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Sample records for adiposity offaster longer-distanced

  1. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity offaster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.

  2. Ring recoveries of dead birds confirm that darker pheomelanic Barn Owls disperse longer distances

    Roulin A.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in melanin coloration is widespread and often associated with other phenotypic traits. A recent study showed that darker-reddish pheomelanic Barn Owls (Tyto alba) move longer distances between birth and breeding sites. Because this study considered only individuals recovered within a limited study area, it remains unclear whether the association between melanism and dispersal applies to a larger geographic scale. I analysed an independent dataset of birds ringed in the same study ar...

  3. The influence of socio-economic characteristics, land use and travel time considerations on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance trips

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes to the limited number of investigations into the influence of the spatial configuration of land use and transport systems on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance travel (defined here as home-based trips of 50 km and over) in the Netherlands. We have employed data from the 1998 Netherlands National Travel Survey to address the question as to how socioeconomic factors, land use attributes, and travel time affect mode choice for medium- and longer-distance travel, a...

  4. The influence of socio-economic characteristics, land use and travel time considerations on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance trips

    Limtanakool, N.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes to the limited number of investigations into the influence of the spatial configuration of land use and transport systems on mode choice for medium- and longer-distance travel (defined here as home-based trips of 50 km and over) in the Netherlands. We have employed data from t

  5. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. The...

  6. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  7. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  8. Mechanosensation in an adipose fin.

    Aiello, Brett R; Stewart, Thomas A; Hale, Melina E

    2016-03-16

    Adipose fins are found on approximately 20% of ray-finned fish species. The apparently rudimentary anatomy of adipose fins inspired a longstanding hypothesis that these fins are vestigial and lack function. However, adipose fins have evolved repeatedly within Teleostei, suggesting adaptive function. Recently, adipose fins were proposed to function as mechanosensors, detecting fluid flow anterior to the caudal fin. Here we test the hypothesis that adipose fins are mechanosensitive in the catfish Corydoras aeneus. Neural activity, recorded from nerves that innervate the fin, was shown to encode information on both movement and position of the fin membrane, including the magnitude of fin membrane displacement. Thus, the adipose fin of C. aeneus is mechanosensitive and has the capacity to function as a 'precaudal flow sensor'. These data force re-evaluation of adipose fin clipping, a common strategy for tagging fishes, and inform hypotheses of how function evolves in novel vertebrate appendages. PMID:26984621

  9. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  10. Independent Stem Cell Lineages Regulate Adipose Organogenesis and Adipose Homeostasis

    Yuwei Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA-mural cell-fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments: developmental and adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both developmental and adult progenitors are specified during the developmental period and express PPARγ, they have distinct microanatomical, functional, morphogenetic, and molecular profiles. Furthermore, the two compartments derive from different lineages; whereas adult adipose progenitors fate-map from an SMA+ mural lineage, developmental progenitors do not. Remarkably, the adult progenitor compartment appears to be specified earlier than the developmental cells and then enters the already developmentally formed adipose depots. Thus, two distinct cell compartments control adipose organ development and organ homeostasis, which may provide a discrete therapeutic target for childhood and adult obesity.

  11. Independent Stem Cell Lineages Regulate Adipose Organogenesis and Adipose Homeostasis

    Yuwei Jiang; Daniel C. Berry; Wei Tang; Jonathan M. Graff

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissues have striking plasticity, highlighted by childhood and adult obesity. Using adipose lineage analyses, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-mural cell-fate mapping, and conditional PPARγ deletion to block adipocyte differentiation, we find two phases of adipocyte generation that emanate from two independent adipose progenitor compartments: developmental and adult. These two compartments are sequentially required for organ formation and maintenance. Although both developmental and adult pr...

  12. Bioengineering beige adipose tissue therapeutics

    Kevin eTharp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of UCP1-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable brown adipose tissues for human therapeutic purposes at this time.Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit WAT derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of beige adipose tissue implants and their potential for the metabolic

  13. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  14. Methodologies to assess paediatric adiposity.

    Horan, M

    2014-05-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Appropriate techniques for assessment of childhood adiposity are required to identify children at risk. The aim of this review was to examine core clinical measurements and more technical tools to assess paediatric adiposity.

  15. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  16. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization). In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal o...

  17. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross

  18. Echocardiographic Assessment of Epicardial Adipose Tissue - A Marker of Visceral Adiposity

    Singh, Navneet; Singh, Harleen; Khanijoun, Harleen K; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue predicts an unfavorable cardiovascular and metabolic risk profile in humans. Existing methods to assess visceral adipose tissue have been limited. Thus, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue as a marker of visceral adiposity was suggested. The technique has been shown to be a very reliable method and an excellent measure of visceral adiposity. In this article, epicardial adipose tissue’s localization on the heart, function, method of assessment and ...

  19. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiolog...

  20. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    Maria-Jesus eObregon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases. The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. Brite or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2 and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that activate UCP1 in WAT and

  1. Combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix and adipose-derived stem cells for adipose tissue engineering

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A.; Zhang, Qixu; Elisabeth K. Beahm

    2013-01-01

    Repair of soft-tissue defects resulting from lumpectomy or mastectomy has become an important rehabilitation process for breast cancer patients. This study aimed to provide an adipose tissue engineering platform for soft-tissue defect repair by combining decellularized human adipose tissue extracellular matrix (hDAM) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). To derive hDAM, incised human adipose tissues underwent a decellularization process. Effective cell removal and lipid removal were p...

  2. Engineering of vascularized adipose constructs.

    Wiggenhauser, Paul S; Müller, Daniel F; Melchels, Ferry P W; Egaña, José T; Storck, Katharina; Mayer, Helena; Leuthner, Peter; Skodacek, Daniel; Hopfner, Ursula; Machens, Hans G; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Schantz, Jan T

    2012-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering offers a promising alternative to the current surgical techniques for the treatment of soft tissue defects. It is a challenge to find the appropriate scaffold that not only represents a suitable environment for cells but also allows fabrication of customized tissue constructs, particularly in breast surgery. We investigated two different scaffolds for their potential use in adipose tissue regeneration. Sponge-like polyurethane scaffolds were prepared by mold casting with methylal as foaming agent, whereas polycaprolactone scaffolds with highly regular stacked-fiber architecture were fabricated with fused deposition modeling. Both scaffold types were seeded with human adipose tissue-derived precursor cells, cultured and implanted in nude mice using a femoral arteriovenous flow-through vessel loop for angiogenesis. In vitro, cells attached to both scaffolds and differentiated into adipocytes. In vivo, angiogenesis and adipose tissue formation were observed throughout both constructs after 2 and 4 weeks, with angiogenesis being comparable in seeded and unseeded constructs. Fibrous tissue formation and adipogenesis were more pronounced on polyurethane foam scaffolds than on polycaprolactone prototyped scaffolds. In conclusion, both scaffold designs can be effectively used for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21850493

  3. Minireview: adiposity, inflammation, and atherogenesis.

    Lyon, Christopher J; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2003-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, including hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and vascular remodeling. Several adipokines are preferentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue, and the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines is elevated with increasing adiposity. Not surprisingly, approaches that reduce adipose tissue depots, including surgical fat removal, exercise, and reduced caloric intake, improve proinflammatory adipokine levels and reduce the severity of their resultant pathologies. Systemic adipokine levels can also be favorably altered by treatment with several of the existing drug classes used to treat insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Greater understanding of adipokine regulation, however, should result in the design of improved treatment strategies to control disease states associated with increase adiposity, an important outcome in view of the growing worldwide epidemic of obesity. PMID:12746274

  4. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. Despite several methodological limitations inherent to both techniques, the results strongly suggest that microdialysis and catheterization provide similar estimates of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in steady-state experimental settings like rest and...

  5. Adiposity, type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease

    Luchsinger, José A.; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic evidence linking the continuum of adiposity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanisms relating adiposity and T2D to AD may include hyperinsulinemia, advanced products of glycosilation, cerebrovascular disease, and products of adipose tissue metabolism. Elevated adiposity in middle age is related to a higher risk of AD but the data on this association in old age is conflicting. Several studies ha...

  6. Vibrational and structural investigations on adipose tissues

    Giarola, Marco; Guella, G.; Mariotto, G.; Monti, Francesca; Rossi, Barbara; Sanson, Andrea; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Two types of adipose tissue are found in mammals, including humans: the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). The WAT has a major role in lipid storage and body thermal insulation, while the BAT is a thermogenic tissue that produces heat by oxidizing fatty acids. Both structural characterization and spectroscopic discrimination of these different adipose tissues are matter of current interest, also in view of possible medical and ...

  7. Isolation and Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Porcine Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Hui-Yu; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Harry J. Mersmann; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an unconstrained worldwide epidemic. Unraveling molecular controls in adipose tissue development holds promise to treat obesity or diabetes. Although numerous immortalized adipogenic cell lines have been established, adipose-derived stem cells from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous white adipose tissues provide a reliable cellular system ex vivo much closer to adipose development in vivo. Pig adipose-derived stem cells (pADSC) are isolated from 7- to 9-day old piglets. ...

  8. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  9. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  10. Adipose tissue macrophages: amicus adipem?

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation.

  11. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute...... to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible...... quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and...

  12. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27073214

  13. CT-demonstration of adipose tissue of the sinus cavernosus

    Adipose bodies of the sinus cavernosus - the only genuine intracranial adipose tissue - can be demonstrated well by CT. They appear as polymorph well defined hypodense objects in unilateral or bilateral manifestation. Adipose bodies most frequently show a size between 4 and 9 mm and densities about -20 to -40 HE. Occasionally the adipose bodies directly lead into the adipose tissue of the orbit. (orig.)

  14. Visceral Adiposity Index: An Indicator of Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Marco Calogero Amato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI has recently proven to be an indicator of adipose distribution and function that indirectly expresses cardiometabolic risk. In addition, VAI has been proposed as a useful tool for early detection of a condition of cardiometabolic risk before it develops into an overt metabolic syndrome. The application of the VAI in particular populations of patients (women with polycystic ovary syndrome, patients with acromegaly, patients with NAFLD/NASH, patients with HCV hepatitis, patients with type 2 diabetes, and general population has produced interesting results, which have led to the hypothesis that the VAI could be considered a marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. Unfortunately, in some cases, on the same patient population, there is conflicting evidence. We think that this could be mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the application limits of the index, on the part of various authors, and to having applied the VAI in non-Caucasian populations. Future prospective studies could certainly better define the possible usefulness of the VAI as a predictor of cardiometabolic risk.

  15. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  16. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  17. The adipose organ at a glance

    Saverio Cinti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main parenchymal cells of the adipose organ are adipocytes. White adipocytes store energy, whereas brown adipocytes dissipate energy for thermogenesis. These two cell types with opposing functions can both originate from endothelial cells, and co-exist in the multiple fat depots of the adipose organ – a feature that I propose is crucial for this organ’s plasticity. This poster review provides an overview of the adipose organ, describing its anatomy, cytology, physiological function and histopathology in obesity. It also highlights the remarkable plasticity of the adipose organ, explaining theories of adipocyte transdifferentiation during chronic cold exposure, physical exercise or lactation, as well as in obesity. White-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiation is of particular medical relevance, because animal data indicate that higher amounts of brown adipose tissue are positively associated with resistance to obesity and its co-morbidities, and that ‘browning’ of the adipose organ curbs these disorders.

  18. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  19. Adipose Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Shah, Arti; Mehta, Nehal; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2008-01-01

    Adiposity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of adipose inflammation, because these may represent therapeutic targets for insulin resistance and for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. The initial insult in adipose inflammation and insulin resistance, mediated by macrophage recruitment and endogenous ligand ac...

  20. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Rúben

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of n...

  1. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  2. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  3. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    A method for measurement of capillary permeability using external registration of gamma emitting isotopes after close arterial bolus injection was applied to the isolated inguinal fat pad in slightly fasting rabbits. An average extraction of 26 per cent for 51Cr-EDTA was found at a plasma flow of...... about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  4. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  5. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  6. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue

    Weisberg, Stuart P.; McCann, Daniel; Desai, Manisha; Rosenbaum, Michael; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Ferrante, Anthony W

    2003-01-01

    Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We fou...

  7. Methods in Enzymology (MIE): Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology-: Chapter 7: Imaging of Adipose Tissue

    Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher; Gericke, Martin T; Jeffery, Elise; Colman, Laura; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that specializes in lipid metabolism and is distributed throughout the body in distinct white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. These tissues have opposing roles in lipid metabolism with WAT storing excessive caloric intake in the form of lipid, and BAT burning lipid through non-shivering thermogenesis. As accumulation of lipid in mature adipocytes of WAT leads to obesity and increased risk of comorbidity (Pi-Sunyer et al., 1998),...

