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Sample records for adiabatic conditions

  1. Design of Selective Adiabatic Inversion Pulses Using the Adiabatic Condition

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Panfil, Shimon L.; Zur, Yuval

    1997-12-01

    Adiabatic RF pulses play an important role in spin inversion due to their robust behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous RF fields. These pulses are characterized by the trajectory swept by the tip of theBeffvector and the rate of motion along it. In this paper, we describe a method by which optimized modulation functions can be constructed to render insensitivity toB1inhomogeneity over a predeterminedB1range and over a wide band of frequencies. This is accomplished by requiring that the optimized pulse fulfill the adiabatic condition over this range ofB1inhomogeneity and over the desired frequency band for the complete duration of the pulse. A trajectory similar to the well-known sech/tanh adiabatic pulse, i.e., a half-ellipse, is used. The optimization process improves the slice profile by optimizing the rate of motion along this trajectory. The optimized pulse can be tailored to the specific design requirements; in particular, the transition sharpness may be traded off against the inverted bandwidth. Two design examples, including experimental results, demonstrate the superiority of the optimized pulses over the conventional sech/tanh pulse: in the first example, a large frequency band is to be inverted using a weak RF amplitude in a short time. In the second example, a pulse with a very sharp transition is required.

  2. A New Approach to the Quantum Adiabatic Condition

    The quantum adiabatic theorem is the basis of adiabatic quantum computation. However, the exact necessary and sufficient conditions for adiabatic evolution are still under debate. We discuss the adiabatic condition of a system undergoing a special evolution route, and obtain an explicit formula that is necessary and sufficient for the adiabatic evolution in this route. Based on this formula, we find that the traditional adiabatic condition is neither sufficient nor necessary. Finally, we show that no adiabatic process can occur even the evolution speed goes to 0 in some examples, which is surprising since the adiabatic theorem states that if the evolution of a system is slow enough, the adiabatic process could occur

  3. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

    George Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.

  4. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    QIAN Shang-Wu; GU Zhi-Yu

    2005-01-01

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the generaltime-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  5. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  6. Symmetry of the adiabatic condition in the piston problem

    This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be compatible with the invariance of total entropy under a system-surroundings interchange. This paper also strengthens some recently published ideas concerning the concepts of heat and dissipative work, and is primarily intended for teachers and graduate students, as well as for all who are interested in this fascinating problem.

  7. Adiabatic condition and the quantum hitting time of Markov chains

    We present an adiabatic quantum algorithm for the abstract problem of searching marked vertices in a graph, or spatial search. Given a random walk (or Markov chain) P on a graph with a set of unknown marked vertices, one can define a related absorbing walk P' where outgoing transitions from marked vertices are replaced by self-loops. We build a Hamiltonian H(s) from the interpolated Markov chain P(s)=(1-s)P+sP' and use it in an adiabatic quantum algorithm to drive an initial superposition over all vertices to a superposition over marked vertices. The adiabatic condition implies that, for any reversible Markov chain and any set of marked vertices, the running time of the adiabatic algorithm is given by the square root of the classical hitting time. This algorithm therefore demonstrates a novel connection between the adiabatic condition and the classical notion of hitting time of a random walk. It also significantly extends the scope of previous quantum algorithms for this problem, which could only obtain a full quadratic speedup for state-transitive reversible Markov chains with a unique marked vertex.

  8. Global adiabaticity and non-Gaussianity consistency condition

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-01-01

    In the context of single-field inflation, the conservation of the curvature perturbation on comoving slices, $R_c$, on super-horizon scales is one of the assumptions necessary to derive the consistency condition between the squeezed limit of the bispectrum and the spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbation. However, the conservation of $R_c$ holds only after the perturbation has reached the adiabatic limit where the constant mode of $R_c$ dominates over the other (usually decaying) mode. In this case, the non-adiabatic pressure perturbation defined in the thermodynamic sense, $\\delta P_{nad}\\equiv\\delta P-c_w^2\\delta\\rho$ where $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$, usually becomes also negligible on superhorizon scales. Therefore one might think that the adiabatic limit is the same as thermodynamic adiabaticity. This is in fact not true. In other words, thermodynamic adiabaticity is not a sufficient condition for the conservation of $R_c$ on super-horizon scales. In this paper, we consider models that satisfies $\\d...

  9. General background conditions for K-bounce and adiabaticity

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2016-01-01

    We study the background conditions for a bounce in a single scalar field model with a generalized kinetic term $K(X)$. At the background level we impose the existence of two turning points where the derivative of the Hubble parameter $H$ changes sign and of a bounce point where the Hubble parameter vanishes. We find the conditions for $K(X)$ and the potential which ensure the above requirements. We then give the examples of two models constructed according to these conditions. One is based on a quadratic $K$, and the other on a $K$ which is avoiding divergences of the second time derivative of the scalar field, which may otherwise occur. An appropriate choice of the initial conditions can lead to a sequence of consecutive bounces. In models where the bounce occurs when the potential is not constant, large non adiabatic perturbations are produced, which can in turn source the growth of anisotropies. In the region where these models have a constant potential they became adiabatic on any scale and because of thi...

  10. The growth of dry convection in the conditionally stable troposphere: Non-adiabatic effects

    Kherani, E A; Sobral, J H A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study the growth characteristics of the convective instability (CI) in the dry troposphere by relaxing the adiabatic compressibility condition of Oberbeck-Boussinesq (OB) approach. We derive a new non-adiabatic-Boussinesq (NAB) expression for the modified Brunt-Vaisala frequency $(\\omega_b)$, without considering the adiabatic compressibility condition of OB approach. This NAB expression reduces to the known Oberbeck-Boussinesq (OB) expression under adiabatic compressibility condition. The NAB expression of $\\omega_b$ is found to be modified from its OB counterpart such that the stabilizing adiabatic lapse rate in OB expression is replaced by a modified non-adiabatic lapse rate given as $\\left(\\eta - 1 \\right)$ times the auto-convective lapse rate. Here $\\eta$ is the ratio of hydrostatic density to the total density. We perform numerical experiments of CI for the conditionally stable troposphere i.e for the troposphere that has the environmental lapse rate negative but smaller than the adiabat...

  11. Numerical study on lithium titanate battery thermal response under adiabatic condition

    Highlights: • The thermal behavior of lithium titanate battery during cycling was investigated. • The temperature rate in charging was less than that of discharging in the cycling. • The temperature difference was less than 0.02 °C at 0.5 C in adiabatic condition. • The temperature distribution and thermal runaway of the battery were predicted. - Abstract: To analyze the thermal behavior of 945 mA h lithium titanate battery during charging and discharging processes, the experimental and numerical studies are performed in this work. The cathode and anode of the 945 mA h lithium titanate soft package battery are the lithium nickel–cobalt–manganese-oxide and lithium titanate, respectively. In the experiment, an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter combined with battery cycler is employed to investigate the electrochemical–thermal behavior during charge–discharge cycling under the adiabatic condition. In numerical simulation, one electrochemical-thermal model is adopted to predict the thermal response and validated with the experimental results. From both experimental and simulated results, the profile of potential and current, the heat generation, the temperature, the temperature changing rate and the temperature distribution in the cell are obtained and thermal runaway is predicted. The analysis of the electrochemical and thermal behavior is beneficial for the commercial application of lithium titanate battery in the fields of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles

  12. Dark energy with non-adiabatic sound speed: initial conditions and detectability

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184, Rome (Italy); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-10-01

    Assuming that the universe contains a dark energy fluid with a constant linear equation of state and a constant sound speed, we study the prospects of detecting dark energy perturbations using CMB data from Planck, cross-correlated with galaxy distribution maps from a survey like LSST. We update previous estimates by carrying a full exploration of the mock data likelihood for key fiducial models. We find that it will only be possible to exclude values of the sound speed very close to zero, while Planck data alone is not powerful enough for achieving any detection, even with lensing extraction. We also discuss the issue of initial conditions for dark energy perturbations in the radiation and matter epochs, generalizing the usual adiabatic conditions to include the sound speed effect. However, for most purposes, the existence of attractor solutions renders the perturbation evolution nearly independent of these initial conditions.

  13. Non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary condition for modelling turbocharger turbine pulsating flow

    Highlights: • Bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary for pulse flow turbine modelling. • Predictions show convincing results against experimental and literature data. • Predicted pulse pressure propagation is in good agreement with literature data. • New methodology is time efficient and requires minimal geometrical inputs. - Abstract: This paper presents a simplified methodology of pulse flow turbine modelling, as an alternative over the meanline integrated methodology outlined in previous work, in order to make its application to engine cycle simulation codes much more straight forward. This is enabled through the development of a bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary to represent the turbine rotor. In this paper, turbocharger turbine pulse flow performance predictions are presented along with a comparison of computation duration against the previously established integrated meanline method. Plots of prediction deviation indicate that the mass flow rate and actual power predictions from both methods are highly comparable and are reasonably close to experimental data. However, the new boundary condition required significantly lower computational time and rotor geometrical inputs. In addition, the pressure wave propagation in this simplified unsteady turbine model at different pulse frequencies has also been found to be in agreement with data from the literature, thereby supporting the confidence in its ability to simulate the wave action encountered in turbine pulse flow operation

  14. Volume crossover in deeply supercooled water adiabatically freezing under isobaric conditions

    Aliotta, Francesco; Giaquinta, Paolo V.; Pochylski, Mikolaj; Ponterio, Rosina C.; Prestipino, Santi; Saija, Franz; Vasi, Cirino

    2013-05-01

    The irreversible return of a supercooled liquid to stable thermodynamic equilibrium often begins as a fast process which adiabatically drives the system to solid-liquid coexistence. Only at a later stage will solidification proceed with the expected exchange of thermal energy with the external bath. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the adiabatic freezing of metastable water at constant pressure. In particular, we investigated the thermal behavior of the isobaric gap between the molar volume of supercooled water and that of the warmer ice-water mixture which eventually forms at equilibrium. The available experimental data at ambient pressure, extrapolated into the metastable region within the scheme provided by the reference IAPWS-95 formulation, show that water ordinarily expands upon (partially) freezing under isenthalpic conditions. However, the same scheme also suggests that, for increasing undercoolings, the volume gap is gradually reduced and eventually vanishes at a temperature close to the currently estimated homogeneous ice nucleation temperature. This behavior is contrasted with that of substances which do not display a volumetric anomaly. The effect of increasing pressures on the alleged volume crossover from an expanded to a contracted ice-water mixture is also discussed.

  15. Adiabaticity conditions for volatility smile in Black-Scholes pricing model

    Spadafora, L.; Berman, G. P.; Borgonovi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Our derivation of the distribution function for future returns is based on the risk neutral approach which gives a functional dependence for the European call (put) option price C(K) given the strike price K and the distribution function of the returns. We derive this distribution function using for C(K) a Black-Scholes expression with volatility σ in the form of a volatility smile. We show that this approach based on a volatility smile leads to relative minima for the distribution function ("bad" probabilities) never observed in real data and, in the worst cases, negative probabilities. We show that these undesirable effects can be eliminated by requiring "adiabatic" conditions on the volatility smile.

  16. Non-adiabatic radiative collapse of a relativistic star under different initial conditions

    Ranjan Sharma; Ramesh Tikekar

    2012-09-01

    We examine the role of space-time geometry in the non-adiabatic collapse of a star dissipating energy in the form of radial heat flow, studying its evolution under different initial conditions. The collapse of a star filled with a homogeneous perfect fluid is compared with that of a star filled with inhomogeneous imperfect fluid under anisotropic pressure. Both the configurations are spherically symmetric. However, in the latter case, the physical space = constant of the configurations endowed with spheroidal or pseudospheroidal geometry is assumed to be inhomogeneous. It is observed that as long as the collapse is shear-free, its evolution depends only on the mass and size of the star at the onset of collapse.

  17. Volume thermal expansivity for lower mantle region of earth under adiabatic condition

    A reciprocal equation for the volume dependence of Anderson–Grüneisen parameter has been proposed. This equation has been found to fit the seismic data for the lower mantle region of the Earth. We have developed a new expression for predicting the values of density (volume) dependence of volume thermal expansivity under adiabatic conditions based on the reciprocal equation for the volume dependence of Anderson–Grüneisen parameter. It is found that our relationship fits well the seismic data on volume thermal expansivity for lower mantle corresponding to a wide range of pressures (0–135.75 GPa). These equations thus proposed are found to be consistent with the thermodynamic constraints

  18. Flow regimes of adiabatic gas-liquid two-phase under rolling conditions

    Yan, Chaoxing; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Xing, Dianchuan; Wang, Yang; Tian, Daogui

    2013-07-01

    Characteristics of adiabatic air/water two-phase flow regimes under vertical and rolling motion conditions were investigated experimentally. Test sections are two rectangular ducts with the gaps of 1.41 and 10 mm, respectively, and a circular tube with 25 mm diameter. Flow regimes were recorded by a high speed CCD-camera and were identified by examining the video images. The experimental results indicate that the characteristics of flow patterns in 10 mm wide rectangular duct under vertical condition are very similar to those in circular tube, but different from the 1.41 mm wide rectangular duct. Channel size has a significant influence on flow pattern transition, boundary of which in rectangular channels tends asymptotically towards that in the circular tube with increasing the width of narrow side. Flow patterns in rolling channels are similar to each other, nevertheless, the effect of rolling motion on flow pattern transition are significantly various. Due to the remarkable influences of the friction shear stress and surface tension in the narrow gap duct, detailed flow pattern maps of which under vertical and rolling conditions are indistinguishable. While for the circular tube with 25 mm diameter, the transition from bubbly to slug flow occurs at a higher superficial liquid velocity and the churn flow covers more area on the flow regime map as the rolling period decreases.

  19. A One-Dimensional Flow Model with Adiabatic Friction for Rapid Estimation of Cold Spray Flow Conditions

    Ye, Hezhou; Yin, Yanhua; Wang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-01

    While commercially available computational fluid dynamic packages are employed nowadays to analyze the spraying behavior of the cold spray (CS) system and optimize the nozzle geometry design, using these packages is often prohibitive because of complex computational resource requirements and expensive copyright licenses. This paper proposes a quick and economical method for predicting the performance of the CS system, while asking for minimal computational resource. A one-dimensional adiabatic friction model with the consideration of friction was developed to calculate the critical pressure of nozzles under different expansion ratios and the gas/particle velocity at different spraying conditions. The accuracy of the critical pressure calculation was evidenced by polymeric nozzle destructive tests. The particle velocities achieved from the nozzles with different expansion ratios were measured and compared with the velocity values calculated by the model. The suggested adiabatic friction model is validated by the well-matched values between the calculated results and the experimental data.

  20. Semiclassical quantization via adiabatic switching. II. Choice of tori and initial conditions for multidimensional systems

    The formulation of a general strategy for implementing semiclassical quantization using the adiabatic-switching method, presented in the preceding paper for two-dimensional systems, is generalized to multidimensional systems. The method is shown to produce accurate semiclassical eigenvalues for the realistic polynomial potential describing SO2 as well as for model potentials for other multidimensional systems. The results are compared with semiclassical results obtained with use of other methods

  1. Semiclassical quantization via adiabatic switching. II. Choice of tori and initial conditions for multidimensional systems

    Saini, S.; Zakrzewski, J.; Taylor, H.S.

    1988-10-15

    The formulation of a general strategy for implementing semiclassical quantization using the adiabatic-switching method, presented in the preceding paper for two-dimensional systems, is generalized to multidimensional systems. The method is shown to produce accurate semiclassical eigenvalues for the realistic polynomial potential describing SO/sub 2/ as well as for model potentials for other multidimensional systems. The results are compared with semiclassical results obtained with use of other methods.

  2. Heat recovery in air conditioning systems in frost-free season with using adiabatic cooling. Capacities overview

    S.V. Chuduk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the information on possibilities of use of recuperators of heat is presented for the warm period of year for air-conditioning system. Aim of heat exchanger work in frost-free season is indirect cooling of incoming air before its input into maintainable premises. It is possible if exhaust air is cooled before its input into heat exchanger . In the article the operational principle of air conditioning system with using of adiabatic air cooling is considered. The data concerned system functioning depending on parameters of microclimate in maintainable premises are given.

  3. Experimental Research on Heat Transfer Characteristics of CuO Nanofluid in Adiabatic Condition

    Yu Guangbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar convective heat transfer behavior of CuO nanoparticle dispersions in glycol with the average particle sizes (about 70 nm was investigated experimentally in a flow loop with constant heat flux. To enhance heat exchange under high temperature condition and get the more accurate data, we try to improve the traditional experimental apparatus which is used to test nanofluid heat transfer characteristics. In the experiment five different nanoparticle concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.80%, 1.20%, and 1.50% were investigated in a flow loop with constant heat flux. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid becomes higher than that of pure fluid at the same Reynolds number and increased with the increasing of the mass fraction of CuO nanoparticles. Results also indicate that at very low volume concentrations nanofluid has no major impact on heat transfer parameters and the pressure of nanofluids increased by the mass fraction increase.

  4. Is the sech/tanh Adiabatic Pulse Really Adiabatic?

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zur, Yuval

    1998-05-01

    Adiabatic pulses are most conveniently studied in the frequency frame which is a frame of reference rotating at the instantaneous frequency of the pulse. In this frame the adiabatic condition ‖γBeff‖ ≫ |θ≳| sets an upper limit on the sweep rate θ≳ of the Beffvector. This, in turn, places a lower bound on the pulse duration. Adiabatic behavior is studied at the threshold duration and two pulses are examined: (i) a pulse with a constant sweep rate (CAPpulse) and (ii) a conventional sech/tanh adiabatic pulse. It is shown that the sech/tanh pulse performs robust magnetization inversion although it seems to violate the adiabatic condition. This puzzling phenomenon is solved by switching into a second-order rotating frame of reference (SORF) where it is shown that the adiabatic condition is fulfilled. This frame coincides with the frequency frame at the beginning of the pulse. Assuming an RF field along thex-axis of the frequency frame, the SORF then rotates about the commony-axis during the pulse with thez-axis of the new frame aligned with the Beffvector. It is shown that adiabatic motion may be performed in the SORF, in which the sweep rate is increased indefinitely; the adiabatic condition is violated by this motion in the frequency frame but is fulfilled in the SORF. The lower bound on the sweep rate in the frequency frame is thereby lifted.

  5. Déplacements polyphasiques en milieu poreux. Injection de vapeur en conditions adiabatiques Multiphase Displacements in Porous Media. Steam Flooding under Adiabatic Conditions

    Koci X.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans un article antérieur [1], un dispositif expérimental permettant l'étude en milieu poreux des déplacements par fluides chauds, en conditions isothermes, a été présenté, ainsi que les résultats obtenus. Ce mode d'écoulement, qui ne fait pas intervenir A previous paper [1] described an experimental device designed for the study of multiphase displacements by hot fluids in porous media under isothermal conditions together with the results obtained. This type of flow, which does not take into account the progress of temperature fronts, is not representative of what actually happens in the field when a thermal enhanced oil recovery method is applied. In fact in this case, flows may be considered as quasiadiabatic. To gain a better understanding of the phenomena induced by such adiabatic displacements, new equipment was designed to reproduce conditions close to those in the field. Various experiments were modeled with a simulator developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, using results obtained under isothermal conditions (for instance, relative permeability curves. There is good agreement between experiments and computation. These experimental results were then compared to those obtained under isothermal conditions. Some hypotheses are put forward to explain the differences observed between the two types of flows. Experiments were carried out in unconsolidated cores made of packed sand. This sand mainly consisted of silica (over 99 weight %. Grain size was between 60 and 100 microns; the corresponding permeability was about 4. 10 to the power of (-12 m². The fluids consisted of distilled water and Albelf C-68 oil. New equipment was designed because of problems related to heat losses. For slow displacement rates at high temperatures, a small heat loss results in a decrease in temperature and therefore in steam condensation. Use of nonmetallic parts for the core-holder strongly reduces heat losses radially and longitudinally so

  6. Semiclassical quantization via adiabatic switching. I. Choice of tori and initial conditions for two-dimensional systems

    Zakrzewski, J.; Saini, S.; Taylor, H.S.

    1988-10-15

    A general theoretical base and a general strategy for implementing semiclassical quantization using the adiabatic-switching method are presented for two-dimensional systems. The method proposed does not depend on specialized coordinates, trajectory, or surfaces-of-section studies and is generalizable to multidimensional systems. The choice of the initial tori for the switching procedure is accomplished by simple diagonalizations of small-dimensional matrix representations of invariant operators obtained from perturbation theory. The method gives quantum energies at a useful level of accuracy for the vast majority of states in many of the well-known nonresonant and resonant Hamiltonian cases. Many eigenvalues previously thought unobtainable when the adiabatic-switching method is used are obtained in a quite simple manner.

  7. Optimizing adiabaticity in quantum mechanics

    MacKenzie, R; Renaud-Desjardins, L

    2011-01-01

    A condition on the Hamiltonian of a time-dependent quantum mechanical system is derived which, if satisfied, implies optimal adiabaticity (defined below). The condition is expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian and in terms of the evolution operator related to it. Since the latter depends in a complicated way on the Hamiltonian, it is not yet clear how the condition can be used to extract useful information about the optimal Hamiltonian. The condition is tested on an exactly-soluble time-dependent problem (a spin in a magnetic field), where perfectly adiabatic evolution can be easily identified.

  8. Inverse engineering rigorous adiabatic Hamiltonian for non-Hermitian system

    Wu, Qi-Cheng; Chen, Ye-Hong; Huang, Bi-Hua; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the quantum adiabatic theorem to the non-Hermitian system and build a rigorous adiabaticity condition with respect to the adiabatic phase. The non-Hermitian Hamiltonian inverse engineering method is proposed for the purpose to adiabatically drive a artificial quantum state. For the sake of clearness, we take a concrete two-level system as an example to show the usefulness of the inverse engineering method. The numerical simulation result shows that our scheme can work well even ...

  9. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    Pudenz, Kristen L.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this app...

  10. Optimization of Adiabatic Selective Pulses

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Panfil, Shimon L.; Zur, Yuval

    1997-06-01

    Adiabatic RF pulses play an important role in spin inversion due to their robust behavior in presence of inhomogeneous RF fields. These pulses are characterized by the trajectory swept by the tip of theBeffvector and the rate of motion upon it. In this paper, a method is described for optimizing adiabatic inversion pulses to achieve a frequency-selective magnetization inversion over a given bandwidth in a shorter time and to improve slice profile. An efficient adiabatic pulse is used as an initial condition. This pulse allows for flexibility in choosing its parameters; in particular, the transition sharpness may be traded off against the inverted bandwidth. The considerations for selecting the parameters of the pulse according to the requirements of the design are discussed. The optimization process then improves the slice profile by optimizing the rate of motion along the trajectory of the pulse while preserving the trajectory itself. The adiabatic behavior of the optimized pulses is fully preserved over a twofold range of variation in the RF amplitude which is sufficient for imaging applications in commercial high-field MRI machines. Design examples demonstrate the superiority of the optimized pulses over the conventional sech/tanh pulse.

  11. Déplacements polyphasiques en milieu poreux. Injection de vapeur en conditions adiabatiques Multiphase Displacements in Porous Media. Steam Flooding under Adiabatic Conditions

    Koci X.; Quintard M.; Robin M.; Gadelle C.

    2006-01-01

    Dans un article antérieur [1], un dispositif expérimental permettant l'étude en milieu poreux des déplacements par fluides chauds, en conditions isothermes, a été présenté, ainsi que les résultats obtenus. Ce mode d'écoulement, qui ne fait pas intervenir A previous paper [1] described an experimental device designed for the study of multiphase displacements by hot fluids in porous media under isothermal conditions together with the results obtained. This type of flow, which does not take i...

  12. Quantum adiabatic machine learning

    Pudenz, Kristen L

    2011-01-01

    We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation.

  13. Adiabatic Markovian Dynamics

    Oreshkov, Ognyan

    2010-01-01

    We propose a theory of adiabaticity in quantum Markovian dynamics based on a structural decomposition of the Hilbert space induced by the asymptotic behavior of the Lindblad semigroup. A central idea of our approach is that the natural generalization of the concept of eigenspace of the Hamiltonian in the case of Markovian dynamics is a noiseless subsystem with a minimal noisy cofactor. Unlike previous attempts to define adiabaticity for open systems, our approach deals exclusively with physical entities and provides a simple, intuitive picture at the underlying Hilbert-space level, linking the notion of adiabaticity to the theory of noiseless subsystems. As an application of our theory, we propose a framework for decoherence-assisted computation in noiseless codes under general Markovian noise. We also formulate a dissipation-driven approach to holonomic computation based on adiabatic dragging of subsystems that is generally not achievable by non-dissipative means.

  14. UHP-UHT peak conditions and near-adiabatic exhumation path of diamond-bearing garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif

    Haifler, Jakub; Kotková, Jana

    2016-04-01

    -clinopyroxene rocks from North Bohemia are UHP-UHT rocks which were extensively overprinted under HP granulite-facies conditions during rapid exhumation along a near-adiabatic P-T path. The UHT peak and UHT-HT exhumation distinguish this area from the other UHP terrains worldwide. We demonstrate that Ti-in-zircon thermometry can provide robust temperature estimates in the rocks exhumed at HT, where the UHP-UHT mineral assemblage has not been preserved. In addition, the calculated UHP-UHT conditions are similar to those determined for the associated garnet peridotites, providing evidence for juxtaposition of these crustal and mantle rocks during deep Variscan subduction.

  15. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  16. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process

  17. Wireless adiabatic power transfer

    Rangelov, A. A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.

  18. Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.

  19. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated pl...

  20. On the double adiabatic continuous spectrum

    In earlier work it has been found that the Alfven and cusp (or slow) continuous spectra can become unstable in toroidal geometry, as judged from the linearized double adiabatic equations. In this paper the validity of fluid approaches to the present problem is investigated. The physical implications of the stability conditions are discussed. (Author)

  1. Non Adiabatic Centrifugal Compressor Gas Dynamic Performance Definition

    Soldatova, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Most centrifugal compressors operate in conditions with negligible heat transfer (adiabatic compression). Their plant tests conditions are similar or close to adiabatic conditions. Test regulations establish measures to diminish influence of a heat transfer “compressor body – atmospheric air” to an exit temperature. Therefore a temperature rise in a compressor is used to calculate a work input coefficient and efficiency. Unlike it high pressure centrifugal compressors of gas turbines and supe...

  2. Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap

    Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.

  3. Adiabatic quantum simulators

    J. D. Biamonte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be controllable, and built using existing technology. In some cases, moving away from gate-model-based implementations of quantum computing may offer a more feasible solution for particular experimental implementations. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-local interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-local interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes free evolution until measured. This allows one to recover e.g. the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian being simulated. Given a ground state, this scheme can be used to verify the QMA-complete problem LOCAL HAMILTONIAN, and is therefore likely more powerful than classical computing.

  4. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic processes in strong Coulomb fields

    Adiabatic and non-adiabatic behaviour of relativistic electrons in external Coulomb fields of time-dependent strength is studied within the framework of a model for the description of a shell electron's behaviour during a heavy-ion collision. A classification scheme for types of non-adiabatic behaviour is suggested; its relevance for the analysis of pair production processes in strong Coulomb fields is discussed (K-Shell Ionization). An ansatz for the vacuum polarization potential is introduced and employed to demonstrate the special role of vacuum polarization for adiabatic and non-adiabatic behaviour in very strong Coulomb fields (Zα > 1). The implications of the underlaying specific features of the vacuum polarization charge density in very strong fields for pair production mechanisms are considered. (orig.)

  5. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem

    Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…

  6. Weinberg Soft Theorems from Weinberg Adiabatic Modes

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Soft theorems for the scattering of low energy photons and gravitons and cosmological consistency conditions on the squeezed-limit correlation functions are both understood to be consequences of invariance under large gauge transformations. We apply the same method used in cosmology -- based on the identification of an infinite set of "adiabatic modes" and the corresponding conserved currents -- to derive flat space soft theorems for electrodynamics and gravity. We discuss how the recent derivations based on the asymptotic symmetry groups (BMS) can be continued to a finite size sphere surrounding the scattering event, when the soft photon or graviton has a finite momentum. We give a finite distance derivation of the antipodal matching condition previously imposed between future and past null infinities, and explain why all but one radiative degrees of freedom decouple in the soft limit. In contrast to earlier works on BMS, we work with adiabatic modes which correspond to large gauge transformations that are $...

  7. Dependence of adiabatic population transfer on pulse profile

    S Dasgupta; T kushwaha; D Goswami

    2006-06-01

    Control of population transfer by rapid adiabatic passage has been an established technique wherein the exact amplitude profile of the shaped pulse is considered to be insignificant. We study the effect of ultrafast shaped pulses for two-level systems, by density-matrix approach. However, we find that adiabaticity depends simultaneously on pulse profile as well as the frequency modulation under non-resonant conditions.

  8. Non-adiabatic primordial fluctuations

    Noller, J

    2009-01-01

    We consider general non-adiabatic single fluid cosmological perturbations. We derive the second-order action and its curvature variables assuming only the (linearized) Einstein equations for a perfect fluid stress-energy tensor. The derivation is therefore carried out at the same level of generality that has been achieved before for adiabatic modes. We also allow for arbitrary "speed of sound" profiles in our derivation. As a result we find a new conserved super-horizon quantity and relate it to the adiabatically conserved curvature perturbation. We then use the formalism to investigate a family of non-adiabatic hydrodynamical primordial matter models and the power spectra they produce. This yields a new scale-invariant solution that can resolve the horizon problem if implemented in a contracting phase.

  9. AN ADIABATIC APPROACH FOR LOW POWER FULL ADDER DESIGN

    Prof. Dinesh Chandra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several adiabatic logic styles have been reported. This paper deals with the design of a 1-bit full adder using several adiabatic logic styles, which are derived from static CMOS logic, without a large change. The full adders are designed using 180nm technology parameters provided by predictive technology and simulated using HSPICE. The full adders designed are compared in terms of average power consumption with different values of load capacitance, temperature and input frequency. The different designs of full adder are also compared on the basis of propagation delay exhibit by them. It is found that, full adders designed with adiabatic logic styles tends to consume very low power in comparison to full adder designed with static CMOS logic. Under certain operating conditions, one of adiabatic designs of full adder achieves upto 74% power saving in comparison to the full adder designedwith static CMOS logic.

  10. Non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    The split of a generalised Chaplygin gas with an equation of state p=−A/ρα into an interacting mixture of pressureless matter and a dark-energy component with equation of state pΛ=−ρΛ implies the existence of non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. We demonstrate that the square of the effective (non-adiabatic) sound speed cs of the medium is proportional to the ratio of the perturbations of the dark energy to those of the dark matter. Since, as demonstrated explicitly for the particular case α=−1/2, dark-energy perturbations are negligible compared with dark-matter perturbations on scales that are relevant for structure formation, we find |cs2|≪1. Consequently, there are no oscillations or instabilities which have plagued previous adiabatic Chaplygin-gas models

  11. A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon in...

  12. Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics

    Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the open-quotes goodnessclose quotes of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees)

  13. Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 1: Theory

    Vaitkus, Jesse A; Greentree, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Spatial adiabatic passage represents a new way to design integrated photonic devices. In conventional adiabatic passage designs require smoothly varying waveguide separations. Here we show modelling of adiabatic passage devices where the waveguide separation is varied digitally. Despite digitisation, our designs show robustness against variations in the input wavelength and refractive index contrast of the waveguides relative to the cladding. This approach to spatial adiabatic passage opens new design strategies and hence the potential for new photonics devices.

  14. Adiabatic pumping through quantum dots

    A finite charge can be pumped through a mesoscopic system in the absence of an applied bias voltage by changing periodically in time some parameters of the system. If these parameters change slowly with respect to all internal time scales of the system, pumping is adiabatic. The scope of this work is to investigate adiabatic pumping through a quantum dot, in particular the influence of Coulomb interaction between electrons in the dot on the pumped charge. On one hand we develop a formalism based on Green's functions, in order to calculate the pumped charge from the weak-tunnel-coupling regime down to the Kondo regime. We extend our calculations to a system with a superconducting contact. On the other hand we use a systematic perturbation expansion for the calculation of the pumped charge, giving us the possibility to analyze processes which contribute to charge pumping and to highlight the important role of interaction-induced level renormalization. (orig.)

  15. Adiabatic theory for the bipolaron

    A translation-invariant adiabatic theory is constructed for the bipolaron. It is shown that motions in the bipolaron are divided: the relative electron coordinates describe fast electron oscillations in the induced polarization well and the center of mass coordinates represent slow electron movement followed by polarization. Nonlinear differential bipolaron equations are derived which are asymptotically exact in the adiabatic limit. Particlelike solutions of these equations correspond to the bipolaron bound state. The exact solution yields the value of the ion critical parameter η=0.31 for which the bipolaron state is stable, where η=ε∞/ε0 and ε∞,ε0 are high-frequency and static dielectric permittivities. The energy, the total energy, the effective mass, the radius, and the critical values of the electron-phonon coupling constants are calculated for the bipolaron. The results obtained are generalized to the case of two-dimensional bipolarons

  16. Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots

    Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.

  17. Resonances and adiabatic invariance in classical and quantum scattering theory

    Jain, S R

    2004-01-01

    We discover that the energy-integral of time-delay is an adiabatic invariant in quantum scattering theory and corresponds classically to the phase space volume. The integral thus found provides a quantization condition for resonances, explaining a series of results recently found in non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. Further, a connection between statistical quantities like quantal resonance-width and classical friction has been established with a classically deterministic quantity, the stability exponent of an adiabatically perturbed periodic orbit. This relation can be employed to estimate the rate of energy dissipation in finite quantum systems.

  18. Adiabatic collapse of rotating gas clouds

    The gravitational, axisymmetric and adiabatic collapse of rotating gas clouds with various initial conditions has been calculated numerically by means of Fluid-In-Cell method. We have assumed that the gas is ideal and its change is adiabatic except for heat production by shock waves and that, initially, a cloud has no motion in a meridional plane and has spherical and polytropic distributions of mass and temperature. The results of calculations show that a cloud which has initially larger rotational energy bounced more easily, i.e., bounces at lower central density. The bounce occurs first in the direction of the rotation axis and next in direction perpendicular to it. A shock wave generated by the bounce is strong especially in the vicinity of the rotation axis. At first the shock front is nearly parallel to the equatorial plane but it becomes gradually spherical as it propagates outwards. Calculations have been performed until the mass enclosed inside the shock front becomes as large as 95 percent of the total mass. At this final stage either a rotating spheroidal core or a rotating ring is left in the central region; a ring is formed if initially a cloud is rotating more rapidly, less centrally condensed and at lower temperature. (auth.)

  19. Adiabatic processes in monatomic gases

    A kinetic model is used to predict the temperature evolution of a monatomic ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic expansion or compression at a constant finite rate, and it is then generalized to treat real gases. The effects of interatomic forces are considered, using as examples the gas with the square-well potential and the van der Waals gas. The model is integrated into a Carnot cycle operating at a finite rate to compare the efficiency's rate-dependent behavior with the reversible result. Limitations of the model, rate penalties, and their importance are discussed

  20. Additional adiabatic heating of plasma

    A theoretical possibility of a plasma additional adiabatic heating up to temperatures needed for the begin of D-T thermonuclear fusion reaction, has been found on the base of the polyenergetic conjugation expression, developed in the Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes. TAP is a branch of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes is another branch of the entire non-equilibrium thermodynamics. TAP deals with the phenomena associated with the introduction, conversion and accumulation of mass or energy or both in the affected, open or closed systems. (author) 2 refs

  1. Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars

    Ge, H. W.

    2012-07-01

    Rapid mass transfer process in the interacting binary systems is very complicated. It relates to two basic problems in the binary star evolution, i.e., the dynamically unstable Roche-lobe overflow and the common envelope evolution. Both of the problems are very important and difficult to be modeled. In this PhD thesis, we focus on the rapid mass loss process of the donor in interacting binary systems. The application to the criterion of dynamically unstable mass transfer and the common envelope evolution are also included. Our results based on the adiabatic mass loss model could be used to improve the binary evolution theory, the binary population synthetic method, and other related aspects. We build up the adiabatic mass loss model. In this model, two approximations are included. The first one is that the energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected, hence the restructuring is adiabatic. The second one is that he stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed. These approximations are validated by the comparison with the time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations and the polytropic model for low mass zero-age main-sequence stars. In the dynamical time scale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal time scale mass transfer, so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the

  2. Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Petersen, Tage; Elmegaard, Brian; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    This project investigates the potential of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES system). CAES systems are used to store mechanical energy in the form of compressed air. The systems use electricity to drive the compressor at times of low electricity demand with the purpose of converting the...... compensates the added investment. •When comparing ALP-CAES to an adiabatic CAES system, where compression heat is stored in thermal oil, the ALP-CAES system is found only to be competitive under a very specific set of operating/design conditions, including very high operation pressure and the use of very...... primarily due to the investment in turbine/generator, heat exchangers, and a large quantity of thermal oil. To improve the economy, it would be relevant to investigate the possibility of replacing the thermal oil by water, for example by injecting the water directly into the air flow between the different...

  3. Parametric Erosion Investigation: Propellant Adiabatic Flame Temperature

    P. J. Conroy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of quasi-independent parameters and their potential influence on erosion in guns have been investigated. Specifically, the effects of flame temperature and the effect of assuming that the Lewis number (ratio of mass-to-heat transport to the surface, Le = 1, has been examined. The adiabatic flame temperature for a propellant was reduced by the addition of a diluent from a high temperature of 3843 K (similar to that of M9 down to 3004 K, which is near the value for M30A1 propellant. Mass fractions of critical species at the surface with and without the assumption of Le = 1 are presented, demonstrating that certain species preferentially reach the surface providing varied conditions for the surface reactions. The results for gun tube bore surface regression qualitatively agree with previous studies and with current experimental data.

  4. The adiabatic approximation in multichannel scattering

    Using two-dimensional models, an attempt has been made to get an impression of the conditions of validity of the adiabatic approximation. For a nucleon bound to a rotating nucleus the Coriolis coupling is neglected and the relation between this nuclear Coriolis coupling and the classical Coriolis force has been examined. The approximation for particle scattering from an axially symmetric rotating nucleus based on a short duration of the collision, has been combined with an approximation based on the limitation of angular momentum transfer between particle and nucleus. Numerical calculations demonstrate the validity of the new combined method. The concept of time duration for quantum mechanical collisions has also been studied, as has the collective description of permanently deformed nuclei. (C.F.)

  5. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  6. Complete Adiabatic Quantum Search in Unsorted Databases

    Xu, Nanyang; Peng, Xinhua; Shi, Mingjun; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new adiabatic algorithm for the unsorted database search problem. This algorithm saves two thirds of qubits than Grover's algorithm in realizations. Meanwhile, we analyze the time complexity of the algorithm by both perturbative method and numerical simulation. The results show it provides a better speedup than the previous adiabatic search algorithm.

  7. Shortcut to adiabatic gate teleportation

    Santos, Alan C.; Silva, Raphael D.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a shortcut to the adiabatic gate teleportation model of quantum computation. More specifically, we determine fast local counterdiabatic Hamiltonians able to implement teleportation as a universal computational primitive. In this scenario, we provide the counterdiabatic driving for arbitrary n -qubit gates, which allows to achieve universality through a variety of gate sets. Remarkably, our approach maps the superadiabatic Hamiltonian HSA for an arbitrary n -qubit gate teleportation into the implementation of a rotated superadiabatic dynamics of an n -qubit state teleportation. This result is rather general, with the speed of the evolution only dictated by the quantum speed limit. In particular, we analyze the energetic cost for different Hamiltonian interpolations in the context of the energy-time complementarity.

  8. Quantum gates with controlled adiabatic evolutions

    Hen, Itay

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a class of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we claim may be interpreted as the equivalents of the unitary gates of the quantum gate model. We argue that these gates form a universal set and may therefore be used as building blocks in the construction of arbitrary "adiabatic circuits," analogously to the manner in which gates are used in the circuit model. One implication of the above construction is that arbitrary classical boolean circuits as well as gate model circuits may be directly translated to adiabatic algorithms with no additional resources or complexities. We show that while these adiabatic algorithms fail to exhibit certain aspects of the inherent fault tolerance of traditional quantum adiabatic algorithms, they may have certain other experimental advantages acting as quantum gates.

