and followed up to 12 years. Dementia was diagnosed three months after stroke in 115 patients (25.5%). Findings: In ...

  3. Nondeclarative learning in children with specific language impairment: predicting regularities in the visuomotor, phonological, and cognitive domains.

    Mayor-Dubois, C; Zesiger, P; Van der Linden, M; Roulet-Perez, E

    2014-01-01

    Ullman (2004) suggested that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) results from a general procedural learning deficit. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated children with SLI via procedural learning tasks exploring the verbal, motor, and cognitive domains. Results showed that compared with a Control Group, the children with SLI (a) were unable to learn a phonotactic learning task, (b) were able but less efficiently to learn a motor learning task and (c) succeeded in a cognitive learning task. Regarding the motor learning task (Serial Reaction Time Task), reaction times were longer and learning slower than in controls. The learning effect was not significant in children with an associated Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), and future studies should consider comorbid motor impairment in order to clarify whether impairments are related to the motor rather than the language disorder. Our results indicate that a phonotactic learning but not a cognitive procedural deficit underlies SLI, thus challenging Ullmans' general procedural deficit hypothesis, like a few other recent studies. PMID:23062060

  4. Cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience predict fine-grained regulation of arousal during prolonged threat.

    Hildebrandt, Lea K; McCall, Cade; Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation in the ongoing presence of a threat is essential for adaptive behavior. Threatening situations change over time and, as a consequence, require a fine-tuned, dynamic regulation of arousal to match the current state of the environment. Constructs such as cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience have been proposed as resources for adaptive emotion regulation, especially in a moment-to-moment fashion. Nevertheless, none of these constructs has been empirically related to the dynamic regulation of arousal as it unfolds over the course of a prolonged threatening episode. Here, we do so by placing participants in a threatening and evolving immersive virtual environment called Room 101, while recording their skin conductance. Subsequently, participants rated their subjective arousal continuously over the course of the experience. Participants who had shown greater cognitive flexibility in a separate task (i.e., fewer task-switching costs when switching to evaluating the valence of positive stimuli) showed better regulation of physiological arousal (skin conductance level), during less-threatening phases of Room 101. Individuals with higher trait resilience and individuals with higher resting heart rate variability showed more regulation in terms of their subjective arousal experience. The results indicate that emotional, cognitive, and physiological flexibility support nuanced adaptive regulation of objective and experienced arousal in the ongoing presence of threats. Furthermore, the results indicate that these forms of flexibility differentially affect automatic and objective versus reflective and subjective processes. PMID:26899260

  5. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  6. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  7. Trait rumination predicts onset of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder through trauma-related cognitive appraisals: A 4-year longitudinal study.

    Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Krempeniou, Andriana; van Hemert, Albert M; Elzinga, Bernet

    2015-08-01

    Trauma-related rumination and worry predict chronic PTSD. This study examined whether habitual rumination and worry measured prior to trauma exposure make persons more vulnerable to the onset of PTSD, presumably because habitual ruminators and worriers will be more prone to cognitively appraise trauma exposure in a negative way. A sample of 2981 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with past or current depressive and/or anxiety disorders were assessed at baseline and at follow-up four years later (n = 2402). At follow-up, 359 participants reported exposure to a traumatic event during the last four years of whom 52 (14.4%) had developed PTSD. Pre-trauma self-reported depression severity and trait rumination - but not trait worry-predicted onset of PTSD during follow-up, controlling for demographic and clinical history variables, as well as psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. The relation of trait rumination with onset of PTSD was partly mediated by the cognitive appraisal of the traumatic event and not by the affective reaction to trauma exposure. Repetitive negative thinking in the form of rumination may be a risk factor for onset of PTSD amenable to prevention and intervention. PMID:26093467

  8. Body adiposity index and incident hypertension: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Moliner Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G.; España Romero, Vanesa; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim The body adiposity index (BAI) has been recently proposed as a new method to estimate the percentage of body fat. The association between BAI and hypertension risk has not been investigated yet. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of BAI to predict hypertension in males and females compared with traditional body adiposity measures. Methods and results The present follow-up analysis comprised 10,309 individuals (2259 females) free of hypertension fro...

  9. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  10. Adipose tissue macrophages: amicus adipem?

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation.

  11. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute...... to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible...... quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and...

  12. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27073214

  13. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and physical activity maintenance theory

    Darko eJekauc

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the processes of physical activity (PA maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT. Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9 over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for exercise maintenance. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  14. Assessment for the Model Predicting of the Cognitive and Language Ability in the Mild Dementia by the Method of Data-Mining Technique

    Haewon Byeon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of cognitive and verbal functions are widely used as screening tests to detect early dementia. This study developed an early dementia prediction model for Korean elderly based on random forest algorithm and compared its results and precision with those of logistic regression model and decision tree model. Subjects of the study were 418 elderly (135 males and 283 females over the age of 60 in local communities. Outcome was defined as having dementia and explanatory variables included digit span forward, digit span backward, confrontational naming, Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT copy score, RCFT immediate recall, RCFT delayed recall, RCFT recognition true positive, RCFT recognition false positive, Seoul Verbal Learning Test (SVLT immediate recall, SVLT delayed recall, SVLT recognition true positive, SVLT recognition false positive, Korean Color Word Stroop Test (K-CWST color reading correct, and K-CWST color reading error. The Random Forests algorithm was used to develop prediction model and the result was compared with logistic regression model and decision tree based on chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID. As the result of the study, the tests with high level of predictive power in the detection of early dementia were verbal memory, visuospatial memory, naming, visuospatial functions, and executive functions. In addition, the random forests model was more accurate than logistic regression and CHIAD. In order to effectively detect early dementia, development of screening test programs is required which are composed of tests with high predictive power.

  15. Adipose Cell Size and Regional Fat Deposition as Predictors of Metabolic Response to Overfeeding in Insulin-Resistant and Insulin-Sensitive Humans.

    McLaughlin, Tracey; Craig, Colleen; Liu, Li-Fen; Perelman, Dalia; Allister, Candice; Spielman, Daniel; Cushman, Samuel W

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, but significant variability exists between similarly obese individuals, pointing to qualitative characteristics of body fat as potential mediators. To test the hypothesis that obese, insulin-sensitive (IS) individuals possess adaptive adipose cell/tissue responses, we measured subcutaneous adipose cell size, insulin suppression of lipolysis, and regional fat responses to short-term overfeeding in BMI-matched overweight/obese individuals classified as IS or insulin resistant (IR). At baseline, IR subjects exhibited significantly greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid (IHL), plasma free fatty acids, adipose cell diameter, and percentage of small adipose cells. With weight gain (3.1 ± 1.4 kg), IR subjects demonstrated no significant change in adipose cell size, VAT, or insulin suppression of lipolysis and only 8% worsening of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). Alternatively, IS subjects demonstrated significant adipose cell enlargement; decrease in the percentage of small adipose cells; increase in VAT, IHL, and lipolysis; 45% worsening of IMGU; and decreased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Smaller baseline adipose cell size and greater enlargement with weight gain predicted decline in IMGU, as did increase in IHL and VAT and decrease in insulin suppression of lipolysis. Weight gain in IS humans causes maladaptive changes in adipose cells, regional fat distribution, and insulin resistance. The correlation between development of insulin resistance and changes in adipose cell size, VAT, IHL, and insulin suppression of lipolysis highlight these factors as potential mediators between obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26884438

  16. Cognitive Difficulty and Format of Exams Predicts Gender and Socioeconomic Gaps in Exam Performance of Students in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Wright, Christian D; Eddy, Sarah L; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Abshire, Elizabeth; Blankenbiller, Margaret; Brownell, Sara E

    2016-01-01

    Recent reform efforts in undergraduate biology have recommended transforming course exams to test at more cognitively challenging levels, which may mean including more cognitively challenging and more constructed-response questions on assessments. However, changing the characteristics of exams could result in bias against historically underserved groups. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent the characteristics of instructor-generated tests impact the exam performance of male and female and middle/high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) students enrolled in introductory biology courses. We collected exam scores for 4810 students from 87 unique exams taken across 3 yr of the introductory biology series at a large research university. We determined the median Bloom's level and the percentage of constructed-response questions for each exam. Despite controlling for prior academic ability in our models, we found that males and middle/high-SES students were disproportionately favored as the Bloom's level of exams increased. Additionally, middle/high-SES students were favored as the proportion of constructed-response questions on exams increased. Given that we controlled for prior academic ability, our findings do not likely reflect differences in academic ability level. We discuss possible explanations for our findings and how they might impact how we assess our students. PMID:27252299

  17. Waves of adipose tissue growth in the genetically obese Zucker fatty rat.

    Jennifer MacKellar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In mammals, calories ingested in excess of those used are stored primarily as fat in adipose tissue; consistent ingestion of excess calories requires an enlargement of the adipose tissue mass. Thus, a dysfunction in adipose tissue growth may be a key factor in insulin resistance due to imbalanced fat storage and disrupted insulin action. Adipose tissue growth requires the recruitment and then the development of adipose precursor cells, but little is known about these processes in vivo. METHODOLOGY: In this study, adipose cell-size probability distributions were measured in two Zucker fa/fa rats over a period of 151 and 163 days, from four weeks of age, using micro-biopsies to obtain subcutaneous (inguinal fat tissue from the animals. These longitudinal probability distributions were analyzed to assess the probability of periodic phenomena. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue growth in this strain of rat exhibits a striking temporal periodicity of approximately days. A simple model is proposed for the periodicity, with PPAR signaling driven by a deficit in lipid uptake capacity leading to the periodic recruitment of new adipocytes. This model predicts that the observed period will be diet-dependent.

  18. Prediction

    Woollard, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we will look at the ways in which you can use ICT in the classroom to support hypothesis and prediction and how modern technology is enabling: pattern seeking, extrapolation and interpolation to meet the challenges of the information explosion of the 21st century.

  19. Predicting optimal outcomes in cognitive therapy or interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed individuals using the personalized advantage index approach

    M.J.H. Huibers; Z.D. Cohen; L.H.J.M. Lemmens; A. Arntz; F.P.M.L. Peeters; P. Cuijpers; R.J. DeRubeis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works b

  20. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    Ha, Ki-Young; Park, Hojin; Park, Seung-Ha; Lee, Byung-Il; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background The survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the process of fat absorption were studied. Methods Adipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice wer...

  1. CT-demonstration of adipose tissue of the sinus cavernosus

    Adipose bodies of the sinus cavernosus - the only genuine intracranial adipose tissue - can be demonstrated well by CT. They appear as polymorph well defined hypodense objects in unilateral or bilateral manifestation. Adipose bodies most frequently show a size between 4 and 9 mm and densities about -20 to -40 HE. Occasionally the adipose bodies directly lead into the adipose tissue of the orbit. (orig.)

  2. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Marco Calogero Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.

  3. Open-Minded Cognition.

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  4. BMI changes during childhood and adolescence as predictors of amount of adult subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men: the GOOD Study

    Kindblom, Jenny M; Lorentzon, Mattias; Hellqvist, Asa;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The amount of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome. It is unclear how BMI changes during childhood and adolescence predict adult fat distribution. We hypothesized that there are critical periods during development for the prediction of adult subcutaneous...... and visceral fat mass by BMI changes during childhood and adolescence. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed growth charts were retrieved for the men participating in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study (n = 612). Body composition was analyzed using dual...... unchanged BMI Z score but an unaffected amount of visceral adipose tissue. BMI changes during adolescence predict both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the abdomen, whereas BMI changes during late childhood predict only the subcutaneous adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of visceral adipose...

  5. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E;

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI...... (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic...