  8. Differential fatty acid profile in adipose and non-adipose tissues in obese mice

    Li, Mengting; Fu, Weisi; Li, Xiang-An

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Early studies indicated that adipose tissue from obese mice contains more saturated fatty acids and that the saturated fatty acids activate TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling, which contributes to inflammation in adipose tissue. In this study, we determined fatty acid profile in non-adipose tissues from obese (db/db) mice and compared with that from lean mice. Unexpectedly, in contrast to a significant increase in saturat...

  9. Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue may promote angiogenesis for adipose tissue remodeling in obesity

    Pang, Can; Gao, Zhanguo; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Jia, Weiping; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    The biological role of macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue in obesity remains to be fully understood. We hypothesize that macrophages may act to stimulate angiogenesis in the adipose tissue. This possibility was examined by determining macrophage expression of angiogenic factor PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and regulation of tube formation of endothelial cells by PDGF. The data suggest that endothelial cell density was reduced in the adipose tissue of ob/ob mice. Expression of...

  10. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  11. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifi...

  12. Obesity and adipose tissue endocrine function

    Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have profoundly changed the concept of adipose tissue from being an energy depot to an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed as ‘adipokines’.They act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines affects multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, immunity, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and haemostasis. Increased activity of the tumor n...

  13. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beig...

  14. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Svedman Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by str...

  15. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:26903879

  16. Determinants of Central Adiposity among Iranian Population

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.

  17. Longer distance from home to invasive centre is associated with lower rate of coronary angiographies following acute coronary syndrome

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette;

    the treatment of ACS. There are 5 tertiary invasive centres performing CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 8 hospitals with diagnostic units performing CAG only, and a further 36 hospitals without these facilities receiving patients with ACS. We...... information on co-morbidity were recorded for each patient. Information on distance from each patients place of residence to the nearest invasive centre was obtained from Statistics Denmark along with information on education, family income, previous medicine use and vital status. Patients were grouped in...

  18. Carotenoids in Adipose Tissue Biology and Obesity.

    Bonet, M Luisa; Canas, Jose A; Ribot, Joan; Palou, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators. Specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives restrain adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy while enhancing fat oxidation and energy dissipation in brown and white adipocytes, and counteract obesity in animal models. Intake, blood levels and adipocyte content of carotenoids are reduced in human obesity. Specifically designed human intervention studies in the field, though still sparse, indicate a beneficial effect of carotenoid supplementation in the accrual of abdominal adiposity. In summary, studies support a role of specific carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives in the prevention of excess adiposity, and suggest that carotenoid requirements may be dependent on body composition. PMID:27485231

  19. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Nascent Metabolic Syndrome

    Andrew A. Bremer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS confers an increased risk for both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Moreover, studies on adipose tissue biology in nascent MetS uncomplicated by T2DM and/or CVD are scanty. Recently, we demonstrated that adipose tissue dysregulation and aberrant adipokine secretion contribute towards the syndrome’s low-grade chronic proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. Specifically, we have made the novel observation that subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in subjects with nascent MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structures. We have also shown that subjects with nascent MetS have increased the levels of SAT-secreted adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, PAI-1, MCP-1, and chemerin and plasma adipokines (IL-1, IL-6, leptin, RBP-4, CRP, SAA, and chemerin, as well as decreased levels of plasma adiponectin and both plasma and SAT omentin-1. The majority of these abnormalities persisted following correction for increased adiposity. Our data, as well as data from other investigators, thus, highlight the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction in subjects with MetS and its contribution to the proinflammatory state and insulin resistance. This adipokine profile may contribute to increased insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation, promoting the increased risk of T2DM and CVD.

  20. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  1. Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development

    Michael E. Symonds

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  2. Adipose tissue plasticity from WAT to BAT and in between

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Mottillo, Emilio P.; Granneman, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticit...

  3. Advances in our understanding of adipose tissue homeostasis

    Stern, Jennifer H.; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, numerous noteworthy papers focusing on adipose tissue physiology were published. Many of these articles showed the promise of adipose-tissue-targeted approaches for therapeutic intervention in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we highlight advances in the development and maintenance of brown and/or beige adipocytes and the metabolic implications of infammation in adipose tissues.

  4. Developmental programming, adiposity, and reproduction in ruminants.

    Symonds, M E; Dellschaft, N; Pope, M; Birtwistle, M; Alagal, R; Keisler, D; Budge, H

    2016-07-01

    Although sheep have been widely adopted as an animal model for examining the timing of nutritional interventions through pregnancy on the short- and long-term outcomes, only modest programming effects have been seen. This is due in part to the mismatch in numbers of twins and singletons between study groups as well as unequal numbers of males and females. Placental growth differs between singleton and twin pregnancies which can result in different body composition in the offspring. One tissue that is especially affected is adipose tissue which in the sheep fetus is primarily located around the kidneys and heart plus the sternal/neck region. Its main role is the rapid generation of heat due to activation of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 at birth. The fetal adipose tissue response to suboptimal maternal food intake at defined stages of development differs between the perirenal abdominal and pericardial depots, with the latter being more sensitive. Fetal adipose tissue growth may be mediated in part by changes in leptin status of the mother which are paralleled in the fetus. Then, over the first month of life plasma leptin is higher in females than males despite similar adiposity, when fat is the fastest growing tissue with the sternal/neck depot retaining uncoupling protein 1, whereas other depots do not. Future studies should take into account the respective effects of fetal number and sex to provide more detailed insights into the mechanisms by which adipose and related tissues can be programmed in utero. PMID:27173959

  5. Injectable biomaterials for adipose tissue engineering

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. (paper)

  6. [White adipose tissue dysfunction observed in obesity].

    Lewandowska, Ewa; Zieliński, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is a disease with continuingly increasing prevalence. It occurs worldwide independently of age group, material status or country of origin. At these times the most common reasons for obesity are bad eating habits and dramatic reduction of physical activity, which cause the energy imbalance of organism. Fundamental alteration observed in obese subjects is white adipose tissue overgrowth, which is linked to increased incidence of obesity-related comorbidities, such as: cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes or digestive tract diseases. What is more, obesity is also a risk factor for some cancers. Special risk for diseases linked to excessive weight is associated with overgrowth of visceral type of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue, which is the main energy storehouse in body and acts also as an endocrine organ, undergoes both the morphological and the functional changes in obesity, having a negative impact on whole body function. In this article we summarize the most important alterations in morphology and function of white adipose tissue, observed in obese subjects. PMID:27234867

  7. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  8. Adipose tissue and fat cell biology

    Kopecký, Jan

    New York: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Pappas, A.), s. 201-224 ISBN 978-3-319-09942-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adipose tissue * endocrine function * lipid mediators Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  9. Adipogenic Potential of Adipose Stem Cell Subpopulations

    Li, Han; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Marra, Kacey G.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.; Rubin, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Adipose stem cells represent a heterogenous population. Understanding the functional characteristics of subpopulations will be useful in developing adipose stem cell–based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The aim of this study was to define distinct populations within the stromal vascular fraction based on surface marker expression, and to evaluate the ability of each cell type to differentiate to mature adipocytes. Methods Subcutaneous whole adipose tissue was obtained by abdominoplasty from human patients. The stromal vascular fraction was separated and four cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry and studied. Candidate perivascular cells (pericytes) were defined as CD146+/CD31−/CD34−. Two CD31+ endothelial populations were detected and differentiated by CD34 expression. These were tentatively designated as mature endothelial (CD 31+/CD34−), and immature endothelial (CD31+/CD34+). Both endothelial populations were heterogeneous with respect to CD146. The CD31−/CD34+ fraction (preadipocyte candidate) was also CD90+ but lacked CD146 expression. Results Proliferation was greatest in the CD31−/CD34+ group and slowest in the CD146+ group. Expression of adipogenic genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and fatty acid binding protein 4, were significantly higher in the CD31−/CD34+ group compared with all other populations after in vitro adipogenic differentiation. This group also demonstrated the highest proportion of AdipoRed lipid staining. Conclusions The authors have isolated four distinct stromal populations from human adult adipose tissue and characterized their adipogenic potential. Of these four populations, the CD31/CD34+ group is the most prevalent and has the greatest potential for adipogenic differentiation. This cell type appears to hold the most promise for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:21572381

  10. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  11. Estimation of limb adiposity by bioimpedance spectroscopy in lymphoedema

    Ward, L. C.; Essex, T.; Gaw, R.; Czerniec, S.; Dylke, E.; Abell, B.; Kilbreath, S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic debilitating condition that may occur in approximately 25% of women treated for breast cancer. As the condition progresses, accumulated lymph fluid becomes fibrotic with infiltration of adipose tissue. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is the preferred method for early detection of lymphoedema based on the measurement of impedance of extracellular fluid. The present study assessed whether these impedance measurements could also be used to estimate the adipose tissue content of the arm based on a model previously used to predict whole body composition. Estimates of arm adipose tissue in a cohort of women with lymphoedema were found to be highly correlated (r > 0.82) with measurements of adipose tissue obtained using the reference method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Paired t-tests confirmed that there was no significant difference between the adipose tissue volumes obtained by the two methods. These results support the view that the method shows promise for the estimation of arm adiposity in lymphoedema.

  12. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    Donohoe Claire L; Doyle Suzanne L; Reynolds John V

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods: Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles...

  13. Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Pilecki, Maciej; Kościelniak, Barbara; Tomasik, Przemysław J

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that is essential to regulation of metabolism in humans. A new approach to mental disorders led to research on involvement of adipokines in the etiology of mental disorders and mood states and their impact on the health status of psychiatric patients, as well as the effects of treatment for mental health disorders on plasma levels of adipokines. There is evidence that disturbances in adipokine secretion are important in the pathogenesis, clinical pr...

  14. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Montastier, Emilie; Maoret, Jean-José;

    2012-01-01

    Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT) are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification ...... controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases....

  15. Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Madden, Christopher J.; Tupone, Domenico; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2012-01-01

    Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. In this conceptual overview we describe the role of orexins/hypocretins within the central nervous system in the modulation of thermogenesis in BAT under several physiological conditions. Within this framewor...

  16. Central Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    ShaunF.Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the c...

  17. Hypothalamic Control of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis

    Alexandre Caron; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system, which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The charac...

  18. Hypothalamic control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Labbé, Sebastien M.; Caron, Alexandre; Lanfray, Damien; Monge-Rofarello, Boris; Bartness, Timothy J.; Richard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known, in large part from animal studies, that the control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is insured by the central nervous system (CNS), which integrates several stimuli in order to control BAT activation through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). SNS-mediated BAT activity is governed by diverse neurons found in brain structures involved in homeostatic regulations and whose activity is modulated by various factors including oscillations of energy fluxes. The ...

  19. Epicardial adipose tissue and atrial fibrillation.

    Hatem, Stéphane N; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2014-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is often associated with profound functional and structural alterations of the atrial myocardium that compose its substrate. Recently, a relationship between the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the incidence and severity of AF has been reported. Adipose tissue is a biologically active organ regulating the metabolism of neighbouring organs. It is also a major source of cytokines. In the heart, EAT is contiguous with the myocardium without fascia boundaries resulting in paracrine effects through the release of adipokines. Indeed, Activin A, which is produced in abundance by EAT during heart failure or diabetes, shows a marked fibrotic effect on the atrial myocardium. The infiltration of adipocytes into the atrial myocardium could also disorganize the depolarization wave front favouring micro re-entry circuits and local conduction block. Finally, EAT contains progenitor cells in abundance and therefore could be a source of myofibroblasts producing extracellular matrix. The study on the role played by adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of AF is just starting and is highly likely to uncover new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AF. PMID:24648445

  20. Insulin degradation by adipose tissue is increased in human obesity

    Rafecas Jorba, Immaculada; Fernández López, José Antonio; Salinas, Isabel; X. Formiguera Sala; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Foz Sala, M. (Màrius); Alemany, Marià

    1995-01-01

    White adipose tissue samples from obese and lean patients were used for the estimation ofinsulin protease and insulin:glutathione transhydrogenase using 1251-labeled insulin. There was no activity detected in the absence of reduced glutathione, which indicates that insulin is cleaved in human adipose "tissue through reduction of the disulfide bridge between the chains. O bese patients showed higher transhydrogenase activity (per U tissue protein wt, per U tissue wt, and in the total adipose t...

  1. Adiposity in British secondary school children: a population based study

    Odoki, Katherine Helen

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Adiposity is defined as the property of containing fat. Excessive adiposity is a cause of both morbidity and mortality in adults. Important consequences include increased risks of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, (particularly through the increased risks of high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance associated with adiposity), osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and some cancers (particularly endometrial, breast, and colon). There is...