  9. On the statistical mechanics of an adiabatic ensemble

    S.N.Andreev

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Different descriptions of an adiabatic process based on statistical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are discussed. Equality of the so-called adiabatic and isolated susceptibilities and its generalization as well as adiabatic invariants are essentially used to describe adiabatic processes in the framework of quantum and classical statistical mechanics. It is shown that distribution function in adiabatic ensemble differs from a quasi-equilibrium canonical form provided the heat capacity of the system is not constant in adiabatic process.

  10. Method of adiabatic modes in research of smoothly irregular integrated optical waveguides: zero approximation

    We consider the application of the method of adiabatic waveguide modes for calculating the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in three-dimensional (3D) irregular integrated optical waveguides. The method of adiabatic modes takes into account a three-dimensional distribution of quasi-waveguide modes and explicit ('inclined') tangential boundary conditions. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated on the example of numerical research of two major elements of integrated optics: a waveguide of 'horn' type and a thin-film generalised waveguide Luneburg lens by the methods of adiabatic modes and comparative waveguides. (integral optical waveguides)

  11. Partial evolution based local adiabatic quantum search

    Recently, Zhang and Lu provided a quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution, which beats the time bound of local adiabatic search when the number of marked items in the unsorted database is larger than one. Later, they found that the above two adiabatic search algorithms had the same time complexity when there is only one marked item in the database. In the present paper, following the idea of Roland and Cerf [Roland J and Cerf N J 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 042308], if within the small symmetric evolution interval defined by Zhang et al., a local adiabatic evolution is performed instead of the original “global” one, this “new” algorithm exhibits slightly better performance, although they are progressively equivalent with M increasing. In addition, the proof of the optimality for this partial evolution based local adiabatic search when M = 1 is also presented. Two other special cases of the adiabatic algorithm obtained by appropriately tuning the evolution interval of partial adiabatic evolution based quantum search, which are found to have the same phenomenon above, are also discussed. (general)

  12. Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 2: Experiment

    Ng, Vincent; Chaboyer, Zachary J; Nguyen, Thach; Dawes, Judith M; Withford, Michael J; Greentree, Andrew D; Steel, M J

    2016-01-01

    Using a femtosecond laser writing technique, we fabricate and characterise three-waveguide digital adiabatic passage devices, with the central waveguide digitised into five discrete waveguidelets. Strongly asymmetric behaviour was observed, devices operated with high fidelity in the counter-intuitive scheme while strongly suppressing transmission in the intuitive. The low differential loss of the digital adiabatic passage designs potentially offers additional functionality for adiabatic passage based devices. These devices operate with a high contrast ($>\\!90\\%$) over a 60~nm bandwidth, centered at $\\sim 823$~nm.

  13. Adiabatic Compression of Oxygen: Real Fluid Temperatures

    Barragan, Michelle; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2000-01-01

    The adiabatic compression of oxygen has been identified as an ignition source for systems operating in enriched oxygen atmospheres. Current practice is to evaluate the temperature rise on compression by treating oxygen as an ideal gas with constant heat capacity. This paper establishes the appropriate thermodynamic analysis for the common occurrence of adiabatic compression of oxygen and in the process defines a satisfactory equation of state (EOS) for oxygen. It uses that EOS to model adiabatic compression as isentropic compression and calculates final temperatures for this system using current approaches for comparison.

  14. On the persistence of adiabatic shear bands

    Bassim M.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed that the initiation and development of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs are manifestations of damage in metallic materials subjected to high strain rates and large strains as those due to impact in a Hopkinson Bar system. Models for evolution of these bands have been described in the literature. One question that has not received attention is how persistent these bands are and whether their presence and effect can be reversed or eliminated by using a process of thermal (heat treatment or thermo-mechanical treatment that would relieve the material from the high strain associated with ASBs and their role as precursors to crack initiation and subsequent failure. Since ASBs are more prevalent and more defined in BCC metals including steels, a study was conducted to investigate the best conditions of generating ASBs in a heat treatable steel, followed by determining the best conditions for heat treatment of specimens already damaged by the presence of ASBs in order to relieve the strains due to ASBs and restore the material to an apparent microstructure without the “scars” due to the previous presence of ASBs. It was found that heat treatment achieves the curing from ASBs. This presentation documents the process undertaken to achieve this objective.

  15. Adiabatic motion of a neutral spinning particle in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Littlejohn, Robert; Weigert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The motion of a neutral particle with a magnetic moment in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is considered. This situation, occurring, for example, in a Stern-Gerlach experiment, is investigated from classical and semiclassical points of view. It is assumed that the magnetic field is strong or slowly varying in space, i.e., that adiabatic conditions hold. To the classical model, a systematic Lie-transform perturbation technique is applied up to second order in the adiabatic-expansion parameter....

  16. Adiabatic Invariance of Oscillons/I-balls

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takeda, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or $I$-balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/$I$-balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/$I$-balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/$I$-balls are only quasi-stable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the $I$-balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/$I$-balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.

  17. Adiabatic hydrodynamics: The eightfold way to dissipation

    Haehl, Felix M; Rangamani, Mukund

    2015-01-01

    We provide a complete solution to hydrodynamic transport at all orders in the gradient expansion compatible with the second law constraint. The key new ingredient we introduce is the notion of adiabaticity, which allows us to take hydrodynamics off-shell. Adiabatic fluids are such that off-shell dynamics of the fluid compensates for entropy production. The space of adiabatic fluids is quite rich, and admits a decomposition into seven distinct classes. Together with the dissipative class this establishes the eightfold way of hydrodynamic transport. Furthermore, recent results guarantee that dissipative terms beyond leading order in the gradient expansion are agnostic of the second law. While this completes a transport taxonomy, we go on to argue for a new symmetry principle, an Abelian gauge invariance that guarantees adiabaticity in hydrodynamics. We suggest that this symmetry is the macroscopic manifestation of the microscopic KMS invariance. We demonstrate its utility by explicitly constructing effective ac...

  18. On some issues of gravitationally induced adiabatic particle productions

    Pan, Supriya; Pramanik, Souvik

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the current accelerating universe driven by the gravitationally induced adiabatic matter creation process. To elaborate the underlying cognitive content, here we consider three models of adiabatic particle creation and constrain the model parameters by fitting the models with the Union 2.1 data set using $\\chi^2$ minimization technique. The models are analyzed by two geometrical and model independent tests, viz., cosmography and $Om$-diagnostic, which are widely used to distinguish the cosmological models from $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compared present values of those model independent parameters with that of the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model. Finally, the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics and the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium for the particle production models have been tested.

  19. Adiabatic far-field sub-diffraction imaging

    Cang, Hu; Salandrino, Alessandro; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    The limited resolution of a conventional optical imaging system stems from the fact that the fine feature information of an object is carried by evanescent waves, which exponentially decays in space and thus cannot reach the imaging plane. We introduce here an adiabatic lens, which utilizes a geometrically conformal surface to mediate the interference of slowly decompressed electromagnetic waves at far field to form images. The decompression is satisfying an adiabatic condition, and by bridging the gap between far field and near field, it allows far-field optical systems to project an image of the near-field features directly. Using these designs, we demonstrated the magnification can be up to 20 times and it is possible to achieve sub-50 nm imaging resolution in visible. Our approach provides a means to extend the domain of geometrical optics to a deep sub-wavelength scale.

  20. Adiabatic Connection for Strictly-Correlated Electrons

    Liu, Zhenfei; Burke, Kieron

    2009-01-01

    Modern density functional theory (DFT) calculations employ the Kohn-Sham (KS) system of non-interacting electrons as a reference, with all complications buried in the exchange-correlation energy (Exc). The adiabatic connection formula gives an exact expression for Exc. We consider DFT calculations that instead employ a reference of strictly-correlated electrons. We define a "decorrelation energy" that relates this reference to the real system, and derive the corresponding adiabatic connection...

  1. Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    arXiv:1401.4315v3 [quant-ph] 27 Feb 2014 Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility Ali Mostafazadeh∗ Department of Mathematics, Ko¸c University, 34450 Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the S-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H( ). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation ...

  2. On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories

    Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is us...

  3. Quantum and classical dynamics in adiabatic computation

    Crowley, P. J. D.; Duric, T.; Vinci, W.; Warburton, P. A.; Green, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic transport provides a powerful way to manipulate quantum states. By preparing a system in a readily initialized state and then slowly changing its Hamiltonian, one may achieve quantum states that would otherwise be inaccessible. Moreover, a judicious choice of final Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to a problem allows adiabatic transport to be used for universal quantum computation. However, the dephasing effects of the environment limit the quantum correlations th...

  4. An Integrated Programming and Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    Humble, Travis S.; McCaskey, Alex J.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Billings, Jay J.; D'Azevedo, Ed F.; Sullivan, Blair D.; Klymko, Christine F.; Seddiqi, Hadayat

    2013-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization called JADE tha...

  5. Dynamics of Quantum Adiabatic Evolution Algorithm for Number Partitioning

    Smelyanskiy, Vadius; vonToussaint, Udo V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a general technique to study the dynamics of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm applied to random combinatorial optimization problems in the asymptotic limit of large problem size n. We use as an example the NP-complete Number Partitioning problem and map the algorithm dynamics to that of an auxiliary quantum spin glass system with the slowly varying Hamiltonian. We use a Green function method to obtain the adiabatic eigenstates and the minimum exitation gap, gmin = O(n2(sup -n/2)), corresponding to the exponential complexity of the algorithm for Number Partitioning. The key element of the analysis is the conditional energy distribution computed for the set of all spin configurations generated from a given (ancestor) configuration by simultaneous flipping of a fixed number of spins. For the problem in question this distribution is shown to depend on the ancestor spin configuration only via a certain parameter related to the energy of the configuration. As the result, the algorithm dynamics can be described in terms of one-dimensional quantum diffusion in the energy space. This effect provides a general limitation of a quantum adiabatic computation in random optimization problems. Analytical results are in agreement with the numerical simulation of the algorithm.

  6. Adiabatic Shear Mechanisms for the Hard Cutting Process

    YUE Caixu; WANG Bo; LIU Xianli; FENG Huize; CAI Chunbin

    2015-01-01

    The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remalns some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high straln domaln caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.

  7. Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process

    Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin

    2015-05-01

    The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.

  8. On criterion of modal adiabaticity

    WANG; Ning(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Pierce, A. D., Extension of the method of normal modes to sound propagation in an almost-stratified medium, J. Acoust.Soc. Am., 1965, 37: 19-27.[2]Wang, D. Z. , Shang, E. C., Underwater Acoustics (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1981.[3]Zhang Renhe, Li Fenghua, Beam-displacement rya-mode theory of sound propagation in shallow water, Science in China, Ser.A, 1999, 42(7): 739-749.[4]Zhou Jixun, Zhang Xuezhen, Rogers P., Resonance interaction of sound waves with internal solitons in coastal zone, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1991, 90: 2042-2054.[5]Shang, E. C., Wang, Y. Y., The impact of mesoscale oceanic structure on global-scale acoustic propagation, in Theoretical and Computational Acoustics (ed. Ding Lee et al. ), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. , 1996, 409-431.[6]Milder, D. M., Ray and wave invariants for SOFAR channel propagation, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1969, 46: 1259-1263.[7]Nag l, A., Milder, D. M., Adiabatic mode theory of underwater sound propagation in a range-dependent environment, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1978, 63: 739-749.[8]Brekhovskikh, L. M., Waves in Layered Media, 2nd ed., New York: Academic Press Inc., 1973.[9]Brekhovskikh, L. M., Lysanov, Yu., Fundamental of Ocean Acoustics, Ch. 7, Sec. 7.2, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982.[10]Evans, R. B., A coupled mode solution for acoustic propagation in a wave-guide with stepwise depth variations of a penerable bottom, J. Acoust. Soc. A.m., 1983, 74: 188-195.[11]Jensen, F. B., Kuperman, W. A., Porter, M. B. et al., Computational Ocean Acoustics, New York: Springer-Verlag,1992.[12]Wang Ning, Inverse scattering problem for the coupled second order ODE, Journal of The Physical Society of Japan, 1995, 64(12): 4907-4915.

  9. Exploring adiabatic quantum trajectories via optimal control

    Adiabatic quantum computation employs a slow change of a time-dependent control function (or functions) to interpolate between an initial and final Hamiltonian, which helps to keep the system in the instantaneous ground state. When the evolution time is finite, the degree of adiabaticity (quantified in this work as the average ground-state population during evolution) depends on the particulars of a dynamic trajectory associated with a given set of control functions. We use quantum optimal control theory with a composite objective functional to numerically search for controls that achieve the target final state with a high fidelity while simultaneously maximizing the degree of adiabaticity. Exploring the properties of optimal adiabatic trajectories in model systems elucidates the dynamic mechanisms that suppress unwanted excitations from the ground state. Specifically, we discover that the use of multiple control functions makes it possible to access a rich set of dynamic trajectories, some of which attain a significantly improved performance (in terms of both fidelity and adiabaticity) through the increase of the energy gap during most of the evolution time. (paper)

  10. Adiabatic cooling of a single trapped ion

    Poulsen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results on adiabatic cooling of a single 40Ca+ ion in a linear radiofrequency trap. After a period of laser cooling, the secular frequency along the rf-field-free axis is adiabatically lowered by nearly a factor of eight from 583 kHz to 75 kHz. For an ion originally Doppler laser cooled to a temperature of 0.65 +/- 0.03 mK, a temperature of 87 +/- 7 \\mu K is measured after the adiabatic expansion. Applying the same adiabatic cooling procedure to a single sideband cooled ion in the ground state (P0 = 0.978 +/- 0.002) resulted in a final ground state occupation of 0.947 +/- 0.005. Both results are in excellent agreement with an essentially fully adiabatic behavior. The results have a wide range of perspectives within such diverse fields as ion based quantum information science, high resolution molecular ion spectroscopy and ion chemistry at ultra-low temperatures.

  11. Symmetry-Protected Quantum Adiabatic Transistors

    Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2014-03-01

    An essential development in the history of computing was the invention of the transistor as it allowed logic circuits to be implemented in a robust and modular way. The physical characteristics of semiconductor materials were the key to building these devices. We aim to present an analogous development for quantum computing by showing that quantum adiabatic transistors (as defined by Flammia et al.) are built upon the essential qualities of symmetry-protected (SP) quantum ordered phases in one dimension. Flammia et al. and Renes et al. have demonstrated schemes for universal adiabatic quantum computation using quantum adiabatic transistors described by interacting spin chain models with specifically chosen Hamiltonian terms. We show that these models can be understood as specific examples of the generic situation in which all SP phases lead to quantum computation on encoded edge degrees of freedom by adiabatically traversing a symmetric phase transition into a trivial symmetric phase. This point of view is advantageous as it allows us to readily see that the computational properties of a quantum adiabatic transistor arise from a phase of matter rather than due to carefully tuned interactions.

  12. Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule

    Pachucki, Krzysztof, E-mail: krp@fuw.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Komasa, Jacek, E-mail: komasa@man.poznan.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2014-12-14

    A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.

  13. Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views

    The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)

  14. Adiabatic change of state of photon gas

    The authors introduced and justified the k problem as a thermodynamical contradiction of photon gas. In thermodynamics of photon gas the main contradiction is called the k problem: the piezotropic-autobarotropic equation of state P = u/3 is adiabatic if k = 1 exclusively, while the adiabatic connection PV4/3 = const (or rather the Poisson equation Pρ-4/3 = const, ρ = u/c2) requires that k = 4/3. The present paper shows that the equations of state PV4/3 = const, TV1/3 = const, T-4/3P1/3 = const and P = u/3 cannot be valid for the adiabatic change of state of photon gas, simultaneously. Furthermore, the Planck's distribution -- and so the Wien's law and the Rayleigh-Jeans connection as well -- cannot be invariant in case of adiabatic change of state of photon gas. Namely, in case of adiabatic change of state of photon gas, a new type of ultraviolet catastrophe appears. These results possess a fundamental important in case of arbitrary deformation of electromagnetic radiation fields or quantum plasmas

  15. Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps

    Barbara, Thomas M.

    2016-04-01

    A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2. (paper)

  17. Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

    Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test

  18. Staying adiabatic with unknown energy gap

    Nehrkorn, J; Ekert, A; Smerzi, A; Fazio, R; Calarco, T

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to perform an optimal adiabatic evolution that operates without an apriori knowledge of the system spectrum. By probing the system gap locally, the algorithm maximizes the evolution speed, thus minimizing the total evolution time. We test the algorithm on the Landau-Zener transition and then apply it on the quantum adiabatic computation of 3-SAT: The result is compatible with an exponential speed-up for up to twenty qubits with respect to classical algorithms. We finally study a possible algorithm improvement by combining it with the quantum Zeno effect.

  19. Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2011-01-01

    The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$ with $m,n\\geq 3$, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$. We show how the computation of $R(m,n)$ can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctl...

  20. Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing

    We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results

  1. On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance

    Jiang Qingquan, E-mail: qqjiangphys@yeah.net [College of Physics and Electronic Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002 (China); Han Yan [College of Mathematic and Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002 (China)

    2012-12-05

    In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form I{sub adia}= Contour-Integral p{sub i}dq{sub i}. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub p}{sup 2} in the Schwarzschild and Painleve coordinates.

  2. Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm

    Hen, Itay

    2013-01-01

    The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.

  3. Adiabatic Flame Temperature for Combustion of Methane

    Rebeca Pupo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project calculated the adiabatic flame temperature of a combustion reaction of pure methane and oxygen, assuming that all of the heat liberated by the combustion reaction goes into heating the resulting mixture. Mole fractions of methane to oxygen were computed from 0.05 to 0.95, in increments of 0.05, and then an integral was computed was computed with respect to temperature using the moles of product produced or leftover moles of reactants from the starting mole fraction times the specific heat of each respective gas. The highest adiabatic flame temperature evaluated, occurred at a mole fraction of 0.35.

  4. Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case

    Shapiro, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

  5. Instabilities and the adiabatic and isothermal blast wave models for supernova remnants

    Isenberg as well as lerche and Vasyliunas proposed the existence of an instability to radial perturbations in adiabatic and isothermal models of self-similar supernova blast waves. Their derivations fail to impose the physical conservation laws at the shock (i.e., the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions) as boundary conditions, and their claim of an instability is unsubstantiated. Although as analytic demonstration of the stability of the adiabatic self-similar solution does not presently exist, the cumulative result of three decades of gas dynamic experimentation and numerical simulation provides unmistakable evidence for the stabilty of self-similar blast waves

  6. Adiabatic transition probability for a tangential crossing

    Watanabe, Takuya

    2006-01-01

    We consider a time-dependent Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian is a $2\\times 2$ real symmetric matrix. We study, using an exact WKB method, the adiabatic limit of the transition probability in the case where several complex eigenvalue crossing points accumulate to one real point.

  7. Pulsed adiabatic structure and complete population transfer

    Population can be transferred between atomic or molecular energy states in a variety of ways. The basic idea of adiabatic transfer, discussed in many textbooks, is as follows. One begins with an atom that is in some single energy state (an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian). This energy state is one of many possible states, known variously as the unperturbed states or basis states or diabatic states. Next one begins to change the Hamiltonian very slowly. The changes may occur in either the diagonal elements (the basis state energies) or in the off-diagonal elements (interactions between basis states). If there are off-diagonal elements then the Hamiltonian will no longer commute with the original one. Because the Hamiltonian is no longer the one that was used to define the original basis states, it will cause these states to become mixed. However, if the change is sufficiently slow, the system can remain in a single eigenstate of the changing Hamiltonian -- an adiabatic state, composed of a combination of basis states. Finally, at some later time, one examines the system once again in the original basis. One finds that the population has undergone a change, and now resides in a different unperturbed state. One has produced population transfer. There are many illustrative examples of adiabatic passage, both theory and experiment. The author mentions briefly two common examples, inelastic collisions between atoms, and the static Stark effect in Rydberg atoms, before continuing with the main objective, a discussion of adiabatic passage induced by laser pulses

  8. Adiabatic reversible compression: a molecular view

    The adiabatic compression (or expansion) of an ideal gas has been analysed. Using the kinetic theory of gases the usual relation between temperature and volume is obtained, while textbooks follow a thermodynamic approach. In this way we show, once again, the agreement between a macroscopic view (thermodynamics) and a microscopic one (kinetic theory). (author)

  9. Semi adiabatic theory of seasonal Markov processes

    Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dynamics of many natural and technical systems are essentially influenced by a periodic forcing. Analytic solutions of the equations of motion for periodically driven systems are generally not known. Simulations, numerical solutions or in some limiting cases approximate analytic solutions represent the known approaches to study the dynamics of such systems. Besides the regime of weak periodic forces where linear response theory works, the limit of a slow driving force can often be treated analytically using an adiabatic approximation. For this approximation to hold all intrinsic processes must be fast on the time-scale of a period of the external driving force. We developed a perturbation theory for periodically driven Markovian systems that covers the adiabatic regime but also works if the system has a single slow mode that may even be slower than the driving force. We call it the semi adiabatic approximation. Some results of this approximation for a system exhibiting stochastic resonance which usually takes place within the semi adiabatic regime are indicated. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs.

  10. Recent adiabaticity results from orbit calculations

    There has been much activity recently in an attempt to find a straightforward method of predicting the limits of adiabatic behavior in high-beta magnetic-mirror configurations. The particle-orbit code TIBRO was used to obtain numerical results on nonadiabatic behavior with which the predictions of theoretical expressions can be compared. These results are summarized. (MOW)

  11. Adiabatic Excitation of Longitudinal Bunch Shape Oscillations

    By modulating the rf voltage at near twice the synchrotrons frequency we are able to modulate the longitudinal bunch shape. We show experimentally that this can be done while preserving the longitudinal emittance when the rf voltage modulation is turned on adiabatically. Experimental measurements will be presented along with theoretical predictions

  12. Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP) Among Degenerate-Level Manifolds

    Kis, Z; Shore, B W; Vitanov, N V; Kis, Zsolt; Karpati, Attila; Shore, Bruce W.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the conditions needed to accomplish stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) when the three levels (g, e and f) are degenerate, with arbitrary couplings contributing to the pump-pulse interaction (g - e) and to the Stokes-pulse interaction (e-f). We show that in general a sufficient condition for complete population removal from the g set of degenerate states for arbitrary, pure or mixed, initial state is that the degeneracies should not decrease along the sequence g, e and f. We show that when this condition holds it is possible to achieve the degenerate counterpart of conventional STIRAP, whereby adiabatic passage produces complete population transfer. Indeed, the system is equivalent to a set of independent three-state systems, in each of which a STIRAP procedure can be implemented. We describe a scheme of unitary transformations that produces this result. We also examine the cases when this degeneracy constraint does not hold, and show what can be accomplished in those cases. For example, fo...

  13. Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics

    Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker

    2016-05-01

    Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.

  14. The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1991-01-01

    Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.

  15. Perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton systems

    Ding Ning; Fang Jian-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant,this paper studies the perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton systems.The exact invaxiants of Mei symmetry for the system without perturbation are given.The perturbation to Mei symmetry is discussed and the adiabatic invariants induced from the perturbation to Mei symmetry of the system are obtained.

  16. ADIABATIC MASS LOSS IN BINARY STARS. I. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD

    The asymptotic response of donor stars in interacting binary systems to very rapid mass loss is characterized by adiabatic expansion throughout their interiors. In this limit, energy generation and heat flow through the stellar interior can be neglected. We model this response by constructing model sequences, beginning with a donor star filling its Roche lobe at an arbitrary point in its evolution, holding its specific entropy and composition profiles fixed as mass is removed from the surface. The stellar interior remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. Luminosity profiles in these adiabatic models of mass-losing stars can be reconstructed from the specific entropy profiles and their gradients. These approximations are validated by comparison with time-dependent binary mass transfer calculations. We describe how adiabatic mass-loss sequences can be used to quantify threshold conditions for dynamical timescale mass transfer, and to establish the range of post-common envelope binaries that are allowed energetically. In dynamical timescale mass transfer, the adiabatic response of the donor star drives it to expand beyond its Roche lobe, leading to runaway mass transfer and the formation of a common envelope with its companion star. For donor stars with surface convection zones of any significant depth, this runaway condition is encountered early in mass transfer, if at all; but for main-sequence stars with radiative envelopes, it may be encountered after a prolonged phase of thermal timescale mass transfer, a so-called delayed dynamical instability. We identify the critical binary mass ratio for the onset of dynamical timescale mass transfer as that ratio for which the adiabatic response of the donor star radius to mass loss matches that of its Roche lobe at some point during mass transfer; if the ratio of donor to accretor masses exceeds this critical value, dynamical timescale mass transfer ensues. In common envelope evolution, the dissipation of orbital energy of the

  17. The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Concrete Adiabatic Temperature Rise Test with Commercially Available Equipment

    Byung Jae Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adiabatic temperature rise tests depending on binder type and adiabatic specimen volume were performed, and the maximum adiabatic temperature rises and the reaction factors for each mix proportion were analyzed and suggested. The results indicated that the early strength low heat blended cement mixture had the lowest maximum adiabatic temperature rise (Q∞ and the ternary blended cement mixture had the lowest reaction factor (r. Also, Q and r varied depending on the adiabatic specimen volume even when the tests were conducted with a calorimeter, which satisfies the recommendations for adiabatic conditions. Test results show a correlation: the measurements from the 50 L specimens were consistently higher than those from the 6 L specimens. However, the Q∞ and r values of the 30 L specimen were similar to those of the 50 L specimen. Based on the above correlation, the adiabatic temperature rise of the 50 L specimen could be predicted using the results of the 6 L and 30 L specimens. Therefore, it is thought that this correlation can be used for on-site concrete quality control and basic research.

  18. On the power of coherently controlled quantum adiabatic evolutions

    We provide a new approach to adiabatic state preparation that uses coherent control and measurement to average different adiabatic evolutions in ways that cause their diabatic errors to cancel, allowing highly accurate state preparations using less time than conventional approaches. We show that this new model for adiabatic state preparation is polynomially equivalent to conventional adiabatic quantum computation by providing upper bounds on the cost of simulating such evolutions on a circuit-based quantum computer. Finally, we show that this approach is robust to small errors in the quantum control register and that the system remains protected against noise on the adiabatic register by the spectral gap. (paper)

  19. Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.

  20. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  1. Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry

    Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-10-01

    We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.

  2. Efficient shortcuts to adiabatic passage for three-dimensional entanglement generation via transitionless quantum driving

    He, Shuang; Su, Shi-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Sun, Wen-Mei; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-08-01

    We propose an effective scheme of shortcuts to adiabaticity for generating a three-dimensional entanglement of two atoms trapped in a cavity using the transitionless quantum driving (TQD) approach. The key point of this approach is to construct an effective Hamiltonian that drives the dynamics of a system along instantaneous eigenstates of a reference Hamiltonian to reproduce the same final state as that of an adiabatic process within a much shorter time. In this paper, the shortcuts to adiabatic passage are constructed by introducing two auxiliary excited levels in each atom and applying extra cavity modes and classical fields to drive the relevant transitions. Thereby, the three-dimensional entanglement is obtained with a faster rate than that in the adiabatic passage. Moreover, the influences of atomic spontaneous emission and photon loss on the fidelity are discussed by numerical simulation. The results show that the speed of entanglement implementation is greatly improved by the use of adiabatic shortcuts and that this entanglement implementation is robust against decoherence. This will be beneficial to the preparation of high-dimensional entanglement in experiment and provides the necessary conditions for the application of high-dimensional entangled states in quantum information processing.

  3. Interpolation approach to Hamiltonian-varying quantum systems and the adiabatic theorem

    Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R. [Australian National University, Research School of Engineering, Canberra (Australia); Miao, Zibo [The University of Melbourne, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Melbourne (Australia); Amini, Nina H. [CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S) Supelec, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ugrinovskii, Valery [University of New South Wales at ADFA, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Canberra (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Quantum control could be implemented by varying the system Hamiltonian. According to adiabatic theorem, a slowly changing Hamiltonian can approximately keep the system at the ground state during the evolution if the initial state is a ground state. In this paper we consider this process as an interpolation between the initial and final Hamiltonians. We use the mean value of a single operator to measure the distance between the final state and the ideal ground state. This measure resembles the excitation energy or excess work performed in thermodynamics, which can be taken as the error of adiabatic approximation. We prove that under certain conditions, this error can be estimated for an arbitrarily given interpolating function. This error estimation could be used as guideline to induce adiabatic evolution. According to our calculation, the adiabatic approximation error is not linearly proportional to the average speed of the variation of the system Hamiltonian and the inverse of the energy gaps in many cases. In particular, we apply this analysis to an example in which the applicability of the adiabatic theorem is questionable. (orig.)

  4. Robust Classification with Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    Denchev, Vasil S.; Ding, Nan; Vishwanathan, S. V. N.; Neven, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    We propose a non-convex training objective for robust binary classification of data sets in which label noise is present. The design is guided by the intention of solving the resulting problem by adiabatic quantum optimization. Two requirements are imposed by the engineering constraints of existing quantum hardware: training problems are formulated as quadratic unconstrained binary optimization; and model parameters are represented as binary expansions of low bit-depth. In the present work we...

  5. On the adiabatic expansion of the visible space in a higher-dimensional Cosmology

    Kleidis, K

    1997-01-01

    In the context of higher-dimensional cosmologies with isotropic visible and internal space and multi-perfect fluid matter, we study the conditions under which adiabatic expansion of the visoble external space is possible, when a time-dependent internal space is present. The analysis is based on a reinterpretation of the four-dimensional stress-energy tensor in the presence of the extra dimensions. This modifies the usual adiabatic energy conservation laws for the visible Universe, leading to a new type of cosmological evolution which includes large-scale entropy production in four dimensions.

  6. Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation

    Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)

  7. Adiabatic calorimeter for measuring absorbed dose of IHEP synchrotron secondary radiation

    An adiabatic calorimeter for measuring the value of absorbed dose of mixed radiation generated by 70 GeV proton synchrotron is described. The calorimetric system consists of a working body (a core) and a shell (a screen). The calorimeter adiabaticity is provided by the absence of the core-shell heat exchange by maintaining the shell temperature equal to the core temperature and, consequently, the whole energy generated in the core goes for its heating. The work showed the possibility of carrying out the adiabatic calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose of secondary radiation generated by un accelerated proton beam under the conditions of alternating magnetic and electric fields at the IHEP proton synchrotron at the average dose rate not less than 5x10-3 Wxkg-1

  8. Scattering cluster wave functions on the lattice using the adiabatic projection method

    Rokash, Alexander; Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The adiabatic projection method is a general framework for studying scattering and reactions on the lattice. It provides a low-energy effective theory for clusters which becomes exact in the limit of large Euclidean projection time. Previous studies have used the adiabatic projection method to extract scattering phase shifts from finite periodic-box energy levels using L\\"uschers method. In this paper we demonstrate that scattering observables can be computed directly from asymptotic cluster wave functions. For a variety of examples in one and three spatial dimensions, we extract elastic phase shifts from asymptotic cluster standing waves corresponding to spherical wall boundary conditions. We find that this approach of extracting scattering wave functions from the adiabatic Hamiltonian to be less sensitive to small stochastic and systematic errors as compared with using periodic-box energy levels.

  9. The influence of stress state on the development of adiabatic shear for uranium niobium alloys

    In order to reveal the influence of stress state on the form and development of adiabatic shear, the split Hopkinson press bar (SHPB) is used to impact specimen with different shape such as cylinder, step-cylinder, dumbbell and ladder-shaped specimen. The specimens after Hopkinson bar test were investigated by optical microscopy. The deformation behavior and shear localization in four specimens of uranium niobium alloys under impact loading are simulated by the finite element code LS-DYNA. The results show that the shapes of specimens effect the tendency of the adiabatic shear band (ASB) in the single axial compress state. The location and propagations of ASB predicted by present FEM simulation show good agreement with the experimental results. The calculation results show that the stress condition has significant influence on the initiation and propagation of adiabatic shear band. (authors)

  10. Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses

  11. Rapid adiabatic passage in quantum dots: Influence of scattering and dephasing

    Schuh, K.; Jahnke, F.; Lorke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical investigations for the realization of population inversion of semiconductor quantum dot ground-state transitions by means of adiabatic passage with chirped optical pulses are presented. While the inversion due to Rabi oscillations depends sensitively on the resonance condition, the...

  12. Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David

    2004-01-01

    We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.

  13. AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT

    We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grüneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.

  14. FRW-type cosmologies with adiabatic matter creation

    Some properties of cosmological models with matter creation are investigated in the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element. For adiabatic matter creation, as developed by Prigogine and co-workers, we derive a simple expression relating the particle number density n and energy density ρ which holds regardless of the matter creation rate. The conditions to generate inflation are discussed and by considering the natural phenomenological matter creation rate ψ=3βnH, where β is a pure number of the order of unity and H is the Hubble parameter, a minimally modified hot big-bang model is proposed. The dynamic properties of such models can be deduced from the standard ones simply by replacing the adiabatic index γ of the equation of state by an effective parameter γ*=γ(1-β). The thermodynamic behavior is determined and it is also shown that ages large enough to agree with observations are obtained even given the high values of H suggested by recent measurements. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  16. Accuracy vs run time in adiabatic quantum search

    Rezakhani, A T; Lidar, D A

    2010-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance, yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm, and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: the error decreases exponentially for short times, then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.

  17. Hypergraph Ramsey Numbers and Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm

    Qu, Ri; Bao, Yan-ru

    2012-01-01

    Gaitan and Clark [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)] have recently presented a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m, n) using adiabatic quantum evolution. We consider that the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m, n; r) for r-uniform hypergraphs can be computed by using the similar ways in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)]. In this comment, we show how the computation of R(m, n; r) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution be found using adi...

  18. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking

    Garnerone, Silvano; Lidar, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm to evaluate the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this quantum algorithm outputs any component of the PageRank vector-and thus the ranking of the corresponding webpage-in a time which scales polylogarithmically in the number of webpages. This would constitute an exponential speed-up with respect to all known classical algorithms designed to evaluate the PageRank.

  19. Adiabatic chaos in the spin orbit problem

    Benettin, Giancarlo; Guzzo, Massimiliano; Marini, Valerio

    2008-05-01

    We provide evidences that the angular momentum of a symmetric rigid body in a spin orbit resonance can perform large scale chaotic motions on time scales which increase polynomially with the inverse of the oblateness of the body. This kind of irregular precession appears as soon as the orbit of the center of mass is non-circular and the angular momentum of the body is far from the principal directions with minimum (maximum) moment of inertia. We also provide a quantitative explanation of these facts by using the theory of adiabatic invariants, and we provide numerical applications to the cases of the 1:1 and 1:2 spin orbit resonances.

  20. Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei

    Jachimowicz, P.; Kowal, M; Skalski, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy we calculated static fission barriers $B_{f}$ for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei $98\\leq Z \\leq 126$, including even - even, odd - even, even - odd and odd - odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from ...

  1. Brane World Dynamics and Adiabatic Matter creation

    Gopakumar, P

    2006-01-01

    We have treated the adiabatic matter creation process in various three-brane models by applying thermodynamics of open systems. The matter creation rate is found to affect the evolution of scale factor and energy density of the universe. We find modification at early stages of cosmic dynamics. In GB and RS brane worlds, by chosing appropriate parameters we obtain standard scenario, while the warped DGP model has different Friedmann equations. During later stages, since the matter creation is negligible the evolution reduces to FRW expansion, in RS and GB models.

  2. Dark Energy and Dark Matter from an additional adiabatic fluid

    Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent $\\gamma$ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general $\\gamma$ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with $\\gamma = $ constant in a FLRW universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct compone...

  3. Adiabatic Flame Temperature and Specific Heat of Combustion Gases

    Torii, Shuichi; Yano, Toshiaki; Tsunoda, Yukio; トリイ, シュウイチ; ヤノ, トシアキ; ツノダ, ユキオ; 鳥居, 修一; 矢野, 利明; 角田, 幸男

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to examine adiabatic flame temperature and the specific heat of combustion gases for both hydrocarbon-air and alcohol-air mixtures by means of a method of chemical equilibrium calculation. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of simplified correlation equations capable of predicting (i) adiabatic flame temperature at any equivalence ratio and (ii) the specific heat of combustion gases when the adiabatic flame temperature, the gas temperature and the equivalence...

  4. Adiabatic renormalization in theories with modified dispersion relations

    Nacir, D. Lopez; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Simeone, C.

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the adiabatic renormalization to theories with dispersion relations modified at energies higher than a new scale $M_C$. We obtain explicit expressions for the mean value of the stress tensor in the adiabatic vacuum, up to the second adiabatic order. We show that for any dispersion relation the divergences can be absorbed into the bare gravitational constants of the theory. We also point out that, depending on the renormalization prescription, the renormalized stress tensor may c...

  5. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) in space applications, it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density...

  6. A quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution

    Zhang Ying-Yu; Hu He-Ping; Lu Song-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and implements a specified partial adiabatic search algorithm on a quantum circuit. It studies the minimum energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state of the system Hamiltonian and it finds that, in the case of M=1, the algorithm has the same performance as the local adiabatic algorithm. However, the algorithm evolves globally only within a small interval, which implies that it keeps the advantages of global adiabatic algorithms without losing the speedup of the local adiabatic search algorithm.

  7. A quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution

    This paper presents and implements a specified partial adiabatic search algorithm on a quantum circuit. It studies the minimum energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state of the system Hamiltonian and it finds that, in the case of M = 1, the algorithm has the same performance as the local adiabatic algorithm. However, the algorithm evolves globally only within a small interval, which implies that it keeps the advantages of global adiabatic algorithms without losing the speedup of the local adiabatic search algorithm. (general)

  8. Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons

    Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil

    1992-01-01

    In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.

  9. Spin-label CW microwave power saturation and rapid passage with triangular non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) and adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) EPR spectroscopy

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-06-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10-3 to 10-7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.

  10. Classical nuclear dynamics on a single time-dependent potential in electronic non-adiabatic processes

    Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Maitra, Neepa T.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2015-03-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation allows to visualize the coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in molecular systems as a set of nuclei moving on a single potential energy surface representing the effect of the electrons in a given eigenstate. Many interesting phenomena, however, such as vision or charge separation in organic photovoltaic materials, take place in conditions beyond its range of validity. Nevertheless, the basic construct of the adiabatic treatment, the BO potential energy surfaces, is employed to describe non-adiabatic processes and the full problem is represented in terms of adiabatic states and transitions among them in regions of strong non-adiabatic coupling. But the concept of single potential energy is lost. The alternative point of view arising in the framework of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function will be presented. A single, time-dependent, potential energy provides the force driving the nuclear motion and is adopted as starting point for the development of quantum-classical approximations to the full quantum mechanical problem.

  11. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na{sub 2}O{sub (l)}, and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH{sub (g)}. The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH{sub (g)}, NaOH{sub (l)} and H2{sub (g)}. Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar.

  12. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na2O(l), and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH(g). The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH(g), NaOH(l) and H2(g). Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  13. Phase relations and adiabats in boiling seafloor geothermal systems

    Bischoff, James L.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1985-11-01

    Observations of large salinity variations and vent temperatures in the range of 380-400°C suggest that boiling or two-phase separation may be occurring in some seafloor geothermal systems. Consideration of flow rates and the relatively small differences in density between vapors and liquids at the supercritical pressures at depth in these systems suggests that boiling is occurring under closed-system conditions. Salinity and temperature of boiling vents can be used to estimate the pressure-temperature point in the subsurface at which liquid seawater first reached the two-phase boundary. Data are reviewed to construct phase diagrams of coexisting brines and vapors in the two-phase region at pressures corresponding to those of the seafloor geothermal systems. A method is developed for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of the coexisting mixtures, and results are used to construct adiabats from the seafloor to the P-T two-phase boundary. Results for seafloor vents discharging at 2300 m below sea level indicate that a 385°C vent is composed of a brine (7% NaCl equivalent) in equilibrium with a vapor (0.1% NaCl). Brine constitutes 45% by weight of the mixture, and the fluid first boiled at approximately 1 km below the seafloor at 415°C, 330 bar. A 400°C vent is primarily vapor (88 wt.%, 0.044% NaCl) with a small amount of brine (26% NaCl) and first boiled at 2.9 km below the seafloor at 500°C, 520 bar. These results show that adiabatic decompression in the two-phase region results in dramatic cooling of the fluid mixture when there is a large fraction of vapor.