  6. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  7. Multi-modal MRI analysis with disease-specific spatial filtering: initial testing to predict mild cognitive impairment patients who convert to Alzheimer’s disease

    Kenichi eOishi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alterations of the gray and white matter have been identified in Alzheimer’s disease (AD by structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. However, whether the combination of these modalities could increase the diagnostic performance is unknown.Methods: Participants included 19 AD patients, 22 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI patients, and 22 cognitively normal elderly (NC. The aMCI group was further divided into an aMCI-converter group (converted to AD dementia within three years, and an aMCI-stable group who did not convert in this time period. A T1-weighted image, a T2 map, and a DTI of each participant were normalized, and voxel-based comparisons between AD and NC groups were performed. Regions-of-interest, which defined the areas with significant differences between AD and NC, were created for each modality and named disease-specific spatial filters (DSF. Linear discriminant analysis was used to optimize the combination of multiple MRI measurements extracted by DSF to effectively differentiate AD from NC. The resultant DSF and the discriminant function were applied to the aMCI group to investigate the power to differentiate the aMCI-converters from the aMCI-stable patients. Results: The multi-modal approach with AD-specific filters led to a predictive model with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.93, in differentiating aMCI-converters from aMCI-stable patients. This AUC was better than that of a single-contrast-based approach, such as T1-based morphometry or diffusion anisotropy analysis. Conclusion: The multi-modal approach has the potential to increase the value of MRI in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD.

  8. Prediction of Vigilant Attention and Cognitive Performance Using Self-Reported Alertness, Circadian Phase, Hours since Awakening, and Accumulated Sleep Loss.

    Bermudez, Eduardo B; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Czeisler, Charles A; Cohen, Daniel A; Wyatt, James K; Phillips, Andrew J K

    2016-01-01

    Sleep restriction causes impaired cognitive performance that can result in adverse consequences in many occupational settings. Individuals may rely on self-perceived alertness to decide if they are able to adequately perform a task. It is therefore important to determine the relationship between an individual's self-assessed alertness and their objective performance, and how this relationship depends on circadian phase, hours since awakening, and cumulative lost hours of sleep. Healthy young adults (aged 18-34) completed an inpatient schedule that included forced desynchrony of sleep/wake and circadian rhythms with twelve 42.85-hour "days" and either a 1:2 (n = 8) or 1:3.3 (n = 9) ratio of sleep-opportunity:enforced-wakefulness. We investigated whether subjective alertness (visual analog scale), circadian phase (melatonin), hours since awakening, and cumulative sleep loss could predict objective performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), an Addition/Calculation Test (ADD) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Mathematical models that allowed nonlinear interactions between explanatory variables were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Subjective alertness was the single best predictor of PVT, ADD, and DSST performance. Subjective alertness alone, however, was not an accurate predictor of PVT performance. The best AIC scores for PVT and DSST were achieved when all explanatory variables were included in the model. The best AIC score for ADD was achieved with circadian phase and subjective alertness variables. We conclude that subjective alertness alone is a weak predictor of objective vigilant or cognitive performance. Predictions can, however, be improved by knowing an individual's circadian phase, current wake duration, and cumulative sleep loss. PMID:27019198

  9. Prediction of Vigilant Attention and Cognitive Performance Using Self-Reported Alertness, Circadian Phase, Hours since Awakening, and Accumulated Sleep Loss.

    Eduardo B Bermudez

    Full Text Available Sleep restriction causes impaired cognitive performance that can result in adverse consequences in many occupational settings. Individuals may rely on self-perceived alertness to decide if they are able to adequately perform a task. It is therefore important to determine the relationship between an individual's self-assessed alertness and their objective performance, and how this relationship depends on circadian phase, hours since awakening, and cumulative lost hours of sleep. Healthy young adults (aged 18-34 completed an inpatient schedule that included forced desynchrony of sleep/wake and circadian rhythms with twelve 42.85-hour "days" and either a 1:2 (n = 8 or 1:3.3 (n = 9 ratio of sleep-opportunity:enforced-wakefulness. We investigated whether subjective alertness (visual analog scale, circadian phase (melatonin, hours since awakening, and cumulative sleep loss could predict objective performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT, an Addition/Calculation Test (ADD and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST. Mathematical models that allowed nonlinear interactions between explanatory variables were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. Subjective alertness was the single best predictor of PVT, ADD, and DSST performance. Subjective alertness alone, however, was not an accurate predictor of PVT performance. The best AIC scores for PVT and DSST were achieved when all explanatory variables were included in the model. The best AIC score for ADD was achieved with circadian phase and subjective alertness variables. We conclude that subjective alertness alone is a weak predictor of objective vigilant or cognitive performance. Predictions can, however, be improved by knowing an individual's circadian phase, current wake duration, and cumulative sleep loss.

  10. Prediction of Vigilant Attention and Cognitive Performance Using Self-Reported Alertness, Circadian Phase, Hours since Awakening, and Accumulated Sleep Loss

    Bermudez, Eduardo B.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Wyatt, James K.; Phillips, Andrew J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep restriction causes impaired cognitive performance that can result in adverse consequences in many occupational settings. Individuals may rely on self-perceived alertness to decide if they are able to adequately perform a task. It is therefore important to determine the relationship between an individual’s self-assessed alertness and their objective performance, and how this relationship depends on circadian phase, hours since awakening, and cumulative lost hours of sleep. Healthy young adults (aged 18–34) completed an inpatient schedule that included forced desynchrony of sleep/wake and circadian rhythms with twelve 42.85-hour “days” and either a 1:2 (n = 8) or 1:3.3 (n = 9) ratio of sleep-opportunity:enforced-wakefulness. We investigated whether subjective alertness (visual analog scale), circadian phase (melatonin), hours since awakening, and cumulative sleep loss could predict objective performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), an Addition/Calculation Test (ADD) and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Mathematical models that allowed nonlinear interactions between explanatory variables were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Subjective alertness was the single best predictor of PVT, ADD, and DSST performance. Subjective alertness alone, however, was not an accurate predictor of PVT performance. The best AIC scores for PVT and DSST were achieved when all explanatory variables were included in the model. The best AIC score for ADD was achieved with circadian phase and subjective alertness variables. We conclude that subjective alertness alone is a weak predictor of objective vigilant or cognitive performance. Predictions can, however, be improved by knowing an individual’s circadian phase, current wake duration, and cumulative sleep loss. PMID:27019198

  11. The value of structural MRI measurements of cerebral atrophy in predicting the rate of cognitive decline in the non-demented elderly: a GEE analysis based on data from the Vienna transdanube aging study

    The main objective of this study was the assessment of various structural measurements of cerebral atrophy at baseline and the evaluation of their potential value in predicting future cognitive decline in a longitudinal study design. Data were drawn from the Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study. Magnetic resonance images of 532 subjects aged 75-76 years at baseline were analyzed to assess 8 different cerebral atrophy markers. A population averaged model with the corresponding analytical technique of generalized estimating equations (GEE) were applied to the birth-cohort to assess associations between the MRI-based atrophy markers and 6 cognitive test scores at baseline and two follow-up investigations. Cognitive tests were comprised of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME), Verbal Fluency (VF) and the Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA, TMTB). Vascular risk factors and several other covariates that were available in the VITA database were included as additional predictors in the longitudinal data analysis. Severity of right hippocampal head atrophy predicted the rate of cognitive decline in all 6 test scores. (MMSE: β =-0.507; p = 0.002, BNT: β = -1.090; p = 0.004, FOME: β = -0.291; p = 0.003, VF: β = 0.718; p = 0.025, TMTA: Exp(β) = 0.123; p < 0.001, TMTB: Exp(β) = 0.238; p = 0.036); severity of left hippocampal head atrophy followed closely, predicting similar decline in 5 test scores. The degree of ventricular atrophy assessed using the nucleus caudatus index predicted cognitive decline in MMSE scores (β = -0.372; p < 0.001), FOME scores (β = -0.689; p = 0.002) and VF scores (β = 0.449; p = 0.003); the cella media index predicted the rate of cognitive decline in MMSE scores (β = -0.523; p < 0.001), FOME scores (β = -0.686; p = 0.010), VF scores (β = 0.511; p = 0.010) and TMTB scores (Exp(β) = 0.120; p = 0.004).The degree of hippocampal head atrophy is the strongest predictor of

  12. Mothers' Cognitive References to 2-Year-Olds Predict Theory of Mind at Ages 6 and 10

    Ensor, Rosie; Devine, Rory T.; Marks, Alex; Hughes, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Mothers' mental-state references predict individual differences in preschoolers' false-belief (FB) understanding; less is known about the origins of corresponding variation in school-age children. To address this gap, 105 children completed observations with their mothers at child ages 2 and 6, three FB tasks and a verbal comprehension…

  13. The adipose organ at a glance

    Saverio Cinti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ – a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ’s plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that ‘browning’ of the adipose organ curbs these disorders.

  14. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  15. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  16. Sensory Bias Predicts Postural Stability, Anxiety, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Adults Walking in Novel Discordant Conditions

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their scores on a collective measure of anxiety, cognition, and postural stability in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). A treadmill was mounted to a motion base platform positioned 2 m behind a large visual screen. Training consisted of three walking sessions, each within a week of the previous visit, that presented four 5-minute exposures to various combinations of support surface and visual scene manipulations, all lateral sinusoids. The conditions were scene translation only, support surface translation only, simultaneous scene and support surface translations in-phase, and simultaneous scene and support surface translations 180 out-of-phase. During the Transfer Test, the trained participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. A visual sinusoidal roll perturbation, with twice the original flow rate, was superimposed on a sinusoidal support surface roll perturbation that was 90 out of phase with the scene. A high correlation existed between normalized torso translation, measured in the scene-only condition at the first visit, and a combined measure of normalized heart rate, stride frequency, and reaction time at the transfer test. Results suggest that visually dependent participants experience decreased postural stability, increased anxiety, and increased reaction times compared to their less visually dependent counterparts when negotiating novel discordant conditions.

  17. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  18. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment

    Santacana, Martí; Arias, Bárbara; Mitjans, Marina; Bonillo, Albert; Montoro, María; Rosado, Sílvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Pérez, Víctor; Forero, Carlos G.; Fullana, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards “personalized medicine”. Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD). Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories) in patients with PD (N = 97) who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect. Results We identified two response trajectories (“high response” and “low response”), and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables. Conclusions We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome) approaches. PMID:27355213

  19. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Rúben

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of n...

  20. Adipose Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Shah, Arti; Mehta, Nehal; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2008-01-01

    Adiposity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of adipose inflammation, because these may represent therapeutic targets for insulin resistance and for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. The initial insult in adipose inflammation and insulin resistance, mediated by macrophage recruitment and endogenous ligand ac...

  1. Prediction

    Sornette, Didier

    2010-01-01

    This chapter first presents a rather personal view of some different aspects of predictability, going in crescendo from simple linear systems to high-dimensional nonlinear systems with stochastic forcing, which exhibit emergent properties such as phase transitions and regime shifts. Then, a detailed correspondence between the phenomenology of earthquakes, financial crashes and epileptic seizures is offered. The presented statistical evidence provides the substance of a general phase diagram for understanding the many facets of the spatio-temporal organization of these systems. A key insight is to organize the evidence and mechanisms in terms of two summarizing measures: (i) amplitude of disorder or heterogeneity in the system and (ii) level of coupling or interaction strength among the system's components. On the basis of the recently identified remarkable correspondence between earthquakes and seizures, we present detailed information on a class of stochastic point processes that has been found to be particu...