  2. Adipose Tissue Angiogenesis: Impact on Obesity and Type-2 Diabetes

    Corvera, Silvia; Gealekman, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The growth and function of tissues is critically dependent on their vascularization. Adipose tissue is capable of expanding many-fold during adulthood, therefore requiring the formation of new vasculature to supply growing and proliferating adipocytes. The expansion of the vasculature in adipose tissue occurs through angiogenesis, where new blood vessels develop from those pre-existing within the tissue. Inappropriate angiogenesis may underlie adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, which in t...

  3. EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANT PREPARATIONS OF ADIPOSE TISSUE METABOLISM

    Bambhole, V. D.

    1988-01-01

    Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the red...

  4. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and dise...

  5. Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients

    Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several...

  6. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    Ribeiro Ricardo; Monteiro Cátia; Cunha Virgínia; Oliveira Maria; Freitas Mariana; Fraga Avelino; Príncipe Paulo; Lobato Carlos; Lobo Francisco; Morais António; Silva Vítor; Sanches-Magalhães José; Oliveira Jorge; Pina Francisco; Mota-Pinto Anabela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) ...

  7. Sustainable Three-Dimensional Tissue Model of Human Adipose Tissue

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G.; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31...

  8. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Katarina Marcinko

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC.

  9. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  10. Impact of Age on the Relationships of Brown Adipose Tissue With Sex and Adiposity in Humans

    Pfannenberg, Christina; Werner, Matthias K.; Ripkens, Sabine; Stef, Irina; Deckert, Annette; Schmadl, Maria; Reimold, Matthias; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Claussen, Claus D.; Stefan, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Brown adipose tissue (BAT) regulates energy homeostasis and fat mass in mammals and newborns and, most likely, in adult humans. Because BAT activity and BAT mass decline with age in humans, the impact of BAT on adiposity may decrease with aging. In the present study we addressed this hypothesis and further investigated the effect of age on the sex differences in BAT activity and BAT mass. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from 260 subjects (98 with BAT and 162 study date–matched cont...

  11. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  12. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  13. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass...

  14. Characterization of the human visceral adipose tissue secretome

    Alvarez Llamas, Gloria; Szalowska, Ewa; de Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Landman, Karloes; Hoek, Annemieke; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Roelofsen, Johan; Vonk, Roel J.

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome and t

  15. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.; Sandström, B.

    1995-01-01

    significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P <0.001), but not with eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...

  16. Identification of progesterone receptor in human subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    O'Brien, S N; Welter, B H; Mantzke, K A; Price, T M

    1998-02-01

    Sex steroids are postulated to play a role in adipose tissue regulation and distribution, because the amount and location of adipose tissue changes during puberty and menopause. Because of the nature of adipose tissue, receptors for the female sex steroids have been difficult to demonstrate. To date, estrogen receptor messenger RNA and protein have been identified in human subcutaneous adipose tissue, but the presence of progesterone receptor (PR) has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate PR message by Northern blot analysis in RNA isolated from the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of premenopausal women. These preliminary studies revealed that PR messenger RNA levels are higher in the stromal-vascular fraction as opposed to the adipocyte fraction. Western blot analysis demonstrates both PR protein isoforms (human PR-A and human PR-B) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total PR could be quantitated. These studies substantiate that sex steroid receptors are present in human adipose tissue, thereby providing a direct route for regulation of adipose tissue by female sex steroids. PMID:9467566

  17. Altered autophagy in human adipose tissues in obesity

    Context: Autophagy is a housekeeping mechanism, involved in metabolic regulation and stress response, shown recently to regulate lipid droplets biogenesis/breakdown and adipose tissue phenotype. Objective: We hypothesized that in human obesity autophagy may be altered in adipose tissue in a fat d...

  18. Fetal metabolic influences of neonatal anthropometry and adiposity.

    Donnelly, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.

  19. Albumin induced cytokine expression in porcine adipose tissue explants

    Albumin has historically been included in medium designed for use with adipose tissue when evaluating metabolism, gene expression or protein secretion. However, recent studies with mouse adipocytes (Ruan et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593, 2003) and human adipose tissue (Schlesinger et al., Ame...

  20. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    Egebæk, Heidi Klakk; Fairchild, Timothy J; Heidemann, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their BMI and adiposity (body fat percentage, BF%) and compare...

  2. Adiposity and sex hormones in girls.

    Baer, Heather J; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C; Dorgan, Joanne F

    2007-09-01

    Greater body fatness during childhood is associated with reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer, but few studies have addressed the relation of adiposity with sex hormones in girls. We prospectively examined associations between adiposity and circulating levels of sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 286 girls in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children. Participants were 8 to 10 years old at baseline and were followed for an average of 7 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and at subsequent annual visits, and blood samples were collected every 2 years. Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) during follow-up were higher among girls with greater body mass index (BMI) at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 63.0 microg/dL compared with 78.8 microg/dL for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with a 4.3% increase (95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.0%) in DHEAS levels during follow-up (P(trend) = 0.002). Concentrations of SHBG during follow-up were lower among girls with greater BMI at baseline. The mean for the lowest BMI quartile was 94.8 nmol compared with 57.5 nmol for the highest quartile, and each kg/m(2) increment in baseline BMI was associated with an 8.8% decrease (95% confidence interval, 7.0-10.6%) in SHBG levels during follow-up (P(trend) < 0.0001). Estrogen and progesterone concentrations were similar across BMI quartiles. These findings suggest that adiposity may alter DHEAS and SHBG levels in girls. Whether and how these differences affect breast development and carcinogenesis requires further research. PMID:17855709

  3. The Infrapatellar Adipose Body: A Histotopographic Study.

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Sarasin, Gloria; Petrelli, Lucia; Guidolin, Diego; Rossato, Marco; Fontanella, Chiara Giulia; Natali, Arturo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) can be regarded as a peculiar form of fibro-adipose tissue localized close to the synovial membrane and articular cartilage. The aims of the present study were to analyze the microscopic anatomy of the IFP through histological and ultrastructural methods, comparing it with that of the subcutaneous tissue of the abdomen and of the knee. Ten specimens of IFP were sampled from bodies of the Donation Program of the University of Padua without a history of osteoarthritis. The IFP consisted of white adipose tissue, of lobular type, with lobules delimited by thin connective septa. The IFP lobule areas were smaller (p 0.05) than those of subcutaneous tissues of the abdomen, whereas the IFP lobule areas were larger (p < 0.05) and the interlobular septa were thinner than those of the subcutaneous tissue of the knee (p < 0.05). The IFP adipocytes present a mean area of 3,708 ± 976 µm2 with a large intercellular space, whereas the mean area of the abdominal tissues was greater (6,082 ± 628 µm2; p < 0.05). At scanning electron microscopy the IFP adipocytes were covered by thick fibrillary sheaths, creating a basket around the adipocytes. The structural characteristics of the IFP (lobular aspect of the adipose tissue, thickness of the septa with scarce elastic fibers) could act as a plastic portion aimed at the absorption of pressure variation during knee articular activity. The extensive distribution of nerves suggests a possible role of the IFP as a mechanoreceptor, corresponding to a tridimensional connective mesh working in the proprioceptive regulation of the activity of the knee joint. PMID:26796341

  4. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone-fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues - subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT - is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat tissues

  5. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue: To Be or Not To Be a Typical Adipose Tissue?

    Hardouin, Pierre; Rharass, Tareck; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) emerges as a distinct fat depot whose importance has been proved in the bone–fat interaction. Indeed, it is well recognized that adipokines and free fatty acids released by adipocytes can directly or indirectly interfere with cells of bone remodeling or hematopoiesis. In pathological states, such as osteoporosis, each of adipose tissues – subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT), visceral WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and BMAT – is differently associated with bone mineral density (BMD) variations. However, compared with the other fat depots, BMAT displays striking features that makes it a substantial actor in bone alterations. BMAT quantity is well associated with BMD loss in aging, menopause, and other metabolic conditions, such as anorexia nervosa. Consequently, BMAT is sensed as a relevant marker of a compromised bone integrity. However, analyses of BMAT development in metabolic diseases (obesity and diabetes) are scarce and should be, thus, more systematically addressed to better apprehend the bone modifications in that pathophysiological contexts. Moreover, bone marrow (BM) adipogenesis occurs throughout the whole life at different rates. Following an ordered spatiotemporal expansion, BMAT has turned to be a heterogeneous fat depot whose adipocytes diverge in their phenotype and their response to stimuli according to their location in bone and BM. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies point to a detrimental role of BM adipocytes (BMAs) throughout the release of paracrine factors that modulate osteoblast and/or osteoclast formation and function. However, the anatomical dissemination and the difficulties to access BMAs still hamper our understanding of the relative contribution of BMAT secretions compared with those of peripheral adipose tissues. A further characterization of the phenotype and the functional regulation of BMAs are ever more required. Based on currently available data and comparison with other fat

  6. Rapid Cellular Turnover in Adipose Tissue

    Alessandra Rigamonti; Kristen Brennand; Frank Lau; Cowan, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that cellular turnover occurs within the human adipocyte population. Through three independent experimental approaches — dilution of an inducible histone 2B-green fluorescent protein (H2BGFP), labeling with the cell cycle marker Ki67 and incorporation of BrdU — we characterized the degree of cellular turnover in murine adipose tissue. We observed rapid turnover of the adipocyte population, finding that 4.8% of preadipocytes are replicating at any time and that between 1–...

  7. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  8. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B.; Huffman, Derek M.; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H.; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D.; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W.; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal af...

  9. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Adipose Tissue in MRI

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vaag, Allan; Larsen, Rasmus

    This paper presents a method for automatically segmenting abdominal adipose tissue from 3-dimensional magnetic resonance images. We distinguish between three types of adipose tissue; visceral, deep subcutaneous and superficial subcutaneous. Images are pre-processed to remove the bias field effect...... of intensity in-homogeneities. This effect is estimated by a thin plate spline extended to fit two classes of automatically sampled intensity points in 3D. Adipose tissue pixels are labelled with fuzzy c-means clustering and locally determined thresholds. The visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue...... are separated using deformable models, incorporating information from the clustering. The subcutaneous adipose tissue is subdivided into a deep and superficial part by means of dynamic programming applied to a spatial transformation of the image data. Regression analysis shows good correspondences...

  10. Epicardial adipose tissue and coronary artery disease: an article review

    Sareh Mousavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue surrounding the heart may contribute in the progression of coronary atherosclerosis due to its proximity to the coronary arteries. In addition, epicardial adipose tissue has paracrine and endocrine functions. It can secrete numerous bioactive molecules. Most previous studies examined the relation between coronary artery disease and epicardial adipose tissue have used echocardiography and have reported controversial results, probably due to differences in measurement techniques and study populations. This study aimed to give a brief review on the value of echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue in the prediction of coronary artery disease severity.Epicardial adipose tissue, easily and non-invasively evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography, can be considered as an adjunctive marker to classical risk factors despite all the limitations. Moreover, it might be recommended as a useful quantitative screening examination for the prediction of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease and the extent of atherosclerosis.

  11. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  12. The sexually dimorphic role of adipose and adipocyte estrogen receptors in modulating adipose tissue expansion, inflammation, and fibrosis

    Our data demonstrate that estrogens, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), and estrogen receptor-ßeta (ERßeta) regulate adipose tissue distribution, inflammation, fibrosis, and glucose homeostasis, by determining that alphaERKO mice have increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis prior to obesi...

  13. Techniques developed to evaluate the fracture toughness offast breeder reactor duct

    Large changes in strength and ductility of metals after irradiation are known to occur. The fracture toughness of irradiated metals, which is related to the combined strength and ductility of a material, may be significantly reduced and the potential for unstable crack extension increased. Therefore, the resistance of cladding and duct materials to fracture after exposure to fast neutron environments is of concern. Existing Type 316 stainless steel irradiated ducts are relatively thin and since this material retains substantial ductility, even after irradiation, the fracture behavior of the duct material cannot be analyzed by linear elastic fracture mechanics techniques. Instead, the multispecimen R-curve method and J-integral analysis were used to develop an experimental approach to evaluate the fracture toughness of thin breeder reactor duct materials irradiated at elevated temperatures. Alloy A-286 was chosen for these experiments because the alloy exhibits elastic/plastic behavior and the fracture toughness data of thicker (12 mm) specimens were available for comparison. Technical problems associated with specimen buckling and remote handling were treated in this work. The results are discussed in terms of thickness criterion for plane strain

  14. Laser-induced lipolysis on adipose cells

    Solarte, Efrain; Gutierrez, O.; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, J.; Isaza, Carolina; Ramirez, Hugo; Rebolledo, Aldo F.; Criollo, Willian; Ortiz, C.