  14. Plasmas in particle accelerators: adiabatic theories for bunched beams

    Three different formalisms for discussing Vlasov's equation for bunched beam problems with anharmonic space charge forces are outlined. These correspond to the use of a drift kinetic equation averaged over random betatron motions; a fluidkinetic adiabatic regime analogous to the theory of Chew, Goldberger, and Low; and an adiabatic hydrodynamic theory

  15. Examination of the adiabatic approximation in open systems

    We examine the notion of the adiabatic approximation in open systems by applying it to closed systems. Our results shows that the notion is equivalent to the standard adiabatic approximation if the systems are initially in eigenstates, and it leads to a more general expression if the systems are in mixed states

  16. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures

  17. High Fidelity Adiabatic Quantum Computation via Dynamical Decoupling

    Quiroz, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    We introduce high-order dynamical decoupling strategies for open system adiabatic quantum computation. Our numerical results demonstrate that a judicious choice of high-order dynamical decoupling method, in conjunction with an encoding which allows computation to proceed alongside decoupling, can dramatically enhance the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computation in spite of decoherence.

  18. Quantum adiabatic algorithm for factorization and its experimental implementation.

    Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-11-28

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in a NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. In the range that our classical computer could simulate, the quantum adiabatic algorithm works well, providing evidence that the running time of this algorithm scales polynomially with the problem size. PMID:19113467

  19. Robust Classification with Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    Denchev, Vasil S; Vishwanathan, S V N; Neven, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    We propose a non-convex training objective for robust binary classification of data sets in which label noise is present. The design is guided by the intention of solving the resulting problem by adiabatic quantum optimization. Two requirements are imposed by the engineering constraints of existing quantum hardware: training problems are formulated as quadratic unconstrained binary optimization; and model parameters are represented as binary expansions of low bit-depth. In the present work we validate this approach by using a heuristic classical solver as a stand-in for quantum hardware. Testing on several popular data sets and comparing with a number of existing losses we find substantial advantages in robustness as measured by test error under increasing label noise. Robustness is enabled by the non-convexity of our hardware-compatible loss function, which we name q-loss.

  20. Number Partitioning via Quantum Adiabatic Computation

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Toussaint, Udo; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the complexity of the adiabatic quantum evolution algorithm applied to random instances of combinatorial optimization problems. We use as an example the NP-complete set partition problem and obtain an asymptotic expression for the minimal gap separating the ground and exited states of a system during the execution of the algorithm. We show that for computationally hard problem instances the size of the minimal gap scales exponentially with the problem size. This result is in qualitative agreement with the direct numerical simulation of the algorithm for small instances of the set partition problem. We describe the statistical properties of the optimization problem that are responsible for the exponential behavior of the algorithm.

  1. Entropy in adiabatic regions of convection simulations

    Tanner, Joel D; Demarque, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models is caused by the treatment of convection in stellar envelopes. One dimensional stellar models often make use of the mixing length or equivalent approximations to describe convection, all of which depend on various free parameters. There have been attempts to rectify this by using 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulations of stellar convection, and in trying to extract an equivalent mixing length from the simulations. In this paper we show that the entropy of the deeper, adiabatic layers in these simulations can be expressed as a simple function of og g and log T_{eff} which holds potential for calibrating stellar models in a simple and more general manner.

  2. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment 4He(1s2s 3S) + HD(1s2) → 4He(1s2) + HD+(1s) + e− [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings

  3. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions.

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment (4)He(1s2s (3)S) + HD(1s(2)) → (4)He(1s(2)) + HD(+)(1s) + e(-) [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:26298122

  4. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    Pawlak, Mariusz [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moiseyev, Nimrod [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  5. Adiabatic approximation, semiclassical scattering, and unidirectional invisibility

    The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the S-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H(τ). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation to H(τ) corresponds to the semiclassical description of the original scattering problem. In particular, the geometric part of the phase of the evolving eigenvectors of H(τ) gives the pre-exponential factor of the WKB wave functions. We use these observations to give an explicit semiclassical expression for the transfer matrix. This allows for a detailed study of the semiclassical unidirectional reflectionlessness and invisibility. We examine concrete realizations of the latter in the realm of optics. (paper)

  6. Index Theory and Adiabatic Limit in QFT

    Wawrzycki, Jaroslaw

    2011-01-01

    The paper has the form of a proposal concerned with the relationship between the three mathematically rigorous approaches to quantum field theory: 1) local algebraic formulation of Haag, 2) Wightman formulation and 3) the perturbative formulation based on the microlocal renormalization method. In this project we investigate the relationship between 1) and 3) and utilize the known relationships between 1) and 2). The main goal of the proposal lies in obtaining obstructions for the existence of the adiabatic limit (confinement problem in the phenomenological standard model approach). We extend the method of deformation of D\\"utsch and Fredenhagen (in the Bordeman-Waldmann sense) and apply Fedosov construction of the formal index -- an analog of the index for deformed symplectic manifolds, generalizing the Atiyah-Singer index. We present some first steps in realization of the proposal.

  7. Index Theory and Adiabatic Limit in QFT

    Wawrzycki, Jarosław

    2013-08-01

    The paper has the form of a proposal concerned with the relationship between the three mathematically rigorous approaches to quantum field theory: (1) local algebraic formulation of Haag, (2) Wightman formulation and (3) the perturbative formulation based on the microlocal renormalization method. In this project we investigate the relationship between (1) and (3) and utilize the known relationships between (1) and (2). The main goal of the proposal lies in obtaining obstructions for the existence of the adiabatic limit ( confinement problem in the phenomenological standard model approach). We extend the method of deformation of Dütsch and Fredenhagen (in the Bordeman-Waldmann sense) and apply Fedosov construction of the formal index—an analog of the index for deformed symplectic manifolds, generalizing the Atiyah-Singer index. We present some first steps in realization of the proposal.

  8. Entropy in Adiabatic Regions of Convection Simulations

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    One of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models is caused by the treatment of convection in stellar envelopes. One-dimensional stellar models often make use of the mixing length or equivalent approximations to describe convection, all of which depend on various free parameters. There have been attempts to rectify this by using 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulations of stellar convection, and in trying to extract an equivalent mixing length from the simulations. In this Letter, we show that the entropy of the deeper, adiabatic layers in these simulations can be expressed as a simple function of {log}g and {log}{T}{{eff}}, which holds potential for calibrating stellar models in a simple and more general manner.

  9. Adiabatic and Isocurvature Perturbation Projections in Multi-Field Inflation

    Gordon, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the adiabatic perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic pe...

  10. Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective

    Teichmann, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...

  11. How detrimental is decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation?

    Albash, Tameem

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments with increasingly larger numbers of qubits have sparked renewed interest in adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular quantum annealing. A central question that is repeatedly asked is whether quantum features of the evolution can survive over the long time-scales used for quantum annealing relative to standard measures of the decoherence time. We reconsider the role of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing using the adiabatic quantum master equation formalism. We restrict ourselves to the weak-coupling and singular-coupling limits, which correspond to decoherence in the energy eigenbasis and in the computational basis, respectively. We demonstrate that decoherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis does not necessarily detrimentally affect adiabatic quantum computation, and in particular that a short single-qubit $T_2$ time need not imply adverse consequences for the success of the quantum adiabatic algorithm. We further demonstrate that boundary canc...

  12. Power spectra in the eikonal approximation with adiabatic and non-adiabatic modes

    Bernardeau, Francis; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We use the so-called eikonal approximation, recently introduced in the context of cosmological perturbation theory, to compute power spectra for multi-component fluids. We demonstrate that, at any given order in standard perturbation theory, multi-point power spectra do not depend on the large-scale adiabatic modes. Moreover, we employ perturbation theories to decipher how non-adiabatic modes, such as a relative velocity between two different components, damp the small-scale matter power spectrum, a mechanism recently described in the literature. In particular, we do an explicit calculation at 1-loop order of this effect. While the 1-loop result eventually breaks down, we show how the damping effect can be fully captured by the help of the eikonal approximation. A relative velocity not only induces mode damping but also creates large-scale anisotropic modulations of the matter power spectrum amplitude. We illustrate this for the Local Group environment.

  13. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J. [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2012-12-14

    We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.

  14. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. II. The adiabatic representation

    We present a complex quantum trajectory method for treating non-adiabatic dynamics. Each trajectory evolves classically on a single electronic surface but with complex position and momentum. The equations of motion are derived directly from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and the population exchange arises naturally from amplitude-transfer terms. In this paper the equations of motion are derived in the adiabatic representation to complement our work in the diabatic representation [N. Zamstein and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A517 (2012)]. We apply our method to two benchmark models introduced by John Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)], and get very good agreement with converged quantum-mechanical calculations. Specifically, we show that decoherence (spatial separation of wavepackets on different surfaces) is already contained in the equations of motion and does not require ad hoc augmentation.

  15. Severe plastic deformation through adiabatic shear banding in Fe-C steels

    Lesuer, D; Syn, C; Sherby, O

    2004-12-01

    Severe plastic deformation is observed within adiabatic shear bands in iron-carbon steels. These shear bands form under high strain rate conditions, in excess of 1000 s{sup -1}, and strains in the order 5 or greater are commonly observed. Studies on shear band formation in a ultrahigh carbon steel (1.3%C) are described in the pearlitic condition. A hardness of 11.5 GPa (4600 MPa) is obtained within the band. A mechanism is described to explain the high strength based on phase transformation to austenite from adiabatic heating resulting from severe deformation. Rapid re-transformation leads to an ultra-fine ferrite grain size containing carbon principally in the form of nanosize carbides. It is proposed that the same mechanism explains the ultrahigh strength of iron-carbon steels observed in ball-milling, ball drop tests and in severely deformed wires.

  16. Free Convective Unsteady MHD Flow of Newtonian Fluid in a Channel with Adiabatic

    Dr.G.Prabhakararao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated an unsteady free convection MHD flow of an incompressible viscous electrically conducting fluid under the action of transverse uniform magnetic field between two heated vertical plates by keeping one plate is adiabatic. The governing equations of velocity and temperature fields with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by using perturbation technique. The effects of various physical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields are discussed in detail with the help of graphs.

  17. Theory of relativistic CRM with synchronous adiabatic electromagnetic wave deceleration of electron beam

    An approximation of nonlinear theory of relativistic gyrotrons with variable magnetic fields is formulated. It is assumed that, for a single electron being decelerated by a high-frequency field, the condition of cyclotron resonance is satisfied identically over the entire interaction space. Other electrons captured by the wave, which undergo small oscillations, are decelerated with the resonant electron. Using the method of adiabatic invariants, a longitudinal amplitude distribution is determined for the high-frequency field that prevents escape of any electrons

  18. Are the reactions of quinones on graphite adiabatic?

    Outer sphere electron transfer reactions on pure metal electrodes are often adiabatic and hence independent of the electrode material. Since it is not clear, whether adiabatic electron transfer can also occur on a semi-metal like graphite, we have re-investigated experimental data presented in a recent communication by Nissim et al. [Chemical Communications 48 (2012) 3294] on the reactions of quinones on graphite. We have supplemented their work by DFT calculations and conclude, that these reactions are indeed adiabatic. This contradicts the assertion of Nissim et al. that the rates are proportional to the density of states at the Fermi level

  19. Approximability of optimization problems through adiabatic quantum computation

    Cruz-Santos, William

    2014-01-01

    The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is l

  20. A note on the geometric phase in adiabatic approximation

    Tong, D M; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H

    2004-01-01

    It is widely held that the Berry phase of a quantum system is the geometric phase in adiabatic approximation. However, Pati and Rajagopal recently claimed that the Berry phase vanishes under strict adiabatic evolution. In this note, we reexamine and address this issue. In particular, we show that the use of the adiabatic theorem does not lead to this inconsistency. We also examine the difference between the Berry phase and the exact geometric phase. Here we find that the Berry phase may differ appreciably from the exact geometric phase if the evolution time is large enough.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic absorption refrigeration cycle driven by low grade energy

    Graphical abstract: To improve the performance of the air-cooled type absorption refrigeration, a novel non-adiabatic absorber has been applied in the cycle. Simulation results show that low grade energy is applicable for NH3/NaSCN and NH3/LiNO3 absorption refrigeration system under air cooling condition and relatively high system performance can be obtained. - Highlights: • We analyze an absorption refrigeration cycle driven by low grade energy. • Working fluids thermophysical property correlations are corrected. • Influence of non-adiabatic absorber on system performance is investigated. • We propose system operation parameters under air-cooled condition. - Abstract: An air-cooled type absorption refrigeration cycle using ammonia–lithium nitrate and ammonia–sodium thiocyanate solutions as working fluids are thermodynamically studied in this paper. In the case of many occasions especially small cooling capacity occasion where water cooling is restricted or inconvenient, application of conventional adiabatic absorbers in air-cooled type absorption refrigeration system has been studied by many investigators. Comparing to the adiabatic absorber, a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic absorber is applied to the absorption refrigeration system in this study to improve system performance. It is shown that, system performance has a significant improvement when temperatures of rich ammonia solution at the outlet of absorber decrease under the effect of the heat dissipation capacity of the non-adiabatic absorber. Another advantage is that heat load of the system heat exchangers including generator, solution heat exchanger and air-cooler, decreases with the solution temperature decrease at the outlet of the absorber under the same system cooling capacity condition, which brings benefits to the system cost reduction. Variation of system performance and other system operation parameters with generator temperature, absorption temperature and absorption efficiency has

  2. Graph isomorphism and adiabatic quantum computing

    Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane

    2014-03-01

    In the Graph Isomorphism (GI) problem two N-vertex graphs G and G' are given and the task is to determine whether there exists a permutation of the vertices of G that preserves adjacency and maps G --> G'. If yes (no), then G and G' are said to be isomorphic (non-isomorphic). The GI problem is an important problem in computer science and is thought to be of comparable difficulty to integer factorization. We present a quantum algorithm that solves arbitrary instances of GI, and which provides a novel approach to determining all automorphisms of a graph. The algorithm converts a GI instance to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved using adiabatic quantum evolution. Numerical simulation of the algorithm's quantum dynamics shows that it correctly distinguishes non-isomorphic graphs; recognizes isomorphic graphs; and finds the automorphism group of a graph. We also discuss the algorithm's experimental implementation and show how it can be leveraged to solve arbitrary instances of the NP-Complete Sub-Graph Isomorphism problem.

  3. Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei

    Jachimowicz, P; Skalski, J

    2016-01-01

    Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy we calculated static fission barriers $B_{f}$ for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei $98\\leq Z \\leq 126$, including even - even, odd - even, even - odd and odd - odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from the 10-th below to the 10-th above the Fermi level. The parameters of the model that have been fixed previously by a fit to masses of even-even heavy nuclei were kept unchanged. A search for saddle points has been performed by the "Imaginary Water Flow" method on a basic five-dimensional deformation grid, including triaxiality. Two auxiliary grids were used for checking the effects of the mass asymmetry and hexadecapole non-axiallity. The ground states were found by energy minimization over configurations and deformations...

  4. Calibration of STUD+ parameters to achieve optimally efficient broadband adiabatic decoupling in a single transient

    Bendall; Skinner

    1998-10-01

    To provide the most efficient conditions for spin decoupling with least RF power, master calibration curves are provided for the maximum centerband amplitude, and the minimum amplitude for the largest cycling sideband, resulting from STUD+ adiabatic decoupling applied during a single free induction decay. The principal curve is defined as a function of the four most critical experimental input parameters: the maximum amplitude of the RF field, RFmax, the length of the sech/tanh pulse, Tp, the extent of the frequency sweep, bwdth, and the coupling constant, Jo. Less critical parameters, the effective (or actual) decoupled bandwidth, bweff, and the sech/tanh truncation factor, beta, which become more important as bwdth is decreased, are calibrated in separate curves. The relative importance of nine additional factors in determining optimal decoupling performance in a single transient are considered. Specific parameters for efficient adiabatic decoupling can be determined via a set of four equations which will be most useful for 13C decoupling, covering the range of one-bond 13C1H coupling constants from 125 to 225 Hz, and decoupled bandwidths of 7 to 100 kHz, with a bandwidth of 100 kHz being the requirement for a 2 GHz spectrometer. The four equations are derived from a recent vector model of adiabatic decoupling, and experiment, supported by computer simulations. The vector model predicts an inverse linear relation between the centerband and maximum sideband amplitudes, and it predicts a simple parabolic relationship between maximum sideband amplitude and the product JoTp. The ratio bwdth/(RFmax)2 can be viewed as a characteristic time scale, tauc, affecting sideband levels, with tauc approximately Tp giving the most efficient STUD+ decoupling, as suggested by the adiabatic condition. Functional relationships between bwdth and less critical parameters, bweff and beta, for efficient decoupling can be derived from Bloch-equation calculations of the inversion profile

  5. Adiabatic splitting, transport, and self-trapping of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a double-well potential

    We show that the adiabatic dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential can be described in terms of a dark variable resulting from the combination of the population imbalance and the spatial atomic coherence between the two wells. By means of this dark variable, we extend, to the nonlinear matter-wave case, the recent proposal by Vitanov and Shore [Phys. Rev. A 73, 053402 (2006)] on adiabatic passage techniques to coherently control the population of two internal levels of an atom or molecule. We investigate the conditions to adiabatically split or transport a BEC as well as to prepare an adiabatic self-trapping state by the optimal delayed temporal variation of the tunneling rate via either the energy bias between the two wells or the BEC nonlinearity. The emergence of nonlinear eigenstates and unstable stationary solutions of the system as well as their role in the breaking down of the adiabatic dynamics is investigated in detail.

  6. Adiabatic tunneling of Bose—Einstein condensates with modulated atom interaction in a double-well potential

    We study the adiabatic tunneling of Bose—Einstein condensates in a symmetric double-well potential when the interaction strength between the atoms is modulated linearly or in a cosine periodic form. It is shown that the system evolves along a nonlinear eigenstate path. In the case of linear modulation under the adiabatic approximation conditions, the tunneling probability of the condensate atoms to the other potential well is half. However, when the system is periodically scanned in the adiabatic process, we find an interesting phenomenon. A small change in the cycle period can lead to the condensate atoms returning to the right well or tunneling to the left well. The system comes from a linear eigenstate back to a nonlinear one, which is completely different from the linear eigenstate evolution. We explain the results by using the energy level and the phase diagram. (general)

  7. General dynamical description of quasi-adiabatically encircling exceptional points

    Milburn, Thomas J; Holmes, Catherine A; Portolan, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan; Rabl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of so-called exceptional points in the complex spectra of non-Hermitian systems is often associated with phenomena that contradict our physical intuition. One example of particular interest is the state-exchange process predicted for an adiabatic encircling of an exceptional point. In this work we analyze this process for the generic system of two coupled oscillator modes with loss or gain. We identify a characteristic system evolution consisting of periods of quasi-stationarity interrupted by abrupt non-adiabatic transitions. Our findings explain the breakdown of the adiabatic theorem as well as the chiral behavior noticed previously in this context, and we provide a unified framework to describe quasi-adiabatic dynamical effects in non-Hermitian systems in a qualitative and quantitative way.

  8. Adiabatic and isocurvature perturbation projections in multi-field inflation

    Current data are in good agreement with the predictions of single field inflation. However, the hemispherical asymmetry, seen in the cosmic microwave background data, may hint at a potential problem. Generalizing to multi-field models may provide one possible explanation. A useful way of modeling perturbations in multi-field inflation is to investigate the projection of the perturbation along and perpendicular to the background fields' trajectory. These correspond to the adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations. However, it is important to note that in general there are no corresponding adiabatic and isocurvature fields. The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between a field redefinition and a perturbation projection. We provide a detailed derivation of the evolution of the isocurvature perturbation to show that no assumption of an adiabatic or isocurvature field is needed. We also show how this evolution equation is consistent with the field covariant evolution equations for the adiabatic perturbation in the flat field space limit

  9. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators(ADR's) for space it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density superconducting wires...

  10. Application of adiabatic calorimetry to metal systems. Final report

    Research on the application of adiabatic calorimetry to metal systems is described. Investigations into formation of pearlite in steels, ferromagnetic effects, cold working and annealing, solid solution alloys, pure solid metals, and pure liquid metals, are briefly described

  11. Case Study of Indirect Adiabatic Cooling System in Historical Building

    Brahmanis, A; Lešinskis, A; Krūmiņš, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the efficiency of indirect adiabatic chiller-based cooling system efficiency dependence of outdoor air humidity. The system is located in historical building, in temperate climate of Latvia.

  12. Natural convection around a horizontal cylinder near an adiabatic cover wall

    The main objective of this work was to determine numerically the influence of the proximity of an adiabatic top surface over the natural convective coefficient, around an isothermal horizontal cylinder in atmospheric air. The local and mean Nusselt numbers around the cylinder were obtained through a numerical solution of the dimensionless equations for two-dimensional laminar natural convection flow at steady state in Cartesian coordinates, using the ω, ψ, Τ, formulation. The software was run for different Rayleigh values (102 5) and distances cylinder-cover wall (0.55 < L/D < 2.5). The results allow concluding that the top adiabatic surface diminishes the convective coefficient in comparison with the value obtained using an infinite medium as boundary condition, it occurs when L/D<2, at any Rayleigh number value. (authors)

  13. Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy-dark matter models

    Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, whi...

  14. Hybrid adiabatic potentials in the QCD string model

    Kalashnikova, Yu S; Kalashnikova, Yu.S.

    2003-01-01

    The short- and intermediate-distance behaviour of the hybrid adiabatic potentials is calculated in the framework of the QCD string model. The calculations are performed with the inclusion of Coulomb force. Spin-dependent force and the so-called string correction term are treated as perturbation at the leading potential-type regime. Reasonably good agreement with lattice measurements takes place for adiabatic curves excited with magnetic components of field strength correlators.

  15. Adiabatic frequency conversion of quantum optical information in atomic vapor

    Vewinger, Frank; Appel, Juergen; Figueroa, Eden; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2006-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a quantum communication protocol that enables frequency conversion and routing of quantum optical information in an adiabatic and thus robust way. The protocol is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency in systems with multiple excited levels: transfer and/or distribution of optical states between different signal modes is implemented by adiabatically changing the control fields. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed using the hyperfine levels ...

  16. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    Enqvist, Kari; Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations in the axion field can give rise to a nearly flat spectrum of adiabatic perturbations with a spectral tilt $\\Delta n$ in the range $-0.1 \\lesssim \\Delta n \\lesssim 0.3$.

  17. Realization of adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm scattering with neutrons

    Sjöqvist, Erik; Almquist, Martin; Mattsson, Ken; Gürkan, Zeynep Nilhan; Hessmo, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The adiabatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a manifestation of the Berry phase acquired when some slow variables take a planar spin around a loop. While the effect has been observed in molecular spectroscopy, direct measurement of the topological phase shift in a scattering experiment has been elusive in the past. Here, we demonstrate an adiabatic AB effect by explicit simulation of the dynamics of unpolarized very slow neutrons that scatter on a long straight current-carrying wire.

  18. Adiabatic Invariant Treatment of a Collapsing Sphere of Quantized Dust

    Roberto CasadioDipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Bologna and INFN, Bologna; Fabio Finelli(Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Bologna and INFN, Bologna); Giovanni Venturi(Department of Physics, University of Bologna, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The semiclassical collapse of a sphere of quantized dust is studied. A Born-Oppenheimer decomposition is performed for the wave function of the system and the semiclassical limit is considered for the gravitational part. The method of adiabatic invariants for time dependent Hamiltonians is then employed to find (approximate) solutions to the quantum dust equations of motions. This allows us to obtain corrections to the adiabatic approximation of the dust states associated with the time evolut...

  19. Time Development of Exponentially Small Non-Adiabatic Transitions

    Hagedorn, George A.; Joye, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Optimal truncations of asymptotic expansions are known to yield approximations to adiabatic quantum evolutions that are accurate up to exponentially small errors. In this paper, we rigorously determine the leading order non--adiabatic corrections to these approximations for a particular family of two--level analytic Hamiltonian functions. Our results capture the time development of the exponentially small transition that takes place between optimal states by means of a particular switching fu...

  20. Adiabatic Quantum Programming: Minor Embedding With Hard Faults

    Klymko, Christine; Sullivan, Blair D.; Humble, Travis S.

    2012-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum programming defines the time-dependent mapping of a quantum algorithm into an underlying hardware or logical fabric. An essential step is embedding problem-specific information into the quantum logical fabric. We present algorithms for embedding arbitrary instances of the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm into a square lattice of specialized unit cells. These methods extend with fabric growth while scaling linearly in time and quadratically in footprint. We also provi...

  1. Vacuum vessel eddy current modeling for TFTR adiabatic compression experiments

    DeLucia, J.; Bell, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1985-07-01

    A relatively simple current filament model of the TFTR vacuum vessel is described. It is used to estimate the three-dimensional structure of magnetic field perturbations in the vicinity of the plasma that arise from vacuum vessel eddy currents induced during adiabatic compression. Eddy currents are calculated self-consistently with the plasma motion. The Shafranov formula and adiabatic scaling laws are used to model the plasma. Although the specific application is to TFTR, the present model is of generation applicability.

  2. Vacuum vessel eddy current modeling for TFTR adiabatic compression experiments

    A relatively simple current filament model of the TFTR vacuum vessel is described. It is used to estimate the three-dimensional structure of magnetic field perturbations in the vicinity of the plasma that arise from vacuum vessel eddy currents induced during adiabatic compression. Eddy currents are calculated self-consistently with the plasma motion. The Shafranov formula and adiabatic scaling laws are used to model the plasma. Although the specific application is to TFTR, the present model is of generation applicability

  3. Adiabatic boiling of two-phase coolant in upward flow

    A mathematical model of the process of adiabatic boiling (self-condensation) of a two-phase coolant in upward (downward) flow is developed. The model takes account of changes in phase properties with static pressure decrease. The process is investigated numerically. Approximate analytical formulas for design calculations are obtained. It is shown that effects of adiabatic boiling (self-condensation) should be taken into account when calculating two-phase coolant flow in stretched vertical channels

  4. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic charge pumping in a single-level molecular motor

    We propose a design for realizing quantum charge pump based on a recent proposal for a molecular motor (Seldenthuis J S et al 2010 ACS Nano 4 6681). Our design is based on the presence of a moiety with a permanent dipole moment which can rotate, thereby modulating the couplings to metallic contacts at both ends of the molecule. Using the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green’s function formalism (NEGF), we show that our design indeed generates a pump current. In the non-interacting pump, the variation of frequency from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regime, can be used to control the direction as well as the amplitude of the average current. The effect of Coulomb interaction is considered within the first- and the second- order perturbation. The numerical implementation of the scheme is quite demanding, and we develop an analytical approximation to obtain a speed-up giving results within a reasonable time. We find that the amplitude of the average pumped current can be controlled by both the driving frequency and the Coulomb interaction. The direction of of pumped current is shown to be determined by the phase difference between left and right anchoring groups. (paper)

  5. Thermodynamics analysis of refinery sludge gasification in adiabatic updraft gasifier.

    Ahmed, Reem; Sinnathambi, Chandra M; Eldmerdash, Usama; Subbarao, Duvvuri

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the thermodynamic evaluation for biomass gasification process using updraft gasifier. Therefore, to minimize errors, the gasification of dry refinery sludge (DRS) is carried out in adiabatic system at atmospheric pressure under ambient air conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate the physical and chemical energy and exergy of product gas at different equivalent ratios (ER). It will also be used to determine whether the cold gas, exergy, and energy efficiencies of gases may be maximized by using secondary air injected to gasification zone under various ratios (0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5) at optimum ER of 0.195. From the results obtained, it is indicated that the chemical energy and exergy of producer gas are magnified by 5 and 10 times higher than their corresponding physical values, respectively. The cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies of DRS gasification are in the ranges of 22.9-55.5%, 43.7-72.4%, and 42.5-50.4%, respectively. Initially, all 3 efficiencies increase until they reach a maximum at the optimum ER of 0.195; thereafter, they decline with further increase in ER values. The injection of secondary air to gasification zone is also found to increase the cold gas, energy, and exergy efficiencies. A ratio of secondary air to primary air of 0.5 is found to be the optimum ratio for all 3 efficiencies to reach the maximum values. PMID:24672368

  6. Dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes: General description and their implications

    Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jiangbin; Oh, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes are not considered by the conventional classical adiabatic theorem. In this work a general result is derived to describe the intrinsic dynamical fluctuations in classical adiabatic processes. Interesting implications of our general result are discussed via two subtopics, namely, an intriguing adiabatic geometric phase in a dynamical model with an adiabatically moving fixed-point solution, and the possible "pollution" to Hannay's angle or...

  7. Adiabatic motion of a neutral spinning particle in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Littlejohn, R.G.; Weigert, S. (Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The motion of a neutral particle with a magnetic moment in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is considered. This situation, occurring, for example, in a Stern-Gerlach experiment, is investigated from classical and semiclassical points of view. It is assumed that the magnetic field is strong or slowly varying in space, i.e., that adiabatic conditions hold. To the classical model, a systematic Lie-transform perturbation technique is applied up to second order in the adiabatic-expansion parameter. The averaged classical Hamiltonian contains not only terms representing fictitious electric and magnetic fields but also an additional velocity-dependent potential. The Hamiltonian of the quantum-mechanical system is diagonalized by means of a systematic WKB analysis for coupled wave equations up to second order in the adiabaticity parameter, which is coupled to Planck's constant. An exact term-by-term correspondence with the averaged classical Hamiltonian is established, thus confirming the relevance of the additional velocity-dependent second-order contribution.

  8. Geometric phase and angle for noncyclic adiabatic change, revivals and measures of quantal instability

    Within the adiabatic theorem we must explicitly add to the instantaneous adiabatic vectors, parametrized by an external parameter following an open curve, a dynamical as well as a geometrical phase contribution to be able to predict the quantum observables. We give an alternative to Berry's proof for cyclic paths without use of Stokes's theorem that is then generalized to open paths. Recent analyses that argued, for an adiabatic open path case, that there is only dynamical phase change or that the situation is undefined are shown to be incorrect. The noncyclic geometric phase correction is discussed in detail for the spin in a magnetic field, an Aharonov-Bohm experiment and a resonator. Properties of the geometric phase contribution for open paths are studied. First, it is shown that degeneracies play an important role. Second, it is shown to be semiclassically related to a geometric angle shift on the final torus. The revival structure of wavepackets is shown to be affected by the noncyclic geometric phases of the, contributing instantaneous vectors that make the revived wavepacket to be shifted on the final torus by the classical geometric angle. We also propose two measures of quantum sensitivity to initial conditions. The first one is valid for quantum and classical Liouville states and it is given by the different distances of two close states to a third fixed state. The second measure is given by the divergence of the flow lines of suitable quantum phase space representations and reduces to the classical Lyapunov exponent. (author)

  9. Adiabatic femtosecond pulse compression and control by using quadratic cascading nonlinearity

    Zeng, Xianglong; Ashihara, Satoshi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that adiabatic compression of femtosecond pulse can be achieved by employing the management of quadratic cascading nonlinearity in quasi-phase-matching gratings. Cascading nonlinearity is not a simple analogy with third-order optical nonlinearity in term of the engineering properties of the magnitude and focusing (or defocusing) nonlinearity. Femtosecond pulse compression is investigated based on type-I (e: o + o) collinear QPM geometry of aperiodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO 3 (MgO: LN). Group-velocity-matching condition is chosen to generate quadratic femtosecond soliton consisting of fundamental (FF) and second harmonic (SH) pulses. Adiabatic-like compression process is observed in the length of 50 mm linearly chirped QPM. Cascading nonlinearity is local managed, instead of dispersion management used in fiber adiabatic soliton compression. Quadratic soliton including FF and SH pulses are obtained from the compression of 95 fs FF pulse in the initial experiments. Dependence on the phase mismatch and group velocity mismatch, cascading nonlinearity has a flexible property and presents a new challenge for exploring femtosecond pulse shaping and control. The demonstrated pulse compression and control based on cascading nonlinearity is useful for generation of shorter pulses with clean temporal profiles, efficient femtosecond second harmonic generation and group-velocity control.

  10. Phenomenon of transformed adiabatic shear band surrounded by deformed adiabatic shear band of ductile metal

    WANG Xue-bin

    2008-01-01

    The coexistent phenomenon of deformed and transformed adiabatic shear bands(ASBs) of ductile metal was analyzed using the JOHNSON-COOK model and gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP). The effects of melting point, density, heat capacity and work to heat conversion factor were investigated. Higher work to heat conversion factor, lower density, lower heat capacity and higher melting point lead to wider transformed ASB and higher local plastic shear deformation between deformed and transformed ASBs. Higher work to heat conversion factor, lower density, lower heat capacity and lower melting point cause higher local plastic shear deformation in the deformed ASB. Three reasons for the scatter in experimental data on the ASB width were pointed out and the advantages of the work were discussed. If the transformed ASB width is used to back-calculate the internal length parameter in the GDP, undoubtedly, the parameter will be extremely underestimated.

  11. Physics on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold and cosmology

    Lipovka, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    In present paper we confirm our previous result [4] that Planck constant is adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field propagating on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold. Direct calculation from cosmological parameters gives value h=6x10(-27) (erg s). We also confirm that Planck constant (and hence other fundamental constants which depend on h) is varied on time due to changing of geometry. As an example the variation of the fine structure constant is calculated. Its relative variation ((da/dt)/a) consist 1.0x10(-18) (1/s). We show that on the Finsler manifold characterized by adiabatically changed geometry, classical free electromagnetic field is quantized geometrically, from the properties of the manifold in such manner that adiabatic invariant of field is ET=6x10(-27)=h. Electrodynamic equations on the Finslerian manifold are suggested. It is stressed that quantization naturally appears from these equations and is provoked by adiabatically changed geometry of manifold. We consider in details tw...

  12. Interplay between electric and magnetic effect in adiabatic polaritonic systems

    Alabastri, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report on the possibility of realizing adiabatic compression of polaritonic wave on a metallic conical nano-structure through an oscillating electric potential (quasi dynamic regime). By comparing this result with an electromagnetic wave excitation, we were able to relate the classical lighting-rod effect to adiabatic compression. Furthermore, we show that while the magnetic contribution plays a marginal role in the formation of adiabatic compression, it provides a blue shift in the spectral region. In particular, magnetic permeability can be used as a free parameter for tuning the polaritonic resonances. The peculiar form of adiabatic compression is instead dictated by both the source and the metal permittivity. The analysis is performed by starting from a simple electrostatic system to end with the complete electromagnetic one through intermediate situations such as the quasi-electrostatic and quasi-dynamic regimes. Each configuration is defined by a particular set of equations which allows to clearly determine the individual role played by the electric and magnetic contribution in the generation of adiabatic compression. We notice that these findings can be applied for the realization of a THz nano-metric generator. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  13. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid $\\delta P_{nad}$, another is for a general matter field $\\delta P_{c,nad}$, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if $c_s^2=c_w^2$ where $c_s$ is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while $c_w^2=\\dot P/\\dot\\rho$. Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, $\\delta P_{c,nad}=0$, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing $A_c$ and $\\delta P_{nad}$ valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as $c_s\

  14. Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

    Xiong, Xiao; Zou, Chang-Ling; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2013-07-15

    We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a Λ-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 μm length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs. PMID:23938558

  15. Adiabatic fluctuations from cosmic strings in a contracting universe

    We show that adiabatic, super-Hubble, and almost scale invariant density fluctuations are produced by cosmic strings in a contracting universe. An essential point is that isocurvature perturbations produced by topological defects such as cosmic strings on super-Hubble scales lead to a source term which seeds the growth of curvature fluctuations on these scales. Once the symmetry has been restored at high temperatures, the isocurvature seeds disappear, and the fluctuations evolve as adiabatic ones in the expanding phase. Thus, cosmic strings may be resurrected as a mechanism for generating the primordial density fluctuations observed today

  16. Non-adiabatic pumping through interacting quantum dots

    Cavaliere, Fabio; Governale, Michele; König, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    We study non-adiabatic two-parameter charge and spin pumping through a single-level quantum dot with Coulomb interaction. For the limit of weak tunnel coupling and in the regime of pumping frequencies up to the tunneling rates, $\\Omega \\lesssim \\Gamma/\\hbar$, we perform an exact resummation of contributions of all orders in the pumping frequency. As striking non-adiabatic signatures, we find frequency-dependent phase shifts in the charge and spin currents, which allow for an effective single-...

  17. Adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses

    As a first step towards the adiabatic theory of ionization of atoms by intense laser pulses, here we consider the simplest one-dimensional zero-range potential model. The asymptotic solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in the adiabatic regime is obtained and the photoelectron spectrum is calculated. The factorization formula for the photoelectron spectrum in the back-rescattering region, first suggested by Morishita et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 013903 (2008)] on the basis of ab initio calculations, is derived analytically.

  18. Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions

    Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed derivation and numerical tests of a new mixed quantum-classical scheme to deal with non-adiabatic processes. The method is presented as the zero-th order approximation to the exact coupled dynamics of electrons and nuclei offered by the factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function [A. Abedi, N. T. Maitra and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105 (2010)]. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.

  19. Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions

    Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.

  20. Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions

    Agostini, Federica; Abedi, Ali; Gross, E. K. U. [Max-Planck Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)

    2014-12-07

    Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations.

  1. Classical nuclear motion coupled to electronic non-adiabatic transitions

    Based on the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, we have recently proposed a mixed quantum-classical scheme [A. Abedi, F. Agostini, and E. K. U. Gross, Europhys. Lett. 106, 33001 (2014)] to deal with non-adiabatic processes. Here we present a comprehensive description of the formalism, including the full derivation of the equations of motion. Numerical results are presented for a model system for non-adiabatic charge transfer in order to test the performance of the method and to validate the underlying approximations

  2. Nanoscale resolution for fluorescence microscopy via adiabatic passage

    Rubio, Juan Luis; Ahufinger, Verònica; Mompart, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage technique for fluorescence microscopy with nanoscale resolution in the far field. This technique uses a {\\Lambda}-type medium coherently coupled to two laser pulses: the pump, with a node in its spatial profile, and the Stokes. The population of the {\\Lambda} system is adiabatically transferred from one ground state to the other except at the node position, yielding a narrow population peak. This coherent localization allows fluorescence imaging with nanometer lateral resolution. We derive an analytical expression to asses the resolution and perform a comparison with the coherent population trapping and the stimulated-emission-depletion techniques.

  3. Adiabatic and isothermal compressibility in the liquid state

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the adiabatic and isothermal compressibility of liquid alkali metals. Saturated liquid states are discussed, including thermodynamic relations, adiabatic compressibility and isothermal compressibility. Results for the compressibility, and other related quantities, for the saturated liquids: lithium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and sodium, over the temperature range approx.= 300 - 18000 K, are presented. Subcooled liquid states are also examined with respect to its thermodynamic relations, and compressibility results (and other related quantities) for the same elements are given. An assessment of errors and data reliability is briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  4. High beta lasing in micropillar cavities with adiabatic layer design

    Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels; Lorke, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We report on lasing in optically pumped adiabatic micropillar cavities, based on the AlAs/GaAs material system. A detailed study of the threshold pump power and the spontaneous emission β factor in the lasing regime for different diameters dc is presented. We demonstrate a reduction of the thresh...... threshold pump power by over 2 orders of magnitude from dc = 2.25 μm down to 0.95 μm. Lasing with β factors exceeding 0.5 shows that adiabatic micropillars are operating deeply in the cavity quantum electrodynamics regime....

  5. Population transfer of a NaH molecule via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    Zai, Jing-Bo; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Wang, Shuo; Dang, Hai-Ping; Han, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The population transfer of a NaH molecule from the ground state {{X}1}{Σ+} to the target state {{A}1}{Σ+} via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is investigated. The results show that the intensity, delay time and detuning have a significant effect on population transfer. A large population transfer is observed with increased pump and Stokes intensity, especially when the pump and Stokes intensity match. Population transfer also depends on the delay time between the pump laser pulse and the Stokes laser pulse. The detuning of the two pulses influences the population transfer. Efficient population transfer can be realized under the resonant or two-photon resonant condition.