  2. Advance prediction of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is considered as a precursor state of Alzheimer disease (AD). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain blood flow imaging was investigated in MCI and it's relevance to the prognosis of MCI was evaluated in an attempt define the characteristics of brain blood flow imaging of MCI (amnestic MCI; aMCI) converting to AD. Ninety-two patients over 60 years old with amnesia were studied. 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT brain blood flow examinations of the subject under drug-free conditions were conducted and imaging was analyzed according to the first clinical diagnosis. Patients given a diagnosis of MCI on the first clinical diagnosis, were examined again after 2 years and the SPECT imaging before 2 years previously was classified and analyzed. Of them, there were 35 MCI patients, converting of 13 AD patients (37.1%; aMCI), 10 MCI patients (28.6%; non-converter), 4 depression patients (11.4%; Depression type MCI (dMCI)), 1 Geriatric psychosis patient, but 7 patients dropped out. In the aMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. In the dMCI group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior cingulate. In the non-converter group, relative hypoperfusion was recognized in the basal forebrain. The hypoperfusion of the precuneus in aMCI, and the hypoperfusion of the right frontal lobe (DLPFC, dorsal-anterior cingulate) in dMCI were characteristic brain blood-flow abnormalities. We believe 99mTc-ECD SPECT brain blood flow imaging to be useful in the diagnosis of aMCI and in the early detection of depression. (author)

  3. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: The contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Caroline eHornung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners’ nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.

  4. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: the contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Hornung, Caroline; Schiltz, Christine; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners' nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary) and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills) on first grade math achievement (i.e., arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation) assessed 1 year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms. PMID:24772098

  5. Internally-directed cognition and mindfulness:An integrative perspective derived from reactive versus predictive control systems theory

    Mattie eTops

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we will apply the Predictive And Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory as a framework that integrates competing theories of neural substrates of awareness by describing the default mode network (DMN and anterior insula (AI as parts of two different behavioral and homeostatic control systems. The DMN, a network that becomes active at rest when there is no external stimulation or task to perform, has been implicated in self-reflective awareness and prospection. By contrast, the AI is associated with awareness and task-related attention. This has led to competing theories stressing the role of the DMN in self-awareness versus the role of interoceptive and emotional information integration in the AI in awareness of the emotional moment. In PARCS, the respective functions of the DMN and AI in a specific control system explains their association with different qualities of awareness, and how mental states can shift from one state (e.g., prospective self-reflection to the other (e.g., awareness of the emotional moment depending on the relative dominance of control systems. These shifts between reactive and predictive control are part of processes that enable the intake of novel information, integration of this novel information within existing knowledge structures, and the creation of a continuous personal context in which novel information can be integrated and understood. As such, PARCS can explain key characteristics of mental states, such as their temporal and spatial focus (e.g., a focus on the here and now vs. the future; a 1st person vs. a 3rd person perspective. PARCS further relates mental states to brain states and functions, such as activation of the DMN or hemispheric asymmetry in frontal cortical functions. Together, PARCS deepens the understanding of a broad range of mental states, including mindfulness, mind wandering, rumination, autobiographical memory, imagery, and the experience of self.

  6. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  7. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  8. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    A method for measurement of capillary permeability using external registration of gamma emitting isotopes after close arterial bolus injection was applied to the isolated inguinal fat pad in slightly fasting rabbits. An average extraction of 26 per cent for 51Cr-EDTA was found at a plasma flow of...... about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  9. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  10. P15.08NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AFTER MICROSURGICAL RESECTION OF BRAIN TUMORS: THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF COGNITIVE BACKGROUND, AGE AND EDUCATION

    Sindorio, C.; Abbritti, R.V.; Otera, R.; Quattropani, M.C.; Germanò, A.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychological assessment of patients suffering from brain tumors provides a functional map of cognitive impairment regarding memory, attention, visuospatial and visuo-constructive abilities related to the tumor's location. Several studies reported the clinical and prognostic value of pre and post-operative cognitive and behavioral assessment in neuroncology. Some authors demonstrated that age, education and gender may influence the cognitive functions, while others argued t...

  11. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  12. Predicting the outcome of a cognitive-behavioral group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a one-year follow-up study

    Zonneveld Lyonne NL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT is effective for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS, some therapists in clinical practice seem to believe that CBT outcome will diminish if psychiatric comorbidity is present. The result is that patients with a psychiatric comorbidity are redirected from treatment for UPS into treatment for mental health problems. To explore whether this selection and allocation are appropriate, we explored whether CBT outcomes in UPS could be predicted by variables assessed at baseline and used in routine-practice assessments. Methods Patients (n=162 with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or chronic pain disorder were followed up until one year after they had attended a CBT group training. The time-points of the follow-up were at the end of CBT (immediate outcome, three months after CBT (short-term outcome, and one year after CBT (long-term outcome. CBT outcome was measured using the Physical Component Summary of the SF-36, which was the primary outcome measure in the randomized controlled trial that studied effectiveness of the CBT group training. Predictors were: 1. psychological symptoms (global severity score of SCL-90, 2. personality-disorder characteristics (sum of DSM-IV axis II criteria confirmed, 3. psychiatric history (past presence of DSM-IV axis I disorders, and 4. health-related quality of life in the mental domain (mental component summary of SF-36. The effect of this predictor set was explored using hierarchical multiple regression analyses into which these predictors had been entered simultaneously, after control for: a. pretreatment primary outcome scores, b. age, c. gender, d. marital status, and e. employment. Results The predictor set was significant only for short-term CBT outcome, where it explained 15% of the variance. A better outcome was predicted by more psychological symptoms, fewer personality-disorder characteristics, the presence of a psychiatric

  13. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue

    Weisberg, Stuart P.; McCann, Daniel; Desai, Manisha; Rosenbaum, Michael; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Ferrante, Anthony W

    2003-01-01

    Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We fou...

  14. Methods in Enzymology (MIE): Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology-: Chapter 7: Imaging of Adipose Tissue

    Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher; Gericke, Martin T; Jeffery, Elise; Colman, Laura; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that specializes in lipid metabolism and is distributed throughout the body in distinct white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. These tissues have opposing roles in lipid metabolism with WAT storing excessive caloric intake in the form of lipid, and BAT burning lipid through non-shivering thermogenesis. As accumulation of lipid in mature adipocytes of WAT leads to obesity and increased risk of comorbidity (Pi-Sunyer et al., 1998),...

  15. Differential fatty acid profile in adipose and non-adipose tissues in obese mice

    Li, Mengting; Fu, Weisi; Li, Xiang-An

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Early studies indicated that adipose tissue from obese mice contains more saturated fatty acids and that the saturated fatty acids activate TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling, which contributes to inflammation in adipose tissue. In this study, we determined fatty acid profile in non-adipose tissues from obese (db/db) mice and compared with that from lean mice. Unexpectedly, in contrast to a significant increase in saturat...

  16. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue may promote angiogenesis for adipose tissue remodeling in obesity

    Pang, Can; Gao, Zhanguo; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Jia, Weiping; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    The biological role of macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in obesity remains to be fully understood. We hypothesize that macrophages may act to stimulate angiogenesis in the adipose tissue. This possibility was examined by determining macrophage expression of angiogenic factor PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and regulation of tube formation of endothelial cells by PDGF. The data suggest that endothelial cell density was reduced in the adipose tissue of ob/ob mice. Expression of...

  17. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  18. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beig...

  19. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifi...

  20. Obesity and adipose tissue endocrine function

    Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have profoundly changed the concept of adipose tissue from being an energy depot to an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed as ‘adipokines’.They act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines affects multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, immunity, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and haemostasis. Increased activity of the tumor n...

  1. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Svedman Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by str...

  2. High serum resistin is associated with an increase in adiposity but not a worsening of insulin resistance in Pima Indians

    de Courten, Barbora; Degawa-Yamauchi, Mikako; Considine, Robert V;

    2004-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine with putative prodiabetogenic properties. Like other hormones secreted by adipose tissue, resistin is being investigated as a possible etiologic link between excessive adiposity and insulin resistance. Although there is growing evidence that circulating levels of this...... adipokine are proportional to the degree of adiposity, an effect on insulin resistance in humans remains unproven. To evaluate the relations among resistin, obesity, and insulin resistance, we measured fasting serum resistin levels in 113 nondiabetic (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) Pima Indians (ages 29......, circulating resistin levels are proportional to the degree of adiposity, but not the degree of insulin resistance. We unexpectedly found that high serum resistin levels do predict future increases in percent body fat. Our data suggest that resistin promotes obesity but not obesity-associated insulin...

  3. Determinants of Central Adiposity among Iranian Population

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.

  4. Estimating adipose tissue in the chest wall using ultrasonic and alternate 40K and biometric measurements

    The percentage of adipose (fat) tissue in the chest wall must be known to accurately measure Pu in the human lung. Correction factors of 100% or more in X-ray detection efficiency are common in a normal population of individuals of differing body composition and have been determined in the past by means of elaborate and costly ultrasonic measurements of the subject's chest. Methods using simple 40K and biometric measurement techniques have been investigated to determine the adipose content in the human chest wall. These methods compare favorably with ultrasonic measurements and allow laboratories not possessing ultrasonic equipment to make appropriate corrections for x-ray detection efficiency. These methods predict adipose content to within 15% of the absolute ultrasonic value. (author)

  5. 奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱对细胞因子和认知功能损伤的影响%Effects of glucose metabolic disorder on adipose-derived cytokine and cognitive impairment in olanzapine-induced obese rats

    买买提热厦提·吐尔逊; 马晓洁; 张文惠; 夏小龙; 桂学萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the adipose-derived cytokine changes and aggravate cognitive impairment in olanzapine-induced obese rats caused by glucose metabolic disorder.Methods 20 rats fed with ordinary fodder were used as normal control group,olanzapine group of 20 rats fed with olanzapine(1.2 mg · kg-1) and ordinary fodder for 4 weeks.Successfully established experimental model rats induced by olanzapine after 4 weeks.Serum tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α),interleukins 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) contents were measured by Elisa.Serum glucose contents were determined by biochemical colorimetric method and blood lipid contents determined with automatic biochemical analyzer.Learning,memory capacity and escape latency were detected with Maze test.Results After administration 4 weeks,the levels of body weight,blood glucose and blood lipid in olanzapine group were higher than those in control group.The serum TNF-α((1.57±0.04) ng/ml),IL-6((127.47±11.38) pg/ml) and CRP ((2.68±0.06) mg/ml) in olanzapine group rised,compared with control group ((0.59±0.03) ng/ml,(96.58± 8.77) pg/ml and (1.86±0.04) mg/ml respectively),the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Electric shocks and escape latency in olanzapine group were higher than those in control group (P<0.05).The FBS had positive correlation with hs-CRP,IL-6 and TNF-α respectively (r=0.385,0.260,1.280; all P<0.05).Conclusion Olanzapine can induce metabolic disturbance of blood glucose,blood hpid,and the increase of serum TNF-α,IL-6 and CRP levels in rats.Positive correlation is showed between TNF-of and FBS.Hyperglycemia can promote cell toxicity and leads to cognitive dysfunction in rats.%目的 观察奥氮平诱导肥胖大鼠糖脂代谢紊乱对脂肪源性细胞因子影响和认知功能损伤实验研究.方法 40只大鼠随机分为对照组和实验组,每组20只.对照组大鼠进行普通饲料喂养,实验组在普通饲粮喂养基础上行奥氮平(1.2 mg·kg-1)灌胃4周

  6. Cognitive Skills, Student Achievement Tests, and Schools

    Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; West, Martin R.; Leonard, Julia Anne; Bish, Crystal E.; Martin, Rebecca E.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive s...

  7. Cognitive Skills, Student Achievement Tests, and Schools

    Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; West, Martin R.; Leonard, Julia A.; Bish, Crystal E.; Martin, Rebecca E.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N=1,367) of 8th-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills...

  8. Does neuropsychological test performance predict outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and what is the role of underperformance?