    2004-10-01

    Recently, a new liposuction technique, using a low-level laser (LLL) device and Ultrawet solution prior to the procedure, demonstrated the movement of fat from the inside to the outside of the adipocyte (Neira et al., 2002). To determine the mechanisms involved, we have performed Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies; Light transmittance measurements on adipocyte dilutions; and a study of laser light propagation in adipose tissue. This studies show: 1. Cellular membrane alterations. 2. LLL is capable to reach the deep adipose tissue layer, and 3. The tumescence solution enhances the light propagation by clearing the tissue. MRI studies demonstrated the appearance of fat on laser treated abdominal tissue. Besides, adipocytes were cultivated and irradiated to observe the effects on isolated cells. These last studies show: 1. 635 nm-laser alone is capable of mobilizing cholesterol from the cell membrane; this action is enhanced by the presence of adrenaline and lidocaine. 2. Intracellular fat is released from adipocytes by co joint action of adrenaline, aminophyline and 635 nm-laser. Results are consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides the modification of the cellular membranes.

  15. Mechanisms linking excess adiposity and carcinogenesis promotion

    Ana I. Pérez-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity constitutes one of the most important metabolic diseases being associated to insulin resistance development and increased cardiovascular risk. Association between obesity and cancer has also been well-established for several tumor types, such as breast cancer in postmenopausal women, colorectal and prostate cancer. Cancer is the first death cause in developed countries and the second one in developing countries, with high incidence rates around the world. Furthermore, it has been estimated that 15-20% of all cancer deaths may be attributable to obesity. Tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor cells and their tissue microenvironment. In this sense, obesity may lead to cancer development through dysfunctional adipose tissue and altered signaling pathways. In this review, three main pathways relating obesity and cancer development are examined: i inflammatory changes leading to macrophage polarization and altered adipokine profile; ii insulin resistance development; and iii adipose tissue hypoxia. Since obesity and cancer present a high prevalence, the association between these conditions is of great public health significance and studies showing mechanisms by which obesity lead to cancer development and progression are needed to improve prevention and management of these diseases.

  16. Rare adipose disorders (RADs) masquerading as obesity

    Karen L HERBST

    2012-01-01

    Rare adipose disorders (RADs) including multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL),lipedema and Dercum's disease (DD) may be misdiagnosed as obesity.Lifestyle changes,such as reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity are standard care for obesity.Although lifestyle changes and bariatric surgery work effectively for the obesity component of RADs,these treatments do not routinely reduce the abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of RADs.RAD SAT likely results from the growth of a brown stem cell population with secondary lymphatic dysfunction in MSL,or by primary vascular and lymphatic dysfunction in lipedema and DD.People with RADs do not lose SAT from caloric limitation and increased energy expenditure alone.In order to improve recognition of RADs apart from obesity,the diagnostic criteria,histology and pathophysiology of RADs are presented and contrasted to familial partial lipodystrophies,acquired partial lipodystrophies and obesity with which they may be confused.Treatment recommendations focus on evidencebased data and include lymphatic decongestive therapy,medications and supplements that support loss of RAD SAT.Associated RAD conditions including depression,anxiety and pain will improve as healthcare providers learn to identify and adopt alternative treatment regimens for the abnormal SAT component of RADs.Effective dietary and exercise regimens are needed in RAD populations to improve quality of life and construct advanced treatment regimens for future generations.

  17. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  18. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  19. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Mental stress [a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)] increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation

  20. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  1. A retrospective analysis of thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue

    Recep Bedir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the lesions containing mature adipose tissues in surgical materials of the patients who underwent thyroidectomy operation owing to the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Methods: A total of 2800 pathologic specimens of thyroidectomies stained with hematoxylin-eosin were collected between January 2010 and November 2013 in Recep Tayyip Erdogan University School of Medicine. Pathologic sections were selected from pathology archive and re-examined. Upon examination, we determined 10 lesions with mature adipose tissue within thyroid parenchyma. Results: Thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue were observed in 10 (0.004 % of 2800 thyroidectomy materials. Eight of the patients were female and two of them were male. Minimum, maximum and median age of the patients were found to be 31, 74 and 52 years respectively. All of the cases had underwent a bilateral total thyroidectomy operation. In macroscopic examination of the only one cases, a homogenous yellow-gray color was observed. In other cases a large number of colloid-rich nodules of various sizes were observed. On microscopic examination, five adipose tissues in the nodules (adenolipoma-thyrolipoma, four scattered foci of mature adipose tissues (heterotopic adiposis and one diffuse infiltrating mature adipose tissue on entire thyroid gland (diffuse thyrolipomatosis were determined among mature adipose tissue containing lesions. A follicular variant of papillary microcarcinoma was found in two of thyrolipoma cases. Conclusion: Nodular thyroid lesions containing mature adipose tissue, as a result of particularly on the outer surface of the gland and parathyroid glands containining mature adipose tissue may mimic parathyroid gland lesion. Therefore, to prevent from inappropriate treatments, pathologists should be aware of these kinds of lesions, especially when they are investigating the lesions of parathyroid glands during an

  2. Surrogate Markers of Visceral Adiposity in Young Adults: Waist Circumference and Body Mass Index Are More Accurate than Waist Hip Ratio, Model of Adipose Distribution and Visceral Adiposity Index

    Susana Borruel; Moltó, José F.; Macarena Alpañés; Elena Fernández-Durán; Francisco Álvarez-Blasco; Manuel Luque-Ramírez; Héctor F Escobar-Morreale

    2014-01-01

    Surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity, a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, are routinely used in clinical practice because objective measurements of visceral adiposity are expensive, may involve exposure to radiation, and their availability is limited. We compared several surrogate indexes of visceral adiposity with ultrasound assessment of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots in 99 young Caucasian adults, including 20 women without androgen excess, 53...

  3. Adipose tissue macrophages induce PPARγ-high FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    Toshiharu Onodera; Atsunori Fukuhara; Myoung Ho Jang; Jihoon Shin; Keita Aoi; Junichi Kikuta; Michio Otsuki; Masaru Ishii; Iichiro Shimomura

    2015-01-01

    Numerous regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in adipose tissues compared with other lymphoid or non-lymphoid tissues. Adipose Tregs regulate inflammatory state and insulin sensitivity. However, the mechanism that maintains Tregs in adipose tissue remains unclear. Here, we revealed the contribution of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to the induction and proliferation of adipose Tregs. ATMs isolated from mice under steady state conditions induced Tregs with high expression of PPARγ compare...

  4. Biomarkers of Habitual Fish Intake in Adipose-Tissue

    Marckmann, P.; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Haraldsdottir, H.; Sandström, B.

    1995-01-01

    8-mo study period. The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study. The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms (g/d) was...... significantly associated with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid content (DHA; r = 0.55 and 0.58, respectively, P <0.001), but not with eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid contents. Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long...

  5. 0Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Wakako; Tsuji; J; Peter; Rubin; Kacey; G; Marra

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells(ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differ-entiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs dam-aged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration.

  6. Laser light propagation in adipose tissue and laser effects on adipose cell membranes

    Solarte, Efraín; Rebolledo, Aldo; Gutierrez, Oscar; Criollo, William; Neira, Rodrigo; Arroyave, José; Ramírez, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Recently Neira et al. have presented a new liposuction technique that demonstrated the movement of fat from inside to outside of the cell, using a low-level laser device during a liposuction procedure with Ultrawet solution. The clinical observations, allowed this new surgical development, started a set of physical, histological and pharmacological studies aimed to determine the mechanisms involved in the observed fat mobilization concomitant to external laser application in liposuction procedures. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, studies show that the cellular arrangement of normal adipose tissue changes when laser light from a diode laser: 10 mW, 635 nm is applied. Laser exposures longer than 6 minutes cause the total destruction of the adipocyte panicles. Detailed observation of the adipose cells show that by short irradiation times (less than four minutes) the cell membrane exhibits dark zones, that collapse by longer laser exposures. Optical measurements show that effective penetration length depends on the laser intensity. Moreover, the light scattering is enhanced by diffraction and subsequent interference effects, and the tumescent solution produces a clearing of the tissue optical medium. Finally, isolate adipose cell observation show that fat release from adipocytes is a concomitant effect between the tumescent solution (adrenaline) and laser light, revealing a synergism which conduces to the aperture, and maybe the disruption, of the cell membrane. All these studies were consistent with a laser induced cellular process, which causes fat release from inside the adipocytes into the intercellular space, besides a strong modification of the cellular membranes.

  7. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue.

    Šram, Miroslav; Vrselja, Zvonimir; Lekšan, Igor; Ćurić, Goran; Selthofer-Relatić, Kristina; Radić, Radivoje

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2) determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value. PMID:26124828

  8. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Is Nonlinearly Related to Anthropometric Measures and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    Miroslav Šram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ, composed of subcutaneous (SAT and visceral adipose tissue (VAT, the latter being highly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. Expansion of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is linked to CAD. One way of assessing the CAD risk is with low-cost anthropometric measures, although they are inaccurate and cannot discriminate between VAT and SAT. The aim of this study is to evaluate (1 the relationship between EAT thickness, SAT thickness and anthropometric measures in a cohort of patients assessed at the cardiology unit and (2 determine predictive power of anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT thickness in establishment of CAD. Methods. Anthropometric measures were obtained from 53 CAD and 42 non-CAD patients. Vascular and structural statuses were obtained with coronarography and echocardiography, as well as measurements of the EAT and SAT thickness. Results. Anthropometric measures showed moderate positive correlation with EAT and SAT thickness. Anthropometric measures and SAT follow nonlinear S curve relationship with EAT. Strong nonlinear power curve relationship was observed between EAT and SAT thinner than 10 mm. Anthropometric measures and EAT and SAT were poor predictors of CAD. Conclusion. Anthropometric measures and SAT have nonlinear relationship with EAT. EAT thickness and anthropometric measures have similar CAD predictive value.

  9. Cardio-adipose tissue cross-talk

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    increases adiponectin secretion, indicating that NPs may improve adipose tissue function and in this way function as a cardio-protective agent in HF. Accordingly we investigated the interplay between plasma adiponectin, plasma proBNP, and development of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively followed...... 5574 randomly selected men and women from the community without ischaemic heart disease or HF. Plasma adiponectin and proBNP were measured at study entry. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years (interquartile range 8.0-9.1 years). During follow-up 271 participants developed symptomatic HF. Plasma...... and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and physical activity) by Cox regression analysis, adiponectin remained an independent predictor of HF: the hazard ratio (HR) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in adiponectin...

  10. New Adipose Tissue Formation by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with Hyaluronic Acid Gel in Immunodeficient Mice

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Lin, Yun-Nan; Lee, Su-Shin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Tsai-Ming; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Daw

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently available injectable fillers have demonstrated limited durability. This report proposes the in vitro culture of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) on hyaluronic acid (HA) gel for in vivo growth of de novo adipose tissue. Methods: For in vitro studies, hASCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and were confirmed by multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry. hASCs were cultured on HA gel. The effectiveness of cell attachment and proliferation on HA gel was...

  11. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) Deficiencies Affect Expression of Lipolytic Activities in Mouse Adipose Tissues*

    Morak, Maria; Schmidinger, Hannes; Riesenhuber, Gernot; Rechberger, Gerald N.; Kollroser, Manfred; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Kronenberg, Florian; Hermetter, Albin

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are key enzymes involved in intracellular degradation of triacylglycerols. It was the aim of this study to elucidate how the deficiency in one of these proteins affects the residual lipolytic proteome in adipose tissue. For this purpose, we compared the lipase patters of brown and white adipose tissue from ATGL (−/−) and HSL (−/−) mice using differential activity-based gel electrophoresis. This method is based on activity-r...

  12. Development of the mouse dermal adipose layer occurs independently of subcutaneous adipose tissue and is marked by restricted early expression of FABP4.

    Wojciechowicz, K.; Gledhill, K; Ambler, C.A.; Manning, C B; Jahoda, C.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is a key animal model for studies of adipose biology, metabolism and disease, yet the developmental changes that occur in tissues and cells that become the adipose layer in mouse skin have received little attention. Moreover, the terminology around this adipose body is often confusing, as frequently no distinction is made between adipose tissue within the skin, and so called subcutaneous fat. Here adipocyte development in mouse dorsal skin was investigated from before bir...

  13. Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, and Stromal Vascular Fraction on the Survival of Human Transplanted Adipose Tissue

    Kim, Deok-Yeol; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Traditional adipose tissue transplantation has unpredictable viability and poor absorption rates. Recent studies have reported that treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) are related to increased survival of grafted adipose tissue. This study was the first simultaneous comparison of graft survival in combination with PRP, ASCs, and SVF. Adipose tissues were mixed with each other, injected subcutaneously into the back o...