  6. Modeling of sorption enhanced steam methane reforming in an adiabatic fixed bed reactor

    Fernández García, José Ramón; Abanades García, Juan Carlos; Murillo Villuendas, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Sorption enhanced methane reforming (SER), employing a CaO-based solid as a high temperature CO2 sorbent, is generally considered to be a promising route for H2 production. In this paper we present a dynamic pseudo-homogeneous model to describe the operation of a packed bed reactor in which the SER reaction is carried out under adiabatic conditions. This reactor can be implemented according to several process schemes, including a novel Ca/Cu looping process for hydrogen generation with inhere...

  7. One-step generation of qutrit entanglement via adiabatic passage in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Ma Song-She; Chen Mei-Feng; Jiang Xia-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating a three-dimensional entangled state for two atoms trapped in a cavity by one step via adiabatic passage.In the scheme,the two atoms are always in ground states and the field mode of the cavity excited is negligible under a certain condition.Therefore,the scheme is very robust against decoherence.Furthermore,it needs neither the exact control of all parameters nor the accurate control of the interaction time.It is shown that qutrit entanglement can be generated with a high fidelity.

  8. Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron transfer in solutions: A self-consistent approach beyond the Condon approximation

    Calculational schemes enabling to go beyond crude Condon approximation in non-adiabatic electron transfer reactions are discussed with the use of continuum approximation for the solvent polarization. An algorithm for the self-consistent introduction of an effective reaction coordinate in the adiabatic transition is suggested. Effects due to deviations from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in bridge-assisted electron transfer reactions are discussed. Interpolation formulae covering limits of coherent and sequential electron transfer in bridge-assisted processes are presented. Simple equations determining a parametric dependence of the transition probability on the reaction free energy in crude Condon approximation are included. (author)

  9. On Models of Nonlinear Evolution Paths in Adiabatic Quantum Algorithms

    In this paper, we study two different nonlinear interpolating paths in adiabatic evolution algorithms for solving a particular class of quantum search problems where both the initial and final Hamiltonian are one-dimensional projector Hamiltonians on the corresponding ground state. If the overlap between the initial state and final state of the quantum system is not equal to zero, both of these models can provide a constant time speedup over the usual adiabatic algorithms by increasing some another corresponding “complexity. But when the initial state has a zero overlap with the solution state in the problem, the second model leads to an infinite time complexity of the algorithm for whatever interpolating functions being applied while the first one can still provide a constant running time. However, inspired by a related reference, a variant of the first model can be constructed which also fails for the problem when the overlap is exactly equal to zero if we want to make up the 'intrinsic' fault of the second model — an increase in energy. Two concrete theorems are given to serve as explanations why neither of these two models can improve the usual adiabatic evolution algorithms for the phenomenon above. These just tell us what should be noted when using certain nonlinear evolution paths in adiabatic quantum algorithms for some special kind of problems. (general)

  10. Scalings for a traveling mirror adiabatic magnetic compressor

    Bellan, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed practical scaling relations for a traveling mirror adiabatic magnetic compressor are derived, and an example is given of how this technique could be used to translate, compress, and heat the Los Alamos FRX-C reversed field theta pinch plasma.

  11. Adiabatic waves along interfacial layers near the critical point

    Gouin, Henri

    2008-01-01

    Near the critical point, isothermal interfacial zones are investigated starting from a non-local density of energy. From the equations of motion of thermocapillary fluids, we point out a new kind of adiabatic waves propagating along the interfacial layers. The waves are associated with the second derivatives of densities and propagate with a celerity depending on the proximity of the critical point.

  12. When an Adiabatic Irreversible Expansion or Compression Becomes Reversible

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Ferreira, J. M.; Soares, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a "reversible process" and "entropy". For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure P[subscript i] to a final pressure P[subscript f], by being placed in…

  13. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit.

    Barends, R; Shabani, A; Lamata, L; Kelly, J; Mezzacapo, A; Las Heras, U; Babbush, R; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Jeffrey, E; Lucero, E; Megrant, A; Mutus, J Y; Neeley, M; Neill, C; O'Malley, P J J; Quintana, C; Roushan, P; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Solano, E; Neven, H; Martinis, John M

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable. PMID:27279216

  14. Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology

    Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations in...

  15. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit

    Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Lamata, L.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Heras, U. Las; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O’Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum mechanics can help to solve complex problems in physics and chemistry, provided they can be programmed in a physical device. In adiabatic quantum computing, a system is slowly evolved from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to a final Hamiltonian that encodes a computational problem. The appeal of this approach lies in the combination of simplicity and generality; in principle, any problem can be encoded. In practice, applications are restricted by limited connectivity, available interactions and noise. A complementary approach is digital quantum computing, which enables the construction of arbitrary interactions and is compatible with error correction, but uses quantum circuit algorithms that are problem-specific. Here we combine the advantages of both approaches by implementing digitized adiabatic quantum computing in a superconducting system. We tomographically probe the system during the digitized evolution and explore the scaling of errors with system size. We then let the full system find the solution to random instances of the one-dimensional Ising problem as well as problem Hamiltonians that involve more complex interactions. This digital quantum simulation of the adiabatic algorithm consists of up to nine qubits and up to 1,000 quantum logic gates. The demonstration of digitized adiabatic quantum computing in the solid state opens a path to synthesizing long-range correlations and solving complex computational problems. When combined with fault-tolerance, our approach becomes a general-purpose algorithm that is scalable.

  16. Adiabatic single scan two-dimensional NMR spectrocopy.

    Pelupessy, Philippe

    2003-10-01

    New excitation schemes, based on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2002, 99, 15 858-15 862) are introduced. The advantages are discussed. Applications in homo- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. PMID:14519020

  17. A Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm for Factorization and Its Experimental Implementation

    Peng, Xinhua; Liao, Zeyang; Xu, Nanyang; Qin, Gan; Zhou, Xianyi; Suter, Dieter; Du, Jiangfeng

    2008-01-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm capable of factorizing numbers, using fewer qubits than Shor's algorithm. We implement the algorithm in an NMR quantum information processor and experimentally factorize the number 21. Numerical simulations indicate that the running time grows only quadratically with the number of qubits.

  18. Adiabatic and diabatic aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch

    Lugauer, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Furger, M.; Jost, D.T.; Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Synoptic scale vertical motion, here detected by the geopotential height of the 500 hPa surface, mainly accounts for the aerosol transport to the Jungfraujoch in winter. In summer, diabatic convection provides the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Nevertheless, synoptic scale adiabatic motion still determines whether diabatic convection can develop. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  19. Dark Energy and Dark Matter from an additional adiabatic fluid

    Dunsby, Peter K S; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent $\\gamma$ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general $\\gamma$ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with $\\gamma = $ constant in a FLRW universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like non-relativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both Dark Energy and Dark Matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The $\\Lambda$CDM model is included in this family of theories when $\\gamma = 0$. We fit our model to SNIa, $H(z)$ and BAO data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early-universe and the growth of small per...

  20. On the hydrogen-air adiabatic isochoric complete combustion pressure

    A simple and fast method for calculating the AICC state (adiabatic Isochoric Complete Combustion) for the hydrogen-air reaction is presented. By comparison with more detailed algorithms it is shown that the proposed method produces satisfactory results, and is thus a viable alternative in situations where the use of detailed algorithms or of tables is too time-consuming. (orig.)

  1. New empirical correlations for sizing adiabatic capillary tubes in refrigeration systems

    Shodiya, S.; Aahar, A. A.; Henry, N.; Darus, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents new empirical correlations that have been developed for sizing adiabatic capillary tubes used in small vapor compression refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. A numerical model which is based on the basic equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy was developed. Colebrook's formulation was used to determine the single phase friction factor. The two-phase viscosity models - Cicchitti et al., Dukler et al. and McAdam et al. were used based on the recommendation from literature to determine the two-phase viscosity factor. The developed numerical model was validated using the experimental data from literature. The numerical model was used to study the effects of relevant parameters on capillary tube length and the results showed that the length of capillary tube increase with increase in condensing temperature, subcooling, and inner diameter of tube but decrease with increase in surface roughness and mass flow rate. Thereafter, empirical correlation of the capillary tube length with the five dependent variables was presented. The empirical models are validated using experimental data from literature. Different from the previous studies, the empirical models have a large set of refrigerants and wide operating conditions. The developed correlation can be used as an effective tool for sizing adiabatic capillary tube with system models working with alternative refrigerants.

  2. Thermodynamic performance analysis of gas-fired air-cooled adiabatic absorption refrigeration systems

    In China, the application of small size gas-fired air-cooled absorption refrigeration systems as an alternative for electric compression air conditioning systems has shown broad prospects due to occurrence of electricity peak demand in Chinese big cities and lack of water resources. However, for conventional air-cooled absorption refrigeration systems, it is difficult to enhance the heat and mass transfer process in the falling film absorber, and may cause problems, for example, remarkable increase of pressure, temperature and concentration in the generators, risk of crystallization, acceleration of corrosion, degradation of performance, and so on. This paper presents a gas-fired air-cooled adiabatic absorption refrigeration system using lithium bromide-water solutions as its working fluid, which is designed with a cooling capacity of 16 kW under standard conditions. The system has two new features of waste heat recovery of condensed water from generator and an adiabatic absorber with an air cooler. Performance simulation and characteristic analysis are crucial for the optimal control and reliability of operation in extremely hot climates. A methodology is presented to simulate thermodynamic performance of the system. The influences of outdoor air temperature on operation performances of the system are investigated

  3. Irreversible adiabatic decoherence of dipole-interacting nuclear-spin pairs coupled with a phonon bath

    Domínguez, F. D.; González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    We study the quantum adiabatic decoherence of a multispin array, coupled with an environment of harmonic phonons, in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. We follow the basic formal guidelines of the well-known spin-boson model, since in this framework it is possible to derive the time dependence of the reduced density matrix in the adiabatic time scale, without resorting to coarse-graining procedures. However, instead of considering a set of uncoupled spins interacting individually with the boson field, the observed system in our model is a network of weakly interacting spin pairs; the bath corresponds to lattice phonons, and the system-environment interaction is generated by the variation of the dipole-dipole energy due to correlated shifts of the spin positions, produced by the phonons. We discuss the conditions that the model must meet in order to fit within the adiabatic regime. By identifying the coupling of the dipole-dipole spin interaction with the low-frequency acoustic modes as the source of decoherence, we calculate the decoherence function of the reduced spin density matrix in closed way, and estimate the decoherence rate of a typical element of the reduced density matrix in one- and three-dimensional models of the spin array. Using realistic values for the various parameters of the model we conclude that the dipole-phonon mechanism can be particularly efficient to degrade multispin coherences, when the number of active spins involved in a given coherence is high. The model provides insight into the microscopic irreversible spin dynamics involved in the buildup of quasiequilibrium states and in the coherence leakage during refocusing experiments in nuclear magnetic resonance of crystalline solids.

  4. Adiabatic models of the cosmological radiative era

    Sussman, R A; Sussman, Roberto A.; Ishak, Mustapha

    2001-01-01

    We consider a generalization of the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) solutions by keeping the LTB metric but replacing its dust matter source by an imperfect fluid with anisotropic pressure $\\Pi_{ab} $. Assuming that total matter-energy density $\\rho$ is the sum of a rest mass term, $\\rhom$, plus a radiation $\\rhor=3p$ density where $p$ is the isotropic pressure, Einstein's equations are fully integrated without having to place any previous assumption on the form of $\\Pi_{ab} $. Three particular cases of interest are contained: the usual LTB dust solutions (the dust limit), a class of FLRW cosmologies (the homogeneous limit) and of the Vaydia solution (the vacuum limit). Initial conditions are provided in terms of suitable averages and contrast functions of the initial densities of $\\rhom, \\rhor$ and the 3-dimensional Ricci scalar along an arbitrary initial surface $t=t_i$. We consider the source of the models as an interactive radiation-matter mixture in local thermal equilibrium that must be consistent with caus...

  5. Non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in optical cavities

    Kowalewski, Markus, E-mail: mkowalew@uci.edu; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    Strong coupling of molecules to the vacuum field of micro cavities can modify the potential energy surfaces thereby opening new photophysical and photochemical reaction pathways. While the influence of laser fields is usually described in terms of classical field, coupling to the vacuum state of a cavity has to be described in terms of dressed photon-matter states (polaritons) which require quantized fields. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime suitable for the calculation of the dressed state dynamics. The formalism allows to use quantities readily accessible from quantum chemistry codes like the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and dipole moments to carry out wave packet simulations in the dressed basis. The implications for photochemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules.

  6. Improved Refrigerant Characteristics Flow Predictions in Adiabatic Capillary Tube

    Shodiya Sulaimon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents improved refrigerant characteristics flow predictions using homogenous flow model in adiabatic capillary tube, used in small vapor compression refrigeration system. The model is based on fundamental equations of mass, momentum and energy. In order to improve the flow predictions, the inception of vaporization in the capillary tube is determined by evaluating initial vapor quality using enthalpy equation of refrigerant at saturation point and the inlet entrance effect of the capillary tube is also accounted for. Comparing this model with experimental data from open literature showed a reasonable agreement. Further comparison of this new model with earlier model of Bansal showed that the present model could be use to improve the performance predictions of refrigerant flow in adiabatic capillary tube.

  7. Non-adiabatic theoretical observables in Delta Scuti stars

    Moya, A; Dupret, M A

    2004-01-01

    Phase differences and amplitude ratios at different colour photometric bands are currently being used to discriminate pulsation modes in order to facilitate mode identification of kappa-driven non-radial pulsating stars. In addition to physical inputs (e.g., mass, T_eff, etc.), these quantities depend on the non-adiabatic treatment of the atmosphere. This paper presents theoretical results concerning Delta Scuti pulsating stars. The envelope of each of these stellar structures possesses a convection zone whose development is determined by various factors. An interacting pulsation-atmosphere physical treatment is introduced which supplies two basic non-adiabatic physical quantities: the relative effective temperature variation and the phase lag phi^T, defined as the angle between effective temperature variations and radial displacement. These quantities can be used to derive the phase differences and amplitude ratios. Numerical values for these quantities depend critically on the alpha MLT parameter used to ca...

  8. The adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres

    Northrop, T. G.; Hill, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adiabatic equations of motion are derived for the micrometer-sized dust grains detected in the Jovian and Saturn magnetospheres by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion is extended to the case of variable grain charge. Attention is focused on the innermost and outermost limits to the grain orbit evolution, with all orbits tending to become circular with time. The parameters such as the center equation of motion, the drift velocity, and the parallel equation of motion are obtained for grains in a rotating magnetosphere. Consideration is given to the effects of periodic grain charge-discharge, which are affected by the ambient plasma properties and the grain plasma velocity. The charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency is determined to eliminate the invariance of the magnetic moment and cause the grain to exhibit radial movement. The magnetic moment increases or decreases as a function of the gyrophase of the charge variation.

  9. Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands

    This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids

  10. Stellar oscillations. II The non-adiabatic case

    Samadi, R; Sonoi, T

    2015-01-01

    A leap forward has been performed due to the space-borne missions, MOST, CoRoT and Kepler. They provided a wealth of observational data, and more precisely oscillation spectra, which have been (and are still) exploited to infer the internal structure of stars. While an adiabatic approach is often sufficient to get information on the stellar equilibrium structures it is not sufficient to get a full understanding of the physics of the oscillation. Indeed, it does not permit one to answer some fundamental questions about the oscillations, such as: What are the physical mechanisms responsible for the pulsations inside stars? What determines the amplitudes? To what extent the adiabatic approximation is valid? All these questions can only be addressed by considering the energy exchanges between the oscillations and the surrounding medium. This lecture therefore aims at considering the energetical aspects of stellar pulsations with particular emphasis on the driving and damping mechanisms. To this end, the full non-...

  11. Excitation energies along a range-separated adiabatic connection

    Rebolini, Elisa; Teale, Andrew M; Helgaker, Trygve; Savin, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of total energies and excitationenergies along a range-separated adiabatic connection. This connectionlinks the non-interacting Kohn-Sham electronic system to the physicalinteracting system by progressively switching on theelectron-electron interactions whilst simultaneously adjusting aone-electron effective potential so as to keep the ground-statedensity constant. The interactions are introduced in arange-dependent manner, first introducing predominantly long-range,and then all-range, interactions as the physical system is approached,as opposed to the conventional adiabatic connection where theinteractions are introduced by globally scaling the standard Coulomb interaction.Reference data are reported for the He and Be atoms and the H2molecule, obtained by calculating the short-range effective potentialat the full configuration-interaction level using Lieb'sLegendre-transform approach. As the strength of the electron-electroninteractions increases, the excitation energies, ...

  12. Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands

    Mendoza, I., E-mail: ivanmendozabravo@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Villalobos, D. [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Alexandrov, B.T. [The Ohio State University (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids.

  13. Non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in optical cavities

    Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-01-01

    Strong coupling of molecules to the vacuum field of micro cavities can modify the potential energy surfaces opening new photophysical and photochemical reaction pathways. While the influence of laser fields is usually described in terms of classical field, coupling to the vacuum state of a cavity has to be described in terms of dressed photon-matter states (polaritons) which require quantized fields. We present a derivation of the non-adiabatic couplings for single molecules in the strong coupling regime suitable for the calculation of the dressed state dynamics. The formalism allows to use quantities readily accessible from quantum chemistry codes like the adiabatic potential energy surfaces and dipole moments to carry out wave packet simulations in the dressed basis. The implications for photochemistry are demonstrated for a set of model systems representing typical situations found in molecules.

  14. Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations

    The simplest model of plasma dynamics is the adiabatic model. In this model the plasma is assumed to be in MHD equilibrium at each instant of time. The equilibria are connected by the requirement that they all have the same entropy per unit flux, i.e., the equilibria form a sequence generated by adiabatic changes. The standard way of computing such a sequence of equilibria was developed by Grad, but its practical use requires a fairly complicated code. It would be helpful if approximately the same results could be gotten either with a much simpler code or by analytical techniques. A one-dimensional equilibrium code is described and its results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium. An even simpler analytic calculation is then presented

  15. Adiabatic theorem for the time-dependent wave operator

    The application of time-dependent wave operator theory to the development of a quantum adiabatic perturbation theory is treated both theoretically and numerically, with emphasis on the description of field-matter interactions which involve short laser pulses. It is first shown that the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent wave operator corresponds to a succession of instantaneous static Bloch wave operators. Wave operator theory is then shown to be compatible with the two-time Floquet theory of light-matter interaction, thus allowing the application of Floquet theory to cases which require the use of a degenerate active space. A numerical study of some problems shows that the perturbation strength associated with nonadiabatic processes can be reduced by using multidimensional active spaces and illustrates the capacity of the wave operator approach to produce a quasiadiabatic treatment of a nominally nonadiabatic Floquet dynamical system

  16. Microscopic expression for heat in the adiabatic basis.

    Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2008-11-28

    We derive a microscopic expression for the instantaneous diagonal elements of the density matrix rho(nn)(t) in the adiabatic basis for an arbitrary time-dependent process in a closed Hamiltonian system. If the initial density matrix is stationary (diagonal) then this expression contains only squares of absolute values of matrix elements of the evolution operator, which can be interpreted as transition probabilities. We then derive the microscopic expression for the heat defined as the energy generated due to transitions between instantaneous energy levels. If the initial density matrix is passive [diagonal with rho(nn)(0) monotonically decreasing with energy] then the heat is non-negative in agreement with basic expectations of thermodynamics. Our findings also can be used for systematic expansion of various observables around the adiabatic limit. PMID:19113464

  17. Influence of viscosity and the adiabatic index on planetary migration

    Bitsch, B; Kley, W

    2013-01-01

    The strength and direction of migration of low mass embedded planets depends on the disk's thermodynamic state, where the internal dissipation is balanced by radiative transport, and the migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing embryos. Very important parameters determining the structure of disks, and hence the direction of migration, are the viscosity and the adiabatic index. In this paper we investigate the influence of different viscosity prescriptions (alpha-type and constant) and adiabatic indices on disk structures and how this affects the migration rate of planets embedded in such disks. We perform 3D numerical simulations of accretion disks with embedded planets. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation, as well as a proper equation of state for molecular hydrogen. The migration of embedded 20Earthmass planets is studied. Low-viscosity disks...

  18. DESIGN OF TERNARY COUNTER BASED ON ADIABATIC DOMINO CIRCUIT

    Yang Qiankun; Wang Pengjun; Zheng Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    By researching the ternary counter and low power circuit design method,a novel design of low power ternary Domino counter on switch-level is proposed.Firstly,the switch-level structure expression of ternary loop operation circuit with enable pin is derived according to the switch-signal theory,and the one bit ternary counter is obtained combining the ternary adiabatic Domino literal operation circuit and buffer.Then the switch-level structure expression of enable signal circuit is derived,and the four bits ternary counter is obtained by cascade connection.Finally,the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the output waveforms transform in proper order indicating that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the four bits ternary adiabatic Domino counter is 63% less than the conventional Domino counterpart.

  19. The Adiabatic Piston and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Crosignani, B; Conti, C

    2002-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals peculiar dynamical features that challenge the general belief that isolated systems necessarily reach a static equilibrium state. In particular, the fact that the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never stops but keeps wandering, undergoing sizable oscillations, around the position corresponding to maximum entropy, has remarkable implications on the entropy variations of the system and on the validity of the second law when dealing with systems of mesoscopic dimensions.

  20. Single-parameter adiabatic charge pumping in carbon nanotube resonators

    Perroni, C. A.; Nocera, A.; Cataudella, V.

    2013-01-01

    Single-parameter adiabatic charge pumping, induced by a nearby radio-frequency antenna, is achieved in suspended carbon nanotubes close to the mechanical resonance. The charge pumping is due to an important dynamic adjustment of the oscillating motion to the antenna signal and it is different from the mechanism active in the two-parameter pumping. Finally, the second harmonic oscillator response shows an interesting relationship with the first harmonic that should be experimentally observed.

  1. Quantum pumping with adiabatically modulated barriers in graphene

    Zhu, Rui; Chen, Huiming

    2009-01-01

    We study the adiabatic quantum pumping characteristics in the graphene modulated by two oscillating gate potentials out of phase. The angular and energy dependence of the pumped current is presented. The direction of the pumped current can be reversed when a high barrier demonstrates stronger transparency than a low one, which results from the Klein paradox. The underlying physics of the pumping process is illuminated.

  2. Geometry of adiabatic Hamiltonians for two-level quantum systems

    We present the formulation of the problem of the coherent dynamics of quantum mechanical two-level systems in the adiabatic region in terms of the differential geometry of plane curves. We show that there is a natural plane curve corresponding to the Hamiltonian of the system for which the geometrical quantities have a simple physical interpretation. In particular, the curvature of the curve has the role of the nonadiabatic coupling. (paper)

  3. High-Fidelity Entangled Bell States via Shortcuts to Adiabaticity

    Paul, Koushik

    2016-01-01

    We present a couple of protocols based on shortcut to adiabaticity techniques for rapid generation of robust entangled Bell states in a system of two two-state systems. Our protocols rely on the so-called transitionless quantum driving (TQD) algorithm and Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (LRI) method. Both TQD and LRI methods result in high fidelity in population transfer.Our study shows that it is possible to prepare an entangled state in infinitely short time without losing robustness and efficiency.

  4. Adiabaticity and gravity theory independent conservation laws for cosmological perturbations

    Romano, Antonio Enea; Mooij, Sander; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-04-01

    We carefully study the implications of adiabaticity for the behavior of cosmological perturbations. There are essentially three similar but different definitions of non-adiabaticity: one is appropriate for a thermodynamic fluid δPnad, another is for a general matter field δPc,nad, and the last one is valid only on superhorizon scales. The first two definitions coincide if cs2 = cw2 where cs is the propagation speed of the perturbation, while cw2 = P ˙ / ρ ˙ . Assuming the adiabaticity in the general sense, δPc,nad = 0, we derive a relation between the lapse function in the comoving slicing Ac and δPnad valid for arbitrary matter field in any theory of gravity, by using only momentum conservation. The relation implies that as long as cs ≠cw, the uniform density, comoving and the proper-time slicings coincide approximately for any gravity theory and for any matter field if δPnad = 0 approximately. In the case of general relativity this gives the equivalence between the comoving curvature perturbation Rc and the uniform density curvature perturbation ζ on superhorizon scales, and their conservation. This is realized on superhorizon scales in standard slow-roll inflation. We then consider an example in which cw =cs, where δPnad = δPc,nad = 0 exactly, but the equivalence between Rc and ζ no longer holds. Namely we consider the so-called ultra slow-roll inflation. In this case both Rc and ζ are not conserved. In particular, as for ζ, we find that it is crucial to take into account the next-to-leading order term in ζ's spatial gradient expansion to show its non-conservation, even on superhorizon scales. This is an example of the fact that adiabaticity (in the thermodynamic sense) is not always enough to ensure the conservation of Rc or ζ.

  5. Adiabatic Hyperspherical Approach to the Problems of Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    The adiabatic hyperspherical approach (AHSA) is applied for the numerical investigation of the scattering processes and resonances in Coulomb three-body mesic atomic systems. The results of the calculations of elastic and inelastic cross sections in low-energy collisions aμ + b (a, b = p, d, t), energies, lifetimes and local characteristics of resonant states of mesic molecular ions nHeaμ+ (n = 3, 4) are presented.

  6. Linear response of galactic halos to adiabatic gravitational perturbations

    Murali, Chigurupati; Tremaine, Scott

    1997-01-01

    We determine the response of a self-similar isothermal stellar system to small adiabatic gravitational perturbations. For odd spherical harmonics, the response is identical to the response of the analogous isothermal fluid system. For even spherical harmonics, the response can be regarded as an infinite series of wavetrains in $\\log r$, implying alternating compression and rarefaction in equal logarithmic radius intervals. Partly because of the oscillatory nature of the solutions, tidal field...

  7. Highly stripped ions on hydrogen atoms: the adiabatic approach

    The simple Lorentzian form for the adiabatic radial matrix elements which dominate low-energy charge transfer in highly stripped systems is exploited to derive the S matrix for the Asub(Z)sup(Z+) + H(1s) → Asub(Z)sup(Z-1)+ + H+ scattering process. The approximations used are discussed and the results of the theory are compared with measured He2+ + H(1s) → He+ + H+ cross sections. Agreement is satisfactory for low velocities. (author)

  8. The Adiabatic Piston and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Crosignani, B.; Di Porto, P.; de Conti, C.

    2002-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the adiabatic-piston problem reveals peculiar dynamical features that challenge the general belief that isolated systems necessarily reach a static equilibrium state. In particular, the fact that the piston behaves like a perpetuum mobile, i.e., it never stops but keeps wandering, undergoing sizable oscillations, around the position corresponding to maximum entropy, has remarkable implications on the entropy variations of the system and on the validity of the second law...

  9. NMR implementation of adiabatic SAT algorithm using strongly modulated pulses.

    Mitra, Avik; Mahesh, T S; Kumar, Anil

    2008-03-28

    NMR implementation of adiabatic algorithms face severe problems in homonuclear spin systems since the qubit selective pulses are long and during this period, evolution under the Hamiltonian and decoherence cause errors. The decoherence destroys the answer as it causes the final state to evolve to mixed state and in homonuclear systems, evolution under the internal Hamiltonian causes phase errors preventing the initial state to converge to the solution state. The resolution of these issues is necessary before one can proceed to implement an adiabatic algorithm in a large system where homonuclear coupled spins will become a necessity. In the present work, we demonstrate that by using "strongly modulated pulses" (SMPs) for the creation of interpolating Hamiltonian, one can circumvent both the problems and successfully implement the adiabatic SAT algorithm in a homonuclear three qubit system. This work also demonstrates that the SMPs tremendously reduce the time taken for the implementation of the algorithm, can overcome problems associated with decoherence, and will be the modality in future implementation of quantum information processing by NMR. PMID:18376911

  10. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo

    Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In most cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems

  11. Non-adiabatic energy dissipation in metal homoepitaxy

    Hagemann, Ulrich; Huba, Kornelia; Krix, David; Nienhaus, Hermann [Experimental Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The growth of metal films releases energies of typically a few eV per metal atom. By now, the energy is believed to be dissipated adiabatically by direct excitation of phonons. We present data which give strong evidence for the creation of electron-hole pairs during Mg homoepitaxy, i.e., for a non-adiabatic dissipation channel. To detect the generated hot charge carriers, large-area ultrathin metal film Mg/p-Si(001) Schottky diodes were fabricated. The homogeneous Schottky barrier height was determined as 0.52 eV and the reverse current could be reduced to below 1 nA at low temperatures. During exposure of the diodes to a thermal Mg atom beam internal currents in the 100 pA range are observed. The currents can be attributed to two mechanisms: first the internal exoemission process (chemicurrent effect) due to non-adiabatic energy dissipation and second the photocurrent due to the infrared radiation of the evaporator. By varying the evaporator temperature and the Mg film thickness the two current contributions can be distinguished. The chemicurrent during Mg homoepitaxy depends exponentially on the evaporation temperature yielding the Mg evaporation enthalpy of 1.3 eV. The strong exponential attenuation of the chemicurrent with increasing Mg film thickness further supports the concept of generation of ballistic charge carriers by the metal formation process.

  12. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics by accelerated semiclassical Monte Carlo

    Non-adiabatic dynamics, where systems non-radiatively transition between electronic states, plays a crucial role in many photo-physical processes, such as fluorescence, phosphorescence, and photoisomerization. Methods for the simulation of non-adiabatic dynamics are typically either numerically impractical, highly complex, or based on approximations which can result in failure for even simple systems. Recently, the Semiclassical Monte Carlo (SCMC) approach was developed in an attempt to combine the accuracy of rigorous semiclassical methods with the efficiency and simplicity of widely used surface hopping methods. However, while SCMC was found to be more efficient than other semiclassical methods, it is not yet as efficient as is needed to be used for large molecular systems. Here, we have developed two new methods: the accelerated-SCMC and the accelerated-SCMC with re-Gaussianization, which reduce the cost of the SCMC algorithm up to two orders of magnitude for certain systems. In many cases shown here, the new procedures are nearly as efficient as the commonly used surface hopping schemes, with little to no loss of accuracy. This implies that these modified SCMC algorithms will be of practical numerical solutions for simulating non-adiabatic dynamics in realistic molecular systems

  13. Analysis of adiabatic transfer in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Joyee Ghosh; R Ghosh; Deepak Kumar

    2011-10-01

    A three-level atom in a configuration trapped in an optical cavity forms a basic unit in a number of proposed protocols for quantum information processing. This system allows for efficient storage of cavity photons into long-lived atomic excitations, and their retrieval with high fidelity, in an adiabatic transfer process through the ‘dark state’ by a slow variation of the control laser intensity. We study the full quantum mechanics of this transfer process with a view to examine the non-adiabatic effects arising from inevitable excitations of the system to states involving the upper level of , which is radiative. We find that the fidelity of storage is better, the stronger the control field and the slower the rate of its switching off. On the contrary, unlike the adiabatic notion, retrieval is better with faster rates of switching on of an optimal control field. Also, for retrieval, the behaviour with dissipation is non-monotonic. These results lend themselves to experimental tests. Our exact computations, when applied to slow variations of the control intensity for strong atom–photon couplings, are in very good agreement with Berry’s superadiabatic transfer results without dissipation.

  14. Irreconcilable difference between quantum walks and adiabatic quantum computing

    Wong, Thomas G.; Meyer, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Continuous-time quantum walks and adiabatic quantum evolution are two general techniques for quantum computing, both of which are described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolutions by Schrödinger's equation. In the former, the Hamiltonian is fixed, while in the latter, the Hamiltonian varies with time. As a result, their formulations of Grover's algorithm evolve differently through Hilbert space. We show that this difference is fundamental; they cannot be made to evolve along each other's path without introducing structure more powerful than the standard oracle for unstructured search. For an adiabatic quantum evolution to evolve like the quantum walk search algorithm, it must interpolate between three fixed Hamiltonians, one of which is complex and introduces structure that is stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Conversely, for a quantum walk to evolve along the path of the adiabatic search algorithm, it must be a chiral quantum walk on a weighted, directed star graph with structure that is also stronger than the oracle for unstructured search. Thus, the two techniques, although similar in being described by Hamiltonians that govern their evolution, compute by fundamentally irreconcilable means.

  15. Stabilization of high-compression, indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and poor fuel compression are major factors for capsule performance degradation in ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility. Using a recently developed laser drive profile with a decaying first shock to tune the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (ARM) instability and subsequent in-flight Rayleigh-Taylor growth, we have demonstrated reduced growth compared to the standard ignition pulse whilst maintaining conditions for a low fuel adiabat needed for increased compression. Using in-flight x-ray radiography of pre-machined modulations, the first growth measurements using this new ARM-tuned drive have demonstrated instability growth reduction of ∼4× compared to the original design at a convergence ratio of ∼2. Corresponding simulations give a fuel adiabat of ∼1.6, similar to the original goal and consistent with ignition requirements

  16. Stabilization of high-compression, indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    MacPhee, A. G.; Peterson, J. L.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and poor fuel compression are major factors for capsule performance degradation in ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility. Using a recently developed laser drive profile with a decaying first shock to tune the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (ARM) instability and subsequent in-flight Rayleigh-Taylor growth, we have demonstrated reduced growth compared to the standard ignition pulse whilst maintaining conditions for a low fuel adiabat needed for increased compression. Using in-flight x-ray radiography of pre-machined modulations, the first growth measurements using this new ARM-tuned drive have demonstrated instability growth reduction of ∼4× compared to the original design at a convergence ratio of ∼2. Corresponding simulations give a fuel adiabat of ∼1.6, similar to the original goal and consistent with ignition requirements.

  17. Stabilization of high-compression, indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions using a 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive

    MacPhee, A. G.; Peterson, J. L.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Landen, O. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities and poor fuel compression are major factors for capsule performance degradation in ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility. Using a recently developed laser drive profile with a decaying first shock to tune the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (ARM) instability and subsequent in-flight Rayleigh-Taylor growth, we have demonstrated reduced growth compared to the standard ignition pulse whilst maintaining conditions for a low fuel adiabat needed for increased compression. Using in-flight x-ray radiography of pre-machined modulations, the first growth measurements using this new ARM-tuned drive have demonstrated instability growth reduction of ˜4× compared to the original design at a convergence ratio of ˜2. Corresponding simulations give a fuel adiabat of ˜1.6, similar to the original goal and consistent with ignition requirements.

  18. Piezoelectric control of the mobility of a domain wall driven by adiabatic and non-adiabatic torques

    de Ranieri, E.; Roy, P. E.; Fang, D.; Vehsthedt, E. K.; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Casiraghi, A.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2013-09-01

    The rich internal degrees of freedom of magnetic domain walls make them an attractive complement to electron charge for exploring new concepts of storage, transport and processing of information. Here we use the tunable internal structure of a domain wall in a perpendicularly magnetized GaMnAsP/GaAs ferromagnetic semiconductor and demonstrate devices in which piezoelectrically controlled magnetic anisotropy yields up to 500% mobility variations for an electrical-current-driven domain wall. We observe current-induced domain wall motion over a wide range of current-pulse amplitudes and report a direct observation and the piezoelectric control of the Walker breakdown separating two regimes with different mobilities. Our work demonstrates that in spin-orbit-coupled ferromagnets with weak extrinsic domain wall pinning, the piezoelectric control allows one to experimentally assess the upper and lower boundaries of the characteristic ratio of adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin-transfer torques in the current-driven domain wall motion.

  19. Astrophysical fluid simulations of thermally ideal gases with non-constant adiabatic index: numerical implementation

    Vaidya, B; Bodo, G; Massaglia, S

    2015-01-01

    An Equation of State (\\textit{EoS}) closes the set of fluid equations. Although an ideal EoS with a constant \\textit{adiabatic index} $\\Gamma$ is the preferred choice due to its simplistic implementation, many astrophysical fluid simulations may benefit from a more sophisticated treatment that can account for diverse chemical processes. Here, we first review the basic thermodynamic principles of a gas mixture in terms of its thermal and caloric EoS by including effects like ionization, dissociation as well as temperature dependent degrees of freedom such as molecular vibrations and rotations. The formulation is revisited in the context of plasmas that are either in equilibrium conditions (local thermodynamic- or collisional excitation- equilibria) or described by non-equilibrium chemistry coupled to optically thin radiative cooling. We then present a numerical implementation of thermally ideal gases obeying a more general caloric EoS with non-constant adiabatic index in Godunov-type numerical schemes.We discu...

  20. Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene

    Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-06

    Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

  1. On the adiabatic walking of plasma waves in a pulsar magnetosphere

    The pulsar radio emission is generated in the near magnetosphere of the neutron star, and it must propagate through the rest of it to emerge into the interstellar medium. An important issue is whether this propagation affects the planes of polarization of the generated radiation. Observationally, there is sufficient evidence that the emerging radiation is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field line planes that should be associated with the ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) plasma modes, respectively, excited by some radiative process. This strongly suggests that the excited X and O modes are not affected by the so-called adiabatic walking that causes a slow rotation of polarization vectors. In this paper, we demonstrate that the conditions for adiabatic walking are not fulfilled within the soliton model of pulsar radio emission, in which the coherent curvature radiation occurs at frequencies much lower than the characteristic plasma frequency, The X mode propagates freely and observationally represents the primary polarization mode. The O mode has difficulty escaping from the pulsar plasma; however, it is sporadically observed as a weaker secondary polarization mode. We discuss a possible scenario under which the O mode can also escape from the plasma and reach an observer.

  2. On the adiabatic walking of plasma waves in a pulsar magnetosphere

    Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz [Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Gora, Lubuska 2, 65-265 Zielona Góra (Poland); Mitra, Dipanjan, E-mail: gogi@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl, E-mail: jag@astro.ia.uz.zgora.pl, E-mail: dmitra@ncra.tifr.res.in [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-10-20

    The pulsar radio emission is generated in the near magnetosphere of the neutron star, and it must propagate through the rest of it to emerge into the interstellar medium. An important issue is whether this propagation affects the planes of polarization of the generated radiation. Observationally, there is sufficient evidence that the emerging radiation is polarized parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field line planes that should be associated with the ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) plasma modes, respectively, excited by some radiative process. This strongly suggests that the excited X and O modes are not affected by the so-called adiabatic walking that causes a slow rotation of polarization vectors. In this paper, we demonstrate that the conditions for adiabatic walking are not fulfilled within the soliton model of pulsar radio emission, in which the coherent curvature radiation occurs at frequencies much lower than the characteristic plasma frequency, The X mode propagates freely and observationally represents the primary polarization mode. The O mode has difficulty escaping from the pulsar plasma; however, it is sporadically observed as a weaker secondary polarization mode. We discuss a possible scenario under which the O mode can also escape from the plasma and reach an observer.

  3. Second Law Analysis of Adiabatic and Non-Adiabatic Pipeline Flows of Unstable and Surfactant-Stabilized Emulsions

    Rajinder Pal

    2016-01-01

    Entropy generation, and hence exergy destruction, in adiabatic flow of unstable and surfactant-stabilized emulsions was investigated experimentally in different diameter pipes. Four types of emulsion systems are investigated covering a broad range of the dispersed-phase concentration: (a) unstable oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions without surfactant; (b) surfactant-stabilized O/W emulsions; (c) unstable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions without surfactant; and (d) surfactant-stabilized W/O emulsions. T...

  4. Influence of viscosity and the adiabatic index on planetary migration

    Bitsch, B.; Boley, A.; Kley, W.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The strength and direction of migration of low mass embedded planets depends on the disk's thermodynamic state. It has been shown that in active disks, where the internal dissipation is balanced by radiative transport, migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing embryos. Very important parameters determining the structure of disks, and hence the direction of migration, are the viscosity and the adiabatic index. Aims: In this paper we investigate the influence of different viscosity prescriptions (α-type and constant) and adiabatic indices on disk structures. We then determine how this affects the migration rate of planets embedded in such disks. Methods: We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of accretion disks with embedded planets. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation, as well as a proper equation of state for molecular hydrogen. The migration of embedded 20 MEarth planets is studied. Results: Low-viscosity disks have cooler temperatures and the migration rates of embedded planets tend toward the isothermal limit. Hence, in these disks, planets migrate inwards even in the fully radiative case. The effect of outward migration can only be sustained if the viscosity in the disk is large. Overall, the differences between the treatments for the equation of state seem to play a more important role in disks with higher viscosity. A change in the adiabatic index and in the viscosity changes the zero-torque radius that separates inward from outward migration. Conclusions: For larger viscosities, temperatures in the disk become higher and the zero-torque radius moves to larger radii, allowing outward migration of a 20-MEarth planet to persist over an extended radial range. In combination with large disk masses, this may allow for an extended period of the outward migration of growing

  5. Applications of Adiabatic Approximation to One- and Two-electron Phenomena in Strong Laser Fields

    Bondar, Denys

    2010-01-01

    The adiabatic approximation is a natural approach for the description of phenomena induced by low frequency laser radiation because the ratio of the laser frequency to the characteristic frequency of an atom or a molecule is a small parameter. Since the main aim of this work is the study of ionization phenomena, the version of the adiabatic approximation that can account for the transition from a bound state to the continuum must be employed. Despite much work in this topic, a universally accepted adiabatic approach of bound-free transitions is lacking. Hence, based on Savichev's modified adiabatic approximation [Sov. Phys. JETP 73, 803 (1991)], we first of all derive the most convenient form of the adiabatic approximation for the problems at hand. Connections of the obtained result with the quasiclassical approximation and other previous investigations are discussed. Then, such an adiabatic approximation is applied to single-electron ionization and non-sequential double ionization of atoms in a strong low fr...