    M.M. Goedendorp; S.P. van der Werf; G. Bleijenberg; M. Tummers; H. Knoop

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A subgroup of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has cognitive impairments, reflected by deviant neuropsychological test performance. However, abnormal test scores can also be caused by suboptimal effort. We hypothesized that worse neuropsychological test performance and underpe

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated biphenyl ethers in adipose tissue and matched serum from an E-waste recycling area (Wenling, China)

    To Date, the knowledge on relationship between PCBs/PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormones (THs) levels during pregnancy still needs to be extended. Meanwhile, studies on congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were limited. This study reports the levels of PCBs/PBDEs in serum-adipose tissue samples (n = 64) from expectant women living surrounding e-waste recycling sites in Wenling, China. Their concentrations varied from several to hundreds of ng g−1 lipid. Maternal exposure to PCBs was associated with lower TSH during pregnancy, suggesting possible implication for maternal health and fetal development. The compound levels between the adipose tissue and matched serum samples were highly correlated (p < 0.001), generating a predicted adipose-serum partitioning relationship for individual PCB congener and PBDE congener. Molecular characteristics, such as Kow value, molecular weight and molecular volume, may play a key role in the variable partitioning of some compounds between serum and adipose tissue. - Highlights: • PCBs/PBDEs were detected in the pregnant women from Wenling, China. • Exposure from e-waste recycling activities might considerably contribute to the elevated levels. • The adipose-serum partitioning ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were predicted. • Maternal exposure to PCBs may be associated with lower TSH during pregnancy. - The congener-specific adipose-serum ratios for PCBs/PBDEs were predicted in humans, and association of PCBs/PBDEs exposure was examined with THs levels

  10. COGNITIVE RESERVE IN DEMENTIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR COGNITIVE TRAINING

    Sara eMondini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cognitive reserve on a cognitive training (CT in a group of patients with dementia. 86 participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition (MMSE was obtained before (T0 and after (T1 the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia.

  11. Cognitive Changes

    ... for Cognitive Problems? Page reviewed by Dr. Joash Lazarus, NPF Movement Disorders Fellow, Department of Neurology at ... What Are the Alternative Treatments for Cognitive Problems? Anxiety Hallucinations/Delusions Speech and Swallowing Problems Vision Changes ...

  12. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes adult neurogenesis in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease mice

    Yufang Yan; Tuo Ma; Kai Gong; Qiang Ao; Xiufang Zhang; Yandao Gong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we transplanted adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into the hippo-campi of APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease model mice. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the number of newly generated (BrdU+) cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus was signiifcantly higher in Alzheimer’s disease mice after adipose-de-rived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, and there was also a significant increase in the number of BrdU+/DCX+neuroblasts in these animals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhanced neurogenic activity in the subventricular zone as well. Furthermore, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation reduced oxidative stress and alleviated cognitive impairment in the mice. Based on these ifndings, we propose that adipose-derived mes-enchymal stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous neurogenesis in both the subgranular and subventricular zones in APP/PS1 transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice, thereby facilitating functional recovery.

  13. Cognitive Engineering

    Wilson, Kyle M.; Helton, William S; Wiggins, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive engineering is the application of cognitive psychology and related disciplines to the design and operation of human–machine systems. Cognitive engineering combines both detailed and close study of the human worker in the actual work context and the study of the worker in more controlled environments. Cognitive engineering combines multiple methods and perspectives to achieve the goal of improved system performance. Given the origins of experimental psychology itself in issues regard...

  14. Does Bilingualism Influence Cognitive Aging?

    Bak, Thomas H.; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008–2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cog...

  15. Music Training, Cognition, and Personality

    Corrigall, Kathleen A.; E. Glenn eSchellenberg; Nicole M. Misura

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants...

  16. Associative learning and animal cognition

    Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Associative learning plays a variety of roles in the study of animal cognition from a core theoretical component to a null hypothesis against which the contribution of cognitive processes is assessed. Two developments in contemporary associative learning have enhanced its relevance to animal cognition. The first concerns the role of associatively activated representations, whereas the second is the development of hybrid theories in which learning is determined by prediction errors, both direc...

  17. Long-Term Treatment with Citicoline Prevents Cognitive Decline and Predicts a Better Quality of Life after a First Ischemic Stroke

    Jose Alvarez-Sabín

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke, as the leading cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment, has a very significant impact on patients’ quality of life (QoL. The objective of this study is to know the effect of citicoline treatment in Qol and cognitive performance in the long-term in patients with a first ischemic stroke. This is an open-label, randomized, parallel study of citicoline vs. usual treatment. All subjects were selected 6 weeks after suffering a first ischemic stroke and randomized into parallel arms. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after stroke, and QoL was measured using the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire at 2 years. 163 patients were followed during 2 years. The mean age was 67.5 years-old, and 50.9% were women. Age and absence of citicoline treatment were independent predictors of both utility and poor quality of life. Patients with cognitive impairment had a poorer QoL at 2 years (0.55 vs. 0.66 in utility, p = 0.015. Citicoline treatment improved significantly cognitive status during follow-up (p = 0.005. In conclusion, treatment with long-term citicoline is associated with a better QoL and improves cognitive status 2 years after a first ischemic stroke.

  18. Long-Term Treatment with Citicoline Prevents Cognitive Decline and Predicts a Better Quality of Life after a First Ischemic Stroke.

    Alvarez-Sabín, Jose; Santamarina, Estevo; Maisterra, Olga; Jacas, Carlos; Molina, Carlos; Quintana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, as the leading cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment, has a very significant impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study is to know the effect of citicoline treatment in Qol and cognitive performance in the long-term in patients with a first ischemic stroke. This is an open-label, randomized, parallel study of citicoline vs. usual treatment. All subjects were selected 6 weeks after suffering a first ischemic stroke and randomized into parallel arms. Neuropsychological evaluation was performed at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years after stroke, and QoL was measured using the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire at 2 years. 163 patients were followed during 2 years. The mean age was 67.5 years-old, and 50.9% were women. Age and absence of citicoline treatment were independent predictors of both utility and poor quality of life. Patients with cognitive impairment had a poorer QoL at 2 years (0.55 vs. 0.66 in utility, p = 0.015). Citicoline treatment improved significantly cognitive status during follow-up (p = 0.005). In conclusion, treatment with long-term citicoline is associated with a better QoL and improves cognitive status 2 years after a first ischemic stroke. PMID:26999113

  19. Measures of Adiposity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004

    R. Charon Gwynn, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionBody mass index (BMI and indicators of central adiposity have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, but ambiguity remains about which measure optimally predicts CVD risk and is best suited for different racial/ethnic groups. We sought to characterize excess adiposity among New York City adults and assess the potential associations between multiple adiposity indicators and CVD risk factors, by race/ethnicity.MethodsThe New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES is a population-based survey of noninstitutionalized New York City adult residents aged 20 years or older. We compared the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2, elevated waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88 cm for women, and elevated waist-to-height ratio (≥0.5 for participants in the 2004 NYC HANES (n = 1,912 and the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4,075. Logistic regression was used to assess potential associations between each of these indicators of excess adiposity and CVD risk factors (diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, overall and by race/ethnicity.ResultsThe prevalence of obesity among NYC HANES participants was 26% and of elevated waist circumference was 46%, both significantly lower than national estimates (31% and 52%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of elevated waist-to-height ratio was higher (82% vs 79%. Most measures of excess adiposity were significantly associated with all CVD risk factors. No single measure of excess adiposity emerged as most consistently predictive of CVD risk in the general population or by race/ethnicity.ConclusionNew York City has a lower prevalence of obesity and elevated waist circumference but a higher prevalence of elevated waist-to-height ratio than found nationally. Further investigation into the optimal adiposity measure to predict CVD risk across racial/ethnic populations may be warranted.

  20. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  1. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  2. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  3. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  4. : Cognitive complaints and cognitive decline.

    Dufouil, Carole; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether more cognitive complaints are associated with previous or future cognitive decline. DESIGN: Longitudinal; epidemiology vascular aging study. SETTING: Community in Nantes, France. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred thirty-three subjects, aged 59 to 71. MEASUREMENTS: Subjective cognitive complaints were recorded at 4-year follow-up examination in a prospective study of people aged 59 to 71 at study entry. Participants' cognitive performances were assessed repeatedly at e...

  5. Fundamental Cycles of Cognitive Growth.

    Pegg, John

    Over recent years, various theories have arisen to explain and predict cognitive development in mathematics education. We focus on an underlying theme that recurs throughout such theories: a fundamental cycle of growth in the learning of specific concepts, which we frame within broader global theories of individual cognitive growth. Our purpose is…

  6. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Granneman, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticit...

  7. Long-Term Treatment with Citicoline Prevents Cognitive Decline and Predicts a Better Quality of Life after a First Ischemic Stroke

    Alvarez-Sabín, Jose; Santamarina, Estevo; Maisterra, Olga; Jacas, Carlos; Molina, Carlos; Quintana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, as the leading cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment, has a very significant impact on patients’ quality of life (QoL). The objective of this study is to know the effect of citicoline treatment in Qol and cognitive performance in the long-term in patients with a first ischemic stroke. This is an open-label, randomized, parallel study of citicoline vs. usual treatment. All subjects were selected 6 weeks after suffering a first ischemic stroke and randomized into paralle...

  8. Cognitive modulation of pain and predictive coding. Comment on “Facing the experience of pain: A neuropsychological perspective” by Fabbro and Crescentini

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A.

    2014-09-01

    Pain is a phenomenologically complex experience whose sensory and psychological dimensions are deeply intertwined. In their perspective article, Fabbro and Crescentini [1] review the physiological and neural mechanisms underlying nociception and its cognitive modulation within the broader concept of suffering, which includes psychological pain [2] in its culturally mediated and existentially nuanced forms. The tight link between affective and cognitive processes, on the one hand, and pain, on the other, is illustrated by examining in turn the placebo effect, empathy for other people's afflictions, clinical depression, and the role that mindfulness-based practices may play in alleviating suffering.

  9. Cognitive distance

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  10. Advances in our understanding of adipose tissue homeostasis

    Stern, Jennifer H.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, numerous noteworthy papers focusing on adipose tissue physiology were published. Many of these articles showed the promise of adipose-tissue-targeted approaches for therapeutic intervention in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we highlight advances in the development and maintenance of brown and/or beige adipocytes and the metabolic implications of infammation in adipose tissues.

  11. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  12. Study and classification of the abdominal adiposity throughout the application of the two-dimensional predictive equation Garaulet et al., in the clinical practice Estudio y clasificación de la adiposidad abdominal mediante la aplicación de la ecuación predictiva bidimensional de Garaulet et al., en la práctica clínica

    C. M.ª Piernas Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The excess of visceral abdominal adipose tissue is one of the major concerns in obesity and its clinical treatment. Objective: To apply the two-dimensional predictive equation proposed by Garaulet et al. to determine the abdominal fat distribution and to compare the results with the body composition obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (M-BIA. Subjects/methods: We studied 230 women, who underwent anthropometry and M-BIA. The predictive equation was applied. Multivariate lineal and partial correlation analyses were performed with control for BMI and % body fat, using SPSS 15.0 with statistical significance P Introducción: El exceso de tejido adiposo abdominal visceral es una de las mayores preocupaciones en la obesidad y su tratamiento clínico. Objetivo: Aplicar la ecuación predictiva bidimensional propuesta por Garaulet et al., para determinar la distribución de la grasa abdominal y comparar los resultados con la composición corporal obtenida mediante el análisis de impedancia bioeléctrica multi-frecuencia (M-BIA. Sujetos/métodos: Estudiamos a 230 mujeres a las que se sometió a antropometría y M-BIA. Se aplicó la ecuación predicitiva. Se realizaron correlaciones lineales multivariadas y parciales controlando el IMC y el % de grasa corporal, utilizando SPSS 15.0 con significación estadística P < 0,05. Resultados: En global, se consideró que las mujeres tenían una distribución subcutánea de la grasa abdominal. La grasa troncal, regional y la masa muscular se asociaron negativamente con VA/SApredicted, mientras que le índice visceral obtenido mediante M-BIA se correlacionó positivamente con VA/SApredicted. Discusión/conclusión: La ecuación predictiva puede ser útil en la práctica clínica para obtener una clasificación segura, barata y precisa de la obesidad abdominal.