  14. Identification of the Avian RBP7 Gene as a New Adipose-Specific Gene and RBP7 Promoter-Driven GFP Expression in Adipose Tissue of Transgenic Quail

    Ahn, Jinsoo; Shin, Sangsu; Suh, Yeunsu; Park, Ju Yeon; Hwang, Seongsoo; Lee, Kichoon

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of an increasing number of new adipose-specific genes has significantly contributed to our understanding of adipose tissue biology and the etiology of obesity and its related diseases. In the present study, comparison of gene expression profiles among various tissues was performed by analysis of chicken microarray data, leading to identification of RBP7 as a novel adipose-specific gene in chicken. Adipose-specific expression of RBP7 in the avian species was further confirmed at ...

  15. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue

    Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...

  16. Lifecourse Childhood Adiposity Trajectories Associated With Adolescent Insulin Resistance

    Huang, Rae-Chi; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Smith, Anne; Kendall, Garth E; Landau, Louis I.; Mori, Trevor A; NEWNHAM, John P; Stanley, Fiona J; Oddy, Wendy H; Hands, Beth; Lawrence J. Beilin

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In light of the obesity epidemic, we aimed to characterize novel childhood adiposity trajectories from birth to age 14 years and to determine their relation to adolescent insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,197 Australian children with cardiovascular/metabolic profiling at age 14 years were studied serially from birth to age 14 years. Semiparametric mixture modeling was applied to anthropometric data over eight time points to generate adiposity trajectories ...

  17. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    Boeke, Caroline E; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Elsie M. Taveras; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods: In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficie...

  18. Correlations among adiposity measures in school-aged children

    Boeke, Caroline E; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Elsie M. Taveras; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that it is not feasible to use dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or other reference methods to measure adiposity in all pediatric clinical and research settings, it is important to identify reasonable alternatives. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which other adiposity measures were correlated with DXA fat mass in school-aged children. Methods In 1110 children aged 6.5-10.9 years in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficient...

  19. Recent advance in brown adipose physiology and its therapeutic potential

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Jung, Young-Suk; Choi, Dalwoong

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized thermoregulatory organ that has a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Specifically, energy expenditure can be enhanced by the activation of BAT function and the induction of a BAT-like catabolic phenotype in white adipose tissue (WAT). Since the recent recognition of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, BAT has been extensively studied as one of the most promising targets identified for treating obesity and its related disorde...

  20. Adipocyte Turnover: Relevance to Human Adipose Tissue Morphology

    Arner, Erik; Westermark, Pål O.; Spalding, Kirsty L.; Britton, Tom; Rydén, Mikael; Frisén, Jonas; Bernard, Samuel; Arner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Adipose tissue may contain few large adipocytes (hypertrophy) or many small adipocytes (hyperplasia). We investigated factors of putative importance for adipose tissue morphology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Subcutaneous adipocyte size and total fat mass were compared in 764 subjects with BMI 18–60 kg/m2. A morphology value was defined as the difference between the measured adipocyte volume and the expected volume given by a curved-line fit for a given body fat mass and was related ...

  1. Cytomegalovirus infection of adipose tissues induces steatitis in adult mice.

    Price, P; Eddy, K. S.; Papadimitriou, J M; Robertson, T. A.; Shellam, G R

    1990-01-01

    Young adult mice infected with MCMV were shown to develop inflammatory lesions in the peripancreatic and salivary gland adipose tissues. MCMV replication was detected by immunoperoxidase staining and electron microscopy in adipocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes in brown and white adipose tissues. More infected cells were detected in C3H mice than in BALB/c, BALB.B, BALB.K or C57BL/6 mice. Peripancreatic steatitis consisted of a monocytic infiltrate surrounding focal necrosis...

  2. Adipose-derived Stem Cells: Isolation, Expansion and Differentiation

    Bunnell, Bruce A; Flaat, Mette; Gagliardi, Christine; Patel, Bindiya; Ripoll, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of regenerative medicine will require a reliable source of stem cells in addition to biomaterial scaffolds and cytokine growth factors. Adipose tissue has proven to serve as an abundant, accessible and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. There has been increased interest in Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, methods for the isolation, expa...

  3. Profiling of chicken adipose tissue gene expression by genome array

    Wang Shou-Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is a major problem in the present-day broiler industry. However, few studies have analyzed the expression of adipose tissue genes that are involved in pathways and mechanisms leading to adiposity in chickens. Gene expression profiling of chicken adipose tissue could provide key information about the ontogenesis of fatness and clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity. In this study, Chicken Genome Arrays were used to construct an adipose tissue gene expression profile of 7-week-old broilers, and to screen adipose tissue genes that are differentially expressed in lean and fat lines divergently selected over eight generations for high and low abdominal fat weight. Results The gene expression profiles detected 13,234–16,858 probe sets in chicken adipose tissue at 7 weeks, and genes involved in lipid metabolism and immunity such as fatty acid binding protein (FABP, thyroid hormone-responsive protein (Spot14, lipoprotein lipase(LPL, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7(IGFBP7 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC, were highly expressed. In contrast, some genes related to lipogenesis, such as leptin receptor, sterol regulatory element binding proteins1 (SREBP1, apolipoprotein B(ApoB and insulin-like growth factor 2(IGF2, were not detected. Moreover, 230 genes that were differentially expressed between the two lines were screened out; these were mainly involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, energy metabolism, tumorigenesis and immunity. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was performed to validate fifteen differentially expressed genes screened out by the microarray approach and high consistency was observed between the two methods. Conclusion Our results establish the groundwork for further studies of the basic genetic control of growth and development of chicken adipose tissue, and will be beneficial in clarifying the molecular mechanism of

  4. Browning of white adipose tissue: role of hypothalamic signaling

    Bi, Sheng; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through non-shivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential for the development of novel anti-obesity treatments. The hypothalamus plays a central role in the control of energy balance. Specifically, recent obse...

  5. Hypothalamic Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Energy Homeostasis

    Zhang, Wei; Bi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT) or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic a...

  6. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita,Masayuki; Noguchi,Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation...

  7. White adipose tissue resilience to insulin deprivation and replacement.

    Lilas Hadji

    Full Text Available Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin.Using streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes, we induced rapid changes in rat adipose tissue weights to study the changes in the distribution of adipose cell sizes in retroperitoneal (rWAT, epididymal (eWAT and subcutaneous adipose tissues (scWAT. Adipose tissue weights of type 1 diabetic rats were then rapidly restored by insulin supplementation. Cell size distributions were analyzed using multisizer IV (Beckman Coulter. Cell size changes were correlated to transcriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid and glucose metabolisms and adipocytokines.The initial body weight of the rats was 465±5.2 g. Insulin privation was stopped when rats lost 100 g which induced reductions in fat mass of 68% for rWAT, 42% for eWAT and 59% for scWAT corresponding to decreased mode cell diameters by 31.1%, 20%, 25.3%, respectively. The most affected size distribution by insulin deprivation was observed in rWAT. The bimodal distribution of adipose cell sizes disappeared in response to insulin deprivation in rWAT and scWAT. The most important observation is that cell size distribution returned close to control values in response to insulin treatment. mRNAs coding for adiponectin, leptin and apelin were more stimulated in scWAT compared to other depots in diabetic plus insulin group.Fat depots have specific responses to insulin deprivation and supplementation. The results show that insulin is a major determinant of bimodal cell repartition in adipose tissues.

  8. White adipose tissue resilience to insulin deprivation and replacement

    Lilas Hadji; Emmanuelle Berger; Hédi Soula; Hubert Vidal; Alain Géloën

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adipocyte size and body fat distribution are strongly linked to the metabolic complications of obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the plasticity of white adipose tissue in response to insulin deprivation and replacement. We have characterized the changes of adipose cell size repartition and gene expressions in type 1 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rats and type 1 diabetic supplemented with insulin. Methods: Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we induced rapi...

  9. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Future Regenerative System Medicine

    Yani Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of disease. Despite the advances, the availability of stem cells remaining a challenge for both scientist and clinicians in pursuing regenerative medicine. CONTENT: Subcutaneous human adipose tissue is an abundant and accessible cell source for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Routinely, the adipose issue is digested with collagenase or related lytic enzymes to release a heterogeneous population for stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells. The SVF cells can be used directly or can be cultured in plastic ware for selection and expansion of an adherent population known as adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs. Their potential in the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and other mesenchymal lineages, as well in their other clinically useful properties, includes stimulation of angiogenesis and suppression of inflammation. SUMMARY: Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cels suitable for the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and in animal models. KEYWORDS: adipose tissue, adult stem cells, regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells.

  10. Adipose tissue-organotypic culture system as a promising model for studying adipose tissue biology and regeneration

    Toda, Shuji; Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Sonoda, Emiko; Yamasaki, Fumio; Piao, Meihua; Ootani, Akifumi; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue consists of mature adipocytes, preadipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but a culture system for analyzing their cell types within the tissue has not been established. We have recently developed “adipose tissue-organotypic culture system” that maintains unilocular structure, proliferative ability and functions of mature adipocytes for a long term, using three-dimensional collagen gel culture of the tissue fragments. In this system, both preadipocytes and MSCs regenerate...

  11. Deep subcutaneous adipose tissue is more saturated than superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Lundbom, J; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Taskinen, M-R

    2013-04-01

    Upper body abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) can be divided into deep SAT (DSAT) and superficial SAT (SSAT) depots. Studies on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) composition have made no distinction between these two depots. The aim of this study is to determine whether DSAT and SSAT differ in FA composition. We studied the FA composition of DSAT and SSAT in 17 male and 13 female volunteers using non-invasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate between DSAT and SSAT. Adipose tissue spectra were analysed for lipid unsaturation, or double bond (DB) content, and polyunsaturation (PU), according to previously validated methods. The DSAT depot was more saturated than the SSAT depot, in both men (0.833 ± 0.012 vs 0.846 ± 0.009 DB, P<0.002) and women (0.826 ± 0.018 vs 0.850 ± 0.018 DB, P<0.002). In contrast, PU did not differ between DSAT and SSAT in either men (0.449 ± 0.043 vs 0.461 ± 0.044 PU, P=0.125) or women (0.411 ± 0.070 vs 0.442 ± 0.062 PU, P=0.234) and displayed a close correlation between the depots (R=0.908, P<0.001, n=30). The higher saturation in DSAT compared with SSAT can be attributed to a higher ratio of saturated to monounsaturated FAs. These results should be taken into account when determining the FA composition of SAT. PMID:22641063

  12. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants or stromal vascular fraction (SVF from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3 and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration

  13. Disruption of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase Ameliorates Diet-induced Adiposity but Exacerbates Systemic Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammatory Response*

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Huaijun; Gao, Zhanguo; Telang, Sucheta; Chesney, Jason; Chen, Y. Eugene; Ye, Jianping; Chapkin, Robert S.; Wu, Chaodong

    2009-01-01

    Adiposity is commonly associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and many overnutrition-related metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. Much attention has been paid to reducing adiposity as a way to improve adipose tissue function and systemic insulin sensitivity. PFKFB3/iPFK2 is a master regulator of adipocyte nutrient metabolism. Using PFKFB3+/− mice, the present study investigated the role of PFKFB3/iPFK2 in regulating diet-induced adiposity and systemic insulin resistance. On a high...

  14. SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE INSULIN RESISTANCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH VISCERAL ADIPOSITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Casey, Beret A.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Van Pelt, Rachael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We determined whether whole body and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) insulin resistance was proportional to regional fat mass (FM). Design and Methods We studied postmenopausal women (Mean±SD; age 56±4 y, n=25) who were overweight or obese (BMI 29.9±5.1 kg/m2). Whole body and regional FM were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). Women were studied during basal and insulin-stimulated (3-stage euglycemic clamp) conditions. Whole-body lipol...

  15. Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.

    Rand T Akasheh

    Full Text Available Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1, a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation.

  16. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  17. Visceral adipose tissue modulates mammalian longevity.