  6. Shortcuts to Adiabaticity by Counterdiabatic Driving in Trapped-ion Transport

    An, Shuoming; del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-01-01

    Adiabatic dynamics plays an essential role in quantum technologies. By driving a quantum system slowly, the quantum evolution can be engineered with suppressed excitation. Yet, environmentally-induced decoherence limits the implementation of adiabatic protocols. Shortcuts to adiabaticity (STA) have the potential to revolutionize quantum technologies by speeding up the time evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. These nonadiabatic protocols can be engineered by means an auxiliary control field is used to tailor excitations. Here we present the first experimental realization of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, implementing a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion, in which nonadiabatic transitions are suppressed during all stages of the process. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a "fast-motion video" of the adiabatic trajectory. We experimentally demonstrate the enhanced robustness of the protocol with respect to alternative approaches based on classical local ...

  7. Nonlinear effects generation in non-adiabatically tapered fibres

    Palací, Jesús; Mas, Sara; Monzón-Hernández, David; Martí, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear effects are observed in a non-adiabatically tapered optical fibre. The designed structure allows for the introduction of self-phase modulation, which is observed through pulse breaking and spectral broadening, in approximately a centimetre of propagation using a commercial telecom laser. These devices are simple to fabricate and suitable to generate and control a variety of nonlinear effects in practical applications because they do not experience short-term degradation as previously reported approaches. Experimental and theoretical results are obtained, showing a good agreement.

  8. Non-adiabatic study of the Kepler subgiant KIC 6442183

    Grosjean M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the precision of Kepler observations, [3] were able to measure the linewidth and amplitude of individual modes (including mixed modes in several subgiant power spectra. We perform a forward modelling of a Kepler subgiant based on surface properties and observed frequencies. Non-adiabatic computations including a time- dependent treatment of convection give the lifetimes of radial and non-radial modes. Next, combining the lifetimes and inertias with a stochastic excitation model gives the amplitudes of the modes. We can now directly compare theoretical and observed linewidths and amplitudes of mixed-modes to obtain new constraints on our theoretical models.

  9. Landau-Zener Transitions in an Adiabatic Quantum Computer

    Johansson, J; Amin, M. H. S.; Berkley, A. J.; Bunyk, P.; Choi, V.; Harris, R.; Johnson, M. W.; Lanting, T. M.; Lloyd, Seth; ROSE, G

    2008-01-01

    We report an experimental measurement of Landau-Zener transitions on an individual flux qubit within a multi-qubit superconducting chip designed for adiabatic quantum computation. The method used isolates a single qubit, tunes its tunneling amplitude Delta into the limit where Delta is much less than both the temperature T and the decoherence-induced energy level broadening, and forces it to undergo a Landau-Zener transition. We find that the behavior of the qubit agrees to a high degree of a...

  10. Modeling of the Adiabatic and Isothermal Methanation Process

    Porubova, Jekaterina; Bazbauers, Gatis; Markova, Darja

    2011-01-01

    Increased use of biomass offers one of the ways to reduce anthropogenic impact on the environment. Using various biomass conversion processes, it is possible to obtain different types of fuels: • solid, e.g. bio-carbon; • liquid, e.g. biodiesel and ethanol; • gaseous, e.g. biomethane. Biomethane can be used in the transport and energy sector, and the total methane production efficiency can reach 65%. By modeling adiabatic and isothermal methanation processes, the most effective one from the methane production point of view is defined. Influence of the process parameters on the overall efficiency of the methane production is determined.

  11. Adiabatic transport of qubits around a black hole

    Viennot, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider localized qubits evolving around a black hole following a quantum adiabatic dynamics. We develop a geometric structure (based on fibre bundles) permitting to describe the quantum states of a qubit and the spacetime geometry in a single framework. The quantum decoherence induced by the black hole on the qubit is analysed in this framework (the role of the dynamical and geometric phases in this decoherence is treated), especially for the quantum teleportation protocol when one qubit falls to the event horizon. A simple formula to compute the fidelity of the teleportation is derived. The case of a Schwarzschild black hole is analysed.

  12. Numerical studies of optical forces from adiabatic rapid passage

    Stack, Daniel; Elgin, John; Metcalf, Harold [Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Anisimov, Petr M. [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We present a numerical study of the properties of optical forces on moving atoms derived from purely stimulated processes produced by multiple adiabatic rapid-passage sequences. The optical Bloch equations are solved for a carefully timed sequence of frequency-swept pulses that can produce a force much larger than the ordinary radiative force. We describe the effects of the sweep range, peak intensity, sweep direction, number of pulses, atomic velocity, and spontaneous emission. Since the momentum of thermal atoms is much larger than that transferred by a single absorption-stimulated emission cycle, multiple repetitions are needed to make a significant velocity change.

  13. Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum annealing theory and practice

    McGeoch, Catherine C

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'''' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a nov

  14. Adiabatic regularisation of power spectra in nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation

    Alinea, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of adiabatic regularisation on both the tensor- and scalar-perturbation power spectra in \\textit{nonminimally} coupled chaotic inflation. Similar to that of the \\textit{minimally} coupled general single-field inflation, we find that the subtraction term is suppressed by an exponentially decaying factor involving the number of $ e $-folds. By following the subtraction term long enough beyond horizon crossing, the regularised power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum. This study justifies the use of the unregularised ("bare") power spectrum in standard calculations.

  15. On the rotating wave approximation in the adiabatic limit

    I revisit a longstanding question in quantum optics; when is the rotating wave approximation justified? In terms of the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi models I demonstrate that the approximation in general breaks down in the adiabatic limit regardless of system parameters. This is explicitly shown by comparing Berry phases of the two models, where it is found that this geometrical phase is strictly zero in the Rabi model contrary to the non-trivial Berry phase of the Jaynes–Cummings model. The source of this surprising result is traced back to different topologies in the two models. (paper)

  16. Adiabatic collapse and explosion of small mass iron nuclei

    Adiabatic collapse of iron nuclei with 1.5 and 1.7 Msun masses is investigated using the equation of state and electron capture rate in the Fermi-gas approximation, derived at the Illinois University. Reduction of lepton number in the collapse process leads to the fact that under quite different presupernova nucleus parameters the calculated mass of homologie nucleus is only about 1 Msun. Therefore the mass of the above lying layers through which the shock wave should pass, becomes quite high loosing the energy for dissociation, which hampers any sufficient mass and kinetic energy losses. 17 refs.; 8 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Plasma heating via adiabatic magnetic compression-expansion cycle

    Avinash, K.; Sengupta, M.; Ganesh, R.

    2016-06-01

    Heating of collisionless plasmas in closed adiabatic magnetic cycle comprising of a quasi static compression followed by a non quasi static constrained expansion against a constant external pressure is proposed. Thermodynamic constraints are derived to show that the plasma always gains heat in cycles having at least one non quasi static process. The turbulent relaxation of the plasma to the equilibrium state at the end of the non quasi static expansion is discussed and verified via 1D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations. Applications of this scheme to heating plasmas in open configurations (mirror machines) and closed configurations (tokamak, reverse field pinche) are discussed.

  18. Quantum pumping in closed systems, adiabatic transport, and the Kubo formula

    Cohen, Doron

    2003-01-01

    Quantum pumping in closed systems is considered. We explain that the Kubo formula contains all the physically relevant ingredients for the calculation of the pumped charge ($Q$) within the framework of linear response theory. The relation to the common formulations of adiabatic transport and ``geometric magnetism" is clarified. We distinguish between adiabatic and dissipative contributions to $Q$. On the one hand we observe that adiabatic pumping does not have to be quantized. On the other ha...

  19. Adiabatic heavy-ion fusion potentials for fusion at deep sub-barrier energies

    S V S Sastry; S Kailas; A K Mohanty; A Saxena

    2005-01-01

    The recently reported unusual behaviour of fusion cross-sections at extreme sub-barrier energies has been examined. The adiabatic limit of fusion barriers has been determined from experimental data using the barrier penetration model. These adiabatic barriers are consistent with the adiabatic fusion barriers derived from the modified Wilzynska–Wilzynski prescription. The fusion barrier systematics has been obtained for a wide range of heavy-ion systems.

  20. Tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor junctions in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes: Self-consistent calculations

    Wójcik, P.; Zegrodnik, M.; Rzeszotarski, B.; Adamowski, J.

    2016-09-01

    The tunneling conductance through the half-metal/conical magnet/superconductor (HM/CM/SC) junctions is investigated with the use of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the framework of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Due to the spin band separation in the HM, the conductance in the subgap region is mainly determined by the anomalous Andreev reflection, the probability of which strongly depends on the spin transmission in the CM layer. We show that the spins of electrons injected from the HM can be transmitted through the CM to the SC either adiabatically or non-adiabatically depending on the period of the spatial modulation of the exchange field. We find that the conductance in the subgap region oscillates as a function of the CM layer thickness wherein the oscillations transform from the irregular pattern in the non-adiabatic regime to the regular one in the adiabatic regime. For both adiabatic and non-adiabatic transport regimes the conductance is studied over a broad range of parameters determining the spiral magnetization in the CM. We find that in the non-adiabatic regime, the decrease of the exchange field amplitude in the CM leads to the emergence of the conductance peak for the particular CM thickness in agreement with recent experiments.

  1. Fowler-Nordheim emission modified by laser pulses in the adiabatic regime

    Rokhlenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We investigate enhanced field emission due to a continuous or pulsed oscillating field added to a constant electric field $E$ at the emitter surface. When the frequency of oscillation, field strength, and property of the emitter material satisfy the Keldysh condition $\\gamma<1/2$ one can use the adiabatic approximation for treating the oscillating field, i.e. consider the tunneling through the instantaneous Fowler-Nordheim barrier created by both fields. Due to the great sensitivity of the emission to the field strength the average tunneling current can be much larger than the current produced by only the constant field. We carry out the computations for arbitrary strong constant electric fields, beyond the commonly used Fowler-Nordheim approximation which exhibit in particular an important property of the wave function inside the potential barrier where it is found to be monotonically decreasing without oscillations.

  2. Generation of tree-type three-dimensional entangled states via adiabatic passage

    Song, Chong; Su, Shi-Lei; Wu, Jin-Lei; Wang, Dong-Yang; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme for generating a type of novel tree-type three-dimensional entangled state. In the scheme, an atom and two Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are individually trapped in three spatially separated optical cavities which are connected by two optical fibers. Because the system evolves along the dark state via adiabatic passage, the populations of the intermediate excited states of the atom and BECs are so negligible that the influence of atomic spontaneous radiation on the fidelity is restrained. In addition, because of the certain limit condition used, the cavity decay and fiber loss are efficiently suppressed. This novel three-dimensional entangled state is likely to have applications for improving quantum communication security.

  3. Simulation of Quasi-Adiabatic Beam Capture into Acceleration at the Nuclotron

    Volkov, V I; Issinsky, I B; Kovalenko, A D

    2003-01-01

    The routine RF system being used at the Nuclotron allows one to inject the beam at ramping magnetic field with following acceleration at constant amplitude of accelerating voltage. At these conditions at least a half of the particles circulating in the vacuum chamber after injection is not captured in longitudinal acceptance. At the same time vacuum chamber sizes permit to extend the momentum spread of the beam enough to make gymnastic with it inside the stable zone of longitudinal phase space on the flat magnetic field at injection. A quasi-adiabatic capture was considered for increasing the Nuclotron beam intensity. Simulation of such a kind of process with subsequent acceleration was performed. It was shown that in this case it is possible to capture and accelerate up to 100 % of the injected beam.

  4. Adiabatic hyperspherical representation for the three-body problem in two dimensions

    D'Incao, J. P.; Esry, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    We explore the three-body problem in two dimensions using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation. We develop the main equations in terms of democratic hyperangular coordinates and determine several symmetry properties and boundary conditions for both interacting and noninteracting solutions. From the analysis of the three-body effective potentials, we determine the threshold laws for low-energy three-body recombination, collision-induced dissociation, as well as inelastic atom-diatom collisions in two dimensions. Our results show that the hyperspherical representation can offer a simple and conceptually clear physical picture for three-body process in two dimensions which is also suitable for calculations using finite-range two-body interactions supporting a number of bound states.

  5. Adiabatic invariants of generalized Lutzky type for disturbed holonomic nonconservative systems

    Based on the definition of higher-order adiabatic invariants of a mechanical system, a new type of adiabatic invariants, i.e. generalized Lutzky adiabatic invariants, of a disturbed holonomic nonconservative mechanical system are obtained by investigating the perturbation of Lie symmetries for a holonomic nonconservative mechanical system with the action of small disturbance. The adiabatic invariants and the exact invariants of the Lutzky type of some special cases, for example, the Lie point symmetrical transformations, the special Lie symmetrical transformations, and the Lagrange system, are given. And an example is given to illustrate the application of the method and results. (general)

  6. Adiabatic regularization and particle creation for scalar and spin one-half fields

    Landete, Aitor; Torrenti, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The extension of the adiabatic regularization method to spin-$1/2$ fields requires a self-consistent adiabatic expansion of the field modes. We provide here the details of such expansion, which differs from the WKB ansatz that works well for scalars, to firmly establish the generalization of the adiabatic renormalization scheme to spin-$1/2$ fields. We also provide a general overview of the adiabatic method to analyze particle creation and perform renormalization of relevant expectation values. We focus on the computation of particle production in de Sitter spacetime and obtain an analytic expression of the renormalized stress-energy tensor for Dirac fermions.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of a counter flow adiabatic dehumidifier with different liquid desiccant materials

    Liquid desiccant systems have been proposed as energy saving alternatives to the conventional vapor compression systems for handling the latent load. This paper presents the results from a study of the performance of a counter flow liquid desiccant dehumidifier. A heat and mass transfer theoretical model of an adiabatic packed column has been developed, based on the Runge-Kutta fixed step method, to predict the performance of the device under various operating conditions. Good agreement was found between experimental tests and the theoretical model, with the maximum deviation being ±2.9% in air outlet temperature, ±15.9% in air outlet humidity ratio and ±2.8% in solution outlet temperature. Following the model validation, the rate and the efficiency of the dehumidification process were assessed under the effects of variables, such as air temperature and humidity, desiccant temperature and humidity and air and desiccant flow rates. The three most commonly used liquid desiccant solutions, namely LiCl, LiBr and CaCl2 were evaluated against each other. The results show that high absorber efficiency and system efficiency could be achieved under humid conditions, low air mass flow rates and LiCl as the desiccant solution. - Highlights: ► Development of a theoretical model for an adiabatic structured dehumidifier. ► Theoretical model results are in excellent agreement with experimental data. ► LiCl has the best dehumidifier efficiency, in comparison to LiBr and CaCl2. ► LiCl has the highest dehumidification mass rate, in comparison to LiBr and CaCl2.

  8. Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization

    Zeng, Lishan; Zhang, Jun; Sarovar, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount.

  9. Adiabatic creation of coherent superposition states via multiple intermediate states

    Karpati, A

    2003-01-01

    We consider an adiabatic population transfer process that resembles the well established stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP). In our system, the states have nonzero angular momentums $J$, therefore, the coupling laser fields induce transitions among the magnetic sublevels of the states. In particular, we discuss the possibility of creating coherent superposition states in a system with coupling pattern $J=0\\Leftrightarrow J=1$ and $J=1\\Leftrightarrow J=2$. Initially, the system is in the J=0 state. We show that by two delayed, overlapping laser pulses it is possible to create any final superposition state of the magnetic sublevels $|2,-2>$, $|2,0>$, $|2,+2>$. Moreover, we find that the relative phases of the applied pulses influence not only the phases of the final superposition state but the probability amplitudes as well. We show that if we fix the shape and the time-delay between the pulses, the final state space can be entirely covered by varying the polarizations and relative phases of the two pu...

  10. Optimization using quantum mechanics: quantum annealing through adiabatic evolution

    We review here some recent work in the field of quantum annealing, alias adiabatic quantum computation. The idea of quantum annealing is to perform optimization by a quantum adiabatic evolution which tracks the ground state of a suitable time-dependent Hamiltonian, where 'ℎ' is slowly switched off. We illustrate several applications of quantum annealing strategies, starting from textbook toy-models-double-well potentials and other one-dimensional examples, with and without disorder. These examples display in a clear way the crucial differences between classical and quantum annealing. We then discuss applications of quantum annealing to challenging hard optimization problems, such as the random Ising model, the travelling salesman problem and Boolean satisfiability problems. The techniques used to implement quantum annealing are either deterministic Schroedinger's evolutions, for the toy models, or path-integral Monte Carlo and Green's function Monte Carlo approaches, for the hard optimization problems. The crucial role played by disorder and the associated non-trivial Landau-Zener tunnelling phenomena is discussed and emphasized. (topical review)

  11. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    Carneiro, S

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter $\\omega = -1$. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the ...

  12. The 0.1K bolometers cooled by adiabatic demagnetization

    Roellig, T.; Lesyna, L.; Kittel, P.; Werner, M.

    1983-01-01

    The most straightforward way of reducing the noise equivalent power of bolometers is to lower their operating temperature. We have been exploring the possibility of using conventionally constructed bolometers at ultra-low temperatures to achieve NEP's suitable to the background environment of cooled space telescopes. We have chosen the technique of adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt as a gravity independent, compact, and low power way to achieve temperatures below pumped He-3 (0.3 K). The demagnetization cryostat we used was capable of reaching temperatures below 0.08 K using Chromium Potassium Alum as a salt from a starting temperature of 1.5 K and a starting magnetic field of 30,000 gauss. Computer control of the magnetic field decay allowed a temperature of 0.2 K to be maintained to within 0.5 mK over a time period exceeding 14 hours. The refrigerator duty cycle was over 90 percent at this temperature. The success of these tests has motivated us to construct a more compact portable adiabatic demagnetization cryostat capable of bolometer optical tests and use at the 5m Hale telescope at 1mm wavelengths.

  13. Primeval adiabatic perturbations: constraints from the mass distribution

    The autocorrelation function of the mass distribution after decoupling of matter and radiation is computed under the assumption of linear primeval adiabatic perturbations using a new numerical method, and the results are compared to what is inferred from the present galaxy distribution. The computations are based on a Friedmann-Lemaitre model with Λ = 0 containing radiation, zero-mass neutrinos, hydrogen, and helium. The primeval power spectrum of density fluctuations is taken to approximate a power law k/sup v/. If the density parameter is Ω0 = 2q0< or approx. =0.1; or, if ν< or approx. =2, then the coherence length of the residual mass distribution is too large: when the amplitude is adjusted to make the first generation of objects form at z< or approx. =2, there are unacceptably large fluctuations in the mass distribution now on scales approx.12 to 40 Mpc. If ν = 3 to 4, this problem is avoided, but to prevent diverging curvature fluctuations the power law k/sup v/ must be truncated at a rather large comoving wavelength, lambda/sub x/approx.1 Mpc. The parameters thus are tightly limited, but it appears that one still can find a consistent scenario for the development of galaxies out of linear primeval adiabatic perturbations

  14. On the Time Dependence of Adiabatic Particle Number

    Dabrowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We consider quantum field theoretic systems subject to a time-dependent perturbation, and discuss the question of defining a time dependent particle number not just at asymptotic early and late times, but also during the perturbation. Naively, this is not a well-defined notion for such a non-equilibrium process, as the particle number at intermediate times depends on a basis choice of reference states with respect to which particles and anti-particles are defined, even though the final late-time particle number is independent of this basis choice. The basis choice is associated with a particular truncation of the adiabatic expansion. The adiabatic expansion is divergent, and we show that if this divergent expansion is truncated at its optimal order, a universal time dependence is obtained, confirming a general result of Dingle and Berry. This optimally truncated particle number provides a clear picture of quantum interference effects for perturbations with non-trivial temporal sub-structure. We illustrate the...

  15. Schedule path optimization for adiabatic quantum computing and optimization

    Adiabatic quantum computing and optimization have garnered much attention recently as possible models for achieving a quantum advantage over classical approaches to optimization and other special purpose computations. Both techniques are probabilistic in nature and the minimum gap between the ground state and first excited state of the system during evolution is a major factor in determining the success probability. In this work we investigate a strategy for increasing the minimum gap and success probability by introducing intermediate Hamiltonians that modify the evolution path between initial and final Hamiltonians. We focus on an optimization problem relevant to recent hardware implementations and present numerical evidence for the existence of a purely local intermediate Hamiltonian that achieve the optimum performance in terms of pushing the minimum gap to one of the end points of the evolution. As a part of this study we develop a convex optimization formulation of the search for optimal adiabatic schedules that makes this computation more tractable, and which may be of independent interest. We further study the effectiveness of random intermediate Hamiltonians on the minimum gap and success probability, and empirically find that random Hamiltonians have a significant probability of increasing the success probability, but only by a modest amount. (paper)

  16. Adiabatic surface temperature as thermal/structural parameter in fire modeling: Thermal analysis for different wall conductivities

    The new useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” or more commonly known as AST, introduced by Wickström et al. in 2007, is investigated in this study. Adiabatic surface temperature can be used for bridging the gap between fire models and temperature models; for example, it offers the opportunity to transfer both thermal information of the gas and the net heat flux to the solid phase model, obtained by CFD analysis. In this study two numerical analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of wall thermal conductivity and of convective heat transfer coefficient on the adiabatic surface temperature as thermal/structural parameter in fire modeling. First one CFD analysis simulating a fire scenario, “conjugate heat transfer”, with a square beam exposed to hot surface, is carried out to calculate AST, convective heat transfer coefficient and temperature field in the beam. In the second one, a conductive analysis is carried out on “standalone beam” imposing a third type boundary condition on its boundaries assuming the AST, evaluated in the conjugate analysis, as external temperature. Different convective heat transfer coefficients are imposed on the beam walls; the beam is of concrete or steel. Results are presented in terms of net heat flux on beam surfaces, convective heat transfer coefficients and temperature profiles on the beam walls, temperature fields for the two, CFD and conductive, analyses and the relative temperature and net heat flux percent errors. Results underline that convective heat transfer coefficient profiles and adiabatic surface temperatures on the bottom and lateral beam walls are independent of the wall thermal conductivity value, whereas the net heat flux values increase as wall thermal conductivity increases, fixed the emissivity. - Highlights: •The new useful concept of “adiabatic surface temperature” (AST) is investigated. •The effect of wall thermal conductivity and of convective heat transfer

  17. A model study of assisted adiabatic transfer of population in the presence of collisional dephasing

    Previous studies have demonstrated that when experimental conditions generate non-adiabatic dynamics that prevents highly efficient population transfer between states of an isolated system by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), the addition of an auxiliary counter-diabatic field (CDF) can restore most or all of that efficiency. This paper examines whether that strategy is also successful in a non-isolated system in which the energies of the states fluctuate, e.g., when a solute is subject to collisions with solvent. We study population transfer in two model systems: (i) the three-state system used by Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8028 (2002)] and (ii) a four-state system, derived from the simulation studies of Demirplak and Rice [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 194517 (2006)], that mimics HCl in liquid Ar. Simulation studies of the vibrational manifold of HCl in dense fluid Ar show that the collision induced vibrational energy level fluctuations have asymmetric distributions. Representations of these asymmetric energy level fluctuation distributions are used in both models (i) and (ii). We identify three sources of degradation of the efficiency of STIRAP generated selective population transfer in model (ii): too small pulse areas of the laser fields, unwanted interference arising from use of strong fields, and the vibrational detuning. For both models (i) and (ii), our examination of the efficiency of STIRAP + CDF population transfer under the influence of the asymmetric distribution of the vibrational energy fluctuations shows that there is a range of field strengths and pulse durations under which STIRAP + CDF control of population transfer has greater efficiency than does STIRAP generated population transfer

  18. Extended adiabatic blast waves and a model of the soft x-ray background

    An analytical approximation is generated which follows the development of an adiabatic spherical blast wave in a homogeneous ambient medium of finite pressure. At early times when the external pressure is negligible, the structure is that of the usual self-similar solution. At later times, the structure evolves smoothly as the shock weakens, the postshock compression declines, and the gradients in pressure and density become less severe within the shocked region. The complete structure should be reliable down to a postshock compression of about 2, with conditions close inside the shock remaining well described somewhat longer. An analytical approximation is also presented for the electron-temperature distribution resulting from Coulomb collisional heating. It is shown that thermal conduction, limited by saturation at early times, fades in importance just as Coulomb collisional heating becomes significant. An estimate is made of the nonequilibrium cooling coefficient and the degree of ionization equilibrium expected by the time significant cooling sets in. From the estimates of the end point of the adiabatic era, based on the collisional equilibrium emissivity, are shown to be reasonably accurate. The dynamical, thermal, ionization, and spectral structures are calculated for blast waves of energy E0 = 5 x 1050 ergs in a hot, low-density interstellar environment. A formulais presented for estimating the luminosity evolution of such explosions, including the effects of nonequilibrium ionization. It is shown that the B and C bands of the soft x-ray background are reproduced by such a model explosion if the ambient density is about 0.004 cm(sup -3), the blast radius is roughly 100 pc, and the solar system is located inside the shocked region. The age of such an explosion is roughly 10(sup 5) years. This result is almost independent of whether there is apprecialy non-Coulomb heating of the electrons

  19. Assessment of Several Moist Adiabatic Processes Associated with Convective Energy Calculation

    李耀东; 高守亭; 刘健文

    2004-01-01

    Several methods dealing with the moist adiabatic process are described in this paper. They are based on static energy conservation, pseudo-equivalent potential temperature conservation, the strict pseudoadiabatic equation, and the reversible moist adiabatic process, respectively. Convective energy parameters, which are closely related to the moist adiabatic process and which reflect the gravitational effects of condensed liquid water, are reintroduced or defined, including MCAPE [Modified-CAPE (convective available potential energy)], DCAPE (Downdraft-CAPE), and MDCAPE (Modified-Downdraft-CAPE). Two real case analyses with special attention given to condensed liquid water show that the selection of moist adiabatic process does affect the calculated results of CAPE and the gravitational effects of condensed liquid water are not negligible in severe storms. Intercomparisons of these methods show that static energy conservation is consistent with pseudo-equivalent potential temperature conservation not only in physical properties but also in calculated results, and both are good approximations to the strict pseudo-adiabatic equation. The lapse rate linked with the reversible moist adiabatic process is relatively smaller than that linked with other moist adiabatic processes, especially when considering solidification of liquid water in the reversible adiabatic process.

  20. On the adiabatic stability of solitons and the matching of conservation laws

    Lochak, Pierre

    1984-08-01

    We derive a series of identities which generalize and simplify the results obtained for adiabatically modulated solitons in the case of perturbed specific integrable equations. It stresses the importance of the variational properties of the solitons, which make an adiabatic theorem plausible. A precise conjecture is made and its validity discussed from different points of view.

  1. A note on the non-adiabatic geometric phase and quantum computation

    Blais, A

    2003-01-01

    We consider the non-adiabatic, or Aharonov-Anandan, geometric phase as a tool for intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computation. While this phase seems to answer many of the issues related to the adiabatic version of the geometric gate, we show that it is not straightforward to implement and that it is sensitive to small errors.

  2. What lies between a free adiabatic expansion and a quasi-static one?

    Miranda, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    An expression is found that relates the initial and final volumes and temperatures for any adiabatic process. It is given in terms of a parameter r that smoothly interpolates between a free adiabatic expansion (r = 0) and a quasi-static one (r = 1). The parameter has to be evaluated numerically, but an approximate expression is given.

  3. Reversibility and Adiabatic Computation Trading Time and Space for Energy

    Li, Maozhen; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Future miniaturization and mobilization of computing devices requires energy parsimonious `adiabatic' computation. This is contingent on logical reversibility of computation. An example is the idea of quantum computations which are reversible except for the irreversible observation steps. We propose to study quantitatively the exchange of computational resources like time and space for irreversibility in computations. Reversible simulations of irreversible computations are memory intensive. Such (polynomial time) simulations are analysed here in terms of `reversible' pebble games. We show that Bennett's pebbling strategy uses least additional space for the greatest number of simulated steps. We derive a trade-off for storage space versus irreversible erasure. Next we consider reversible computation itself. An alternative proof is provided for the precise expression of the ultimate irreversibility cost of an otherwise reversible computation without restrictions on time and space use. A time-irreversibility tra...

  4. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    In experiments, inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from long aspect nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed-core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow was observed to develop into inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and into dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of the above transitions from inverted annular flow, a correlation for core jet length was developed by extending work done on free liquid jets to include this new, coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The result, showing length dependence upon diameter, jet Reynolds number, jet Weber number, void fraction, and gas Weber number, correlates the data well, especially at moderate-to-large relative velocities

  5. Influence of coherent adiabatic excitation on femtosecond transient signals

    Conde, A Peralta; Longarte, A

    2016-01-01

    The transient signals derived from femtosecond pump-probe experiments are analyzed in terms of the coherent evolution of the energy levels perturbed by the excitation pulse. The model system is treated as the sum of independent two-level subsystems that evolve adiabatically or are permanently excited, depending on the detuning from the central wavelength of the excitation laser. This approach will allow us to explain numerically and analytically the convergence between the coherent and incoherent (rate equations) treatments for complex multi-level systems. It will be also shown that the parameter that determines the validity of the incoherent treatment is the distribution of states outside and inside the laser bandwidth, rather than the density of states as it is commonly accepted.

  6. Differential geometric treewidth estimation in adiabatic quantum computation

    Wang, Chi; Jonckheere, Edmond; Brun, Todd

    2016-07-01

    The D-Wave adiabatic quantum computing platform is designed to solve a particular class of problems—the Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problems. Due to the particular "Chimera" physical architecture of the D-Wave chip, the logical problem graph at hand needs an extra process called minor embedding in order to be solvable on the D-Wave architecture. The latter problem is itself NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a novel polynomial-time approximation to the closely related treewidth based on the differential geometric concept of Ollivier-Ricci curvature. The latter runs in polynomial time and thus could significantly reduce the overall complexity of determining whether a QUBO problem is minor embeddable, and thus solvable on the D-Wave architecture.

  7. Non-adiabatic perturbations in decaying vacuum cosmology

    We investigate a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology in which a decaying vacuum term causes matter production at late times. Assuming a decay proportional to the Hubble rate, the ratio of the background energy densities of dark matter and dark energy changes with the cosmic scale factor as a−3/2. The intrinsically non-adiabatic two-component perturbation dynamics of this model is reduced to a single second-order equation. Perturbations of the vacuum term are shown to be negligible on scales that are relevant for structure formation. On larger scales, dark-energy perturbations give a somewhat higher contribution but remain always smaller than the dark-matter perturbations

  8. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits

  9. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-05-01

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  10. Controlled Rapid Adiabatic Passage in a V-Type System

    Song, Yunheung; Lee, Han-Gyeol; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-05-01

    In chirped rapid adiabatic passage (RAP), chirp sign determines the final state to which the complete population transfer (CPT) occurs in a three-level V-type system. In this study, we show that laser intensity can be alternatively used as a control means in RAP, when the laser pulse is chirped and of a spectral hole resonant to one of the excited states. We verified such excitation selectivity in the experiment performed as-shaped femtosecond laser pulses interacting with the lowest three levels (5S, 5 P1/2, and 5 P3/2) of atomic rubidium. The successful demonstration implies that this intensity-dependent RAP in conjunction with laser beam profile programming may allow excitation selectivity for atoms or ions arranged in space.

  11. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  12. Adiabatic Floquet model for the optical response in femtosecond filaments

    Hofmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The standard model of femtosecond filamentation is based on phenomenological assumptions which suggest that the ionization-induced carriers can be treated as free according to the Drude model, while the nonlinear response of the bound carriers follows the all-optical Kerr effect. Here, we demonstrate that the additional plasma generated at a multiphoton resonance dominates the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index. Since resonances are not captured by the standard model, we propose a modification of the latter in which ionization enhancements can be accounted for by an ionization rate obtained from non-Hermitian Floquet theory. In the adiabatic regime of long pulse envelopes, this augmented standard model is in excellent agreement with direct quantum mechanical simulations. Since our proposal maintains the structure of the standard model, it can be easily incorporated into existing codes of filament simulation.

  13. Properties of a two stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator

    Fukuda, H.; Ueda, S.; Arai, R.; Li, J.; Saito, A. T.; Nakagome, H.; Numazawa, T.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, many space missions using cryogenic temperatures are being planned. In particular, high resolution sensors such as Transition Edge Sensors need very low temperatures, below 100 mK. It is well known that the adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is one of most useful tools for producing ultra-low temperatures in space because it is gravity independent. We studied a continuous ADR system consisting of 4 stages and demonstrated it could provide continuous temperatures around 100 mK. However, there was some heat leakage from the power leads which resulted in reduced cooling power. Our efforts to upgrade our ADR system are presented. We show the effect of using the HTS power leads and discuss a cascaded Carnot cycle consisting of 2 ADR units.

  14. Adiabatic quantum pump in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    张林

    2015-01-01

    The adiabatic electron transport is theoretically studied in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction with two time-dependent pumping electric fields. By modeling a ZGNR p–n junction and applying the Keldysh Green’s function method, we find that a pumped charge current is flowing in the device at a zero external bias, which mainly comes from the photon-assisted tunneling process and the valley selection rule in an even-chain ZGNR junction. The pumped charge current and its ON and OFF states can be efficiently modulated by changing the system parameters such as the pumping frequency, the pumping phase difference, and the Fermi level. A ferromagnetic ZGNR device is also studied to generate a pure spin current and a fully polarized spin current due to the combined spin pump effect and the valley valve effect. Our finding might pave the way to manipulate the degree of freedom of electrons in a graphene-based electronic device.

  15. Nucleon-deuteron scattering using the adiabatic projection method

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the adiabatic projection method, a general framework for scattering and reaction calculations on the lattice. We also introduce several new techniques developed to study nucleus-nucleus scattering and reactions on the lattice. We present technical details of the methods for large-scale problems. To estimate the systematic errors of the calculations we consider simple two-particle scattering on the lattice. Then we benchmark the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by applying these to calculate fermion-dimer scattering in lattice effective field theory with and without a long-range Coulomb potential. The fermion-dimer calculations correspond to neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron scattering in the spin-quartet channel at leading order in pionless effective field theory.

  16. Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Hoover, W.G.

    1980-05-28

    Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility.

  17. Cosmological consequences of an adiabatic matter creation process

    Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the cosmological consequences of a continuous matter creation associated with the production of particles by the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum. To illustrate this, three phenomenological models are considered. An equivalent scalar field description is presented for each models. The effects on the cosmic microwave background power spectrum are analyzed for the first time in the context of adiabatic matter creation cosmology. Further, we introduce a model independent treatment, $Om$, which depends only on the Hubble expansion rate and the cosmological redshift to distinguish any cosmological model from $\\Lambda$CDM by providing a null test for the cosmological constant, meaning that, for any two redshifts $z_1$, $z_2$, $Om (z)$ is same, i.e. $Om (z_1)- Om (z_2)= 0$. Also, this diagnostic can differentiate between several cosmological models by indicating their quintessential/ phantom behavior without knowing the accurate value of the matter density, and the presen...

  18. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  19. Some properties of adiabatic blast waves in preexisting cavities

    Cox, D. P.; Franco, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cox and Anderson (1982) have conducted an investigation regarding an adiabatic blast wave in a region of uniform density and finite external pressure. In connection with an application of the results of the investigation to a study of interstellar blast waves in the very hot, low-density matrix, it was found that it would be desirable to examine situations with a positive radial density gradient in the ambient medium. Information concerning such situations is needed to learn about the behavior of blast waves occurring within preexisting, presumably supernova-induced cavities in the interstellar mass distribution. The present investigation is concerned with the first steps of a study conducted to obtain the required information. A review is conducted of Sedov's (1959) similarity solutions for the dynamical structure of any explosion in a medium with negligible pressure and power law density dependence on radius.

  20. Dynamics of adiabatic blast waves in media of finite mass

    A basic formulation is developed to describe the mass motion for nonrelativistic, spherically symmetric blast waves. The formulation is quite general in the sense that it applies to blast waves generated by either a strong explosion or a continuous energy injection, and in that it applies to an arbitrary density distribution. A simple method is developed to describe the motion of the shock by modifying the Kompaneets approximation. The formulation is applied to blast waves in specific density distributions, including an exponential medium, a Gaussian medium, and a medium with density distribution which asymptotically approaches a power law. Comparisons with numerical results for spherically symmetric blast waves are made. The one-dimensional formulation is generalized to nonspherically symmetric blast waves by making the assumption that the blast wave expands radially. Comparisons are made with numerical results for an adiabatic supershell in a plane-parallel medium. 32 refs

  1. Adiabatic principles in atom-diatom collisional energy transfer

    This work describes the application of numerical methods to the solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation for non-reactive atom-diatom collisions in which only one of the degrees of freedom has been removed. The basic method involves expanding the wave function in a basis set in two of the diatomic coordinates in a body-fixed frame (with respect to the triatomic complex) and defining the coefficients in that expansion as functions on a grid in the collision coordinate. The wave function is then propagated in time using a split operator method. The bulk of this work is devoted to the application of this formalism to the study of internal rotational predissociation in NeHF, in which quasibound states of the triatom predissociate through the transfer of energy from rotation of the diatom into translational energy in the atom-diatom separation coordinate. The author analyzes the computed time dependent wave functions to calculate the lifetimes for several quasibound states; these are in agreement with time independent quantum calculations using the same potential. Moreover, the time dependent behavior of the wave functions themselves sheds light on the dynamics of the predissociation processes. Finally, the partial cross sections of the products in those processes is determined with multiple exit channels. These show strong selectivity in the orbital angular momentum of the outgoing fragments, which the author explains with an adiabatic channel interpretation of the wave function's dynamics. The author also suggests that the same formalism might profitably be used to investigate the quantum dynamics of open-quotes quasiresonant vibration-rotation transferclose quotes, in which remarkably strong propensity rules in certain inelastic atom-diatom collision arise from classical adiabatic invariance theory

  2. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C.

    2014-10-01

    In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.

  3. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval

  4. Adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres

    Dust grains in the ring systems and rapidly rotating magnetospheres of the outer planets such as Jupiter and Saturn may be sufficiently charged that the magnetic and electric forces on them are comparable with the gravitational force. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion has previously been applied to electrons and atomic size particles. But it is also applicable to these charged dust grains in the micrometer and smaller size range. We derive here the guiding center equation of motion, drift velocity, and parallel equation of motion for these grains in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of periodic grain charge-discharge have not been treated previously and have been included in this analysis. Grain charge is affected by the surrounding plasma properties and by the grain plasma velocity (among other factors), both of which may vary over the gyrocircle. The resulting charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency destroys the invariance of the magnetic moment and causes a grain to move radially. The magnetic moment may increase or decrease, depending on the gyrophase of the charge variation. If it decreases, the motion is always toward synchronous radius for an equatorial grain. But the orbit becomes circular before the grain reaches synchronous radius, a conclusion that follows from an exact constant of the motion. This circularization can be viewed as a consequence of the gradual reduction in the magnetic moment. This circularization also suggests that dust grains leaving Io could not reach the region of the Jovian ring, but several effects could change that conclusion. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained between adiabatic theory and detailed numerical orbit integrations

  5. Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching

    Bose, Amartya [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Makri, Nancy [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, 600 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.