  13. Examining the integrity of measurement of cognitive abilities in the prediction of achievement: Comparisons and contrasts across variables from higher-order and bifactor models.

    Benson, Nicholas F; Kranzler, John H; Floyd, Randy G

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining cognitive ability and academic achievement relations have been based on different theoretical models, have employed both latent variables as well as observed variables, and have used a variety of analytic methods. Not surprisingly, results have been inconsistent across studies. The aims of this study were to (a) examine how relations between psychometric g, Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad abilities, and academic achievement differ across higher-order and bifactor models; (b) examine how well various types of observed scores corresponded with latent variables; and (c) compare two types of observed scores (i.e., refined and non-refined factor scores) as predictors of academic achievement. Results suggest that cognitive-achievement relations vary across theoretical models and that both types of factor scores tend to correspond well with the models on which they are based. However, orthogonal refined factor scores (derived from a bifactor model) have the advantage of controlling for multicollinearity arising from the measurement of psychometric g across all measures of cognitive abilities. Results indicate that the refined factor scores provide more precise representations of their targeted constructs than non-refined factor scores and maintain close correspondence with the cognitive-achievement relations observed for latent variables. Thus, we argue that orthogonal refined factor scores provide more accurate representations of the relations between CHC broad abilities and achievement outcomes than non-refined scores do. Further, the use of refined factor scores addresses calls for the application of scores based on latent variable models. PMID:27586067

  14. The Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour and College Grades: The Role of Cognition and Past Behaviour in the Prediction of Students' Academic Intentions and Achievements

    Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Cameron, David Lansing; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes influencing college students' academic achievement represents an important goal of educational research. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the relative influence of cognitive processes and measures of past behaviour in the prediction…

  15. Using Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Control Mastery Prototypes to Predict Change: A New Look at an Old Paradigm for Long-Term Single-Case Research

    Pole, Nnamdi; Ablon, J. Stuart; O'Connor, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method of testing models of change in individual long-term psychotherapy cases. A depressed client was treated with 208 sessions of control mastery therapy (CMT), an unmanualized approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Panels of experts developed prototypes…

  16. Contribution of adipose tissue to health span and longevity.

    Huffman, Derek M; Barzilai, Nir

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue accounts for approximately 20% (lean) to >50% (in extreme obesity) of body mass and is biologically active through its secretion of numerous peptides and release and storage of nutrients such as free fatty acids. Studies in rodents and humans have revealed that body fat distribution, including visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous (SC) fat and ectopic fat are critical for determining the risk posed by obesity. Specific depletion or expansion of the VF depot using genetic or surgical strategies in animal models has proven to have direct effects on metabolic characteristics and disease risk. In humans, there is compelling evidence that abdominal obesity most strongly predicts mortality risk, while in rats, surgical removal of VF improves mean and maximum life span. There is also growing evidence that fat deposition in ectopic depots such as skeletal muscle and liver can cause lipotoxicity and impair insulin action. Conversely, expansion of SC adipose tissue may confer protection from metabolic derangements by serving as a 'metabolic sink' to limit both systemic lipids and the accrual of visceral and ectopic fat. Treatments targeting the prevention of fat accrual in these harmful depots should be considered as a primary target for improving human health span and longevity. PMID:20703052

  17. Low serum leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rattensperger, Dirk; Zidek, Walter;

    2007-01-01

    Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy.......Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and immune function. It is unknown whether leptin predicts mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis therapy....

  18. Telomere length as a biomarker for adiposity changes after a multidisciplinary intervention in overweight/obese adolescents: the EVASYON study.

    Sonia García-Calzón

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Telomeres are biomarkers of biological aging. Shorter telomeres have been associated with increased adiposity in adults. However, this relationship remains unclear in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between telomere length (TL and adiposity markers in overweight/obese adolescents after an intensive program. We hypothesize that greater TL at baseline would predict a better response to a weight loss treatment. DESIGN SETTING PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: The EVASYON is a multidisciplinary treatment program for adolescents with overweight and obesity that is aimed at applying the intervention to all possibly involved areas of the individual, such as dietary habits, physical activity and cognitive and psychological profiles. Seventy-four participants (36 males, 38 females, 12-16 yr were enrolled in the intervention program: 2 months of an energy-restricted diet and a follow-up period (6 months. MAIN OUTCOME: TL was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline and after 2 months; meanwhile, anthropometric variables were also assessed after 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS: TL lengthened in participants during the intensive period (+1.9±1.0, p<0.001 being greater in overweight/obese adolescents with the shortest telomeres at baseline (r = -0.962, p<0.001. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that higher baseline TL significantly predicted a higher decrease in body weight (B = -1.53, p = 0.005; B = -2.25, p = 0.047 and in standard deviation score for body mass index (BMI-SDS (B = -0.22, p = 0.010; B = -0.47, p = 0.005 after the intensive and extensive period treatment respectively, in boys. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that a weight loss intervention is accompanied by a significant increase in TL in overweight/obese adolescents. Moreover, we suggest that initial longer TL could be a potential predictor for a better weight loss response.

  19. Visual cognition

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of essays covering issues in visual cognition presenting experimental techniques from cognitive psychology, methods of modeling cognitive processes on computers from artificial intelligence, and methods of studying brain organization from neuropsychology. Topics considered include: parts of recognition; visual routines; upward direction; mental rotation, and discrimination of left and right turns in maps; individual differences in mental imagery, computational analysis and the neurological basis of mental imagery: componental analysis.

  20. Cognitive Economics

    Kimball, Miles S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive Economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within Behavioral Economics, Labor Economics and the Economics of Education) that brings into play novel types of data—especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for Welfare Economics. A key theme of Cognitive Economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”),...

  1. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  2. Injectable biomaterials for adipose tissue engineering

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. (paper)

  3. Adipose tissue and fat cell biology

    Kopecký, Jan

    New York: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Pappas, A.), s. 201-224 ISBN 978-3-319-09942-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue * endocrine function * lipid mediators Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  4. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  5. Predictability of hand skill and cognitive abilities from craniofacial width in right- and left-handed men and women: relation of skeletal structure to cerebral function

    Dayi, Ertunc; Okuyan, Mukadder; Tan, Uner

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a family of homeobox genes involved in brain and craniofacial development was identified. In light of this genetic background, we hypothesized that some functional characteristics of human brain (hand skill, cognition) may be linked to some structural characteristics of human skull (e.g. craniofacial width) in humans. Hand preference was assessed by the Oldfield`s Handedness Questionaire. Hand skill was measured by Peg Moving Task. Face width was measured from the anteroposterior ce...

  6. Attitudes towards ads and age. A study in seniors. The combination of chronological and cognitive age as an effective predictive criterion of attitudes

    Moliner Tena, Miguel Ángel; Estrada Guillén, Marta; Monferrer Tirado, Diego; Sánchez García, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Older adults make up one of the markets with the greatest potential in the future. It is essential that businesses take the diversity within this group into account, and perform segmentation in order to obtain a favorable attitude towards the ad. The potential for segmentation by chronological age has been called into question in recent years, with cognitive age emerging as the main alternative. This research aims to analyses the relationship between the variables of attitude towards the ad, ...

  7. The Componential Model of Reading: Predicting First Grade Reading Performance of Culturally Diverse Students From Ecological, Psychological, and Cognitive Factors Assessed at Kindergarten Entry

    Hernandez, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S.; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and ...

  8. Circulating interleukin-6 in relation to adiposity, insulin action, and insulin secretion

    Vozarova, B; Weyer, C; Hanson, K;

    2001-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine produced and released in part by adipose tissue, are elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because recent studies suggest that markers of inflammation predict the development of type 2 diabetes, we examined w...... whether circulating plasma IL-6 concentrations were related to direct measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction in Pima Indians, a population with high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes.......Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine produced and released in part by adipose tissue, are elevated in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Because recent studies suggest that markers of inflammation predict the development of type 2 diabetes, we examined...

  9. Adipogenic Potential of Adipose Stem Cell Subpopulations

    Li, Han; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Marra, Kacey G.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Rubin, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Adipose stem cells represent a heterogenous population. Understanding the functional characteristics of subpopulations will be useful in developing adipose stem cell–based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The aim of this study was to define distinct populations within the stromal vascular fraction based on surface marker expression, and to evaluate the ability of each cell type to differentiate to mature adipocytes. Methods Subcutaneous whole adipose tissue was obtained by abdominoplasty from human patients. The stromal vascular fraction was separated and four cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry and studied. Candidate perivascular cells (pericytes) were defined as CD146+/CD31−/CD34−. Two CD31+ endothelial populations were detected and differentiated by CD34 expression. These were tentatively designated as mature endothelial (CD 31+/CD34−), and immature endothelial (CD31+/CD34+). Both endothelial populations were heterogeneous with respect to CD146. The CD31−/CD34+ fraction (preadipocyte candidate) was also CD90+ but lacked CD146 expression. Results Proliferation was greatest in the CD31−/CD34+ group and slowest in the CD146+ group. Expression of adipogenic genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and fatty acid binding protein 4, were significantly higher in the CD31−/CD34+ group compared with all other populations after in vitro adipogenic differentiation. This group also demonstrated the highest proportion of AdipoRed lipid staining. Conclusions The authors have isolated four distinct stromal populations from human adult adipose tissue and characterized their adipogenic potential. Of these four populations, the CD31/CD34+ group is the most prevalent and has the greatest potential for adipogenic differentiation. This cell type appears to hold the most promise for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21572381

  10. Cognitive maps

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...

  11. Adiponectin Induces A20 Expression in Adipose Tissue To Confer Metabolic Benefit

    Hand LE, Usan P, Cooper GJS, Xu LY, Ammori B, Cunningham PS, Aghamohammadzadeh R, Soran H, Greenstein A, Loudon ASI, Bechtold DA, Ray DW

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverbα exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverbα−/− mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting ...

  12. Adiposity of calf- and yearling-fed Brangus steers raised to constant-age and constant-body weight endpoints.

    Smith, S B; Chapman, A A; Lunt, D K; Harris, J J; Savell, J W

    2007-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocyte diameter and volume would be greater in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of calf-fed steers than in yearling-fed steers at a constant BW, due to the greater time on feed for the calf-fed steers. Conversely, we predicted that the capacity for s.c. and i.m. preadipocytes to divide, as estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, would be greater in the less mature adipose tissues of calf-fed steers and in yearling-fed steers at 16 mo of age than in yearling-fed steers fed to 18 mo of age. Brangus steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet as calves (calf-fed; n = 9) or yearlings (n = 4) to 16 mo of age (CA yearling-fed); another group of yearlings (n = 5) was fed to a constant-BW end point of 530 kg (CW yearling-fed). Both groups of yearling-fed steers had free access to native pasture until 12 mo of age. At slaughter, the fifth to eighth thoracic rib section of the LM was removed, and fresh s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues were removed for in vitro incubations. There were no differences in the number of s.c. adipocytes/g or mean peak volumes of adipocytes across production groups (P > or = 0.14). However, s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers contained greater proportions of smaller adipocytes (<1,500 pL) than calffed or CW yearling-fed steers, and similar results were observed for i.m. adipose tissue. Acetate incorporation into total lipids was greater (P = 0.02) in s.c. adipose tissue of CA yearling-fed steers than in calf-fed or CW yearling-fed steers, and tended to be different (P = 0.10) across production groups in i.m. adipose tissue. The production system x cell fraction interaction was significant (P = 0.03) for s.c. adipose tissue DNA synthesis, which was greatest in adipocytes from CA yearling-fed steers, whereas there were no differences across production system in stromal vascular (SV) DNA synthesis. For i.m. adipose tissue, DNA synthesis was greatest in adipocytes and SV cells

  13. Visual cognition

    Pinker, S.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of research papers on visual cognition first appeared as a special issue of Cognition: International Journal of Cognitive Science. The study of visual cognition has seen enormous progress in the past decade, bringing important advances in our understanding of shape perception, visual imagery, and mental maps. Many of these discoveries are the result of converging investigations in different areas, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, artificial intelligence, and neuropsychology. This volume is intended to highlight a sample of work at the cutting edge of this research area for the benefit of students and researchers in a variety of disciplines. The tutorial introduction that begins the volume is designed to help the nonspecialist reader bridge the gap between the contemporary research reported here and earlier textbook introductions or literature reviews.