    Muzumdar, Radhika; Allison, David B; Huffman, Derek M; Ma, Xiaohui; Atzmon, Gil; Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Poduval, Aruna D; McVei, Theresa; Keith, Scott W; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can delay many age-related diseases and extend lifespan, while an increase in adiposity is associated with enhanced disease risk and accelerated aging. Among the various fat depots, the accrual of visceral fat (VF) is a common feature of aging, and has been shown to be the most detrimental on metabolic syndrome of aging in humans. We have previously demonstrated that surgical removal of VF in rats improves insulin action; thus, we set out to determine if VF removal affects longevity. We prospectively studied lifespan in three groups of rats: ad libitum-fed (AL-fed), CR (Fed 60% of AL) and a group of AL-fed rats with selective removal of VF at 5 months of age (VF-removed rats). We demonstrate that compared to AL-fed rats, VF-removed rats had a significant increase in mean (p fat mass, specifically VF, may be one of the possible underlying mechanisms of the anti-aging effect of CR. PMID:18363902

  18. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Proença, A.R.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Limeira, SP, Brasil, Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Sertié, R.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, A.C. [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brasil, Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campaãa, A.B.; Caminhotto, R.O.; Chimin, P.; Lima, F.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-03

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

  19. New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

    Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT

  20. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice.

    van Dam, Andrea D; Nahon, Kimberly J; Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Susan M; Kanhai, Anish A; Kikuchi, Takuya; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Lombès, Marc; van den Hoek, Anita M; de Winther, Menno P J; Lutgens, Esther; Guigas, Bruno; Rensen, Patrick C N; Boon, Mariëtte R

    2015-05-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after development of high-fat diet-induced obesity. We found that salsalate attenuated and reversed high-fat diet-induced weight gain, in particular fat mass accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered plasma triglyceride levels. Mechanistically, salsalate selectively promoted the uptake of fatty acids from glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled lipoprotein-like emulsion particles by brown adipose tissue (BAT), decreased the intracellular lipid content in BAT, and increased rectal temperature, all pointing to more active BAT. The treatment of differentiated T37i brown adipocytes with salsalate increased uncoupled respiration. Moreover, salsalate upregulated Ucp1 expression and enhanced glycerol release, a dual effect that was abolished by the inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In conclusion, salsalate activates BAT, presumably by directly activating brown adipocytes via the PKA pathway, suggesting a novel mechanism that may explain its beneficial metabolic effects in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25475439

  1. The survival condition and immunoregulatory function of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF in the early stage of nonvascularized adipose transplantation.

    Ziqing Dong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue transplantation is one of the standard procedures for soft-tissue augmentation, reconstruction, and rejuvenation. However, it is unknown as to how the graft survives after transplantation. We thus seek out to investigate the roles of different cellular components in the survival of graft. MATERIALS & METHODS: The ratios of stromal vascular fraction (SVF cellular components from human adipose tissue were evaluated using flow cytometry. Human liposuction aspirates that were either mixed with marked SVF cells or PBS were transplanted into nude mice. The graft was harvested and stained on days 1,4,7 and 14. The inflammation level of both SVF group and Fat-only group were also evaluated. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis showed SVF cells mainly contained blood-derived cells, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, and endothelial cells. Our study revealed that most cells are susceptible to death after transplantation, although CD34+ ASCs can remain viable for 14 days. Notably, we found that ASCs migrated to the peripheral edge of the graft. Moreover, the RT-PCR and the immuno-fluorescence examination revealed that although the SVF did not reduce the number of infiltrating immune cells (macrophages in the transplant, it does have an immunoregulatory function of up-regulating the expression of CD163 and CD206 and down-regulating that of IL-1β, IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the survival of adipose tissue after nonvascularized adipose transplantation may be due to the ASCs in SVF cells. Additionally, the immunoregulatory function of SVF cells may be indirectly contributing to the remolding of adipose transplant, which may lead to SVF-enriched adipose transplantation.

  2. Galectin-3 inhibition prevents adipose tissue remodelling in obesity.

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Calvier, L; Rossignol, P; Rousseau, E; Fernández-Celis, A; Jurado-López, R; Laville, M; Cachofeiro, V; López-Andrés, N

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular matrix remodelling of the adipose tissue has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is increased in obesity and mediates inflammation and fibrosis in the cardiovascular system. However, the effects of Gal-3 on adipose tissue remodelling associated with obesity remain unclear. Male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet (33.5% fat) or a standard diet (3.5% fat) for 6 weeks. Half of the animals of each group were treated with the pharmacological inhibitor of Gal-3, modified citrus pectin (MCP; 100 mg kg(-1) per day) in the drinking water. In adipose tissue, obese animals presented an increase in Gal-3 levels that were accompanied by an increase in pericellular collagen. Obese rats exhibited higher adipose tissue inflammation, as well as enhanced differentiation degree of the adipocytes. Treatment with MCP prevented all the above effects. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Gal-3 (10(-8 )m) treatment increased fibrosis, inflammatory and differentiation markers. In conclusion, Gal-3 emerges as a potential therapeutic target in adipose tissue remodelling associated with obesity and could have an important role in the development of metabolic alterations associated with obesity. PMID:26853916

  3. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)], E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org

    2009-03-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time.

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  5. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals. PMID:1329567

  6. Epikardiales Fett als Biomarker? // Epicardial Adipose Tissue as a Biomarker?

    Tscharre M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue as the “visceral” adipose tissue of the heart is arousing more and more scientific interest, as it has numerous local and systemic effects. There is no fascia separating the epicardial adipose tissue and the myocardium and they both share its blood supply via the coronary arteries, thus allowing a possible interaction. Under normal physiological conditions, epicardial adipose tissue has mainly anti-atherogenic, thermogenic and mechanical characteristics. Under pathological conditions it becomes harmful to the myocardium and the coronary arteries. Important features in the clinical setting are correlations with coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and visceral adipose tissue, thus acting as a possible biomarker of cardiovascular risk. p bKurzfassung:/b Das epikardiale Fettgewebe erweckt als „viszerales“ Fettdepot des Herzens mit zahlreichen lokalen und systemischen Effekten immer mehr wissenschaftliches Interesse. Das Fehlen einer trennenden Faszie zwischen epikardialem Fettgewebe und Myokard und die gemeinsame Blutversorgung durch die Koronararterien erlauben eine potenzielle Interaktion. Unter normalen physiologischen Verhältnissen hat das epikardiale Fettgewebe hauptsächlich anti-atherogene, thermogenetische und mechanische Funktionen. Unter pathologischen Verhältnissen schädigt es das Myokard und die Koronararterien. Einen klinischen Stellenwert hat es aufgrund von Korrelationen mit koronarer Herzerkrankung, Herzinsuffizienz, Vorhofflimmern und viszeralem Fettgewebe. Dadurch könnte es als neuer Biomarker für das kardiovaskuläre Risiko dienen.

  7. Abdominal adiposity largely explains associations between insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and subclinical atherosclerosis: the NEO study

    Gast, K.B.; Smit, J.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Middeldorp, S.; Rippe, R.C.; Cessie, S. le; Koning, E.J. de; Jukema, J.W.; Rabelink, T.J.; Roos, A. de; Rosendaal, F.R.; Mutsert, R. de; Assendelft, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relative importance of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Furthermore, adiposity may be responsible for observed associations. Our aim was to study the relative contributions of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to

  8. Impact of runting on adipokine gene expression in neonatal pig adipose tissue

    This study examined the effects of runting on adipokines in neonatal adipose tissue. Pigs were selected as runts (R) by birth weight adipose tissues were collected at d1 (n = 5), d7 (n = 7) or d21 (n...

  9. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  10. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  11. Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Adipose Tissue in Children and Adolescents

    Kotnik Primož; Fischer Posovszky Pamela; Wabitsch Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is implicated in many endocrine and metabolic processes. Leptin was among the first identified adipose-secreted factors, which act in an auto-, para- and endocrine manner. Since leptin, many other adipose tissue factors were determined, some primarily secreted from the adipocytes, some from other cells of the adipose tissue. So-called adipokines are not only involved in obesity and its complications, as are insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and other components of the metabol...

  12. Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Collection and Characterization in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    Johnson, Shawn P.; Catania, Jeffrey M.; Harman, Robert J.; Jensen, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the regenerative properties and potential therapeutic value of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in the bottlenose dolphin, there is a need to determine whether an adequate adipose depot exists, in addition to the development of a standardized technique for minimally invasive adipose collection. In this study, an ultrasound-guided liposuction technique for adipose collection was assessed for its safety and efficacy. The ultrasound was utilized to identify and measure the postnuchal ...

  13. Crosstalk between Adipocytes and Immune Cells in Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Obesity

    Huh, Jin Young; Park, Yoon Jeong; Ham, Mira; Kim, Jae Bum

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in ...

  14. A novel ChREBP isoform in adipose tissue regulates systemic glucose metabolism

    Herman, Mark Andrew; Peroni, Odile Daniele; Villoria, Jorge; Schön, Michael R; Abumrad, Nada A.; Blüher, Matthias; Klein, Samuel; Kahn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of obesity and type 2-diabetes is increasing worldwide and threatens to shorten lifespan. Impaired insulin action in peripheral tissues is a major pathogenic factor. Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in adipose tissue through the Glut4-glucose transporter and alterations in adipose-Glut4 expression or function regulate systemic insulin sensitivity. Downregulation of adipose tissue-Glut4 occurs early in diabetes development. Here we report that adipose tissue-Glut4 regul...

  15. Natural Killer T Cells in Adipose Tissue Are Activated in Lean Mice

    Kondo, Taisuke; Toyoshima, Yujiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kyuwa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissues are closely connected with the immune system. It has been suggested that metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes, arteriosclerosis and liver steatosis can be attributed to adipose tissue inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration. To understand a physiological and pathological role of natural killer T (NKT) cells on inflammation in adipose tissue, we characterized a subset of NKT cells in abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissues in C57BL/6J mice fed normal or ...

  16. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in ...

  17. Alterations in Adipose Tissue during Critical Illness: An Adaptive and Protective Response?

    Langouche, Lies; Vander Perre, Sarah; Thiessen, Steven; Gunst, Jan; Hermans, Greet; D'Hoore, André; Kola, Blerina; Korbonits, Márta; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Critical illness is characterized by lean tissue wasting, whereas adipose tissue is preserved. Overweight and obese critically ill patients may have a lower risk of death than lean patients, suggestive of a protective role for adipose tissue during illness. Objectives: To investigate whether adipose tissue could protectively respond to critical illness by storing potentially toxic metabolites, such as excess circulating glucose and triglycerides. Methods: We studied adipose tissue ...

  18. Similarity of mouse perivascular and brown adipose tissues and their resistance to diet-induced inflammation

    Fitzgibbons, Timothy P.; Kogan, Sophia; Aouadi, Myriam; Hendricks, Greg M.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Czech, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose depot that likely influences vascular function and susceptibility to pathogenesis in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, PVAT has been reported to share characteristics of both brown and white adipose, but a detailed direct comparison to interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) has not been performed. Here we show by full genome DNA microarray analysis that global gene expression profiles of PVAT are virtually ident...

  19. In vivo dedifferentiation of adult adipose cells.

    Yunjun Liao

    Full Text Available Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown.A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining.The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells.Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a more general role in the

  20. Adipose atrophy in cancer cachexia: morphologic and molecular analysis of adipose tissue in tumour-bearing mice.

    Bing, C; Russell, S; Becket, E; Pope, M; Tisdale, M J; Trayhurn, P; Jenkins, J R

    2006-10-23

    Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in size. Increased fibrosis was evident by strong collagen-fibril staining in the tissue matrix. Ultrastructure of 'slimmed' adipocytes revealed severe delipidation and modifications in cell membrane conformation. There were major reductions in mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in adipose tissue, which was accompanied by reduced protein content of C/EBPalpha and SREBP-1. mRNA levels of SREBP-1c targets, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase, also fell as did glucose transporter-4 and leptin. In contrast, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha and uncoupling protein-2 were increased in white fat of tumour-bearing mice. These results suggest that the tumour-induced impairment in the formation and lipid storing capacity of adipose tissue occurs in mice with cancer cachexia. PMID:17047651

  1. The effect of hypokinesia on lipid metabolism in adipose tissue

    Macho, Ladislav; Kvetn̆anský, Richard; Ficková, Mária

    The increase of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in plasma was observed in rats subjected to hypokinesia for 1-60 days. In the period of recovery (7 and 21 days after 60 days immobilization) the content of NEFA returned to control values. The increase of fatty acid release from adipose tissue was observed in hypokinetic rats, however the stimulation of lipolysis by norepinephrine was lower in rats exposed to hypokinesis. The decrease of the binding capacity and a diminished number of beta-adrenergic receptors were found in animals after hypokinesia. The augmentation of the incorporation of glucose into lipids and the marked increase in the stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin were found in adipose tissue of rats subjected to long-term hypokinesia. These results showed an important effect of hypokinesia on lipid mobilization, on lipogenesis and on the processes of hormone regulation in adipose tissue.