  6. Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching

    Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations

  7. Observational tests of non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas

    Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C., E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Ondina, Salvador, BA 40210-340 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    In a previous paper [1] it was shown that any dark sector model can be mapped into a non-adiabatic fluid formed by two interacting components, one with zero pressure and the other with equation-of-state parameter ω = -1. It was also shown that the latter does not cluster and, hence, the former is identified as the observed clustering matter. This guarantees that the dark matter power spectrum does not suffer from oscillations or instabilities. It applies in particular to the generalised Chaplygin gas, which was shown to be equivalent to interacting models at both background and perturbation levels. In the present paper we test the non-adiabatic Chaplygin gas against the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae, the position of the first acoustic peak in the anisotropy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and the linear power spectrum of large scale structures. We consider two different compilations of SNe Ia, namely the Constitution and SDSS samples, both calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and for the power spectrum we use the 2dFGRS catalogue. The model parameters to be adjusted are the present Hubble parameter, the present matter density and the Chaplygin gas parameter α. The joint analysis best fit gives α ≈ - 0.5, which corresponds to a constant-rate energy flux from dark energy to dark matter, with the dark energy density decaying linearly with the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model, equivalent to α = 0, stands outside the 3σ confidence interval.

  8. Thermodynamic study of ibuprofen by adiabatic calorimetry and thermal analysis

    Molar heat capacities of ibuprofen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The polynomial functions of Cp,m (J K-1 mol-1) versus T were established on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least fitting square method. The functions are as follows: for solid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 79.105 K≤T≤333.297 K, Cp,m=144.27+77.046X+3.5171X2+10.925X3+11.224X4, where X=(T-206.201)/127.096; for liquid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 353.406 K≤T≤378.785 K, Cp,m=325.79+8.9696X-1.6073X2-1.5145X3, where X=(T-366.095)/12.690. A fusion transition at T=348.02 K was found from the Cp-T curve. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the fusion transition were determined to be 26.65 kJ mol-1 and 76.58 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. The thermodynamic functions on the base of the reference temperature of 298.15 K, (HT-H298.15) and (ST-S298.15), were derived. Thermal characteristic of ibuprofen was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The temperature of fusion, the molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion obtained by DSC were well consistent with those obtained by adiabatic calorimeter. The evaporation process of ibuprofen was investigated further by TG and DTG, and the activation energy of the evaporation process was determined to be 80.3±1.4 kJ mol-1

  9. Correlated adiabatic and isocurvature CMB fluctuations in the wake of WMAP

    Valiviita, J; Valiviita, Jussi; Muhonen, Vesa

    2003-01-01

    In the general correlated models, in addition to the usual adiabatic component with a spectral index n_ad1 there is another adiabatic component with a spectral index n_ad2 generated by the entropy perturbation during inflation. We extend the analysis of a correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature CMB fluctuations of the WMAP group, who set the two adiabatic spectral indices equal. Allowing n_ad1 and n_ad2 to vary independently we find that the WMAP data favor models where the two adiabatic components have opposite spectral tilts. Using the WMAP data only, the 2-sigma upper bound for the isocurvature fraction f_iso of the initial power spectrum at k_0=0.05 Mpc^{-1} increases somewhat, e.g., from 0.76 of n_ad2 = n_ad1 models to 0.84 with a prior n_iso < 1.84 for the isocurvature spectral index.

  10. On the observability and asymmetry of adiabatic state flips generated by exceptional points

    Uzdin, Raam; Moiseyev, Nimrod [Physics Department and Minerva Center for Nonlinear Physics of Complex Systems, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (Israel); Mailybaev, Alexei, E-mail: raam@technion.ac.il [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-28

    In open quantum systems where the effective Hamiltonian is not Hermitian, it is known that the adiabatic (or instantaneous) basis can be multivalued: by adiabatically transporting an eigenstate along a closed loop in the parameter space of the Hamiltonian, it is possible to end up in an eigenstate different from the initial eigenstate. This 'adiabatic flip' effect is an outcome of the appearance of a degeneracy known as an 'exceptional point' inside the loop. We show that contrary to what is expected of the transport properties of the eigenstate basis, the interplay between gain/loss and non-adiabatic couplings imposes fundamental limitations on the observability of this adiabatic flip effect. (paper)

  11. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a three-level superconducting circuit

    Kumar, K. S.; Vepsäläinen, A.; Danilin, S.; Paraoanu, G. S.

    2016-02-01

    The adiabatic manipulation of quantum states is a powerful technique that opened up new directions in quantum engineering--enabling tests of fundamental concepts such as geometrical phases and topological transitions, and holding the promise of alternative models of quantum computation. Here we benchmark the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for circuit quantum electrodynamics by employing the first three levels of a transmon qubit. In this ladder configuration, we demonstrate a population transfer efficiency >80% between the ground state and the second excited state using two adiabatic Gaussian-shaped control microwave pulses. By doing quantum tomography at successive moments during the Raman pulses, we investigate the transfer of the population in time domain. Furthermore, we show that this protocol can be reversed by applying a third adiabatic pulse, we study a hybrid nondiabatic-adiabatic sequence, and we present experimental results for a quasi-degenerate intermediate level.

  12. Experiments during flow boiling of a R22 drop-in: R422D adiabatic pressure gradients

    Rosato, A.; Mauro, A.W.; Mastrullo, R. [D.E.TE.C., Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, p.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Vanoli, G.P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Universita degli Studi del Sannio, corso Garibaldi 107, Palazzo dell' Aquila Bosco Lucarelli, 82100 Benevento (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    R22, the HCFC most widely used in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems in the last years, is phasing-out. R422D, a zero ozone-depleting mixture of R125, R134a and R600a (65.1%/31.5%/3.4% by weight, respectively), has been recently proposed as a drop-in substitute. For energy consumption calculations and temperature control, it is of primary importance to estimate operating conditions after substitution. To determine pressure drop in the evaporator and piping line to the compressor, in this paper the experimental adiabatic pressure gradients during flow boiling of R422D are reported for a circular smooth horizontal tube (3.00 mm inner radius) in a range of operating conditions of interest for dry-expansion evaporators. The data are used to establish the best predictive method for calculations and its accuracy: the Moreno-Quiben and Thome method provided the best predictions for the whole database and also for the segregated data in the annular flow regime. Finally, the experimental data have been compared with the adiabatic pressure gradients of both R22 and its much used alternative R407C available in the literature. (author)

  13. Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1): Trace element mass balance in adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite

    Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    present a new numerical trace element mass balance model for adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite for estimating mantle potential temperature, depth of melting column, and pyroxenite fraction in the source mantle for a primary ocean basalt/picrite. The Ocean Basalt Simulator version 1 (OBS1) uses a thermodynamic model of adiabatic melting of a pyroxenite-bearing peridotite with experimentally/thermodynamically parameterized liquidus-solidus intervals and source mineralogy. OBS1 can be used to calculate a sequence of adiabatic melting with two melting models, including (1) melting of peridotite and pyroxenite sources with simple mixing of their fractional melts (melt-melt mixing model), and (2) pyroxenite melting, melt metasomatism in the host peridotite, and melting of the metasomatized peridotite (source-metasomatism model). OBS1 can be used to explore (1) the fractions of peridotite and pyroxenite, (2) mantle potential temperature, (3) pressure of termination of melting, (4) degree of melting, and (5) residual mode of the sources. In order to constrain these parameters, the model calculates a mass balance for 26 incompatible trace elements in the sources and in the generated basalt/picrite. OBS1 is coded in an Excel spreadsheet and runs with VBA macros. Using OBS1, we examine the source compositions and conditions of the mid-oceanic ridge basalts, Loihi-Koolau basalts in the Hawaiian hot spot, and Jurassic Shatsky Rise and Mikabu oceanic plateau basalts and picrites. The OBS1 model shows the physical conditions, chemical mass balance, and amount of pyroxenite in the source peridotite, which are keys to global mantle recycling.

  14. Assignment of Side-Chain Conformation Using Adiabatic Energy Mapping, Free Energy Perturbation, and Molecular Dynamic Simulations

    Frimurer, Thomas M.; Günther, Peter H.; Sørensen, Morten Dahl;

    1999-01-01

    adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)......adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)...

  15. Entrained liquid fraction prediction in adiabatic and evaporating annular two-phase flow

    Highlights: ► New method to predict the entrained liquid fraction in annular two-phase flow. ► Circular and non-circular tubes, adiabatic and evaporating conditions covered. ► Large underlying experimental database (2460 points). ► New method explicit and fully stand-alone. ► New method based on just 1 dimensionless group: the core flow Weber number. - Abstract: A new method to predict the entrained liquid fraction in annular two-phase flow is presented. The underlying experimental database contains 2460 data points collected from 38 different literature studies for 8 different gas–liquid or vapor–liquid combinations (R12, R113, water–steam, water–air, genklene–air, ethanol–air, water–helium, silicon–air), tube diameters from 5.0 mm to 95.3 mm, pressures from 0.1 to 20.0 MPa and covers both adiabatic and evaporating flow conditions, circular and non-circular channels and vertical upflow, vertical downflow and horizontal flow conditions. Annular flows are regarded here as a special form of a liquid atomization process, where a high velocity confined spray, composed by the gas phase and entrained liquid droplets, flows in the center of the channel dragging and atomizing the annular liquid film that streams along the channel wall. Correspondingly, the liquid film flow is assumed to be shear-driven and the energy required to drive the liquid atomization is assumed to be provided in the form of kinetic energy of the droplet-laden gas core flow, so that the liquid film–gas core aerodynamic interaction is ultimately assumed to control the liquid disintegration process. As such, the new prediction method is based on the core flow Weber number, representing the ratio of the disrupting aerodynamic force to the surface tension retaining force, a single and physically plausible dimensionless group. The new prediction method is explicit, fully stand-alone and reproduces the available data better than existing empirical correlations, including in

  16. Energy-Efficient and Secure S-Box circuit using Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic

    Kumar, Dinesh [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Mohammad, Azhar [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Singh, Vijay [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is considered to be a main threat while designing cryptographic processors. In cryptographic algorithms like DES and AES, S-Box is used to indeterminate the relationship between the keys and the cipher texts. However, S-box is prone to DPA attack due to its high power consumption. In this paper, we are implementing an energy-efficient 8-bit S-Box circuit using our proposed Symmetric Pass Gate Adiabatic Logic (SPGAL). SPGAL is energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. SPGAL is energy-efficient due to reduction of non-adiabatic loss during the evaluate phase of the outputs. Further, the S-Box circuit implemented using SPGAL is resistant to DPA attacks. The results are verified through SPICE simulations in 180nm technology. SPICE simulations show that the SPGAL based S-Box circuit saves upto 92% and 67% of energy as compared to the conventional CMOS and Secured Quasi-Adiabatic Logic (SQAL) based S-Box circuit. From the simulation results, it is evident that the SPGAL based circuits are energy-efficient as compared to the existing DPAresistant adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic families. In nutshell, SPGAL based gates can be used to build secure hardware for lowpower portable electronic devices and Internet-of-Things (IoT) based electronic devices.

  17. Perturbation to Mei Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Disturbed El-Nabulsi's Fractional Birkhoff System

    Song, Chuan-Jing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    For El-Nabulsi's fractional Birkhoff system, Mei symmetry perturbation, the corresponding Mei-type adiabatic invariants and Noether-type adiabatic invariants are investigated in this paper. Firstly, based on El-Nabulsi-Birkhoff fractional equations, Mei symmetry and the corresponding Mei conserved quantity, Noether conserved quantity deduced indirectly by Mei symmetry are studied. Secondly, Mei-type exact invariants and Noether-type exact invariants are given on the basis of the definition of adiabatic invatiant. Thirdly, Mei symmetry perturbation, Mei-type adiabatic invariants and Noether-type adiabatic invariants for the disturbed El-Nabulsi's fractional Birkhoff system are studied. Finally, two examples, Hojman-Urrutia problem for Mei-type adiabatic invariants and another for the Noether-type adiabatic invariants, are given to illustrate the application of the results. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10972151 and 11272227, and the Innovation Program for Scientific Research of Nanjing University of Science and Technology

  18. Thermodynamic study of ibuprofen by adiabatic calorimetry and thermal analysis

    Xu Fen; Sun Lixian; Tan Zhicheng; Liang Jianguo; Li Ruilian

    2004-03-23

    Molar heat capacities of ibuprofen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 400 K. The polynomial functions of C{sub p,m} (J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) versus T were established on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least fitting square method. The functions are as follows: for solid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 79.105 K{<=}T{<=}333.297 K, C{sub p,m}=144.27+77.046X+3.5171X{sup 2}+10.925X{sup 3}+11.224X{sup 4}, where X=(T-206.201)/127.096; for liquid ibuprofen, at the temperature range of 353.406 K{<=}T{<=}378.785 K, C{sub p,m}=325.79+8.9696X-1.6073X{sup 2}-1.5145X{sup 3}, where X=(T-366.095)/12.690. A fusion transition at T=348.02 K was found from the C{sub p}-T curve. The molar enthalpy and entropy of the fusion transition were determined to be 26.65 kJ mol{sup -1} and 76.58 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. The thermodynamic functions on the base of the reference temperature of 298.15 K, (H{sub T}-H{sub 298.15}) and (S{sub T}-S{sub 298.15}), were derived. Thermal characteristic of ibuprofen was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The temperature of fusion, the molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion obtained by DSC were well consistent with those obtained by adiabatic calorimeter. The evaporation process of ibuprofen was investigated further by TG and DTG, and the activation energy of the evaporation process was determined to be 80.3{+-}1.4 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  19. The adiabatic versus the diabatic approximation in the decoupling of electron and nuclear motion

    There are two limiting approximations that are used as starting points for the analysis of a system of interacting electrons and nuclei. The more widely used is the adiabatic approximation in which one assumes that the electrons adjust adiabatically to the instantaneous configuration of the nuclei. This yields an effective internuclear potential. In treating the nuclear motion, this potential can legitimately be expanded to fourth order in nuclear displacements from equilibrium. The difficulties of extending this expansion further are discussed. In situations where two adiabatic potentials approach each other the so-called diabatic approximation has to be used. A novel application to non-radioactive processes in solids is discussed. (author)

  20. Quantum Dynamics of the Oscillating Cantilever-Driven Adiabatic Reversals in Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    Berman, G P; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2004-01-01

    We simulated the quantum dynamics for magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) in the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals (OSCAR) technique. We estimated the frequency shift of the cantilever vibrations and demonstrated that this shift causes the formation of a Schrodinger cat state which has some similarities and differences from the conventional MRFM technique which uses cyclic adiabatic reversals of spins. The interaction of the cantilever with the environment is shown to quickly destroy the coherence between the two possible cantilever trajectories. We have shown that using partial adiabatic reversals, one can produce a significant increase in the OSCAR signal.

  1. Intrinsic Heating and Cooling in Adiabatic Processes for Bosons in Optical Lattices

    We show that by raising the lattice ''adiabatically'' as in many current optical lattice experiments on bosons, even though the temperature may decrease initially, it will eventually rise linearly with lattice height, taking the system farther away from quantum degeneracy. This increase has nothing to do with the entropy of the bulk Mott phase and is caused by the adiabatic compression of the mobile atoms between Mott layers. Our studies show that one can reverse the temperature rise to reach quantum degeneracy by adiabatic expansion, which can be achieved by a variety of methods

  2. A relativistically exact Eikonal equation for optical fibers with application to adiabatically deforming ring interferometers

    Avron, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We derive the relativistically exact Eikonal equation for ring interferometers undergoing adiabatic deformations. The leading term in the adiabatic expansion of the phase shift is independent of the refraction index $n$ and is given by a line integral generalizing results going back to Sagnac to all orders in $\\beta$. The next term in the adiabaticity is of lower order in $\\beta$ and may be as important as the first in nonrelativistic cases. This term is proportional to $n^2$ and has the form of a double integral. It generalizes previous results to fibers with chromatic dispersion and puts Sagnac and Fizeau interferometers under a single umbrella.

  3. Hot-film anemometer measurements in adiabatic two-phase flow through a vertical duct

    A hot-film anemometer (HFA) probe was used to obtain local measurements of void fraction and bubble frequency in a vertically oriented, high aspect ratio duct containing R-134a under selected adiabatic two-phase flow conditions. Data were obtained along a narrow dimension scan over the range 0.03 ≤ bar Z ≤ 0.80, where bar Z is the distance from the wall normalized with the duct spacing dimension. The void fraction profiles displayed large gradients in the near-wall regions and broad maxima near the duct centerline. The trends in the bubble frequency data generally follow those for the local void fraction data. However, the relatively large number of bubbles at higher pressure implies a larger magnitude of the interfacial area concentration, for the same cross-sectional average void fraction. For the two annular flow conditions tested, analysis of the HFA output voltage signal enabled identification of three distinct regions of the flow field; liquid film with dispersed bubbles, interfacial waves, and continuous vapor with dispersed droplets

  4. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K., E-mail: asivan@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  5. Cosmological consequences of an adiabatic matter creation process

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Pan, Supriya

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the cosmological consequences of a continuous matter creation associated with the production of particles by the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum. To illustrate this, three phenomenological models are considered. An equivalent scalar field description is presented for each models. The effects on the cosmic microwave background power spectrum are analysed for the first time in the context of adiabatic matter creation cosmology. Further, we introduce a model independent treatment, Om, which depends only on the Hubble expansion rate and the cosmological redshift to distinguish any cosmological model from Λ cold dark matter by providing a null test for the cosmological constant, meaning that, for any two redshifts z1, z2, Om(z) is same, i.e. Om(z1) - Om(z2) = 0. Also, this diagnostic can differentiate between several cosmological models by indicating their quintessential/phantom behaviour without knowing the accurate value of the matter density, and the present value of the Hubble parameter. For our models, we find that particle production rate is inversely proportional to Om. Finally, the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics bounded by the apparent horizon has been examined.

  6. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  7. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane–Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed. (focus issue review)

  8. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%

  9. Nickel Bubble Expansion in Type Ia Supernovae: Adiabatic Solutions

    Wang, C Y

    2006-01-01

    We examine the expansion properties of the Nickel bubble in SNe Ia due to the radioactive heating from the 56Ni->56Co->56Fe decay sequence, under adiabatic, spherically symmetric approximation. We consider an exponentially -declining medium for the ejecta substrate, allowing for the density gradient as expected in a Type Ia supernova. The heating gives rise to an inflated Ni bubble, which induces a forward shock that compresses the outer ambient gas into a shell. As the heating saturates, the flow tends toward a freely-expanding state with the structure frozen into the ejecta. The thickness of the shell takes up ~ 100 in a narrow region limited by numerical resolution. The structure of the shell can be approximately described by a self-similar solution determined by its expansion rate and ambient density gradient. Compared to the case using a uniform-density medium, the density contrast of the inferred ejecta clumps is enhanced, while the interaction of the clumps with the remnant is deferred to a more advanc...

  10. Adiabatic quantum pump in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    Zhang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    The adiabatic electron transport is theoretically studied in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction with two time-dependent pumping electric fields. By modeling a ZGNR p-n junction and applying the Keldysh Green’s function method, we find that a pumped charge current is flowing in the device at a zero external bias, which mainly comes from the photon-assisted tunneling process and the valley selection rule in an even-chain ZGNR junction. The pumped charge current and its ON and OFF states can be efficiently modulated by changing the system parameters such as the pumping frequency, the pumping phase difference, and the Fermi level. A ferromagnetic ZGNR device is also studied to generate a pure spin current and a fully polarized spin current due to the combined spin pump effect and the valley valve effect. Our finding might pave the way to manipulate the degree of freedom of electrons in a graphene-based electronic device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 110704033), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK2010416), and the Natural Science Foundation for Colleges and Universities in Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 13KJB140005).

  11. When an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression becomes reversible

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concepts of a reversible process and entropy. For this purpose, an adiabatic irreversible expansion or compression is analysed, by considering that an ideal gas is expanded (compressed), from an initial pressure Pi to a final pressure Pf, by being placed in contact with a set of N work reservoirs with pressures decreasing (increasing) in a geometric or arithmetic progression. The gas entropy change ΔS is evaluated and it is clearly shown that ΔS > 0 for any finite N, but as the number of work reservoirs goes to infinity the entropy change goes to zero, i.e. the process becomes reversible. Additionally, this work draws attention to the work reservoir concept, which is virtually ignored in the literature, and to its analogy with the commonly used heat reservoir concept. Finally, it complements and reinforces an earlier study dealing with irreversible cooling or heating so that the synergy created by the two studies is important from both theoretical and educational standpoints

  12. Hamiltonian formalism for general-relativistic adiabatic fluids

    We derive the Hamiltonian structures of three theories: non-relativistic, special-relativistic, and general-relativistic adiabatic fluids, each in the Eulerian representation in Riemannian space (or Lorentzian spacetime), all by the same procedure using standard variational principles. The evolution in each case is generated by a Hamiltonian that is equivalent to that obtained from a canonical analysis. For the gravitational variables, the Poisson bracket has the usual canonical symplectic structure. However, for the fluid variables, the three theories all share the same Lie-Poisson bracket, when expressed in the appropriate spaces of physical variables constructed here. This shared Lie-Poisson bracket is associated to the dual of the semidirect-product Lie algebra of vector fields acting on differential forms. An immediate consequence of this shared structure is that each of these theories possesses an infinite family of conservation laws: the so-called ''Casimirs'' that belong to the kernel of the Lie-Poisson bracket. The role of these Casimirs in the study of Lyapunov stability (or dynamic stability) for fluid equilibria is discussed. The relationship of this approach to other approaches in the literature is also discussed. (orig.)

  13. A quantized adiabatic time dependent mean field theory

    Usually collective motion of the nucleus is essentially governed by a few dynamical parameters q like e.g. elongation necking etc. in case of fission. Microscopic approaches often aim to calculate, outgoing from the motion of the single nucleons, the Hamiltonian for the collective motion. To this end they use as a basic ingredient the collective path which is a set of Slater-determinants or BCS states, representing the various shapes of the system during the collective motion. In practice, the choice bears much arbitrariness in guessing the evolution of the collective deformation. It is therefore highly desirable to have a theory which extracts the collective path from a proper equation of motion rather than imposing it on the system. Such equations for the optimal collective path are derived by requiring slow motion and by defining collective coordinates by means of minimizing the coupling term. Assuming the collective path to consist out of Slater determinants this amounts to an adiabatic expansion of the TDHF equations and finally leads to a differential equation for the path. (orig./AH)

  14. Hot-electron nanoscopy using adiabatic compression of surface plasmons

    Giugni, Andrea

    2013-10-20

    Surface plasmon polaritons are a central concept in nanoplasmonics and have been exploited to develop ultrasensitive chemical detection platforms, as well as imaging and spectroscopic techniques at the nanoscale. Surface plasmons can decay to form highly energetic (or hot) electrons in a process that is usually thought to be parasitic for applications, because it limits the lifetime and propagation length of surface plasmons and therefore has an adverse influence on the functionality of nanoplasmonic devices. Recently, however, it has been shown that hot electrons produced by surface plasmon decay can be harnessed to produce useful work in photodetection, catalysis and solar energy conversion. Nevertheless, the surface-plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency has been below 1% in all cases. Here we show that adiabatic focusing of surface plasmons on a Schottky diode-terminated tapered tip of nanoscale dimensions allows for a plasmon-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency of ∼30%. We further demonstrate that, with such high efficiency, hot electrons can be used for a new nanoscopy technique based on an atomic force microscopy set-up. We show that this hot-electron nanoscopy preserves the chemical sensitivity of the scanned surface and has a spatial resolution below 50 nm, with margins for improvement.

  15. Oscillating adiabatic temperature change of 2D diamagnetic materials

    Studies on magnetocaloric effect generally concern ferromagnetic materials, due to their high magnetocaloric potential near phase transitions. Recently, this effect on diamagnetic materials was explored and oscillations on the entropy change observed as a consequence of the crossing of the Landau levels through the Fermi energy. The present paper explores the adiabatic temperature change in graphenes and thin films of non-relativistic diamagnetic materials and then compares the results with those from 3D diamagnets. Applying 10 T of magnetic field, the temperature change of a gold thin film reaches 1 K, while for bulk gold the temperature change is smaller than 6 mK. For graphenes, the temperature change reaches 4 K with a field of ∼1 T. - Highlights: • We studied magnetocaloric properties of 2D diamagnetic materials. • Temperature change of low-dimensional materials exhibits an oscillating behavior. • The effect of scattering from impurity in graphene strongly reduces the temperature change. • We propose an application involving field sensors

  16. Mass Modeling of Disk Galaxies: Constraints and Adiabatic Contraction

    Dutton, A A; Carignan, C; De Jong, R; Dutton, Aaron A.; Courteau, Stephane; Carignan, Claude; Jong, Roelof de

    2003-01-01

    We present a comprehensive mass modeling technique for disk galaxies with resolved rotation curves. Our models allow for a stellar disk of variable thickness and mass-to-light ratio, a gaseous disk, halo profiles with a range of inner density profile slopes (-ALPHA), oblate halos, adiabatic contraction of the halo, and fixed minimum rotation curve error values. We test our technique with data from the literature consisting of high quality HI and Halpha rotation curves for galaxies with available photometry. These galaxies consist of dwarf, low surface brightness (LSB), and high surface brightness (HSB) galaxies. We apply constraints on the disk, and halo parameters in an attempt to break the degeneracies that exist between the disk and halo and between the halo parameters themselves. With our full set of constraints we find that ALPHA=0 halos provide the best fits for 6 out of 7 galaxies; in agreement with the literature; the exception, NGC 2403 an HSB galaxy, is best fit with ALPHA~1, though ALPHA=0 still pr...

  17. Adiabatic nonlinear waves with trapped particles. III. Wave dynamics

    Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The evolution of adiabatic waves with autoresonant trapped particles is described within the Lagrangian model developed in Paper I, under the assumption that the action distribution of these particles is conserved, and, in particular, that their number within each wavelength is a fixed independent parameter of the problem. One-dimensional nonlinear Langmuir waves with deeply trapped electrons are addressed as a paradigmatic example. For a stationary wave, tunneling into overcritical plasma is explained from the standpoint of the action conservation theorem. For a nonstationary wave, qualitatively different regimes are realized depending on the initial parameter S, which is the ratio of the energy flux carried by trapped particles to that carried by passing particles. At S < 1/2, a wave is stable and exhibits group velocity splitting. At S > 1/2, the trapped-particle modulational instability (TPMI) develops, in contrast with the existing theories of the TPMI yet in agreement with the general sideband instability theory. Remarkably, these effects are not captured by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which is traditionally considered as a universal model of wave self-action but misses the trapped-particle oscillation-center inertia.

  18. Adiabatic self-trapped states in zigzag nanotubes

    Brizhik, L S [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Eremko, A A [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piette, B M A G [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zakrzewski, W J [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-01

    We study the polaron (soliton) states of a quasiparticle (electron, hole, exciton) in a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) model which describes a carbon-type zigzag nanotube structure. In the Hamiltonian of the system we include the electron-phonon interaction that arises from the dependence of both the on-site and the hopping interaction energies on the lattice deformation. We derive, in the adiabatic approximation, the equations for the self-trapped states of a quasiparticle in a zigzag nanotube. We show that the ground state of such a system depends on the strength of the electron-phonon coupling and we find polaron-type solutions with different symmetries. Namely, at a relatively weak coupling a quasiparticle is self-trapped in a quasi-1D polaron state which has an azimuthal symmetry. When the coupling constant exceeds some critical value, the azimuthal symmetry breaks down and the quasiparticle state can be described as a two-dimensional small polaron on the nanotube surface. In the crossover region between the two solutions there is a range of intermediate couplings, in which the two structures, the quasi-1D polaron and the strongly localized 2D polaron, coexist as their energies are very close together. We note that the results of this analytical study are in quantitative agreement with what has recently been observed numerically.

  19. Adiabatic-demagnetization-cooled bolometer system for millimeter continuum astronomy

    An adiabatic-demagnetization-cooled bolometer system was constructed for the detection of astronomical one-millimeter wavelength continuum radiation. By employing chromium potassium sulfate as a refrigeration agent, bolometers were cooled to temperatures below 0.1 K. The bolometers were composed of a gallium-doped germanium thermistor epoxied to a sapphire substrate coated with a bismuth absorbing film. The most-sensitive detector tested had a measured electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 7 x 10-17 watts per root-hertz at a chopping frequency of 20 hertz. This value of the NEP is the lowest yet recorded for a bolometer, and represents a major gain in sensitivity. The theory of both the refrigerator and detector operation is presented and is shown to strongly constrain a useful detector system. In the laboratory, a cryogenic hold time of greater than eight hours has been achieved, with temperatures regulation of 0.1 K to within 14 microK. Such regulation is shown necessary to keep the variations in responsivity of the bolometer within 1%. The measured performance of the refrigerator and bolometer are both found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Spacecraft adaptation of this system is briefly discussed. One-millimeter continuum observations of Cygnus A made with a pumped 3He refrigerator detector system are presented

  20. Adiabaticity Conditions for Volatility Smile in Black-Scholes Pricing Model

    Spadafora, L.; Berman, G. P.; Borgonovi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Our derivation of the distribution function for future returns is based on the risk neutral approach which gives a functional dependence for the European call (put) option price, C(K), given the strike price, K, and the distribution function of the returns. We derive this distribution function using for C(K) a Black-Scholes (BS) expression with volatility in the form of a volatility smile. We show that this approach based on a volatility smile leads to relative minima for the distribution fun...

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a gamma type Stirling engine in non-ideal adiabatic conditions

    Parlak, Nezaket [University of Sakarya, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sakarya (Turkey); University of Applied Sciences Regensburg, Mechanical Engineering Department, PO 120327, Regensburg (Germany); Wagner, Andreas; Elsner, Michael [University of Applied Sciences Regensburg, Mechanical Engineering Department, PO 120327, Regensburg (Germany); Soyhan, Hakan S. [University of Sakarya, Engineering Faculty, Mechanical Engineering Department, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of a gamma type Stirling engine is performed by using a quasi steady flow model based on Urieli and Berchowitz's works. The Stirling engine analysis is performed for five principal fields: compression room, expansion room, cooler, heater and regenerator. The conservation law of the mass and the energy equations are derived for the related sections. A FORTRAN code is developed to solve the derived equations for all process parameters like pressure, temperature, mass flow, dissipation and convection losses for the different spaces (compression space, cooler, regenerator, heater and expansion space) as a function of the crank angle. The developed model gave more precise results for the pressure profile than the models available in the literature. (author)

  2. Deep proton tunneling in the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic limits: Comparison of the quantum and classical treatment of donor-acceptor motion in a protein environment

    Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy; Champion, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical "gating" distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working near

  3. Deep proton tunneling in the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic limits: Comparison of the quantum and classical treatment of donor-acceptor motion in a protein environment

    Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Salna, Bridget; Sage, J. Timothy; Champion, Paul M., E-mail: champ@neu.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems,Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Analytical models describing the temperature dependence of the deep tunneling rate, useful for proton, hydrogen, or hydride transfer in proteins, are developed and compared. Electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic expressions are presented where the donor-acceptor (D-A) motion is treated either as a quantized vibration or as a classical “gating” distribution. We stress the importance of fitting experimental data on an absolute scale in the electronically adiabatic limit, which normally applies to these reactions, and find that vibrationally enhanced deep tunneling takes place on sub-ns timescales at room temperature for typical H-bonding distances. As noted previously, a small room temperature kinetic isotope effect (KIE) does not eliminate deep tunneling as a major transport channel. The quantum approach focuses on the vibrational sub-space composed of the D-A and hydrogen atom motions, where hydrogen bonding and protein restoring forces quantize the D-A vibration. A Duschinsky rotation is mandated between the normal modes of the reactant and product states and the rotation angle depends on the tunneling particle mass. This tunnel-mass dependent rotation contributes substantially to the KIE and its temperature dependence. The effect of the Duschinsky rotation is solved exactly to find the rate in the electronically non-adiabatic limit and compared to the Born-Oppenheimer (B-O) approximation approach. The B-O approximation is employed to find the rate in the electronically adiabatic limit, where we explore both harmonic and quartic double-well potentials for the hydrogen atom bound states. Both the electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic rates are found to diverge at high temperature unless the proton coupling includes the often neglected quadratic term in the D-A displacement from equilibrium. A new expression is presented for the electronically adiabatic tunnel rate in the classical limit for D-A motion that should be useful to experimentalists working

  4. Analysis of double hybrid density-functionals along the adiabatic connection

    Cornaton, Yann; Teale, Andrew M; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We present a graphical analysis of the adiabatic connections underlying double-hybrid density-functional methods that employ second-order perturbation theory. Approximate adiabatic connection formulae relevant to the construction of these functionals are derived and compared directly with those calculated using accurate ab initio methods. The discontinuous nature of the approximate adiabatic integrands is emphasized, the discontinuities occurring at interaction strengths which mark the transitions between regions that are: (i) described predominantly by second- order perturbation theory (ii) described by a mixture of density-functional and second-order perturbation theory contributions and (iii) described purely by density-functional theory. Numerical examples are presented for a selection of small molecular systems and van der Waals dimers. The impacts of commonly used approximations in each of the three sections of the adiabatic connection are discussed along with possible routes for the development of impr...

  5. Perturbation to Noether Symmetry and Noether adiabatic Invariants of Discrete Mechanico-Electrical Systems

    WANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    Perturbation to Noether symmetry of discrete mechanico-electrical systems on an uniform lattice is investigated.First, Noether theorem of a system is presented. Secondly, the criterion of perturbation to Noether symmetry of the system is given. Based on the definition of adiabatic invariants, Noether adiabatic invariants of the system are obtained. Finally, An example is given to support these results.%@@ Perturbation to Noether symmetry of discrete mechanico-electrical systems on an uniform lattice is investigated.First, Noether theorem of a system is presented.Secondly , the criterion of perturbation to Noether symmetry of the system is given.Based on the definition of adiabatic invariants, Noether adiabatic invariants of the system are obtained .Finally, An example is given to support these results.

  6. DESIGN OF TWO-PHASE SINUSOIDAL POWER CLOCK AND CLOCKED TRANSMISSION GATE ADIABATIC LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Wang Pengjun; Yu Junjun

    2007-01-01

    First the research is conducted on the design of the two-phase sinusoidal power clock generator in this paper. Then the design of the new adiabatic logic circuit adopting the two-phase sinusoidal power clocks-Clocked Transmission Gate Adiabatic Logic (CTGAL) circuit is presented. This circuit makes use of the clocked transmission gates to sample the input signals, then the output loads are charged and discharged in a fully adiabatic manner by using bootstrapped N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) latch structure.Finally, with the parameters of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.25 μm CMOS device, the transient energy consumption of CTGAL, Bootstrap Charge-Recovery Logic (BCRL)and Pass-transistor Adiabatic Logic (PAL) including their clock generators is simulated. The simulation result indicates that CTGAL circuit has the characteristic of remarkably low energy consumption.

  7. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations in red giants: Departures from the quasi-adiabatic approximation

    Barban C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler measurements reveal us that the amplitudes of solar-like oscillations detected in red giant stars scale from stars to stars in a characteristic way. This observed scaling relation is not yet fully understood but constitutes potentially a powerful diagnostic about mode physics. Quasi-adiabatic theoretical scaling relations in terms of mode amplitudes result in systematic and large differences with the measurements performed for red giant stars. The use of a non-adiabatic intensity-velocity relation derived from a non-adiabatic pulsation code significantly reduces the discrepancy with the CoRoT measurements. The origin of the remaining difference is still unknown. Departure from adiabatic eigenfunction is a very likely explanation that is investigated in the present work using a 3D hydrodynamical model of the surface layers of a representative red giant star.

  8. A counterexample and a modification to the adiabatic approximation theorem in quantum mechanics

    Gingold, H.

    1991-01-01

    A counterexample to the adiabatic approximation theorem is given when degeneracies are present. A formulation of an alternative version is proposed. A complete asymptotic decomposition for n dimensional self-adjoint Hamiltonian systems is restated and used.

  9. Muonic molecules as three-body Coulomb problem in adiabatic approximation

    The three-body Coulomb problem is treated within the framework of the hyperspherical adiabatic approach. The surface functions are expanded into Faddeev-type components in order to ensure the equivalent representation of all possible two-body contributions. It is shown that this decomposition reduces the numerical effort considerably. The remaining radial equations are solved both in the extreme and the uncoupled adiabatic approximation to determine the binding energies of the systems (dtμ) and (d3Heμ). Whereas the ground state is described very well in the uncoupled adiabatic approximation, the excited states should be treated within the coupled adiabatic approximation to obtain good agreement with variational calculations. (orig.)

  10. Area and entropy spectra of black holes via an adiabatic invariant

    Liu Cheng-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    By considering and using an adiabatic invariant for black holes,the area and entropy spectra of static sphericallysymmetric black holes are investigated.Without using quasi-normal modes of black holes,equally-spaced area and entropy spectra are derived by only utilizing the adiabatic invariant.The spectra for non-charged and charged black holes are calculated,respectively.All these results are consistent with the original Bekenstein spectra.

  11. On the Quantitative Evaluation of Adiabatic Shear Banding Sensitivity of Various Titanium Alloys

    Mazeau, C.; Beylat, L.; Longère, P.; Louvigné, P.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium alloys exhibit attractive ballistic performances due to their low density and their high mechanical properties. They are unfortunately very sensitive to adiabatic shear localization. This study aims to determine an empirical parameter which allows to characterise the sensitivity to the adiabatic shear banding of different grades of titanium alloys. Dynamic punching tests by split Hopkinson pressure bar are performed on disc shaped specimen to obtain shear bands. This article deals wi...

  12. Adiabatic Low-Pass J Filters for Artifact Suppression in Heteronuclear NMR

    Meier, Sebastian; Benie, Andrew J; Duus, Jens Øllgaard;

    2009-01-01

    NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts.......NMR artifact purging: Modern NMR experiments depend on efficient coherence transfer pathways for their sensitivity and on suppression of undesired pathways leading to artifacts for their spectral clarity. A novel robust adiabatic element suppresses hard-to-get-at artifacts....

  13. Effect of a Magneto-hydrodynamic Natural Convection in a Square Cavity with Elliptic Shape Adiabatic Block

    M. Jahirul Haque Munshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer in a square cavity filled with an electric conductive fluid with elliptic shape adiabatic block are studied numerically. The governing differential equations are solved by using finite element method (weighted-residual method. The horizontal and top wall assumed to be adiabatic. The left wall is kept heated Th and right wall is kept at cold Tc . Also all the walls are assumed to be no-slip condition. Numerical predictions are obtained for a wide range of Rayleigh number (Ra and different Hartmann number (Ha at the Prandtl number 0.733. The numerical results show that the effect of the magnetic field is to decrease the rate of convective heat transfer and the average Nusselt number decreases as Hartmann number increases. The results are presented for Rayleigh number from 104 up to 106 in form of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt number for various Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers.

  14. Performance analysis of a complete adiabatic logic system driven by the proposed power clock generator

    We analyze the energy performance of a complete adiabatic circuit/system including the Power Clock Generator (PCG) at the 90 nm CMOS technology node. The energy performance in terms of the conversion efficiency of the PCG is extensively carried out under the variations of supply voltage, process corner and the driver transistor's width. We propose an energy-efficient singe cycle control circuit based on the two-stage comparator for the synchronous charge recovery sinusoidal power clock generator (PCG). The proposed PCG is used to drive the 4-bit adiabatic Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) and their simulation results are compared with the adiabatic RCA driven by the reported PCG. We have also simulated the logically equivalent static CMOS RCA circuit to compare the energy saving of adiabatic and non-adiabatic logic circuits. In the clock frequency range from 25 MHz to 1GHz, the proposed PCG gives a maximum conversion efficiency of 56.48%. This research work shows how the design of an efficient PCG increases the energy saving of adiabatic logic. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Adiabatic Coherence Transfer in Magnetic Resonance of Homonuclear Scalar-Coupled Systems

    Kurur, N. D.; Bodenhausen, G.