  14. Cognitive remission

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted...... phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD......, galantamine, scopolamine, N-acetylcysteine, curcumin, statins, and coenzyme Q10. The management of cognitive dysfunction remains an unmet need in the treatment of MDD. However, it is hoped that the development of novel therapeutic targets will contribute to 'cognitive remission', which may aid functional...

  15. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    Lee, Jane J.; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M. Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Part...

  16. Application of fMRI in the evaluation and prediction of progress to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    New treatment methods for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have recently been tested, making early diagnosis more important. Therapy should be started during the initial stage of the disease in order to achieve the best outcome. This article presents activation paradigms obtained during the fMRI examination of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the results of fMRI studies done in persons at increased risk of developing AD and during its early stage. The possibility of differentiating AD from other types of dementias and the influence of drug therapy on brain activation in AD patients is also discussed. (author)

  17. Music training, cognition, and personality

    Kathleen A Corrigall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1 and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2. We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1 individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2 personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3 future correlational studies of links between music training and nonmusical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  18. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality. PMID:23641225

  19. Development of automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans

    Mensink, Sanne D.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Belder, Ruben; Klaase, Joost M.; Bezooijen, Roland; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2011-03-01

    This contribution describes a novel algorithm for the automated quantification of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes from abdominal CT scans of patients referred for colorectal resection. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes can accurately be measured with errors of 1.2 and 0.5%, respectively. Also the reproducibility of CT measurements is good; a disadvantage is the amount of radiation. In this study the diagnostic CT scans in the work - up of (colorectal) cancer were used. This implied no extra radiation. For the purpose of segmentation alone, a low dose protocol can be applied. Obesity is a well known risk factor for complications in and after surgery. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a widely accepted indicator of obesity, but it is not specific for risk assessment of colorectal surgery. We report on an automated method to quantify visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes as a basic step in a clinical research project concerning preoperative risk assessment. The outcomes are to be correlated with the surgery results. The hypothesis is that the balance between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue together with the presence of calcifications in the major bloodvessels, is a predictive indicator for post - operatieve complications such as anastomotic leak. We start with four different computer simulated humanoid abdominal volumes with tissue values in the appropriate Hounsfield range at different dose levels. With satisfactory numerical results for this test, we have applied the algorithm on over a 100 patient scans and have compared results with manual segmentations by an expert for a smaller pilot group. The results are within a 5% difference. Compared to other studies reported in the literature, reliable values are obtained for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas.

  20. The componential model of reading: predicting first grade reading performance of culturally diverse students from ecological, psychological, and cognitive factors assessed at kindergarten entry.

    Ortiz, Miriam; Folsom, Jessica S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Greulich, Luana; Thomas-Tate, Shurita; Connor, Carol M

    2012-01-01

    This study, framed by the component model of reading (CMR), examined the relative importance of kindergarten-entry predictors of first grade reading performance. Specifically, elements within the ecological domain included dialect, maternal education, amount of preschool, and home literacy; elements within the psychological domain included teacher-reported academic competence, social skills, and behavior; and elements within the cognitive domain included initial vocabulary, phonological, and morpho-syntactic skills, and alphabetic and word recognition skills. Data were obtained for 224 culturally diverse kindergarteners (58% Black, 34% White, and 8% Hispanic or other; 58% received free or reduced-price lunch) from a larger study conducted in seven predominantly high poverty schools (n = 20 classrooms) in a midsized city school district in northern Florida. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression (with variables in the ecological domain entered first, followed by the psychological and cognitive domains) revealed a model that explained roughly 56% of the variance in first grade reading achievement, using fall-of-kindergarten predictors. Letter-word reading and morpho-syntactic skill were the strongest significant predictors. The findings largely support the CMR model as a means to understand individual differences in reading acquisition and, in turn, to support data-based instructional decisions for a wider range of children. PMID:22227395

  1. The Effects of Mood, Cognitive Style, and Cognitive Ability on Implicit Learning

    Pretz, Jean E.; Totz, Kathryn Sentman; Kaufman, Scott Barry

    2010-01-01

    In an experiment with 109 undergraduates, we examined the effect of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning in the Artificial Grammar (AG) and Serial Reaction Time (SRT) tasks. Negative mood facilitated AG learning, but had no significant effect on SRT learning. Rational cognitive style predicted greater learning on both…

  2. Intraindividual Variability in Domain-Specific Cognition and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Leslie Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraindividual variability among cognitive domains may predict dementia independently of interindividual differences in cognition. A multidomain cognitive battery was administered to 2305 older adult women (mean age 74 years enrolled in an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative. Women were evaluated annually for probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI for an average of 5.3 years using a standardized protocol. Proportional hazards regression showed that lower baseline domain-specific cognitive scores significantly predicted MCI (N=74, probable dementia (N=45, and MCI or probable dementia combined (N=101 and that verbal and figural memory predicted each outcome independently of all other cognitive domains. The baseline intraindividual standard deviation across test scores (IAV Cognitive Domains significantly predicted probable dementia and this effect was attenuated by interindividual differences in verbal episodic memory. Slope increases in IAV Cognitive Domains across measurement occasions (IAV Time explained additional risk for MCI and MCI or probable dementia, beyond that accounted for by interindividual differences in multiple cognitive measures, but risk for probable dementia was attenuated by mean decreases in verbal episodic memory slope. These findings demonstrate that within-person variability across cognitive domains both at baseline and longitudinally independently accounts for risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in support of the predictive utility of within-person variability.

  3. Cognitive Reserve in Dementia: Implications for Cognitive Training.

    Mondini, Sara; Madella, Ileana; Zangrossi, Andrea; Bigolin, Angela; Tomasi, Claudia; Michieletto, Marta; Villani, Daniele; Di Giovanni, Giuseppina; Mapelli, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a potential mechanism to cope with brain damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CR on a cognitive training (CT) in a group of patients with dementia. Eighty six participants with mild to moderate dementia were identified by their level of CR quantified by the CR Index questionnaire (CRIq) and underwent a cycle of CT. A global measure of cognition mini mental state examination (MMSE) was obtained before (T0) and after (T1) the training. Multiple linear regression analyses highlighted CR as a significant factor able to predict changes in cognitive performance after the CT. In particular, patients with lower CR benefited from a CT program more than those with high CR. These data show that CR can modulate the outcome of a CT program and that it should be considered as a predictive factor of neuropsychological rehabilitation training efficacy in people with dementia. PMID:27199734

  4. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José;

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification ...... controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases....

  5. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    Donohoe Claire L; Doyle Suzanne L; Reynolds John V

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods: Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles...

  6. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  7. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  8. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  9. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  10. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  11. Cognitive Neuropsychology

    Starrfelt, Randi

    2012-01-01

    are disproportionally impaired in one task or domain compared to another. In many cases data for normal performance has not been referred to or reported. This has resulted in several theories of cognitive functioning in different domains such as language, visual perception, and memory, specifying a number of different...... in patients’ test performance can inform theories of (normal) cognitive function. In four talks, this symposium will present and discuss methods for investigating impairment patterns in neuropsychological patients: 1) a talk on basic assumptions and statistical methods in single case methodology; 2) a talk......Traditionally, studies in cognitive neuropsychology have reported single cases or small groups of patients with seemingly selective impairments of specific cognitive processes or modules. Many studies, particularly older ones, have used simple and coarse tasks to show that patients...

  12. Social cognition.

    Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option. PMID:25977087

  13. Cognitive Systems

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and...... its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all levels of cognition as large real world digital environments (such as the Internet) usually are too complex...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...

  14. Epicardial adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation.

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2014-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. PMID:24648445

  15. Adipose Tissue Angiogenesis: Impact on Obesity and Type-2 Diabetes

    Corvera, Silvia; Gealekman, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The growth and function of tissues is critically dependent on their vascularization. Adipose tissue is capable of expanding many-fold during adulthood, therefore requiring the formation of new vasculature to supply growing and proliferating adipocytes. The expansion of the vasculature in adipose tissue occurs through angiogenesis, where new blood vessels develop from those pre-existing within the tissue. Inappropriate angiogenesis may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, which in t...

  16. EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT PREPARATIONS OF ADIPOSE TISSUE METABOLISM

    Bambhole, V. D.

    1988-01-01

    Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the red...

  17. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and dise...

  18. Insulin degradation by adipose tissue is increased in human obesity

    Rafecas Jorba, Immaculada; Fernández López, José Antonio; Salinas, Isabel; X. Formiguera Sala; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Foz Sala, M. (Màrius); Alemany, Marià

    1995-01-01

    White adipose tissue samples from obese and lean patients were used for the estimation ofinsulin protease and insulin:glutathione transhydrogenase using 1251-labeled insulin. There was no activity detected in the absence of reduced glutathione, which indicates that insulin is cleaved in human adipose "tissue through reduction of the disulfide bridge between the chains. O bese patients showed higher transhydrogenase activity (per U tissue protein wt, per U tissue wt, and in the total adipose t...

  19. Adiposity in British secondary school children: a population based study

    Odoki, Katherine Helen

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Adiposity is defined as the property of containing fat. Excessive adiposity is a cause of both morbidity and mortality in adults. Important consequences include increased risks of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, (particularly through the increased risks of high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance associated with adiposity), osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and some cancers (particularly endometrial, breast, and colon). There is...

  20. Sustainable Three-Dimensional Tissue Model of Human Adipose Tissue

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G.; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31...

  1. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    Ribeiro Ricardo; Monteiro Cátia; Cunha Virgínia; Oliveira Maria; Freitas Mariana; Fraga Avelino; Príncipe Paulo; Lobato Carlos; Lobo Francisco; Morais António; Silva Vítor; Sanches-Magalhães José; Oliveira Jorge; Pina Francisco; Mota-Pinto Anabela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) ...

  2. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several...

  3. Cognitive Systems

    Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective and its relation and potential over current artificial intelligence architectures. Machine learning models that learn from data and previous knowledge will play an increasingly important role in all lev...

  4. Social cognition

    Frith, Chris D.

    2008-01-01

    Social cognition concerns the various psychological processes that enable individuals to take advantage of being part of a social group. Of major importance to social cognition are the various social signals that enable us to learn about the world. Such signals include facial expressions, such as fear and disgust, which warn us of danger, and eye gaze direction, which indicate where interesting things can be found. Such signals are particularly important in infant development. Social referenc...