  2. Recent Advances in Proteomic Studies of Adipose Tissues and Adipocytes

    Eun Young Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease that is associated with significantly increased levels of risk of a number of metabolic disorders. Despite these enhanced health risks, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Obesity is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal amount of body fat in adipose tissue, which is composed mostly of adipocytes. Thus, a deeper understanding of the regulation mechanism of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes can provide a clue for overcoming obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we describe recent advances in the study of adipose tissue and/or adipocytes, focusing on proteomic approaches. In addition, we suggest future research directions for proteomic studies which may lead to novel treatments of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  3. Reduced adipose tissue lymphatic drainage of macromolecules in obese subjects

    Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate subcutaneous adipose tissue lymphatic drainage (ATLD) of macromolecules in lean and obese subjects and, furthermore, to evaluate whether ATLD may change in parallel with adipose tissue blood flow. Lean and obese male subjects were studied before and after an...... increase in ATLD was seen after the glucose load in the lean subjects. In the obese subjects, ATLD remained constant throughout the study and was significantly lower compared to the lean subjects. These results indicate a reduced ability to remove macromolecules from the interstitial space through the...... lymphatic system in obese subjects. Furthermore, they suggest that postprandial changes in ATLD taking place in lean subjects are not observed in obese subjects. This may have a role in the development of obesity-related inflammation in hypertrophic adipose tissue.International Journal of Obesity advance...

  4. Adipose Tissue Regeneration: A State of the Art

    Alessandro Casadei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue pathologies and defects have always represented a reconstructive challenge for plastic surgeons. In more recent years, several allogenic and alloplastic materials have been developed and used as fillers for soft tissue defects. However, their clinical use has been limited by further documented complications, such as foreign-body reactions potentially affecting function, degradation over time, and the risk for immunogenicity. Tissue-engineering strategies are thus being investigated to develop methods for generating adipose tissue. This paper will discuss the current state of the art in adipose tissue engineering techniques, exploring the biomaterials used, stem cells application, culture strategies, and current regulatory framework that are in use are here described and discussed.

  5. Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders.

    Choe, Sung Sik; Huh, Jin Young; Hwang, In Jae; Kim, Jong In; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secrete various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines) that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue-resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic overnutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response. PMID:27148161

  6. File list: His.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: NoD.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: ALL.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Histone Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, White... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Adp.50.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White hg19 Unclassified Adipocyte Adipose Tissue, ...White http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Adp.05.AllAg.Adipose_Tissue,_White.bed ...

  14. Adipose tissue remodeling: its role in energy metabolism and metabolic disorders

    Sung Sik eChoe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. The white adipose tissue (WAT functions as a key energy reservoir for other organs, whereas the brown adipose tissue (BAT accumulates lipids for cold-induced adaptive thermogenesis. Adipose tissues secret various hormones, cytokines, and metabolites (termed as adipokines that control systemic energy balance by regulating appetitive signals from the central nerve system as well as metabolic activity in peripheral tissues. In response to changes in the nutritional status, the adipose tissue undergoes dynamic remodeling, including quantitative and qualitative alterations in adipose tissue resident cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that adipose tissue remodeling in obesity is closely associated with adipose tissue function. Changes in the number and size of the adipocytes affect the microenvironment of expanded fat tissues, accompanied by alterations in adipokine secretion, adipocyte death, local hypoxia, and fatty acid fluxes. Concurrently, stromal vascular cells in the adipose tissue, including immune cells, are involved in numerous adaptive processes, such as dead adipocyte clearance, adipogenesis, and angiogenesis, all of which are dysregulated in obese adipose tissue remodeling. Chronic over-nutrition triggers uncontrolled inflammatory responses, leading to systemic low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance. This review will discuss current mechanistic understandings of adipose tissue remodeling processes in adaptive energy homeostasis and pathological remodeling of adipose tissue in connection with immune response.

  15. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J

    subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism was investigated. In both series Fick's principle was applied. Intravenous infusion increased blood flow, glucose uptake and oxygen uptake in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. It is concluded that skeletal muscle contributes about 40% and adipose tissue about 5% of...

  16. Adipose tissue development in extramuscular and intramuscular depots in meat animals

    The cellular and metabolic aspects of developing intramuscular adipose tissue and other adipose tissue depots have been studied including examination of the expression of a number of genes. Depot dependent or depot “marker” genes such as stearoyl-CoA desaturase and leptin for subcutaneous adipose ti...

  17. Adipocyte insulin receptor activity maintains adipose tissue mass and lifespan.

    Friesen, Max; Hudak, Carolyn S; Warren, Curtis R; Xia, Fang; Cowan, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes follows a well-defined progressive pathogenesis, beginning with insulin resistance in metabolic tissues such as the adipose. Intracellular signaling downstream of insulin receptor activation regulates critical metabolic functions of adipose tissue, including glucose uptake, lipogenesis, lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Previous studies have used the aP2 promoter to drive Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue. Insulin receptor (IR) knockout mice created using this aP2-Cre strategy (FIRKO mice) were protected from obesity and glucose intolerance. Later studies demonstrated the promiscuity of the aP2 promoter, casting doubts upon the tissue specificity of aP2-Cre models. It is our goal to use the increased precision of the Adipoq promoter to investigate adipocyte-specific IR function. Towards this end we generated an adipocyte-specific IR knockout (AIRKO) mouse using an Adipoq-driven Cre recombinase. Here we report AIRKO mice are less insulin sensitive throughout life, and less glucose tolerant than wild-type (WT) littermates at the age of 16 weeks. In contrast to WT littermates, the insulin sensitivity of AIRKO mice is unaffected by age or dietary regimen. At any age, AIRKO mice are comparably insulin resistant to old or obese WT mice and have a significantly reduced lifespan. Similar results were obtained when these phenotypes were re-examined in FIRKO mice. We also found that the AIRKO mouse is protected from high-fat diet-induced weight gain, corresponding with a 90% reduction in tissue weight of major adipose depots compared to WT littermates. Adipose tissue mass reduction is accompanied by hepatomegaly and increased hepatic steatosis. These data indicate that adipocyte IR function is crucial to systemic energy metabolism and has profound effects on adiposity, hepatic homeostasis and lifespan. PMID:27246738

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Adiposity and Fitness in Young Children

    Egebæk, Heidi Klakk; Fairchild, Timothy J; Heidemann, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may attenuate the association between excessive adiposity and the risks of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. The purpose of this study was to stratify children according to their BMI and adiposity (body fat percentage, BF%) and compare...... children who improved their BMI and/or BF% classification over the two year period achieved CRF levels (8.9m [-30.2,47.9]) which were comparable to children with normal BMI and BF% at both measurement time points. CONCLUSION: The CRF levels in children are impacted by BMI and BF%, although BF% appears...

  19. Direct effects of leptin on brown and white adipose tissue.

    Siegrist-Kaiser, C A; Pauli, V; Juge-Aubry, C E; Boss, O; Pernin, A; Chin, W W; Cusin, I; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F; Burger, A G; Zapf, J; Meier, C A

    1997-01-01

    Leptin is thought to exert its actions on energy homeostasis through the long form of the leptin receptor (OB-Rb), which is present in the hypothalamus and in certain peripheral organs, including adipose tissue. In this study, we examined whether leptin has direct effects on the function of brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) at the metabolic and molecular levels. The chronic peripheral intravenous administration of leptin in vivo for 4 d resulted in a 1.6-fold increase...

  20. Vitamin D and adipose tissue - more than storage

    Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic increase in obesity is inversely associated with vitamin D levels. While a higher BMI was causally related to lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, no evidence was obtained for a BMI lowering effect by higher 25(OHD. Some of the physiological functions of 1,25(OH2D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol via its receptor within the adipose tissue have been investigated such as its effect on energy balance, adipogenesis, adipokine and cytokine secretion. Adipose tissue inflammation has been recognized as the key component of metabolic disorders, e.g. in the metabolic syndrome. The adipose organ secretes more than 260 different proteins/peptides. However, the molecular basis of the interactions of 1,25(OH2D3, vitamin D binding proteins (VDBPs and nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR after sequestration in adipose tissue and their regulations are still unclear. 1,25(OH2D3 and its inactive metabolites are known to inhibit the formation of adipocytes in mouse 3T3-L1 cell line. In humans, 1,25(OH2D3 promotes preadipocyte differentiation under cell culture conditions. Further evidence of its important functions is given by VDR knock out (VDR -/- and CYP27B1 knock out (CYP27B1 -/- mouse models: Both VDR -/- and CYP27B1 -/- models are highly resistant to the diet induced weight gain, while the specific overexpression of human VDR in adipose tissue leads to increased adipose tissue mass. The analysis of microarray datasets from human adipocytes treated with macrophage-secreted products up-regulated VDR and CYP27B1 genes indicating the capacity of adipocytes to even produce active 1,25(OH2D3. Experimental studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH2D3 has an active role in adipose tissue by modulating inflammation, adipogenesis and adipocyte secretion. Yet, further in vivo studies are needed to address the effects and the effective dosages of vitamin D in human adipose tissue and its relevance in the associated diseases.

  1. Unequivocal Identification of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Human Infant

    Hu, Houchun H.; Tovar, Jason; Pavlova, Zdena; Smith, Michelle L; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We report the unique depiction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) by MRI and computed tomography (CT) in a human three month-old infant. Based on cellular differences between BAT and more lipid-rich white adipose tissue (WAT), chemical-shift MRI and CT were both capable of generating distinct signal contrasts between the two tissues and against surrounding anatomy, utilizing fat-signal fraction metrics in the former and X-ray attenuation values in the latter. While numerous BAT imaging experiments...

  2. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  3. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    Dodson, M.V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Vierck, J.L. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hausman, G.J. [USDA-ARS, Richard B. Russell Agricultural Research Station, Athens, GA 30604 (United States); Guan, L.L. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5 Canada (Canada); Fernyhough, M.E. [The Hartz Mountain Corporation, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (United States); Poulos, S.P. [The Coca-Cola Company, Research and Technology, Atlanta, GA 30313 (United States); Mir, P.S. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Lethbridge, CA T1J 4B1 (United States); Jiang, Z. [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-04-02

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  4. Endotrophin triggers adipose tissue fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction

    Sun, Kai; Park, Jiyoung; Gupta, Olga T;

    2014-01-01

    We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model to demonst......We recently identified endotrophin as an adipokine with potent tumour-promoting effects. However, the direct effects of local accumulation of endotrophin in adipose tissue have not yet been studied. Here we use a doxycycline-inducible adipocyte-specific endotrophin overexpression model...

  5. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer; Janna Schoenmakers; Guy Vijgen; Fons Kessels; Anne-Marie Dingemans; Patrick Schrauwen; Miel Wouters; Wouter van Marken Lichtenbelt; Jaap Teule; Boudewijn Brans

    2012-01-01

    Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT). Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activ...

  6. Lower rate of invasive revascularisation after coronary angiography, following acute coronary syndrome, the longer distance you live from an invasive centres

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette;

    guidelines for the treatment of ACS. There are 5 tertiary invasive centres performing CAG, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 8 hospitals with diagnostic units performing CAG only, and a further 36 hospitals without these facilities receiving patients with...... Patient Register. We included those examined with CAG in the analysis. Information on distance from the patient's home to nearest invasive centre was obtained from Statistics Denmark along with information on education, personal income, previous medicine use and vital status. Patients were grouped in...... revascularisation for the patients living farthest away compared to those living closest. CAG was performed at a tertiary centre in 68% among those living farthest away vs. 90% among those living closest to a centre. Conclusion Despite uniform national guidelines, patients who receive CAG following ACS are treated...

  7. Global gene expression profiling of brown to white adipose tissue transformation in sheep reveals novel transcriptional components linked to adipose remodeling

    Basse, Astrid L.; Dixen, Karen; Yadav, Rachita;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large mammals are capable of thermoregulation shortly after birth due to the presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The majority of BAT disappears after birth and is replaced by white adipose tissue (WAT). Results: We analyzed the postnatal transformation of adipose in sheep with a......, including NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over...... time course study of the perirenal adipose depot. We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. The transformation was characterized by massively decreased mitochondrial...

  8. Expression of Resistin Protein in Normal Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Pregnant Women Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue and Placenta

    ZHOU Yongming; GUO Tiecheng; ZHANG Muxun; GUO Wei; YU Meixia; XUE Keying; HUANG Shiang; CHEN Yanhong; ZHU Huanli; XU Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta and the relationship between obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was investigated. The expression of resistin protein in normal human abdominal, thigh, pregnant women abdominal, non-pregnant women abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta was detected by using Western blotting method.Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay. Serum cholesterol (CHOL), serum triglycerides (TG), serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument. Fasting insulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay to calculate insulin resistance index (IRI). Height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF %). Resistin protein expression in pregnant women placental tissue (67 905±8441) (arbitrary A values) was much higher than that in subcutaneous adipose tissue in pregnant women abdomen (40 718 ± 3818, P < 0.01), non-pregnant women abdomen (38 288±2084, P<0.01), normal human abdomen (39 421±6087, P<0.01)and thigh (14 942 ±6706, P<0. 001) respectively. The resistin expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue showed no significant difference among pregnant, non-pregnant women and normal human, but much higher than that in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<0. 001). Pearson analysis revealed that resistin protein was correlated with BMI (r=0.42), fasting insulin concentration (r=0.38),IRI (r=0. 34), BF % (r=0.43) and fasting glucose (r=0. 39), but not with blood pressure,CHOL, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C. It was suggested that resistin protein expression in human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue was much higher

  9. Early growth and childhood adiposity. The Generation R Study

    B. Durmus (Busra)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as abnormal or excessive accumulation of adipose tissue, which is an established risk factor for harmful health. Common health consequences of overweight and obesity include cardiometabolic diseases – mainly diabetes, stroke an

  10. Adipose tissue fatty acid patterns and changes in anthropometry

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...