    By analogy to heteronuclear systems, it is shown that coherence can be transferred adiabatically in the rotating frame between two selected spins I and S belonging to a homonuclear network of scalar-coupled spins. In contrast to cross polarization with constant radiofrequency field amplitudes, the transfer function obtained with adiabatic methods depends in a monotonic, nonoscillatory manner on the duration of the transfer interval. The efficiency of the transfer does not depend on the magnitude of the scalar coupling constant JIS, although it can be affected by relaxation and by couplings JIR and JSR to further spins R. Three methods are investigated: (i) adiabatic demagnetization of spin I in the rotating frame followed by observation of the resulting J-ordered state, (ii) adiabatic demagnetization of spin I in the rotating frame followed by adiabatic remagnetization of spin S, and (iii) adiabatic transfer where spins I and S are subjected simultaneously to time-dependent spin-locking fields. In all three cases, the optimum shape of the time dependence of the radiofrequency field amplitudes is discussed, with the help of a geometric interpretation of cross polarization.

  16. An Efficient Adiabatic CMOS Circuit Design Approach for Low Power Applications

    Ashish Raghuwanshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in CMOS circuit design is the large amount of power being dissipated in the circuits. Energy recovering circuitry based on adiabatic principles is a relatively new technique used to implement low power dissipating circuits. By recycling the charge at capacitive nodes in the circuit, adiabatic logic families can achieve very low power dissipation. In this paper we had design and simulate the Inverter, Two-Input Nand gate, Two-Input Nor gate, Two-Input Xor gate, 2:1 Multiplexer on the basis of CMOS Logic and Adiabatic Switching logic using 180nm CMOS technology in Cadence design environment. Two adiabatic families are used in this work, Oneis the Positive Feedback Adiabatic Logic (PFAL and the other is the Efficient Charge Recovery Logic (ECRL Finally, the analysis of the average dynamic power dissipation with respect to the frequency and the load capacitance was done to show the amount of power dissipated by the CMOS, PFAL and ECRL family. The results shows that power saving of adiabatic circuit can reach more than 90% as compare to conventional static CMOS logic

  17. Commercial concepts for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Freund, Sebastian [General Electric Global Research, Garching (Germany); Schainker, Robert [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Moreau, Robert [General Electric Oil and Gas, Florence (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) systems offer the potential for efficient large-scale energy storage, almost approaching values typical for pumped hydro. In an ACAES plant, the heat of compression is stored and utilized during the expansion of the air instead of firing natural gas like in commercial CAES. However, no ACAES plants have been commercialized due to challenges with respect to the cost and the heat storage technology. In this study, conducted by EPRI, GE Global Research and GE Oil and Gas, several concepts for ACAES plants are analyzed and their efficiency, complexity and technical risk compared. The components selected for the plants are available either off-the-shelf or near-commercial within a short development time and without the high costs associated with developing a new generation of large custom-made compressors and turbines. The most promising concept for near-term commercialization and low costs turns out to be a two-stage, low-temperature ACAES system. A regenerative (solid) and a recuperative (liquid) thermal storage system have been designed and analyzed for this concept, with the result that the liquid-recuperative system offers a much lower cost and comparable performance. Performance and cost targets for the concepts are 100 MW output per plant for 6 h with a round-trip efficiency above 60% and a capital cost of about $1000/kW. Selections of the turbomachinery for the compression and expansion train from General Electric Oil and Gas are presented for several plant options along with their expansion power range (25..100 MW), round-trip efficiency (66%..70%) and preliminary capital cost estimates (1100..1200 $/kW).

  18. Random matrix approach to quantum adiabatic evolution algorithms

    We analyze the power of the quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm (QAA) for solving random computationally hard optimization problems within a theoretical framework based on random matrix theory (RMT). We present two types of driven RMT models. In the first model, the driving Hamiltonian is represented by Brownian motion in the matrix space. We use the Brownian motion model to obtain a description of multiple avoided crossing phenomena. We show that nonadiabatic corrections in the QAA are due to the interaction of the ground state with the 'cloud' formed by most of the excited states, confirming that in driven RMT models, the Landau-Zener scenario of pairwise level repulsions is not relevant for the description of nonadiabatic corrections. We show that the QAA has a finite probability of success in a certain range of parameters, implying a polynomial complexity of the algorithm. The second model corresponds to the standard QAA with the problem Hamiltonian taken from the RMT Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE). We show that the level dynamics in this model can be mapped onto the dynamics in the Brownian motion model. For this reason, the driven GUE model can also lead to polynomial complexity of the QAA. The main contribution to the failure probability of the QAA comes from the nonadiabatic corrections to the eigenstates, which only depend on the absolute values of the transition amplitudes. Due to the mapping between the two models, these absolute values are the same in both cases. Our results indicate that this 'phase irrelevance' is the leading effect that can make both the Markovian- and GUE-type QAAs successful

  19. Influence of Temperature and Pressure Change on Adiabatic and Isothermal Methanation Processes

    Porubova, Jekaterina; Klemm, Marco; Kiendl, Isabel; Valters, Karlis; Markova, Darja; Repele, Mara; Bazbauers, Gatis

    2012-09-01

    Energy plans of many countries anticipate an increased use of biomethane for energy supply, i.e., in power and heat production as well as in the transport sector. Existing infrastructure of natural gas storage, supply and application provides a good platform to facilitate transfer to biomethane utilization on a larger scale. One key element of the biomethane system is the upgrade of the biomass-derived synthesis gas originating from different sources, to a quality of natural gas (SNG - Synthesis Natural Gas) via the methanation process for further injection into the natural gas grid.. The maximisation of efficiency of the methanation process is of critical importance in order to make biomethane technology viable for wider application. The aim of the study was to improve efficiency of the methanation process by finding the optimum temperatures and pressure. Theoretical modelling of adiabatic and isothermal methanation processes by using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations was introduced as a method for the study. The results show the impact of temperature and pressure changes on the overall efficiency of methane production. It can be concluded from the study that knowledge about the relation between temperature, pressure and the efficiency of the methanation process makes it possible to optimize the process under various biomass synthesized gas input conditions.

  20. Multidimensional and three-body inverse scattering problems in the adiabatic representation

    In the adiabatic representation, the multidimensional and three-body inverse scattering problems are discussed on the basis of consistent formulation of both the multichannel inverse problem for gauge systems of equations describing ''slow'' dynamics of the system, and the parametric one for ''fast'' dynamics. The method of constructing a wide class of exactly solvable multidimensional models is investigated by comparing the Bargmann potentials with the parametric family of inverse problems and systems of equations with covariant derivatives. A problem introducing an extra matrix of scalar potentials so as to conserve supersymmetry and thus conditions for topological effects is studied. A direct generalization of the Witten supersymmetric quantum mechanics for gauge equations with additional scalar potentials is given. Coupling of supersymmetry and geometric phases and the influence of additional scalar potentials under the degeneracy of the ground state, and as a result under topological effects, are discussed. Algebraic Bargmann and Darboux transformations for equations of a more general form than the Schroedinger ones with an additional functional dependence (h(r)) in the right-hand side of equations are constructed. (orig.)

  1. Flow regime identification and analysis in adiabatic upward two-phase flow in an annulus geometry

    The main objective of this work is to identify and analyze two-phase flow regimes in adiabatic upward flow conditions in an concentric annulus geometry with an inner diameter of 19.1 mm and an outer diameter of 38.1 mm, at three axial locations (z/DH: 51.5, 148.8, 229.9). In this regard, both Global Flow Regimes (GFRs) and Local Flow Regimes (LFRs) have been identified. In both cases, neural networks techniques have been used to obtain objective identification results. However, the flow regime indicator will be different depending on the type of flow regime: the cumulative probability distribution function (CPDF) of the area averaged void fraction obtained by impedance meters in the case of GFRs and the CPDF of the bubble chord length measured by a four-sensor conductivity probe in the case of LFRs. The GFRs maps have been compared with those obtained in previous research works and flow regime transitions existing correlations. The LFRs have been identified in five radial locations. The LFRs combinations maps have been compared with the GFRs and those combinations obtained in round pipes. (author)

  2. Thermal Behavior, Specific Heat Capacity and Adiabatic Time-to-explosion of GDN

    YANG Xing-kun; XU Kang-zhen; ZHAO Feng-qi; YANG Xin; WANG Han; SONG Ji-rong; WANG Yao-yu

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, [(NH2)2C=NH2]+N(NO2)2-(GDN), was prepared by mixing ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and guanidine hydrochloride in water. The thermal behavior of GDN was studied under the non-isothermal conditions with DSC and TG/DTG methods. The apparent activation energy(E) and pre-exponential constant(A) of the exothermic decomposition stage of GDN were 118.75 kJ/mol and 1010.86 s-1, respectively. The critical temperature of the thermal explosion(Tb) of GDN was 164.09 ℃. The specific heat capacity of GDN was determined with the Micro-DSC method and the theoretical calculation method, and the standard molar specific heat capacity was 234.76J·mol-1·K-1 at 298.15K.The adiabatic time-to-explosion of GDN was also calculated to be a certain value between 404.80 and 454.95 s.

  3. Scaling laws and deformation mechanisms of nanoporous copper under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression

    A series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the scaling laws and the related atomistic deformation mechanisms of Cu monocrystal samples containing randomly placed nanovoids under adiabatic uniaxial strain compression. At onset of yielding, plastic deformation is accommodated by dislocations emitted from void surfaces as shear loops. The collapse of voids are observed by continuous emissions of dislocations from void surfaces and their interactions with further plastic deformation. The simulation results also suggest that the effect modulus, the yield stress and the energy aborption density of samples under uniaxial strain are linearly proportional to the relative density ρ. Moreover, the yield stress, the average flow stress and the energy aborption density of samples with the same relative density show a strong dependence on the void diameter d, expressed by exponential relations with decay coefficients much higher than -1/2. The corresponding atomistic mechanisms for scaling laws of the relative density and the void diameter were also presented. The present results should provide insights for understanding deformation mechanisms of nanoporous metals under extreme conditions

  4. Extended adiabatic blast waves and a model of the soft X-ray background

    Cox, D. P.; Anderson, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that much of the soft X-ray background observed in X-ray astronomy might arise from being inside a very large supernova blast wave propagating in the hot, low-density component of the interstellar (ISM) medium. An investigation is conducted to study this possibility. An analytic approximation is presented for the nonsimilar time evolution of the dynamic structure of an adiabatic blast wave generated by a point explosion in a homogeneous ambient medium. A scheme is provided for evaluating the electron-temperature distribution for the evolving structure, and a procedure is presented for following the state of a given fluid element through the evolving dynamical and thermal structures. The results of the investigation show that, if the solar system were located within a blast wave, the Wisconsin soft X-ray rocket payload would measure the B and C band count rates that it does measure, provided conditions correspond to the values calculated in the investigation.

  5. A small sample-size automated adiabatic calorimeter from 70 to 580 K——Molar heat capacities of α-Al2O3

    谭志诚; 张际标; 孟霜鹤; 李莉

    1999-01-01

    An automatic adiabatic calorimeter for measuring heat capacities in the temperature range 70—580 K, equipped with a small sample cell of 7.4 cm~3 in the internal volume has been developed. In order to obtain a good adiabatic condition of the calorimeter at high temperature, the calorimeter was surrounded in sequence by two adiabatic shields, three radiation shields and an auxiliary temperature-controlled sheath. The main body of the cell made of copper and the lid made of brass are silver-soldered and the cell is sealed with a copper screw cap. A sealing gasket made of Pb-Sn alloy is put between the cap and the lid to ensure a high vacuum sealing of the cell in the whole experimental temperature range. All the leads are insulated and fixed with W30-11 varnish, thus a good electric insulation is obtained at high temperature. All the experimental data, including those for energy and temperature are collected and processed automatically with a personal computer using a predetermined program. To verify the

  6. Magnetite Nucleation in Mantle Xenoliths During Quasi-Adiabatic Ascent

    Walsh, K. B., Jr.; Filiberto, J.; Friedman, S. A.; Knafelc, J.; Conder, J. A.; Ferre, E. C.; Khakhalova, E.; Feinberg, J. M.; Neal, C. R.; Ionov, D. A.; Hernandez, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Can magnetite be a stable phase in the lithospheric mantle? Equilibrium-based thermodynamic calculations and petrologic models predict that it should not be stable. Studies of mantle xenoliths during the 1980s concluded that even though there were rare exceptions, mantle rocks do not host sufficient concentrations of ferromagnetic minerals and are too hot to allow any magnetic remanence. Thus, conventional wisdom dictates that the Moho constitutes a fundamental magnetic boundary. Yet, growing evidence from a more complete global mantle xenolith survey indicates the presence of ferromagnetic minerals in mantle materials. Examination of mantle xenoliths devoid of serpentinization and meteoric alteration show the presence of ferromagnetic minerals within primary silicate mineral phases, including olivine, pyroxene, and spinel. Nucleation of these magnetic minerals could occur at three different stages: in-situ in the mantle, upon ascent, and at the surface. This study reports the results of laboratory-based quasi-adiabatic decompression experiments that aim to simulate the ascent of mantle xenoliths through the lithosphere and test if magnetite growth is promoted during the process. The starting material for these experiments is San Carlos olivine, which holds a magnetic remanence of less than ~10-10 A/m2-1kg2 (the detection limit of the vibrating sample magnetometer). This low starting remanence will allow us to identify whether new magnetic minerals are formed during the decompression experiments using either vibrating sample magnetometry or SQUID-based rock magnetometers. All olivine grains in these experiments were hand-picked under a light microscope in an effort to avoid the inclusion of grains with spurious magnetic minerals. Olivine powders from these carefully selected grains will be used to represent average mantle olivine compositions (Fo90-Fo92). Experiments will start at 1 GPa and be decompressed to 0.3 GPa over 60 hrs at constant temperature (1200° C

  7. Towards 1H-MRSI of the human brain at 7T with slice-selective adiabatic refocusing pulses

    Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Heerschap, Arend; Dennis W.J. Klomp

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibilities of proton spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) of the human brain at 7 Tesla with adiabatic refocusing pulses. Materials and methods A combination of conventional slice selective excitation and two pairs of slice selective adiabatic refocusing pulses (semi-LASER) results in the formation of an echo from a localized volume. Depending on the used radio frequency (rf) coil efficiency and available rf power, the duration of the adiabatic full passage pulses (AFPs...

  8. Landau-Zener evolution under weak measurement : manifestation of the Zeno effect under diabatic and adiabatic measurement protocols

    Novelli, Anna; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nitzan, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution and the asymptotic outcome of a Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZ) process under continuous weak non-selective measurement is analyzed. We compare two measurement protocols in which the populations of either the adiabatic or the non-adiabatic levels are (continuously and weakly) monitored. The weak measurement formalism, described using a Gaussian Kraus operator, leads to a time evolution characterized by a Markovian dephasing process, which, in the non-adiabatic measu...

  9. Fluorescence excitation spectra of all-trans-1,6-diphenylhexatriene conformers: Adiabatic conformer equilibration in the 21Ag state

    Turek, Andrzej M.; Krishna, Tallapragada S. R.; Brela, Mateusz; Saltiel, Jack

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence spectra of all-trans-1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in n-hexadecane at 99 °C by varying λexc in the 294-404 nm range. Resolution of this spectral matrix into s-trans,s-trans and s-cis,s-trans conformer fluorescence spectra yields the λexc dependence of fractional contributions which are converted to conformer specific fluorescence excitation spectra. Conformer absorption spectra obtained from the fluorescence excitation spectra are remarkably similar, but differ significantly from absorption spectra derived from a spectrothermal absorption spectral matrix measured in n-alkanes under isopolarizability conditions. The results reveal substantial conformer equilibration in the excited state. Theory is consistent with adiabatic conformer equilibration in the 21Ag state.

  10. Design of High Speed Low Power 15-4 Compressor Using Complementary Energy Path Adiabatic Logic

    K.V.S.S. Aditya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a novel high speed low power 15-4 Compressor for high speed multiplication applications using single phase clocked quasi static adiabatic logic namely CEPAL (Complementary Energy Path Adiabatic Logic. The main advantage of this static adiabatic logic is the minimization of the 1/2CVth2 energy dissipation occurring every cycle in the multi-phase power-clocked adiabatic circuits. The proposed Compressor uses bit sliced architecture to exploit the parallelism in the computation of sum of 15 input bits by five full adders. The newly proposed Compressor is also centered around the design of a novel 5-3 Compressor that attempts to minimize the stage delays of a conventional 5-3 Compressor that is designed using single bit full adder and half adder architectures. Firstly, the performance characteristics of CEPAL 15-3 Compressor with 14 transistor and 10 transistor adder designs are compared against the conventional static CMOS logic counterpart to identify its adiabatic power advantage. The analyses are carried out using the industry standard Tanner EDA design environment using 250 nm technology libraries. The results prove that CEPAL 14T 15-4 Compressor is 68.11% power efficient, 75.31% faster over its static CMOS counterpart.

  11. Selective excitation in a three-state system using a hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic interaction

    Song, Yunheung; Jo, Hanlae; Ahn, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    The chirped-pulse interaction in the adiabatic coupling regime induces cyclic permutations of the energy states of a three-level system in the $V$-type configuration, which process is known as the three-level chirped rapid adiabatic passage. Here we show that a spectral hole in a chirped pulse can turn on and off one of the two adiabatic crossing points of this process, reducing the system to an effective two-level system. The given hybrid adiabatic-nonadiabatic transition results in selective excitation of the three-level system, controlled by the laser intensity and spectral position of the hole as well as the sign of the chirp parameter. Experiments are performed with shaped femtosecond laser pulses and the three lowest energy-levels (5S$_{1/2}$, 5P$_{1/2}$, and 5P$_{3/2}$) of atomic rubidium ($^{85}$Rb), of which the result shows good agreement with the theoretically analyzed dynamics. The result indicates that our method, being combined with the ordinary chirped-RAP, implements an adiabatic transitions b...

  12. Adiabatic density surface, neutral density surface, potential density surface, and mixing path

    HUANG Rui-xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, adiabatic density surface, neutral density surface and potential density surface are compared. The adiabatic density surface is defined as the surface on which a water parcellcan move adiabatically, without changing its potential temperature and salinity. For a water parcelltaken at a given station and pressure level, the corresponding adiabatic density surface can be determined through simple calculations. This family of surface is neutrally buoyant in the world ocean, and different from other surfaces that are not truly neutrally buoyant. In order to explore mixing path in the ocean, a mixing ratio m is introduced, which is defined as the portion of potential temperature and salinity of a water parcellthat has exchanged with the environment during a segment of migration in the ocean. Two extreme situations of mixing path in the ocean are m=0 (no mixing), which is represented by the adiabatic density curve, and m=1, where the original information is completely lost through mixing. The latter is represented by the neutral density curve. The reality lies in between, namely, 0

  13. Adiabatic many-body state preparation and information transfer in quantum dot arrays

    Farooq, Umer; Bayat, Abolfazl; Mancini, Stefano; Bose, Sougato

    2015-04-01

    Quantum simulation of many-body systems are one of the most interesting tasks of quantum technology. Among them is the preparation of a many-body system in its ground state when the vanishing energy gap makes the cooling mechanisms ineffective. Adiabatic theorem, as an alternative to cooling, can be exploited for driving the many-body system to its ground state. In this paper, we study two most common disorders in quantum dot arrays, namely exchange coupling fluctuations and hyperfine interaction, in adiabatic preparation of ground state in such systems. We show that the adiabatic ground-state preparation is highly robust against those disorder effects making it a good analog simulator. Moreover, we also study the adiabatic quantum information transfer, using singlet-triplet states, across a spin chain. In contrast to ground-state preparation the transfer mechanism is highly affected by disorder and in particular, the hyperfine interaction is very destructive for the performance. This suggests that for communication tasks across such arrays adiabatic evolution is not as effective and quantum quenches could be preferable.

  14. An adiabatic apparatus to establish the spontaneous combustion propensity of coal

    Gouws, M.J.; Gibbon, G.J.; Wade, L.; Phillips, H.R. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1991-12-01

    An adiabatic calorimeter has been designed to enable the spontaneous combustion propensity of coal to be established. The experiment was designed to run unattended, with a personal computer being used for measurement and control functions. All measurements are stored on a data diskette while the experiment is in progress. The calorimeter was designed to be run in both a rising temperature mode and an incubation mode. Various indicators of self-heating potential, such as total temperature rise, initial rate of heating, minimum self-heating temperature, and kinetic constants can be investigated. Results obtained from the adiabatic tests will be compared with the results of crossing-point temperature determinations and differential thermal analysis (DTA) tests for the same coals, with a view to formulating a mathematically consistent spontaneous combustion liability index. This paper describes the major components of the adiabatic calorimeter. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network

    Goto, Hayato

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence.

  16. Charge exchange transition probability for collisions between unlike ions and atoms within the adiabatic approximation

    Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A simple formula for the transition probability for electron exchange between unlike ions and atoms is established within the adiabatic approximation by employing the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. The formula also involves an adiabatic parameter, introduced by Massey, and thus the difficulties arising from the internal energy defect and the adiabatic approximation are avoided. Specific reactions Li(+++) + H to Li(++) + H(+) and Be(4+) + H to Be(3+) + H(+) are considered as examples. The calculated capture cross section results of the present work are compared with the experimental data and with the calculation of other authors over the velocity range of 10(7) cm/sec to 10(8) cm/sec.

  17. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-02-01

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities.

  18. New Theory on Fully Nonlinear Adiabatic TWM in Terms of Elliptic Functions

    Qian, Shunrong

    2016-01-01

    I'm presenting a new elegant formulation of the theory of fully nonlinear adiabatic TWM (FNA-TWM) in terms of elliptic function here. Note that the linear case of SFG and DFG in the undepleted pump approximation described by the FVH representation has been exploited several years ago. For the sake of completeness, I present the pseudo-FVH representation to describe OPA. Moreover, I'm trying to display an overview of TWM processes and show that both the linear cases, the linear adiabatic SFG(DFG) and the linear OPA, are only the special cases of my theory. Finally I also point out that the geometric image of the so-called adiabatic basis acts as the geodesic line of the generalized Bloch sphere.

  19. Adiabatic mixed-field orientation of ground-state-selected carbonyl sulfide molecules

    Kienitz, Jens S; Mullins, Terry; Długołęcki, Karol; González-Férez, Rosario; Küpper, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated strong adiabatic mixed-field orientation of carbonyl sulfide molecules (OCS) in their absolute ground state of $\\text{N}_{\\text{up}}/\\text{N}_{\\text{tot}}=0.882$. OCS was oriented in combined non-resonant laser and static electric fields inside a two-plate velocity map imaging spectrometer. The transition from non-adiabatic to adiabatic orientation for the rotational ground state was studied by varying the applied laser and static electric field. Above static electric field strengths of 10~kV/cm and laser intensities of $10^{11} \\text{W/cm}^2$ the observed degree of orientation reached a plateau. These results are in good agreement with computational solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation.

  20. Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices

    Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-10-01

    Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands.

  1. Note on Adiabatic Modes and Ward Identities In A Closed Universe

    Xiao, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    As statements regarding the soft limit of cosmological correlation functions, consistency relations are known to exist in any flat FRW universe. In this letter we explore the possibility of finding such relations in a spatially closed universe, where the soft limit $\\textbf{q}\\rightarrow 0$ does not exist in any rigorous sense. Despite the absence of spatial infinity of the spatial slices, we find the adiabatic modes and their associated consistency relations in a toy universe with background topology $R\\times S^2$. Flat FRW universe adiabatic modes are recovered via taking the large radius limit $R\\gg \\mathcal{H}^{-1}$, for which we are living in a small local patch of Hubble size on the sphere. It is shown that both dilation and translation adiabatic modes in the local patch are recovered by a global dilation on the sphere, acting at different places.

  2. The adiabatic limit of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function

    Eich, Florian G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a procedure to analyze the relation between the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We define the adiabatic limit as the limit of infinite nuclear mass. To this end, we introduce a unit system that singles out the dependence on the electron-nuclear mass ratio of each term appearing in the equations of the exact factorization. We observe how non-adiabatic effects induced by the coupling to the nuclear motion affect electronic properties and we analyze the leading term, connecting it to the classical nuclear momentum. Its dependence on the mass ratio is tested numerically on a model proton- coupled electron transfer in different non-adiabatic regimes.

  3. The adiabatic limit of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function

    Eich, F. G.; Agostini, Federica

    2016-08-01

    We propose a procedure to analyze the relation between the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We define the adiabatic limit as the limit of infinite nuclear mass. To this end, we introduce a unit system that singles out the dependence on the electron-nuclear mass ratio of each term appearing in the equations of the exact factorization. We observe how non-adiabatic effects induced by the coupling to the nuclear motion affect electronic properties and we analyze the leading term, connecting it to the classical nuclear momentum. Its dependence on the mass ratio is tested numerically on a model of proton-coupled electron transfer in different non-adiabatic regimes.

  4. Wave front adaptation using a deformable mirror for adiabatic nanofocusing along an ultrasharp gold taper

    Schmidt, Slawa; Piglosiewicz, Bjoern; Esmann, Martin; Becker, Simon F; Yoo, Kyungwan; Park, Namkyoo; Lienau, Christoph; Gross, Petra

    2013-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate the use of an adaptive wave front optimization scheme for enhancing the efficiency of adiabatic nanofocusing of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves along an ultrasharp conical gold taper. Adiabatic nanofocusing is an emerging and promising scheme for controlled focusing of far field light into nanometric volumes. It comprises three essential steps: SPP excitation by coupling far field light to an SPP waveguide, SPP propagation along the waveguide and adiabatic SPP nanofocusing towards a geometric singularity. For commonly used complex waveguide geometries, such as, e.g., conical metal tapers, a realistic modeling and efficiency optimization is challenging. Here, we use a deformable mirror to adaptively control the wave front of the incident far field light. We demonstrate an eight-fold enhancement in nanofocusing efficiency and analyze the shape of the resulting optimized wave front. The introduced wave front optimization scheme is of general interest for guiding and controlling ...

  5. Non-adiabatic dynamics in 10Be with the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model

    Ito, M

    2006-01-01

    The alpha+6He low-energy reactions and the structural changes of 10Be in the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model are studied by the generalized two-center cluster model with the Kohn-Hulthen-Kato variation method. It is found that, in the inelastic scattering to the alpha+6He(2+) channel, characteristic enhancements are expected as the results of the parity-dependent non-adiabatic dynamics. In the positive parity state, the enhancement originates from the no-adiabatic eigenstate generated by the radial excitation of the relative motion between two alpha-cores. On the other hand, the enhancement in the negative parity state is induced by the Landau-Zener level-crossing. These non-adiabatic processes are discussed in connection to the formation of the inversion doublet in the compound system of 10Be.

  6. Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network.

    Goto, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence. PMID:26899997

  7. Adiabatic Improved Efficient Charge Recovery Logic for Low Power CMOS Logic

    Prof. Mukesh Tiwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Power dissipation becoming a limiting factor in VLSI circuits and systems. Due to relatively high complexity of VLSI systems used in various applications, the power dissipation in CMOS inverter, arises from its switching activity, which is mainly influenced by the supply voltage and effective capacitance. The low-power requirements of present electronic systems have challenged the scientific research towards the study of technological, architectural and circuital solutions that allow a reduction of the energy dissipated by an electronic circuit. One of the main causes of energy dissipation in CMOS circuits is due to the charging and discharging of the node capacitances of the circuits, present both as a load and as parasitic. Such part of the total power dissipated by a circuit is called dynamic power. In order to reduce the dynamic power, an alternative approach to the traditional techniques of power consumption reduction, named adiabatic switching technique is use. Adiabatic switching is an approach to low-power digital circuits that differs fundamentally from other practical low-power techniques. The term adiabatic comes from thermodynamics, used to describe a process in which there is no exchange of heat with the environment. When adiabatic switching is used, the signal energies stored on circuit capacitances may be recycled instead of dissipated as heat. The adiabatic switching technique can achieve very low power dissipation, but at the expense of circuit complexity. Adiabatic logic offers a way to reuse the energy stored in the load capacitors rather than the traditional way of discharging the load capacitors to the ground and wasting this energy. Power reduction is achieved by recovering the energy in the recover phase of the supply clock.

  8. One approach to adiabatic population transfer by Hueckel molecular orbital theory

    To achieve the selective population transfer to the specific excited state of molecules, the delayed-pulse method developed in the three-level system is more attractive and effective than the ordinary π-pulses method. However, two pulses in this adiabatic method are in a counterintuitive order and are significantly overlapped, so that it is very difficult to understand the physical meanings of the dynamical process. Here the authors develop the effective method to understand the adiabatic processes in a pictorial and easy way by using the concept of the Hueckel molecular orbital theory. Then the authors investigate the complete population transfer in the four-level system in detail

  9. The innocuousness of adiabatic instabilities in coupled scalar field-dark matter models

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Non-minimally coupled scalar field models suffer of unstable growing modes at the linear perturbation level. The nature of these instabilities depends on the dynamical state of the scalar field. In particular in systems which admit adiabatic solutions, large scale instabilities are suppressed by the slow-roll dynamics of the field. Here we review these results and present a preliminary likelihood data analysis suggesting that along adiabatic solutions coupled models with coupling of order of gravitational strength can provide viable cosmological scenarios satisfying constraints from SN Ia, CMB and large scale structure data.

  10. Protecting and accelerating adiabatic passage with time-delayed pulse sequences

    Sampedro, Pablo; Sola, Ignacio R

    2016-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of two-photon electronic absorption with femtosecond pulses in Na$_2$ we show that: i) it is possible to avoid the characteristic saturation or dumped Rabi oscillations in the yield of absorption by time-delaying the laser pulses; ii) it is possible to accelerate the onset of adiabatic passage by using the vibrational coherence starting in a wave packet; and iii) it is possible to prepare the initial wave packet in order to achieve full state-selective transitions with broadband pulses. The findings can be used, for instance, to achieve ultrafast adiabatic passage by light-induced potentials and understand its intrinsic robustness.

  11. Local T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding and adiabatic inversion pulses in porous media.

    Vashaee, S; Newling, B; Balcom, B J

    2015-12-01

    Band selective adiabatic inversion radio frequency pulses were employed for multi-slice T2 distribution measurements in porous media samples. Multi-slice T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding has an inherent sensitivity advantage over slice-by-slice local T2 measurements. The slice selection process is rendered largely immune to B1 variation by employing hyperbolic secant adiabatic inversion pulses, which simultaneously invert spins in several well-defined slices. While Hadamard encoding is well established for local spectroscopy, the current work is the first use of Hadamard encoding for local T2 measurement. PMID:26580063

  12. How do quantum numbers generally vary in the adiabatic transformation of an ideal gas?

    T. Yarman; A. L. Kholmetskii

    2011-01-01

    We continue to analyse the known law of adiabatic transformation for an ideal gas PV5/3 =Constant,where P is the pressure and V is the volume,and following the approach of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which we suggested in a previous work (Yarman et al.2010 Int.J.Phys.Sci.5 1524).We explicitly determine the constant for the general parallelepiped geometry of a container.We also disclose how the quantum numbers associated with molecules of an ideal gas vary through an arbitrary adiabatic transformation.Physical implications of the results obtained are discussed.

  13. Digitized adiabatic quantum computing with a superconducting circuit, part I: Theory

    Lamata, L.; Barends, R.; Shabani, A.; Kelly, J.; Mezzacapo, A.; Las Heras, U.; Babbush, R.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Lucero, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Solano, E.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.

    Adiabatic quantum computing (AQC) is a general-purpose optimization algorithm that in contrast to circuit-model quantum algorithms can be applied to a large set of computational problems. An analog physical realization of AQC has certain limitations that we propose can be overcome by a gate-model equivalence of the AQC. In this talk we discuss the hardware advantages of digitized AQC in particular arbitrary interactions, precision, and coherence. We could experimentally realize the principles of digitized AQC on a chain of nine qubits, and highlight the physics of adiabatic evolutions as well as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  14. Creation and Transfer of Coherence via Technique of Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Triple Quantum Dots.

    Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Wang, Chun-Liang; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Li-Jie; Tong, Chun-Zhu

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme for creation and transfer of coherence among ground state and indirect exciton states of triple quantum dots via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. Compared with the traditional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the Stokes laser pulse is replaced by the tunneling pulse, which can be controlled by the externally applied voltages. By varying the amplitudes and sequences of the pump and tunneling pulses, a complete coherence transfer or an equal coherence distribution among multiple states can be obtained. The investigations can provide further insight for the experimental development of controllable coherence transfer in semiconductor structure and may have potential applications in quantum information processing. PMID:27107772

  15. Entropy Spectrum of Black Holes of Heterotic String Theory via Adiabatic Invariance

    Alexis Larra? aga; Luis Cabarique; Manuel Londo? o

    2012-01-01

    Using adiabatic invariance and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule we investigate the entropy spectroscopy of two black holes of heterotic string theory,the charged GMGHS and the rotating Sen solutions.It is shown that the entropy spectrum is equally spaced in both cases,identically to the spectrum obtained before for Schwarzschild,Reissner-Nordstr?m and Kerr black holes.Since the adiabatic invariance method does not use quasinormal mode analysis,there is no need to impose the small charge or small angular momentum limits and there is no confusion on whether the real part or the imaginary part of the modes is responsible for the entropy spectrum.

  16. Non-adiabatic rotational excitation of dipolar molecule under the influence of delayed pulses

    Urvashi Arya; Brijender Dahiya; Vinod Prasad

    2013-09-01

    We suggest a control scheme for choosing populations of molecular rotational states by wave packet interference. The rotational wave packets of LiCl molecule excited non-adiabatically by half cycle pulse (HCP) is controlled using the second ultrashort HCP. By adjusting the time delay between the two laser pulses, constructive or destructive interference among these wave packets enables the population to be enhanced or repressed for the specific rotational state. The role played by the field strength and the pulse duration is also calculated numerically. We have used fourth order Runge-Kutta method to study non-adiabatic rotational excitation (NAREX) dynamics.

  17. The effective adiabatic approximation of three-body problem with short-range potentials

    The effective adiabatic approximation (EAA) of three-body problem on a line with short-range attractive δ-potentials is constructed. The EAA lower bound for the energy with an absolute accuracy of order 10-6 is obtained. It is shown that EAA provides a true asymptotics of solutions and a correct behaviour of the elastic scattering phase with an absolute accuracy of 10-3 in the interval 2 · 10-3 m < π / 6 of the relative momentum below the three-body threshold for (3 to 3) scattering. The convergence of adiabatic expansion in the framework of EAA is demonstrated

  18. Local T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding and adiabatic inversion pulses in porous media

    Vashaee, S.; Newling, B.; Balcom, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Band selective adiabatic inversion radio frequency pulses were employed for multi-slice T2 distribution measurements in porous media samples. Multi-slice T2 measurement employing longitudinal Hadamard encoding has an inherent sensitivity advantage over slice-by-slice local T2 measurements. The slice selection process is rendered largely immune to B1 variation by employing hyperbolic secant adiabatic inversion pulses, which simultaneously invert spins in several well-defined slices. While Hadamard encoding is well established for local spectroscopy, the current work is the first use of Hadamard encoding for local T2 measurement.

  19. Reconstructing the adiabatic exchange-correlation kernel of time-dependent density-functional theory

    The interacting and the Kohn-Sham static density-density response functions for different one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are reconstructed numerically. From their inverse we obtain the exact static exchange-correlation kernel. This quantity represents the adiabatically exact approximation of the frequency-dependent exchange-correlation kernel that is crucial for time-dependent linear density-response theory. We investigate its performance for nonlocal perturbations and analyze its sum rule properties. We also compute the adiabatically exact transition energies that follow from the static kernel within linear-response theory.

  20. Simulation of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field

    Barton, T. J.; Field, David M.; Lang, Kevin M.; Chen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations are performed to verify earlier theoretical predictions of adiabatic thermal beams in a periodic solenoidal magnetic focusing field [ K. R. Samokhvalova, J. Zhou and C. Chen Phys. Plasmas 14 103102 (2007); J. Zhou, K. R. Samokhvalova and C. Chen Phys. Plasmas 15 023102 (2008)]. In particular, results are obtained for adiabatic thermal beams that do not rotate in the Larmor frame. For such beams, the theoretical predictions of the rms beam envelope,...

  1. The Dynamics of Entanglement in the Adiabatic Search and Deutsch Algorithms

    Choy, K; Ahrensmeier, D; Carrington, M E; Fugleberg, T; Kobes, R; Kunstatter, G

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the effect of entanglement on the running time of a quantum computation. Adiabatic quantum computation is suited to this kind of study, since it allows us to explicitly calculate the time evolution of the entanglement throughout the calculation. On the other hand however, the adiabatic formalism makes it impossible to study the roles of entanglement and fidelity separately, which means that results have to be interpreted carefully. We study two algorithms: the search algorithm and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We find some evidence that entanglement can be considered a resource in quantum computation.

  2. Non-adiabatic effects and Coriolis interactions in odd deformed nuclei

    The alignment of the intrinsic angular momentum of a rotating nucleus into the rotational axis is studied in terms of a simple quasi-adiabatic approach. In the framework of this approach using the quasiparticle-phonon model with Harris non-adiabatic corrections it is possible to describe the rotational bands up to relatively high spins. In the case of 235U it is demonstrated that this simple approach enables the qualitative description of the process of alignment of the intrinsic angular momentum with respect to the rotational axis. (author)

  3. Adiabatic compressibility of myosin subfragment-1 and heavy meromyosin with or without nucleotide.

    Tamura, Y; Suzuki, N.; Mihashi, K

    1993-01-01

    The partial specific adiabatic compressibilities of myosin subfragment-1 (S1) and heavy meromyosin (HMM) of skeletal muscle in solution were determined by measuring the density and the sound velocity of the solution. The partial specific volumes of S1 and HMM were 0.713 and 0.711 cm3/g, respectively. The partial specific adiabatic compressibilities of S1 and HMM were 4.2 x 10(-12) and 2.9 x 10(-12) cm2/dyn, respectively. These values are in the same range as the most of globular proteins so f...

  4. Transient Particle Energies in Shortcuts to Adiabatic Expansions of Harmonic Traps.

    Cui, Yang-Yang; Chen, Xi; Muga, J G

    2016-05-19

    The expansion of a harmonic potential that holds a quantum particle may be realized without any final particle excitation but much faster than adiabatically via "shortcuts to adiabaticity" (STA). While ideally the process time can be reduced to zero, practical limitations and constraints impose minimal finite times for the externally controlled time-dependent frequency protocols. We examine the role of different time-averaged energies (total, kinetic, potential, nonadiabatic) and of the instantaneous power in characterizing or selecting different protocols. Specifically, we prove a virial theorem for STA processes, set minimal energies (or times) for given times (or energies), and discuss their realizability by means of Dirac impulses or otherwise. PMID:26237328

  5. Multichannel Scattering Problem with Non-trivial Asymptotic Non-adiabatic Coupling

    Yakovlev, S L; Elander, N; Belyaev, A K

    2016-01-01

    The multichannel scattering problem in an adiabatic representation is considered. The non-adiabatic coupling matrix is assumed to have a non-trivial constant asymptotic behavior at large internuclear separations. The asymptotic solutions at large internuclear distances are constructed. It is shown that these solutions up to the first order of perturbation theory are identical to the asymptotic solutions of the re-projection approach, which was proposed earlier as a remedy for the electron translation problem in the context of the Born-Oppenheimer treatment.

  6. Slowly changing potential problems in Quantum Mechanics: Adiabatic theorems, ergodic theorems, and scattering

    Fishman, S.; Soffer, A.

    2016-07-01

    We employ the recently developed multi-time scale averaging method to study the large time behavior of slowly changing (in time) Hamiltonians. We treat some known cases in a new way, such as the Zener problem, and we give another proof of the adiabatic theorem in the gapless case. We prove a new uniform ergodic theorem for slowly changing unitary operators. This theorem is then used to derive the adiabatic theorem, do the scattering theory for such Hamiltonians, and prove some classical propagation estimates and asymptotic completeness.

  7. Interaction theory of hypersonic laminar near-wake flow behind an adiabatic circular cylinder

    Hinman, W. Schuyler; Johansen, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The separation and shock wave formation on the aft-body of a hypersonic adiabatic circular cylinder were studied numerically using the open source software OpenFOAM. The simulations of laminar flow were performed over a range of Reynolds numbers (8× 10^3 < Re < 8× 10^4 ) at a free-stream Mach number of 5.9. Off-body viscous forces were isolated by controlling the wall boundary condition. It was observed that the off-body viscous forces play a dominant role compared to the boundary layer in displacement of the interaction onset in response to a change in Reynolds number. A modified free-interaction equation and correlation parameter has been presented which accounts for wall curvature effects on the interaction. The free-interaction equation was manipulated to isolate the contribution of the viscous-inviscid interaction to the overall pressure rise and shock formation. Using these equations coupled with high-quality simulation data, the underlying mechanisms resulting in Reynolds number dependence of the lip-shock formation were investigated. A constant value for the interaction parameter representing the part of the pressure rise due to viscous-inviscid interaction has been observed at separation over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The effect of curvature has been shown to be the primary contributor to the Reynolds number dependence of the free-interaction mechanism at separation. The observations in this work have been discussed here to create a thorough analysis of the Reynolds number-dependent nature of the lip-shock.