  5. Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: Unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2014-09-01

    Progress in understanding cognition requires a quantitative, theoretical framework, grounded in the other natural sciences and able to bridge between implementational, algorithmic and computational levels of explanation. I review recent results in neuroscience and cognitive biology that, when combined, provide key components of such an improved conceptual framework for contemporary cognitive science. Starting at the neuronal level, I first discuss the contemporary realization that single neurons are powerful tree-shaped computers, which implies a reorientation of computational models of learning and plasticity to a lower, cellular, level. I then turn to predictive systems theory (predictive coding and prediction-based learning) which provides a powerful formal framework for understanding brain function at a more global level. Although most formal models concerning predictive coding are framed in associationist terms, I argue that modern data necessitate a reinterpretation of such models in cognitive terms: as model-based predictive systems. Finally, I review the role of the theory of computation and formal language theory in the recent explosion of comparative biological research attempting to isolate and explore how different species differ in their cognitive capacities. Experiments to date strongly suggest that there is an important difference between humans and most other species, best characterized cognitively as a propensity by our species to infer tree structures from sequential data. Computationally, this capacity entails generative capacities above the regular (finite-state) level; implementationally, it requires some neural equivalent of a push-down stack. I dub this unusual human propensity "dendrophilia", and make a number of concrete suggestions about how such a system may be implemented in the human brain, about how and why it evolved, and what this implies for models of language acquisition. I conclude that, although much remains to be done, a

  6. Cognitive grammar and aphasic discourse.

    Manning, Molly; Franklin, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive grammar (CG), there is no clear division between language and other cognitive processes; all linguistic form is conceptually meaningful. In this pilot study, a CG approach was applied to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) have cognitive linguistic difficulty not predicted from traditional, componential models of aphasia. Narrative samples from 22 PWA (6 fluent, 16 non-fluent) were compared with samples from 10 participants without aphasia. Between-group differences were tested statistically. PWA had significant difficulty with temporal sequencing, suggesting problems that are not uniquely linguistic. For some, these problems were doubly dissociated with naming, used as a general measure of severity, which indicates that cognitive linguistic difficulties are not linked with more widespread brain damage. Further investigation may lead to a richer account of aphasia in line with contemporary linguistics and cognitive science approaches. PMID:26900999

  7. Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.

    Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

  8. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  9. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  10. Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success

    Kautz, Tim; Heckman, James J.; Diris, Ron; ter Weel, Bas; Borghans, Lex

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on measuring and boosting cognitive and non-cognitive skills. The literature establishes that achievement tests do not adequately capture character skills: personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. Their predictive power rivals that of cognitive skills. Reliable measures of character have been developed. All measures of character and cognition are measures of perfo...

  11. Impact of Age on the Relationships of Brown Adipose Tissue With Sex and Adiposity in Humans

    Pfannenberg, Christina; Werner, Matthias K.; Ripkens, Sabine; Stef, Irina; Deckert, Annette; Schmadl, Maria; Reimold, Matthias; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Stefan, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates energy homeostasis and fat mass in mammals and newborns and, most likely, in adult humans. Because BAT activity and BAT mass decline with age in humans, the impact of BAT on adiposity may decrease with aging. In the present study we addressed this hypothesis and further investigated the effect of age on the sex differences in BAT activity and BAT mass. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 260 subjects (98 with BAT and 162 study date–matched cont...

  12. SVM-based prediction of spectrum idle rate in cognitive radio systems%认知无线电中基于支持向量机的频谱空闲度预测

    李红岩

    2015-01-01

    研究认知无线系统中的频谱小时空闲度预测问题,针对GSM系统的载频小时空闲度时间序列的非线性特点,提出一种基于支持向量机的预测模型构建方法。为提高模型的预测精度,在GSM系统小时空闲度时间序列特征分析的基础上,利用序列的节假日特性和日周期特性,对数据序列进行了重构。仿真结果表明,与采用基于神经网络的预测模型相比,该预测方法对工作日和周末均具有较高的预测精度,其预测绝对百分比误差在4以内。%A construction method of SVM⁃based prediction model for the spectrum idle rate in cognitive radio systems is proposed according to the non⁃linear characteristics of carrier frequency idle rate time sequence of GSM system. To enhance the prediction accuracy of the model,the data sequence is reconstructed according to the holiday and daily⁃cycle properties,and feature analysis of the idle rate time sequence of GSM system. The simulation results show that the proposed model has more ac⁃curate prediction in workday and weekend than the prediction model based on neural network. The absolute percentage error of its prediction is within 4.

  13. Predictive value of breast cancer cognitions and attitudes toward genetic testing on women’s interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk

    Bengel, Jürgen; Barth, Jürgen; Reitz, Frauke

    2004-01-01

    In the past years advances in genetic technologies have led to an increased interest in predictive genetic testing for breast cancer risk. Studies in the US and UK reported an increasing interest among women of the general public in genetic testing for breast cancer risk, although the benefit of such a test is questionable for low risk women. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that predict interest in genetic testing of German women in the general public. Women with neither ...

  14. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  15. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  16. Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Variables from the Disablement Process Model Predict Patterns of Independence and the Transition into Disability for the Oldest-Old

    Fauth, Elizabeth Braungart; Zarit, Steven H.; Malmberg, Bo; Johansson, Boo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study used the Disablement Process Model to predict whether a sample of the oldest-old maintained their disability or disability-free status over a 2- and 4-year follow-up, or whether they transitioned into a state of disability during this time. Design and Methods: We followed a sample of 149 Swedish adults who were 86 years of age…

  17. Estrato Socioeconómico y Habilidades Cognitivas en Niños Escolarizados: Variables Predictoras y Mediadoras Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Skills in School-Age Children: Predicting and Mediating Variables

    Vanessa Arán Filippetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue analizar el efecto del estrato socioeconómico (ESE y de la edad sobre el desempeño en tareas de lenguaje, atención y memoria de niños escolarizados y examinar las variables socioeconómicas que predicen su ejecución. Se seleccionó una muestra intencionada de 228 niños argentinos de 8 a 11 años de edad de dos ESE (bajo y medio. Se empleó análisis multivariado de varianza y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados indicaron un efecto significativo del ESE y de la edad sobre las tareas cognitivas evaluadas. De las variables socioeconómicas analizadas, el nivel de instrucción de la madre (NIM fue el principal predictor del desempeño cognitivo del niño. Además, el NIM explicó un porcentaje de la varianza del desempeño obtenido por el niño, aun después de controlar su edad y nivel de lenguaje comprensivo. Se discuten los resultados en función de la influencia del ESE sobre el desempeño cognitivo y de los posibles factores predictores y mediadores de esta asociación.The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of socioeconomic status (SES and age on school-age children's performance in language, attention, and memory tasks and to examine the socioeconomic variables that predict their execution. An intentional sample of 228 Argentinean children aged 8-11 years from two SES (low and medium was used. Multivariate analysis of variance and hierarchical regression analysis were employed. Results revealed a significant effect of SES and age on the cognitive functions studied. Based on the socioeconomic variables analyzed, maternal instruction level (MIL was found to be the main predictor of the child's cognitive performance. In addition, MIL explained a percentage of variance in the child's performance, even after controlling for the child's age and receptive language level. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of SES on cognitive performance and the possible predicting and

  18. Human cognition

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  19. 认知障碍简明评价量表对老年人认知功能衰退的预测价值初探%Value of Cog-12 in predicting cognitive impairment in the elderly

    潘晓东; 周辰; 徐俊; 何一然; 尹冬华; 张长春; 顾小花

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨认知障碍简明评价量表(Cog‐12)对老年人认知功能下降的预测能力。方法选择56例患者,其中基线水平认知正常29例和轻度认知功能障碍(MCI)27例,将基线与随访2年认知均正常18例作为NC组,认知正常转为MCI 11例作为CM组,基线及随访2年保持MCI状态作为10例MM组,MCI转化为阿尔茨海默型痴呆11例作为AD组。在初入组及随访2年后,分别通过知情者或照料者对患者进行Cog‐12、蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)、简易智能状态检查量表(MMSE)评分,对患者的认知能力进行评价。结果认知正常者中,NC组的MoCA、MMSE评分较CM组明显升高,Cog‐12‐Ⅰ评分明显降低(P<0.05)。MCI患者中,MM 组MoCA评分较AD组明显升高,Cog‐12‐Ⅰ和Cog‐12总分明显降低(P<0.05)。认知正常者中,仅Cog‐12为MCI预测因素(P=0.029),在MCI患者中,Cog‐12不是MCI预测因素(P=0.082)。ROC工作曲线显示,当Cog‐12界值为4.5分时,预测MCI的敏感性为81.4%。结论 Cog‐12是有效而全面的认知功能筛查工具,在评估患者整体智能、精神、行为的表现基础上,可有效地发现认知功能的下降,一定程度上预测将发生认知下降的可能。%Objective To study the value of Cog‐12 in predicting cognitive impairment in the elder‐ly .Methods At the beginning ,56 individuals were enrolled into this study including mild cogni‐tive impairment (MCI) patients and normal cognitive function individuals‐involving a control group (n=18) ,11 patients with normal cognitive function who converted to MCI patients served as a CM group ,10 MCI patients with their MCI maintaining stable during the 2‐years follow‐up period served as MM group ,11 MCI patients who converted to AD patients served as an AD group .The patients were scored according to Cog‐12 ,MoCA and MMSE ,and their cognitive function

  20. Cognitive function in childhood and lifetime cognitive change in relation to mental wellbeing in four cohorts of older people

    Gale, Catharine R.; Rachel Cooper; Leone Craig; Jane Elliott; Diana Kuh; Marcus Richards; Starr, John M; Lawrence J Whalley; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Background: poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods: we used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four coho...

  1. Validation of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and intact elders

    Duff, Kevin; Beglinger, Leigh J.; Adams, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Although the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) is frequently used as a screening measure of cognition in dementia and aging studies, it has not been validated in individuals with milder cognitive impairments. The current study compared two groups (amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment [n=61] and cognitively intact elders [n=62]) on the mTICS and used regression models to predict baseline scores on standardized memory tests using baseline mTICS scores. Baseline mTICS score...

  2. Cognitive Function in Childhood and Lifetime Cognitive Change in Relation to Mental Wellbeing in Four Cohorts of Older People

    Gale, C. R.; Cooper, R.; Craig, L.; Elliott, J.; Kuh, D.; Richards, M; Starr, J. M.; Whalley, L.J.; Deary, I. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods: we used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four coho...

  3. Cognitive fitness.

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  4. Long Term Outcome and Prediction Models of Cognition, Activities of Daily Living and Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer’s Disease with Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment

    Wattmo, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Background Prospective longitudinal studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) that include cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment in routine clinical settings are scarce. The patients vary in severity of the disease, clinical course, rate of progression and response to treatment. Knowledge about the predicted course of the disease, sociodemographic and clinical factors affecting the outcome and the impact of ChEI therapy, could be valuable for clinicians and the social services. This info...

  5. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  6. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.; Sandström, B.

    1995-01-01

    significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P <0.001), but not with eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...

  7. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    O'Brien, S N; Welter, B H; Mantzke, K A; Price, T M

    1998-02-01

    Sex steroids are postulated to play a role in adipose tissue regulation and distribution, because the amount and location of adipose tissue changes during puberty and menopause. Because of the nature of adipose tissue, receptors for the female sex steroids have been difficult to demonstrate. To date, estrogen receptor messenger RNA and protein have been identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue, but the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate PR message by Northern blot analysis in RNA isolated from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of premenopausal women. These preliminary studies revealed that PR messenger RNA levels are higher in the stromal-vascular fraction as opposed to the adipocyte fraction. Western blot analysis demonstrates both PR protein isoforms (human PR-A and human PR-B) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total PR could be quantitated. These studies substantiate that sex steroid receptors are present in human adipose tissue, thereby providing a direct route for regulation of adipose tissue by female sex steroids. PMID:9467566

  8. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  9. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass...

  10. Characterization of the human visceral adipose tissue secretome

    Alvarez Llamas, Gloria; Szalowska, Ewa; de Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Landman, Karloes; Hoek, Annemieke; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Roelofsen, Johan; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome and t

  11. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  12. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    Egebæk, Heidi Klakk; Fairchild, Timothy J; Heidemann, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their BMI and adiposity (body fat percentage, BF%) and compare...