  11. Ghrelin receptor regulates adipose tissue inflammation in aging

    Aging is commonly associated with low-grade adipose inflammation, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. Ghrelin is the only circulating orexigenic hormone which is known to increase obesity and insulin resistance. We previously reported that the expression of the ghrelin receptor, growth ho...

  12. Cell culture models for study of differentiated adipose cells

    Clynes, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adipose cells are an important source of mesenchymal stem cells and are important for direct use in research on lipid metabolism and obesity. In addition to use of primary cultures, there is increasing interest in other sources of larger numbers of cells, using approaches including induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation and viral immortalisation.

  13. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  14. Exercise training decreases adipose tissue inflammation in cachectic rats.

    Lira, F S; Yamashita, A S; Rosa, J C; Koyama, C H; Caperuto, E C; Batista, M L; Seelaender, M C L

    2012-02-01

    Bearing in mind that cancer cachexia is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and that endurance training has been adopted as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory strategy, we examined the effect of 8 weeks of moderate intensity exercise upon the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in 2 different depots of white adipose tissue in cachectic tumour-bearing (Walker-256 carcinosarcoma) rats. Animals were assigned to a sedentary control (SC), sedentary tumour-bearing (ST), sedentary pair-fed (SPF) or exercise control (EC), exercise tumour-bearing (ET), and exercise pair-fed (EPF) group. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60% VO(2)max) 60 min/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. The retroperitoneal (RPAT) and mesenteric (MEAT) adipose pads were excised and the mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (ELISA) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were evaluated. The number of infiltrating monocytes in the adipose tissue was increased in cachectic rats. TNF-α mRNA in MEAT was increased in the cachectic animals (preduction of the infiltrating monocytes both in MEAT and RPAT (p<0.05), when compared with ST. We conclude that cachexia is associated with inflammation of white adipose tissue and that exercise training prevents this effect in the MEAT, and partially in RPAT. PMID:22266827

  15. Lipolytic and thermogenic depletion of adipose tissue in cancer cachexia.

    Tsoli, Maria; Swarbrick, Michael M; Robertson, Graham R

    2016-06-01

    Although muscle wasting is the obvious manifestation of cancer cachexia that impacts on patient quality of life, the loss of lipid reserves and metabolic imbalance in adipose tissue also contribute to the devastating impact of cachexia. Depletion of fat depots in cancer patients is more pronounced than loss of muscle and often precedes, or even occurs in the absence of, reduced lean body mass. Rapid mobilisation of triglycerides stored within adipocytes to supply the body with fatty acids in periods of high-energy demand is normally mediated through a well-defined process of lipolysis involving the lipases ATGL, HSL and MGL. Studies into how these lipases contribute to fat loss in cancer cachexia have revealed the prominent role for ATGL in initiating lipolysis during adipose tissue atrophy, together with links between tumour-derived factors and the signalling pathways that control lipid flux within fat cells. The recent findings of increased thermogenesis in brown fat during cancer cachexia indicate that metabolically active adipose tissue contributes to the imbalance in energy homeostasis involved in catabolic wasting. Such energetically futile use of fatty acids liberated from adipose tissue to generate heat represents a maladaptive response in conjunction with anorexia experienced by cancer patients. As IL-6 release by tumours provokes lipolysis and activates the thermogenic programme in brown fat, this review explores the overlap in dysregulated metabolic processes due to inflammatory mediators in cancer cachexia and other disease states characterised by elevated cytokines such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:26529279

  16. CREBH-FGF21 axis improves hepatic steatosis by suppressing adipose tissue lipolysis.

    Park, Jong-Gil; Xu, Xu; Cho, Sungyun; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kersten, Sander; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21. PMID:27301791

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Lower Leg Adipose Tissue Distribution in Youth with Myelomeningocele.

    Lorenzana, Daniel J; Mueske, Nicole M; Ryan, Deirdre D; Van Speybroeck, Alexander L; Wren, Tishya A L

    2016-07-01

    Children with myelomeningocele have a high prevalence of obesity and excess fat accumulation in their lower extremities. However, it is not known if this is subcutaneous or intramuscular fat, the latter of which has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. This study quantified lower leg bone, muscle, and adipose tissue volume in children with myelomeningocele, classifying adipose as subcutaneous or muscle-associated. Eighty-eight children with myelomeningocele and 113 children without myelomeningocele underwent lower leg computed tomographic scans. Subcutaneous and muscle-associated adipose were classified based on location relative to the crural fascia. No differences were seen in subcutaneous adipose. Higher level disease severity was associated with increased muscle-associated adipose volume and decreased muscle volume. Bone volume tended to decrease with higher levels of involvement. Increases in lower leg adiposity in children with myelomeningocele are primarily attributable to accumulation of muscle-associated adipose, which may signify increased risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26961265

  18. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Research highlights: → Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. → For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. → This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the underlying

  19. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  20. Inhibition of Sam68 triggers adipose tissue browning.

    Zhou, Junlan; Cheng, Min; Boriboun, Chan; Ardehali, Mariam M; Jiang, Changfei; Liu, Qinghua; Han, Shuling; Goukassian, David A; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Zhao, Ming; Cai, Lu; Richard, Stéphane; Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; molecular mechanisms that promote energy expenditure can be utilized for effective therapy. Src-associated in mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) is potentially significant, because knockout (KO) of Sam68 leads to markedly reduced adiposity. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanism by which Sam68 regulates adiposity and energy homeostasis. We first found that Sam68 KO mice have a significantly reduced body weight as compared to controls, and the difference is explained entirely by decreased adiposity. Interestingly, these effects were not mediated by a difference in food intake; rather, they were associated with enhanced physical activity. When they were fed a high-fat diet, Sam68 KO mice gained much less body weight and fat mass than their WT littermates did, and they displayed an improved glucose and insulin tolerance. In Sam68 KO mice, the brown adipose tissue (BAT), inguinal, and epididymal depots were smaller, and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied as compared to their WT littermates. The BAT of Sam68 KO mice exhibited reduced lipid stores and expressed higher levels of Ucp1 and key thermogenic and fatty acid oxidation genes. Similarly, depots of inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) in Sam68 KO mice appeared browner, their multilocular Ucp1-positive cells were much more abundant, and the expression of Ucp1, Cidea, Prdm16, and Ppargc1a genes was greater as compared to WT controls, which suggests that the loss of Sam68 also promotes WAT browning. Furthermore, in all of the fat depots of the Sam68 KO mice, the expression of M2 macrophage markers was up-regulated, and that of M1 markers was down-regulated. Thus, Sam68 plays a crucial role in controlling thermogenesis and may be targeted to combat obesity and associated disorders. PMID:25934704

  1. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra; Jensen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from...

  2. Adipose Inflammation Initiates Recruitment of Leukocytes to Mouse Femoral Artery: Role of Adipo-Vascular Axis in Chronic Inflammation

    Hagita, Sumihiko; Osaka, Mizuko; Shimokado, Kentaro; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Although inflammation within adipose tissues is known to play a role in metabolic syndrome, the causative connection between inflamed adipose tissue and atherosclerosis is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the direct effects of adipose tissue on macro-vascular inflammation using intravital microscopic analysis of the femoral artery after adipose tissue transplantation. Methods and Results We obtained subcutaneous (SQ) and visceral (VIS) adipose tissues from C5...

  3. Adipose tissue dysregulation and reduced insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals with enlarged abdominal adipose cells

    Hammarstedt Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4, altered expression of adipokines, and adipocyte hypertrophy. Animal studies have shown that expansion of adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance in the absence of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction. To determine if this holds true for humans, we studied the relationship between insulin resistance and markers of adipose tissue dysfunction in non-obese individuals. Method 32 non-obese first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was measured with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies obtained for gene/protein expression and adipocyte cell size measurements. Results Our findings show that also in non-obese individuals low insulin sensitivity is associated with signs of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction characterized by low expression of GLUT4, altered adipokine profile and enlarged adipocyte cell size. In this group, insulin sensitivity is positively correlated to GLUT4 mRNA (R = 0.49, p = 0.011 and protein (R = 0.51, p = 0.004 expression, as well as with circulating adiponectin levels (R = 0.46, 0 = 0.009. In addition, insulin sensitivity is inversely correlated to circulating RBP4 (R = −0.61, 0 = 0.003 and adipocyte cell size (R = −0.40, p = 0.022. Furthermore, these features are inter-correlated and also associated with other clinical features of the metabolic syndrome in the absence of obesity. No association could be found

  4. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Jane J. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.

  5. Brown adipose tissue development and metabolism in ruminants.

    Smith, S B; Carstens, G E; Randel, R D; Mersmann, H J; Lunt, D K

    2004-03-01

    We conducted several experiments to better understand the relationship between brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and thermogenesis. In Exp. 1, we examined perirenal (brown) and sternum s.c. adipose tissue in 14 Wagyu x Angus neonates infused with norepinephrine (NE). Perirenal adipocytes contained numerous large mitochondria with well-differentiated cristae; sternum s.c. adipocytes contained a few, small mitochondria, with poorly developed cristae. Lipogenesis from acetate was high in BAT but barely detectable in sternum s.c. adipose tissue. In Exp. 2, we compared perirenal and tailhead adipose tissues between NE-infused Angus (n = 6) and Brahman (n = 7) newborn calves. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many total beta-receptors as Angus BAT. The mitochondrial UCP1:28S rRNA ratio was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate and glucose again was high, but lipogenesis from palmitate was barely detectable. Tail-head s.c. adipose tissue from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology. In Exp. 3, three fetuses of each breed type were taken at 96, 48, 24, 14, and 6 d before expected parturition, and at parturition. Lipogenesis from acetate and glucose in vitro decreased 97% during the last 96 d of gestation in both breed types, whereas the UCP1 gene expression tripled during gestation in both breed types. At birth, palmitate esterification was twice as high in Angus than in Brahman BAT and was at least 100-fold higher than in BAT from NE-infused calves from Exp. 2. Uncoupling protein-1 mRNA was readily detectable in tailhead s.c. adipose tissue in all fetal samples. In Exp. 4, male Brahman and Angus calves (n = 5 to 7 per group) were assigned to 1) newborn treatment (15 h of age), 2) 48 h of warm exposure (22 degrees C) starting at 15 h of age, or 3) 48 h of cold exposure (4 degrees C) starting at 15 h of age. Brahman BAT adipocytes shrank with cold exposure, whereas Angus BAT

  6. The fasting-induced adipose factor/angiopoietin-like protein 4 is physically associated with lipoproteins and governs plasma lipid levels and adiposity

    Mandard, S; Zandbergen, F; van Straten, E; Wahli, W; Kuipers, F; Muller, M; Kersten, S

    2006-01-01

    Proteins secreted from adipose tissue are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, muchless is known about their effect on lipid metabolism. The fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF/angiopoietin-like protein 4/peroxisome proliferator-activat

  7. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated the...... basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection of...... ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...

  8. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Brahman cattle than in three-fourths Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were

  9. Adipose tissue is a regulated source of interleukin-10.

    Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Somm, Emmanuel; Pernin, Agnès; Alizadeh, Navid; Giusti, Vittorio; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-03-21

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and we have recently shown that this tissue is a major source of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). We now aimed at identifying additional adipose-derived cytokines, which might serve as regulators of IL-1Ra. We demonstrate here for the first time that the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 is secreted by human WAT explants and that it is up-regulated by LPS and TNF-alpha in vitro, as well as in obesity in humans (2- and 6-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral WAT, respectively) and rodents (4-fold increase). PMID:15749027

  10. A role of active brown adipose tissue in cancer cachexia?

    Emiel Beijer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, adult humans were not thought to have brown adipose tissue (BAT. Now, this is a rapidly evolving field of research with perspectives in metabolic syndromes such as obesity and new therapies targeting its bio-energetic pathways. White, brown and socalled brite adipose fat seem to be able to trans-differentiate into each other, emphasizing the dynamic nature of fat tissue for metabolism. Human and animal data in cancer cachexia to date provide some evidence for BAT activation, but its quantitative impact on energy expenditure and weight loss is controversial. Prospective clinical studies can address the potential role of BAT in cancer cachexia using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scanning, with careful consideration of co-factors such as diet, exposure to the cold, physical activity and body mass index, that all seem to act on BAT recruitment and activity.