  8. Ultrafast dual photoresponse of isolated biological chromophores: link to the photoinduced mode-specific non-adiabatic dynamics in proteins

    Bochenkova, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The anionic wild-type Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) chromophore defines the entire class of naturally occurring chromophores, which are based on the oxydized tyrosine side chain. The GFP chromophore exhibits an enriched photoinduced non-adiabatic dynamics in the multiple excited-state decay......-adiabatic dynamics in the proteins....

  9. A many-particle adiabatic invariant of strongly magnetized pure electron plasmas

    A pure electron plasma is said to be strongly magnetized if the cyclotron radius of the electrons is much smaller than the classical distance of closest approach. In this parameter regime a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional dynamics. For the case of a uniform magnetic field, the adiabatic invariant is the total kinetic energy associated with the electron velocity components that are perpendicular to the magnetic field (i.e., Σj mv2j perpendicular/2). Were the adiabatic invariant an exact constant of the motion, no exchange of energy would be possible between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and the plasma could develop and maintain two different temperatures Tparallel and T perpendicular. An adiabatic invariant, however, is not strictly conserved. In the present case, each collision produces an exponentially small exchange of energy between the parallel and the perpendicular degrees of freedom, and these act cumulatively in such a way that Tparallel and T perpendicular eventually relax to a common value. The rate of equilibrium is calculated, both in the case where the collisions are described by classical mechanics and in the case where the collisions are described by quantum mechanics, the two calculations giving essentially the same result. A molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out, verifying the existence of this unusual invariant, and verifying the theoretically predicted rate equation

  10. Adiabatically switched-on electrical bias and the Landauer-Buttiker formula

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, P.; Nenciu, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Consider a three dimensional system which looks like a cross connected pipe system, i.e., a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads. We investigate the current running through this system, in the linear response regime, when we adiabatically turn on an electrical bias between leads. The ...... formula....

  11. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Cheng, B.; Glimm, J.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-01

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  12. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3600 (United States); Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  13. Quantum crystal growing: adiabatic preparation of a bosonic antiferromagnet in the presence of a parabolic inhomogeneity

    Gammelmark, Søren; Eckardt, André

    2013-01-01

    felt by the two species. Using numerical simulations we predict that a finite parabolic potential can assist the adiabatic preparation of the antiferromagnet. The optimal strength of the parabolic inhomogeneity depends sensitively on the number imbalance between the two species. We also find that...

  14. Energy level scheme of anti pHe+ system in generalized adiabatic approach

    The energy level scheme of the states of the anti pHe+ system is studied in the effective adiabatic approach which has been developed in our previous work. The possibilities for fitting the experimental data by means of an appropriate choice of effective potentials are discussed. Systematic calculations of the energy level system and their estimations are given. (orig.)

  15. Plasmonic black gold by adiabatic nanofocusing and absorption of light in ultra-sharp convex grooves

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Novikov, Sergey M.; Stær, Tobias Holmgaard; Eriksen, René L.; Beermann, Jonas; Han, Zhanghua; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2012-01-01

    -defined geometry by using ultra-sharp convex metal grooves via adiabatic nanofocusing of gap surface plasmon modes excited by scattering off subwavelength-sized wedges. We demonstrate experimentally that two-dimensional arrays of sharp convex grooves in gold ensure efficient (>87%) broadband (450-850 nm...

  16. Constructing diabatic representations using adiabatic and approximate diabatic data - Coping with diabolical singularities

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Yarkony, David R.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently introduced a diabatization scheme, which simultaneously fits and diabatizes adiabatic ab initio electronic wave functions, Zhu and Yarkony J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024112 (2014). The algorithm uses derivative couplings in the defining equations for the diabatic Hamiltonian, Hd, and fits all its matrix elements simultaneously to adiabatic state data. This procedure ultimately provides an accurate, quantifiably diabatic, representation of the adiabatic electronic structure data. However, optimizing the large number of nonlinear parameters in the basis functions and adjusting the number and kind of basis functions from which the fit is built, which provide the essential flexibility, has proved challenging. In this work, we introduce a procedure that combines adiabatic state and diabatic state data to efficiently optimize the nonlinear parameters and basis function expansion. Further, we consider using direct properties based diabatizations to initialize the fitting procedure. To address this issue, we introduce a systematic method for eliminating the debilitating (diabolical) singularities in the defining equations of properties based diabatizations. We exploit the observation that if approximate diabatic data are available, the commonly used approach of fitting each matrix element of Hd individually provides a starting point (seed) from which convergence of the full Hd construction algorithm is rapid. The optimization of nonlinear parameters and basis functions and the elimination of debilitating singularities are, respectively, illustrated using the 1,2,3,41A states of phenol and the 1,21A states of NH3, states which are coupled by conical intersections.

  17. Rotation-vibrational states of H3+ and the adiabatic approximation.

    Alijah, Alexander; Hinze, Juergen

    2006-11-15

    We discuss recent progress in the calculation and identification of rotation-vibrational states of H3+ at intermediate energies up to 13,000 cm(-1). Our calculations are based on the potential energy surface of Cencek et al. which is of sub-microhartree accuracy. As this surface includes diagonal adiabatic and relativistic corrections to the fixed nuclei electronic energies, the remaining discrepancies between our calculated and experimental data should be due to the neglect of non-adiabatic coupling to excited electronic states in the calculations. To account for this, our calculated energy values were adjusted empirically by a simple correction formula. Based on our understanding of the adiabatic approximation, we suggest two new approaches to account for the off-diagonal adiabatic correction, which should work; however, they have not been tested yet for H3+. Theoretical predictions made for the above-barrier energy region of recent experimental interest are accurate to 0.35 cm(-1) or better. PMID:17015396

  18. Non-adiabatic dynamics of pyrrole: Dependence of deactivation mechanisms on the excitation energy

    Barbatti, M.; Pittner, Jiří; Pederzoli, Marek; Werner, U.; Mitrić, R.; Bonačić-Koutecký, V.; Lischka, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 375, č. 1 (2010), s. 26-34. ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : non-adiabatic dynamics * ultrafast phenomena * pyrrole Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2010

  19. Experimental adiabatic vortex ratchet effect in Nb films with asymmetric pinning trap

    J E Villegas; N O nunez; M P Gonzalez; E M Gonalez; J L Vicent

    2006-01-01

    Nb films grown on top of an array of asymmetric pinning centers show a vortex ratchet effect. A net flow of vortices is induced when the vortex lattice is driven by fluctuating forces on an array of pinning centers without reflection symmetry. This effect occurs in the adiabatic regime and it could be mimiced only by reversible DC driven forces.

  20. Adiabatic control of the Schr\\"odinger equation via conical intersections of the eigenvalues

    Boscain, Ugo; Mason, Paolo; Sigalotti, Mario

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a constructive method to control the bilinear Schr\\"odinger equation via two controls. The method is based on adiabatic techniques and works if the spectrum of the Hamiltonian admits eigenvalue intersections, and if the latter are conical (as it happens generically). We provide sharp estimates of the relation between the error and the controllability time.

  1. Astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O within the adiabatic molecular picture

    The astrophysical S-factor for 16O+16O is investigated within the adiabatic molecular picture. It very well explains the available experimental data. The collective radial mass causes a pronounced resonant structure in the S-factor excitation function, providing a motivation for measuring the 16O+16O fusion cross section at deep sub-barrier energies. (author)

  2. Extending the random-phase approximation for electronic correlation energies: the renormalized adiabatic local density approximation

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2012-01-01

    The adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem with the random phase approximation (RPA) has recently been applied with success to obtain correlation energies of a variety of chemical and solid state systems. The main merit of this approach is the improved description of dispersive forces...

  3. Calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    王学滨

    2004-01-01

    A method for calculation of temperature distribution in adiabatic shear band is proposed in terms of gradient-dependent plasticity where the characteristic length describes the interactions and interplaying among microstructures. First, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution in adiabatic shear band is obtained based on gradient-dependent plasticity. Then, the plastic work distribution is derived according to the current flow shear stress and the obtained increment of plastic shear strain distribution. In the light of the well-known assumption that 90% of plastic work is converted into the heat resulting in increase in temperature in adiabatic shear band, the increment of the temperature distribution is presented. Next, the average temperature increment in the shear band is calculated to compute the change in flow shear stress due to the thermal softening effect. After the actual flow shear stress considering the thermal softening effect is obtained according to the Johnson-Cook constitutive relation, the increment of the plastic shear strain distribution, the plastic work and the temperature in the next time step are recalculated until the total time is consumed. Summing the temperature distribution leads to rise in the total temperature distribution. The present calculated maximum temperature in adiabatic shear band in titanium agrees with the experimental observations. Moreover, the temperature profiles for different flow shear stresses are qualitatively consistent with experimental and numerical results. Effects of some related parameters on the temperature distribution are also predicted.

  4. Invariant Hermitian Operator and Density Operator for the Adiabatically Time-Dependent System

    YAN Feng-Li; YANG Lin-Guang

    2001-01-01

    The density operator is approximately expressed as a function of the invariant Hermitian operator for the adiabatically time-dependent system. Using this method, the calculation of the density operator for the Heisenberg spin system in a weakly time-dependent magnetic field is exemplified. By virtue of the density operator, we obtain equilibrium.``

  5. Properties of an equilibrium hadron gas subjected to the adiabatic longitudinal expansion

    We consider an ideal gas of massive hadrons in thermal and chemical equilibrium. The gas expands longitudinally in an adiabatic way. This evolution for a baryonless gas reduces to a hydrodynamic expansion. Cooling process is parametrized by the sound velocity. The sound velocity is temperature dependent and is strongly influenced by hadron mass spectrum. (orig.)

  6. Calculating and Visualizing Thermodynamic Equilibrium: A Tutorial on the Isolated System with an Internal Adiabatic Piston

    Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of the equilibrium state of an isolated composite system with a movable internal adiabatic wall is a recurrent one in the literature. Classical equilibrium thermodynamics is unable to predict the equilibrium state, unless supplemented with information about the process taking place. This conclusion is clearly demonstrated in this…

  7. Nonadiabatic corrections to a quantum dot quantum computer working in adiabatic limit

    M Ávila

    2014-07-01

    The time of operation of an adiabatic quantum computer must be less than the decoherence time, otherwise the computer would be nonoperative. So far, the nonadiabatic corrections to an adiabatic quantum computer are merely theoretical considerations. By the above reason, we consider the particular case of a quantum-dot-confined electron spin qubit working adiabatically in the nanoscale regime (e.g., in the MeV range of energies) and include nonadiabatic corrections in it. If the decoherence times of a quantum dot computer are ∼100 ns [J M Kikkawa and D D Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4313 (1998)] then the predicted number of one qubit gate (primitive) operations of the Loss–DiVincenzo quantum computer in such an interval of time must be > 1010. However, if the quantum-dot-confined electron spin qubit is very excited (i.e., the semiclassical limit) the number of operations of such a computer would be approximately the same as that of a classical computer. Our results suggest that for an adiabatic quantum computer to operate successfully within the decoherence times, it is necessary to take into account nonadiabatic corrections.

  8. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of the bimolecular master equations and analytic solutions

    Ghaderi, Nima

    2016-03-01

    Expressions for a K-adiabatic master equation for a bimolecular recombination rate constant krec are derived for a bimolecular reaction forming a complex with a single well or complexes with multiple well, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. The K-active master equation is also considered. The exact analytic solutions, i.e., the K-adiabatic and K-active steady-state population distribution function of reactive complexes, g(EJK) and g(EJ), respectively, are derived for the K-adiabatic and K-active master equation cases using properties of inhomogeneous integral equations (Fredholm type). The solutions accommodate arbitrary intermolecular energy transfer models, e.g., the single exponential, double exponential, Gaussian, step-ladder, and near-singularity models. At the high pressure limit, the krec for both the K-adiabatic and K-active master equations reduce, respectively, to the K-adiabatic and K-active bimolecular Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory (high pressure limit expressions). Ozone and its formation from O + O2 are known to exhibit an adiabatic K. The ratio of the K-adiabatic to the K-active recombination rate constants for ozone formation at the high pressure limit is calculated to be ˜0.9 at 300 K. Results on the temperature and pressure dependence of the recombination rate constants and populations of O3 will be presented elsewhere.

  9. Investigation of the adiabatic assumption for estimating cloud micro- and macrophysical properties from satellite and ground observations

    Merk, D.; Deneke, H.; Pospichal, B.; Seifert, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud properties from both ground-based as well as from geostationary passive satellite observations have been used previously for diagnosing aerosol-cloud interactions. In this investigation, a 2-year data set together with four selected case studies are analyzed with the aim of evaluating the consistency and limitations of current ground-based and satellite-retrieved cloud property data sets. The typically applied adiabatic cloud profile is modified using a sub-adiabatic factor to account for entrainment within the cloud. Based on the adiabatic factor obtained from the combination of ground-based cloud radar, ceilometer and microwave radiometer, we demonstrate that neither the assumption of a completely adiabatic cloud nor the assumption of a constant sub-adiabatic factor is fulfilled (mean adiabatic factor 0.63 ± 0.22). As cloud adiabaticity is required to estimate the cloud droplet number concentration but is not available from passive satellite observations, an independent method to estimate the adiabatic factor, and thus the influence of mixing, would be highly desirable for global-scale analyses. Considering the radiative effect of a cloud described by the sub-adiabatic model, we focus on cloud optical depth and its sensitivities. Ground-based estimates are here compared vs. cloud optical depth retrieved from the Meteosat SEVIRI satellite instrument resulting in a bias of -4 and a root mean square difference of 16. While a synergistic approach based on the combination of ceilometer, cloud radar and microwave radiometer enables an estimate of the cloud droplet concentration, it is highly sensitive to radar calibration and to assumptions about the moments of the droplet size distribution. Similarly, satellite-based estimates of cloud droplet concentration are uncertain. We conclude that neither the ground-based nor satellite-based cloud retrievals applied here allow a robust estimate of cloud droplet concentration, which complicates its use for the study of

  10. Influence of wall emissivity and convective heat transfer coefficient on the adiabatic surface temperature as thermal/structural parameter in fire modeling

    In fire engineering analysis, one of the open problem is the transfer of thermal parameters obtained by fire CFD model to FEM models for structural analysis. In this study the new useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” or more commonly known as AST, introduced by Wickström, is investigated. The adiabatic surface temperature offers the opportunity to transfer both thermal information of the gas and the net heat flux to the solid phase model, obtained by CFD analysis. In this study two CFD analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of emissivity and of convective heat transfer coefficient to determine the AST. First one CFD analysis simulating a fire scenario, “conjugate heat transfer”, with a square steel beam exposed to hot surface is carried out to calculate AST, heat convective coefficient and temperature field in the beam. Second one, a conductive analysis is carried out on “standalone beam” imposing a third type boundary condition on its boundaries assuming the AST, evaluated in the conjugate analysis, as external temperature. Different heat convective coefficients are imposed on the beam walls. The comparison between results obtained by means of the two proposed analyses shows the use of AST as transfer thermal parameter between CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) and FEM (Finite Element Method) models is appropriate when the convective heat transfer coefficient is properly evaluated. -- Highlights: ► An open problem is to transfer parameters obtained by thermal to structural models. ► The useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” (AST) is investigated. ► The AST use is right for properly evaluated convective heat transfer coefficient

  11. Flow regime development analysis in adiabatic upward two-phase flow in a vertical annulus

    Julia, J. Enrique [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Construccion, Universitat Jaume I, Campus de Riu Sec, Castellon 12071 (Spain); Ozar, Basar [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Jeong, Jae-Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States); Ishii, Mamoru, E-mail: ishii@purdue.ed [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In this work radial and axial flow regime development in adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus has been investigated. Local flow regimes have been identified using conductivity probes and neural networks techniques. The inner and outer diameters of the annulus are 19.1 mm and 38.1 mm, respectively. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of the flow channel, D{sub H}, is 19.0 mm and the total length is 4.37 m. The flow regime map includes 1080 local flow regimes identifications in 72 flow conditions within a range of 0.01 m/s < < 30 m/s and 0.2 m/s < < 3.5 m/s where and are, respectively, superficial gas and liquid velocities. The local flow regime has been classified into four categories: bubbly, cap-slug, churn-turbulent and annular flows. In order to study the radial and axial development of flow regime the measurements have been performed at five radial locations. The three axial positions correspond to z/D{sub H} = 52, 149 and 230, where z represents the axial position. The flow regime indicator has been chosen as some statistical parameters of local bubble chord length distributions and self-organized neural networks have been used as mapping system. This information has been also used to compare the results given by the existing flow regime transition models. The local flow regime is characterized basically by the void fraction and bubble chord length. The radial development of flow regime shows partial and complete local flow regime combinations. The radial development is controlled by axial location and superficial liquid velocity. The radial flow regime transition is always initiated in the center of the flow channel and it is propagated towards the channel boundaries. The axial development of flow regime is observed in all the flow maps and it is governed by superficial liquid velocity and radial location. The prediction results of the models are compared for each flow regime transition.

  12. Prediction of adiabatic bubbly flows in TRACE using the interfacial area transport equation

    The conventional thermal-hydraulic reactor system analysis codes utilize a two-field, two-fluid formulation to model two-phase flows. To close this model, static flow regime transition criteria and algebraic relations are utilized to estimate the interfacial area concentration (ai). To better reflect the continuous evolution of two-phase flow, an experimental version of TRACE is being developed which implements the interfacial area transport equation (IATE) to replace the flow regime based approach. Dynamic estimation of ai is provided through the use of mechanistic models for bubble coalescence and disintegration. To account for the differences in bubble interactions and drag forces, two-group bubble transport is sought. As such, Group 1 accounts for the transport of spherical and distorted bubbles, while Group 2 accounts for the cap, slug, and churn-turbulent bubbles. Based on this categorization, a two-group IATE applicable to the range of dispersed two-phase flows has been previously developed. Recently, a one-group, one-dimensional, adiabatic IATE has been implemented into the TRACE code with mechanistic models accounting for: (1) bubble breakup due to turbulent impact of an eddy on a bubble, (2) bubble coalescence due to random collision driven by turbulent eddies, and (3) bubble coalescence due to the acceleration of a bubble in the wake region of a preceding bubble. To demonstrate the enhancement of the code's capability using the IATE, experimental data for ai, void fraction, and bubble velocity measured by a multi-sensor conductivity probe are compared to both the IATE and flow regime based predictions. In total, 50 air-water vertical co-current upward and downward bubbly flow conditions in pipes with diameters ranging from 2.54 to 20.32 cm are evaluated. It is found that TRACE, using the conventional flow regime relation, always underestimates ai. Moreover, the axial trend of the ai prediction is always quasi-linear because ai in the conventional

  13. Simulation of a multi-stage adiabatic reactor with inter-stage quenching for dimethyl ether synthesis

    Bai Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic fixed-bed reactor has proven commercially successful in large scale production of catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether. A one dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of an industrial reactor of dimethyl ether synthesis has been established. To verify the proposed model, the simulation results have been compared to available data from an industrial reactor. A good agreement has been found between them. The distribution of the catalyst bed temperature and concentration of each component was obtained under conditions of inlet temperature 260°C, reaction pressure 1.2MPa and gaseous hourly space velocity 950.7 h-1. With inlet catalyst bed temperature 240-280°C, operating pressure 0.6-1.8MPa and gaseous hourly space velocity 831.8-1069.5 h-1, the influence of these reaction conditions on temperature distribution of the reactor catalytic bed, outlet methanol conversion and the dimethyl ether yield were calculated. The results show that, with the rise of inlet temperature (240-280°C and operating pressure (0.6-1.8MPa, the outlet conversion of methanol, the hot spot temperature and the DME yield increased. The increase of gaseous hourly space velocity (831.8-1069.5 h-1 leads to a decrease in the hot spot temperature of catalytic bed and the outlet conversion of methanol. But the DME yield rise initially and then descend.

  14. Deterministic implementations of quantum gates with circuit QEDs via Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages

    Highlights: • A specific SCRAP technique is proposed to realize quantum gates in the circuit QED. • These quantum gates are insensitive to the durations of the applied pluses. • The implemented quantum gates are robustness against the operational imperfections. - Abstract: We show that a set of universal quantum gates could be implemented robustly in a circuit QED system by using Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique. Under the adiabatic limit we find that the population transfers could be deterministically passaged from one selected quantum states to the others, and thus the desired quantum gates can be implemented. The proposed SCRAP-based gates are insensitive to the details of the operations and thus relax the designs of the applied pulses, operational imperfections, and the decoherence of the system

  15. A quantum-walk-inspired adiabatic algorithm for solving graph isomorphism problems

    We present a quantum algorithm for solving graph isomorphism problems that is based on an adiabatic protocol. We use a collection of continuous time quantum walks, each one generated by an XY Hamiltonian, to visit the configuration space. In this way we avoid a diffusion over all the possible configurations and significantly reduce the dimensionality of the accessible Hilbert space. Within this restricted space, the graph isomorphism problem can be translated into searching for a satisfying assignment to a 2-SAT (satisfiable) formula and mapped onto a 2-local Hamiltonian without resorting to perturbation gadgets or projective techniques. We present an analysis of the time for execution of the algorithm on small graph isomorphism problem instances and discuss the issue of an implementation of the proposed adiabatic scheme on current quantum computing hardware. (paper)

  16. Adiabatic nanofocusing: spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    Giugni, A.; Allione, M.; Torre, B.; Das, G.; Francardi, M.; Moretti, M.; Malerba, M.; Perozziello, G.; Candeloro, P.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2014-11-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  17. Quantum state transfer between atomic ensembles trapped in separate cavities via adiabatic passage

    Zhang, Chun-Ling; Chen, Mei-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology. Project supported by the Funding (type B) from the Fujian Education Department, China (Grant No. JB13261).

  18. Geometric Phases, Noise and Non-adiabatic Effects in Multi-level Superconducting Systems

    Berger, S.; Pechal, M.; Abdumalikov, A. A.; Steffen, L.; Fedorov, A.; Wallraff, A.; Filipp, S.

    2012-02-01

    Geometric phases depend neither on time nor on energy, but only on the trajectory of the quantum system in state space. In previous studies [1], we have observed them in a Cooper pair box qubit, a system with large anharmonicity. We now make use of a superconducting transmon-type qubit with low anharmonicity to study geometric phases in a multi-level system. We measure the contribution of the second excited state to the geometric phase and find very good agreement with theory treating higher levels perturbatively. Furthermore, we quantify non-adiabatic corrections by decreasing the manipulation time in order to optimize our geometric gate. Geometric phases have also been shown to be resilient against adiabatic field fluctuations [2]. Here, we analyze the effect of artificially added noise on the geometric phase for different system trajectories. [1] P. J. Leek et al., Science 318, 1889 (2007) [2] S. Filipp et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030404 (2009)

  19. Optimization of adiabatic microring resonators with few-mode and high-Q resonances.

    Li, Ruifei; Zhou, Linjie; Xie, Jingya; Xie, Anbang; Chen, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    We present the theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration of adiabatic microring resonators. The resonators are halfway between microdisk and microring preserving the good properties of both the microdisk (high Q-factor) and the microring (internal mode rejection). Device modeling based on the coupled-mode theory suggests that both the internal and external decay rates should be low in order to obtain high-Q and high extinction ratio resonances. The internal decay is modal-order-dependent and significantly affected by the adiabatic tapering rate of the ring waveguide. The external delay is determined by the modal effective index difference between the bus and ring waveguides at the coupling point under a fixed gap. Upon optimization of the resonator system, two resonance modes in the measured device are measured with one possessing a high Q-factor. PMID:26836679

  20. Buoyancy Instabilities in Galaxy Clusters: Convection Due to Adiabatic Cosmic Rays and Anisotropic Thermal Conduction

    Sharma, P; Quataert, E; Parrish, I J

    2009-01-01

    Using a linear stability analysis and two and three-dimensional nonlinear simulations, we study the physics of buoyancy instabilities in a combined thermal and relativistic (cosmic ray) plasma, motivated by the application to clusters of galaxies. We argue that cosmic ray diffusion is likely to be slow compared to the buoyancy time on large length scales, so that cosmic rays are effectively adiabatic. If the cosmic ray pressure $p_{cr}$ is $\\gtrsim 25 %$ of the thermal pressure, and the cosmic ray entropy ($p_{\\rm cr}/\\rho^{4/3}$; $\\rho$ is the thermal plasma density) decreases outwards, cosmic rays drive an adiabatic convective instability analogous to Schwarzschild convection in stars. Global simulations of galaxy cluster cores show that this instability saturates by reducing the cosmic ray entropy gradient and driving efficient convection and turbulent mixing. At larger radii in cluster cores, the thermal plasma is unstable to the heat flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), a convective instability genera...

  1. Fully quantum non-adiabatic dynamics in electronic-nuclear coherent state basis

    Humeniuk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Direct dynamics methods using Gaussian wavepackets have to rely only on local properties, such as gradients and hessians at the center of the wavepacket, so as to be compatible with the usual quantum chemistry methods. Matrix elements of the potential energy surfaces between wavepackets therefore usually have to be approximated. It is shown, that if a modified form of valence bond theory is used instead of the usual MO-based theories, the matrix elements can be obtained exactly. This is so because the molecular Hamiltonian only contains the Coulomb potential, for which matrix elements between different basis functions (consisting of Gaussian nuclear and electronic orbitals) are all well-known. In valence bond theory the self-consistent field calculation can be avoided so that the matrix elements are analytical functions of the nuclear coordinates. A method for simulating non-adiabatic quantum dynamics is sketched, where coherent state trajectories are propagated "on the fly" on adiabatic potential energy surf...

  2. Adiabatic electronic flux density: a Born-Oppenheimer Broken Symmetry ansatz

    Pohl, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation leads to the counterintuitive result of a vanishing electronic flux density upon vibrational dynamics in the electronic ground state. To circumvent this long known issue, we propose using pairwise anti-symmetrically translated vibronic densities to generate a symmetric electronic density that can be forced to satisfy the continuity equation approximately. The so-called Born-Oppenheimer broken symmetry ansatz yields all components of the flux density simultaneously while requiring only knowledge about the nuclear quantum dynamics on the electronic adiabatic ground state potential energy surface. The underlying minimization procedure is transparent and computationally inexpensive, and the solution can be computed from the standard output of any quantum chemistry program. Taylor series expansion reveals that the implicit electron dynamics originates from non-adiabatic coupling to the explicit Born-Oppenheimer nuclear dynamics. The new approach is applied to the ${\\rm H}_2^+$ mo...

  3. Shortcuts to adiabatic passage for generation of W states of distant atoms

    Song, Kun-Huang; Chen, Ming-Feng

    2016-08-01

    With the help of quantum Zeno dynamics, we propose fast and noise-resistant schemes for preparing the W states in the indirectly coupled cavity systems via the inverse engineering-based Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant (IBLR). Comparing with the original adiabatic passage method, the results show that the time needed to prepare the desired state is reduced and the effects of the atomic spontaneous emission and the cavity decay on the fidelity are suppressed. Moreover, this scheme can also be generalized to generation of N-atom W states. Not only the total operation time, but also the robustness against decoherence is insensitive to the number of atoms. It proves that our scheme is useful in scalable distributed quantum information processing and contributes to the understanding of more complex systems via shortcuts to adiabatic passage based on Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants.

  4. Heavy-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in an adiabatic multi-ion plasma

    Hossen, M.A.; Rahman, M.M.; Mamun, A.A., E-mail: armanplasma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossen, M.R. [Department of Natural Sciences, Daffodil International University, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-08-15

    The standard reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and Burgers (BG) equations to investigate the basic properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in a plasma system which is supposed to be composed of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann distributed light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. The HIA solitary and shock structures are found to exist with either positive or negative potential. It is found that the effects of adiabaticity of inertial heavy ions, nonthermality of electrons, and number densities of plasma components significantly modify the basic properties of the HIA solitary and shock waves. The implications of our results may be helpful in understanding the electrostatic perturbations in various laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments. (author)

  5. Semiclassical analysis of the electron-nuclear coupling in electronic non-adiabatic processes

    Agostini, Federica; Min, Seung Kyu; Gross, E. K. U.

    2015-10-01

    In the context of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, the coupling between electrons and nuclei beyond the adiabatic regime is encoded (i) in the time-dependent vector and scalar potentials and (ii) in the electron-nuclear coupling operator. The former appear in the Schroedinger-like equation that drives the evolution of the nuclear degrees of freedom, whereas the latter is responsible for inducing non-adiabatic effects in the electronic evolution equation. As we have devoted previous studies to the analysis of the vector and scalar potentials, in this paper we focus on the properties of the electron-nuclear coupling operator, with the aim of describing a numerical procedure to approximate it within a semiclassical treatment of the nuclear dynamics.

  6. Semiclassical analysis of the electron-nuclear coupling in electronic non-adiabatic processes

    Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function, the coupling between electrons and nuclei beyond the adiabatic regime is encoded (i) in the time-dependent vector and scalar potentials and (ii) in the electron-nuclear coupling operator. The former appear in the Schroedinger-like equation that drives the evolution of the nuclear degrees of freedom, whereas the latter is responsible for inducing non-adiabatic effects in the electronic evolution equation. As we have devoted previous studies to the analysis of the vector and scalar potentials, in this paper we focus on the properties of the electron-nuclear coupling operator, with the aim of describing a numerical procedure to approximate it within a semiclassical treatment of the nuclear dynamics.

  7. The exact forces on classical nuclei in non-adiabatic charge transfer

    Agostini, Federica; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Min, Seung Kyu; Maitra, Neepa T; Gross, E K U

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of electronic and nuclear motion presented in [A. Abedi, N. T. Maitra, and E. K. U. Gross, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123002 (2010)] yields a time dependent potential that drives the nuclear motion and fully accounts for the coupling to the electronic subsystem. Here we show that propagation of an ensemble of independent classical nuclear trajectories on this exact potential yields dynamics that are essentially indistinguishable from the exact quantum dynamics for a model non-adiabatic charge transfer problem. Further, we investigate the properties of the exact potential that enable the correct splitting of the quasiclassical nuclear wave packet in space: after the nuclear wave packet passes through an avoided crossing between two Born-Oppenheimer surfaces, the potential becomes piecewise parallel to one or the other adiabatic surface and, in the intermediate region, it develops steps or bumps. A detailed analysis of the shape of the potential and its connection to standard mixed quantum-classica...

  8. Adiabatic nanofocusing: spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale. (review)

  9. O(6) algebraic approach to three bound identical particles in the hyperspherical adiabatic representation

    Salom, Igor; Dmitrašinović, V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct the three-body permutation symmetric O (6) hyperspherical harmonics and use them to solve the non-relativistic three-body Schrödinger equation in three spatial dimensions. We label the states with eigenvalues of the U (1) ⊗ SO(3)rot ⊂ U (3) ⊂ O (6) chain of algebras, and we present the K ≤ 4 harmonics and tables of their matrix elements. That leads to closed algebraic form of low-K energy spectra in the adiabatic approximation for factorizable potentials with square-integrable hyper-angular parts. This includes homogeneous pairwise potentials of degree α ≥ - 1. More generally, a simplification is achieved in numerical calculations of non-adiabatic approximations to non-factorizable potentials by using our harmonics.

  10. Exchange-correlation functionals via local interpolation along the adiabatic connection

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Savin, Andreas; Teale, Andrew M; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The construction of density-functional approximations is explored by modeling the adiabatic connection em locally, using energy densities defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole. These local models are more amenable to the construction of size-consistent approximations than their global counterparts. In this work we use accurate input local ingredients to assess the accuracy of range of local interpolation models against accurate exchange-correlation energy densities. The importance of the strictly-correlated electrons (SCE) functional describing the strong coupling limit is emphasized, enabling the corresponding interpolated functionals to treat strong correlation effects. In addition to exploring the performance of such models numerically for the helium and beryllium isoelectronic series and the dissociation of the hydrogen molecule, an approximate analytic model is presented for the initial slope of the local adiabatic connection. Comparisons are made with approache...

  11. Application of static fuel management codes for determination of the neutron noise using the adiabatic approximation

    The neutron noise, induced by a rod manoeuvring experiment in a pressurized water reactor, has been calculated by the incore fuel management code SIMULATE. The space- and frequency-dependent noise in the thermal group was calculated through the adiabatic approximation in three dimensions and two-group theory, with the spatial resolution of the nodal model underlying the SIMULATE algorithm. The calculated spatial noise profiles were interpreted on physical terms. They were also compared with model calculations in a 2-D one-group model, where various approximations as well as the full space-dependent response could be calculated. The adiabatic results obtained with SIMULATE can be regarded as reliable for sub-plateau frequencies (below 0.1 Hz). (orig.)

  12. Spectroscopy via adiabatic covariant action for the Ba(n)ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole

    Li Hui-Ling; Lin Rong; Cheng Li-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Very recently,via the covariant form of the adiabatic invariant I =∮pidqi instead of I =∫pidqi,an equally spaced spectroscopy of a Schwarzschild black hole was derived.The emphasis was given to the covariant of results.In this paper,we extend that work in a spherically symmetric spacetime to the case of a rotating Ba(n)ados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole.It is noteworthy that the adiabatic covariant action I =∮ Pidqi gives the same value for the black hole spectroscopy in different coordinates.The result shows that the area spectrum is △A =8πlp2,which confirms Bekenstein's initial proposal.And the result is consistent with that already obtained by other methods.

  13. Incorporating non-adiabatic effects in embedded atom potentials for radiation damage cascade simulations

    In radiation damage cascade displacement spikes ions and electrons can reach very high temperatures and be out of thermal equilibrium. Correct modelling of cascades with molecular dynamics should allow for the non-adiabatic exchange of energy between ions and electrons using a consistent model for the electronic stopping, electronic temperature rise, and thermal conduction by the electrons. We present a scheme for correcting embedded atom potentials for these non-adiabatic properties at the level of the second-moment approximation, and parameterize for the bcc transition metals above the Debye temperature. We use here the Finnis–Sinclair and Derlet–Nguyen–Manh–Dudarev potentials as models for the bonding, but the corrections derived from them can be applied to any suitable empirical potential. We show with two-temperature MD simulations that computing the electronic thermal conductivity during the cascade evolution has a significant impact on the heat exchange between ions and electrons. (paper)

  14. Adiabatic nanofocusing: Spectroscopy, transport and imaging investigation of the nano world

    Giugni, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Adiabatic compression plays a fundamental role in the realization of localized enhanced electromagnetic field hot spots, it provides the possibility to focus at nanoscale optical excitation. It differs from the well-known lightning rod effect since it is based on the lossless propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) up to a nano-sized metal tip where the energy density is largely enhanced. Here we discuss two important applications of adiabatic compression: Raman and hot electron spectroscopy at nanometric resolution. The underlying phenomena are the conversion of SPPs into photons or hot electrons. New scanning probe spectroscopy techniques along with experimental results are discussed. We foresee that these techniques will play a key role in relating the functional and structural properties of matter at the nanoscale.

  15. Three-Nucleon Continuum by means of the Hyperspherical Adiabatic Method

    Barletta, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible use of the Hyperspherical Adiabatic basis in the description of scattering states of a three-body system. In particular, we analyze a 1+2 collision process below the three-body breakup. The convergence patterns for the observables of interest are analyzed by comparison to a unitary equivalent Hyperspherical Harmonic expansion. Furthermore, we compare and discuss two different possible choices for describing the asymptotic configurations of the system, related to the use of Jacobi or hyperspherical coordinates. In order to illustrate the difficulties and advantages of the approach two simple numerical applications are shown in the case of neutron-deuteron scattering at low energies using s-wave interactions. We found that the optimization driven by the Hyperspherical Adiabatic basis is not as efficient for scattering states as in bound state applications.

  16. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics with complex quantum trajectories. I. The diabatic representation.

    Zamstein, Noa; Tannor, David J

    2012-12-14

    We extend a recently developed quantum trajectory method [Y. Goldfarb, I. Degani, and D. J. Tannor, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 231103 (2006)] to treat non-adiabatic transitions. Each trajectory evolves on a single surface according to Newton's laws with complex positions and momenta. The transfer of amplitude between surfaces stems naturally from the equations of motion, without the need for surface hopping. In this paper we derive the equations of motion and show results in the diabatic representation, which is rarely used in trajectory methods for calculating non-adiabatic dynamics. We apply our method to the first two benchmark models introduced by Tully [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 1061 (1990)]. Besides giving the probability branching ratios between the surfaces, the method also allows the reconstruction of the time-dependent wavepacket. Our results are in quantitative agreement with converged quantum mechanical calculations. PMID:23249054

  17. ADRF experiments using near n.pi pulse strings. [Adiabatic Demagnetization due to Radio Frequency pulses

    Rhim, W. K.; Burum, D. P.; Elleman, D. D.

    1977-01-01

    Adiabatic demagnetization (ADRF) can be achieved in a dipolar coupled nuclear spin system in solids by applying a string of short RF pulses and gradually modulating the pulse amplitudes or pulse angles. This letter reports an adiabatic inverse polarization effect in solids and a rotary spin echo phenomenon observed in liquids when the pulse angle is gradually changed across integral multiples of pi during a string of RF pulses. The RF pulse sequence used is illustrated along with the NMR signal from a CaF2 single crystal as observed between the RF pulses and the rotary spin echo signal observed in liquid C6F6 for n = 2. The observed effects are explained qualitatively on the basis of average Hamiltonian theory.

  18. Synchrotron radiation as a tool to construct the shock adiabats of aerogel

    Unique properties of aerogel, namely, high porosity with open pores, low thermal conductivity, optical transparence, make it attractive for practical applications and for research. One of the areas in which aerogel has won a wide application is connected with shock waves and other kinds of high-energy action. This is the reason of the attention to the investigation of aerogel behavior under shock load, in particular to the construction of its shock adiabats. Here we present the results of the construction of shock adiabats for silicon aerogel of different densities with the help of the developed methods based on the use of synchrotron radiation [A.N. Aleshaev, P.I. Zubkov, G.N. Kulipanov, et al., Fiz goreniya vzryva 37 (5) (2001) 104 (in Russian)]. New experimental data related to the range of moderate loading parameters.

  19. Penetration of a resonant magnetic perturbation in an adiabatically rippled plasma slab

    Dewar, Robert L; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-01-01

    The adiabatic limit of a recently proposed dynamical extension of Taylor relaxation, \\emph{multi-region relaxed magnetohydrodynamics} (MRxMHD) is summarized, with special attention to the appropriate definition of relative magnetic helicity. The formalism is illustrated using a simple two-region, sheared-magnetic-field model similar to the Hahm--Kulsrud--Taylor (HKT) rippled-boundary slab model. In MRxMHD a linear Grad--Shafranov equation applies, even at finite ripple amplitude. The adiabatic switching on of boundary ripple excites a shielding current sheet opposing reconnection at a resonant surface. The perturbed magnetic field as a function of ripple amplitude is calculated by invoking conservation of magnetic helicity in the two regions separated by the current sheet. At low ripple amplitude "half islands" appear on each side of the current sheet, locking the rotational transform at the resonant value. Beyond a critical amplitude these islands disappear and the rotational transform develops a discontinui...

  20. Deterministic implementations of quantum gates with circuit QEDs via Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages

    Chen, Jingwei [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wei, L.F., E-mail: weilianfu@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-10-23

    Highlights: • A specific SCRAP technique is proposed to realize quantum gates in the circuit QED. • These quantum gates are insensitive to the durations of the applied pluses. • The implemented quantum gates are robustness against the operational imperfections. - Abstract: We show that a set of universal quantum gates could be implemented robustly in a circuit QED system by using Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique. Under the adiabatic limit we find that the population transfers could be deterministically passaged from one selected quantum states to the others, and thus the desired quantum gates can be implemented. The proposed SCRAP-based gates are insensitive to the details of the operations and thus relax the designs of the applied pulses, operational imperfections, and the decoherence of the system.