  14. The Infrapatellar Adipose Body: A Histotopographic Study.

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Sarasin, Gloria; Petrelli, Lucia; Guidolin, Diego; Rossato, Marco; Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Natali, Arturo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) can be regarded as a peculiar form of fibro-adipose tissue localized close to the synovial membrane and articular cartilage. The aims of the present study were to analyze the microscopic anatomy of the IFP through histological and ultrastructural methods, comparing it with that of the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and of the knee. Ten specimens of IFP were sampled from bodies of the Donation Program of the University of Padua without a history of osteoarthritis. The IFP consisted of white adipose tissue, of lobular type, with lobules delimited by thin connective septa. The IFP lobule areas were smaller (p 0.05) than those of subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen, whereas the IFP lobule areas were larger (p < 0.05) and the interlobular septa were thinner than those of the subcutaneous tissue of the knee (p < 0.05). The IFP adipocytes present a mean area of 3,708 ± 976 µm2 with a large intercellular space, whereas the mean area of the abdominal tissues was greater (6,082 ± 628 µm2; p < 0.05). At scanning electron microscopy the IFP adipocytes were covered by thick fibrillary sheaths, creating a basket around the adipocytes. The structural characteristics of the IFP (lobular aspect of the adipose tissue, thickness of the septa with scarce elastic fibers) could act as a plastic portion aimed at the absorption of pressure variation during knee articular activity. The extensive distribution of nerves suggests a possible role of the IFP as a mechanoreceptor, corresponding to a tridimensional connective mesh working in the proprioceptive regulation of the activity of the knee joint. PMID:26796341

  15. Adiposity and sex hormones in girls.

    Baer, Heather J; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2007-09-01

    Greater body fatness during childhood is associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, but few studies have addressed the relation of adiposity with sex hormones in girls. We prospectively examined associations between adiposity and circulating levels of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 286 girls in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Participants were 8 to 10 years old at baseline and were followed for an average of 7 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at subsequent annual visits, and blood samples were collected every 2 years. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) during follow-up were higher among girls with greater body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 63.0 microg/dL compared with 78.8 microg/dL for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with a 4.3% increase (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.0%) in DHEAS levels during follow-up (P(trend) = 0.002). Concentrations of SHBG during follow-up were lower among girls with greater BMI at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 94.8 nmol compared with 57.5 nmol for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with an 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval, 7.0-10.6%) in SHBG levels during follow-up (P(trend) < 0.0001). Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were similar across BMI quartiles. These findings suggest that adiposity may alter DHEAS and SHBG levels in girls. Whether and how these differences affect breast development and carcinogenesis requires further research. PMID:17855709

  16. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  17. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  18. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  19. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B.; Huffman, Derek M.; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H.; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D.; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W.; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal af...

  20. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    Alessandra Rigamonti; Kristen Brennand; Frank Lau; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–...

  1. The independent prospective associations of activity intensity and dietary energy density with adiposity in young adolescents.

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sharp, Stephen J; Ambrosini, Gina L; Cassidy, Aedin; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2016-03-14

    There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), particularly in boys (1·26; 95% CI 0·41, 2·16 v. girls: 0·26; 95% CI -0·34, 0·87), but not with %BF, FMI or weight status. In contrast, baseline SED, MPA or VPA were not associated with any of the outcomes. Change in DED was negatively associated with FMI (β for 1kJ/g increase: -0·86; 95% CI -1·59, -0·12) and %BF (-0·86; 95% CI -1·25, -0·11) but not WC (-0·27; 95% CI -1·02, 0·48). Change in SED, MPA and VPA did not predict adiposity at follow-up. In conclusion, activity intensity was not prospectively associated with adiposity, whereas the directions of associations with DED were inconsistent. To inform public health efforts, future studies should continue to analyse longitudinal data to further understand the independent role of different energy-balance behaviours in changes in adiposity in early adolescence. PMID:26758859

  2. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Adipose Tissue in MRI

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vaag, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus

    This paper presents a method for automatically segmenting abdominal adipose tissue from 3-dimensional magnetic resonance images. We distinguish between three types of adipose tissue; visceral, deep subcutaneous and superficial subcutaneous. Images are pre-processed to remove the bias field effect...... of intensity in-homogeneities. This effect is estimated by a thin plate spline extended to fit two classes of automatically sampled intensity points in 3D. Adipose tissue pixels are labelled with fuzzy c-means clustering and locally determined thresholds. The visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue...... are separated using deformable models, incorporating information from the clustering. The subcutaneous adipose tissue is subdivided into a deep and superficial part by means of dynamic programming applied to a spatial transformation of the image data. Regression analysis shows good correspondences...

  3. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  4. Moral Cognition

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their respecti

  5. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  6. Organohalogen concentrations in blood and adipose tissue of Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears

    Bentzen, T.W.; Muir, D.C.G.; Amstrup, Steven C.; O'Hara, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 151 organohalogen chemicals (OHCs) in whole blood and subcutaneous fat of 57 polar bears sampled along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast in spring, 2003. All major organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs and their congeners were assessed. Concentrations of most OHCs continue to be lower among Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears than reported for other populations. Additionally, toxaphenes and related compounds were assessed in adipose tissue, and 8 perflourinated compounds (PFCs) were examined in blood. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations exceeded those of any other contaminant measured in blood. ??Chlordane concentrations were higher in females, and both ??PCBs and ??Chlordane concentrations in adipose tissue decreased significantly with age. The rank order of OHC mean concentrations; ??PCB > ??10PCB > PCB153 > ??Chlordane > Oxychlordane > PCB180 > ??HCH > ??-HCH > ??DDT > p,p-DDE > ??PBDE > HCB > Toxaphene was similar for compounds above detection limits in both fat and blood. Although correlation between OHC concentrations in blood and adipose tissue was examined, the predictability of concentrations in one matrix for the other was limited. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    Karen L HERBST

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL),lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity.Lifestyle changes,such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity.Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs,these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs.RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL,or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD.People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone.In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity,the diagnostic criteria,histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies,acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused.Treatment recommendations focus on evidencebased data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy,medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT.Associated RAD conditions including depression,anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs.Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations.

  8. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  9. Mechanisms linking excess adiposity and carcinogenesis promotion

    Ana I. Pérez-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well-established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in postmenopausal women, colorectal and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15-20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: i inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; ii insulin resistance development; and iii adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases.

  10. 认知无线电系统中频谱可预测性的递归定量分析%Recurrence Quantification Analysis of Spectrum Predictability in Cognitive Radio Systems

    李红岩

    2015-01-01

    针对认知无线电系统中的频谱可预测性问题,研究分析了不同观测尺度下频谱状态时间序列的特点,运用递归图技术和递归定量分析方法,从定性和定量两个方面对4种尺度时间序列的可预测性进行了分析和比较,结果表明:随着观测尺度的减小,频谱状态序列的混沌性和随机性增强,可预测性变差;小时频谱占用度序列具有较高的确定度和可预测性,时隙状态序列的随机性强、可预测性弱。所得结论为进一步建立有效的频谱预测模型提供了有益的参考。%The spectrum predictability in cognitive radio( CR) systems is studied. The properties of spec﹣trum state sequence in different scales are analyzed by state space restructure method. Then the predictabil﹣ity in qualitative and quantitative aspects is analyzed and compared by Recurrence Plots( RP) and Recur﹣rence Quantification Analysis( RQA) . The RP and RQA results show that the predictability turns to be less as the scales decrease. And there exist chaos properties in small-scale spectrum state sequence. The con﹣clusions provide reference for design of spectrum prediction models in future research.

  11. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  12. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Mental stress [a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)] increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation

  13. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  14. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  15. Cognitively Stimulating Activities: Effects on Cognition across Four Studies with up to 21 Years of Longitudinal Data

    Meghan B. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in cognitively stimulating activities has been considered to maintain or strengthen cognitive skills, thereby minimizing age-related cognitive decline. While the idea that there may be a modifiable behavior that could lower risk for cognitive decline is appealing and potentially empowering for older adults, research findings have not consistently supported the beneficial effects of engaging in cognitively stimulating tasks. Using observational studies of naturalistic cognitive activities, we report a series of mixed effects models that include baseline and change in cognitive activity predicting cognitive outcomes over up to 21 years in four longitudinal studies of aging. Consistent evidence was found for cross-sectional relationships between level of cognitive activity and cognitive test performance. Baseline activity at an earlier age did not, however, predict rate of decline later in life, thus not supporting the concept that engaging in cognitive activity at an earlier point in time increases one's ability to mitigate future age-related cognitive decline. In contrast, change in activity was associated with relative change in cognitive performance. Results therefore suggest that change in cognitive activity from one's previous level has at least a transitory association with cognitive performance measured at the same point in time.

  16. A retrospective analysis of thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue

    Recep Bedir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the lesions containing mature adipose tissues in surgical materials of the patients who underwent thyroidectomy operation owing to the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Methods: A total of 2800 pathologic specimens of thyroidectomies stained with hematoxylin-eosin were collected between January 2010 and November 2013 in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine. Pathologic sections were selected from pathology archive and re-examined. Upon examination, we determined 10 lesions with mature adipose tissue within thyroid parenchyma. Results: Thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue were observed in 10 (0.004 % of 2800 thyroidectomy materials. Eight of the patients were female and two of them were male. Minimum, maximum and median age of the patients were found to be 31, 74 and 52 years respectively. All of the cases had underwent a bilateral total thyroidectomy operation. In macroscopic examination of the only one cases, a homogenous yellow-gray color was observed. In other cases a large number of colloid-rich nodules of various sizes were observed. On microscopic examination, five adipose tissues in the nodules (adenolipoma-thyrolipoma, four scattered foci of mature adipose tissues (heterotopic adiposis and one diffuse infiltrating mature adipose tissue on entire thyroid gland (diffuse thyrolipomatosis were determined among mature adipose tissue containing lesions. A follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma was found in two of thyrolipoma cases. Conclusion: Nodular thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue, as a result of particularly on the outer surface of the gland and parathyroid glands containining mature adipose tissue may mimic parathyroid gland lesion. Therefore, to prevent from inappropriate treatments, pathologists should be aware of these kinds of lesions, especially when they are investigating the lesions of parathyroid glands during an

  17. Surrogate Markers of Visceral Adiposity in Young Adults: Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Are More Accurate than Waist Hip Ratio, Model of Adipose Distribution and Visceral Adiposity Index

    Susana Borruel; Moltó, José F.; Macarena Alpañés; Elena Fernández-Durán; Francisco Álvarez-Blasco; Manuel Luque-Ramírez; Héctor F Escobar-Morreale

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53...

  18. Effects of an obesity intervention program on cognitive function in children

    Huang, Tao; Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Adiposity may be associated with poorer cognitive function in children. The purpose of thestudy was to examine the effects of an obesity intervention on cognitive function in children. Methods: One hundred and fifteen children were randomly allocated to either the Day Camp Intervention...... cognitive outcomes. Conclusions: The obesity intervention may benefit emotional control, monitoring, and visuospatialconstruction skills in children......Arm (DCIA) or the Standard Intervention Arm (SIA). Children in the DCIA participated in a 6-week daycamp intervention and a subsequent 46-week family-based intervention. The camp intervention mainlyconsisted of physical exercise and health classes. The SIA was offered one weekly physical exercisesession...

  19. Adipose tissue macrophages induce PPARγ-high FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    Toshiharu Onodera; Atsunori Fukuhara; Myoung Ho Jang; Jihoon Shin; Keita Aoi; Junichi Kikuta; Michio Otsuki; Masaru Ishii; Iichiro Shimomura

    2015-01-01

    Numerous regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in adipose tissues compared with other lymphoid or non-lymphoid tissues. Adipose Tregs regulate inflammatory state and insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism that maintains Tregs in adipose tissue remains unclear. Here, we revealed the contribution of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to the induction and proliferation of adipose Tregs. ATMs isolated from mice under steady state conditions induced Tregs with high expression of PPARγ compare...

  20. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.; Sandström, B.

    1995-01-01

    8-mo study period. The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study. The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms (g/d) was...... significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P <0.001), but not with eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...