Adiabatic change of state of photon gas
The authors introduced and justified the k problem as a thermodynamical contradiction of photon gas. In thermodynamics of photon gas the main contradiction is called the k problem: the piezotropic-autobarotropic equation of state P = u/3 is adiabatic if k = 1 exclusively, while the adiabatic connection PV4/3 = const (or rather the Poisson equation Pρ-4/3 = const, ρ = u/c2) requires that k = 4/3. The present paper shows that the equations of state PV4/3 = const, TV1/3 = const, T-4/3P1/3 = const and P = u/3 cannot be valid for the adiabatic change of state of photon gas, simultaneously. Furthermore, the Planck's distribution -- and so the Wien's law and the Rayleigh-Jeans connection as well -- cannot be invariant in case of adiabatic change of state of photon gas. Namely, in case of adiabatic change of state of photon gas, a new type of ultraviolet catastrophe appears. These results possess a fundamental important in case of arbitrary deformation of electromagnetic radiation fields or quantum plasmas
Physics on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold and cosmology
Lipovka, Anton A
2016-01-01
In present paper we confirm our previous result [4] that Planck constant is adiabatic invariant of electromagnetic field propagating on the adiabatically changed Finslerian manifold. Direct calculation from cosmological parameters gives value h=6x10(-27) (erg s). We also confirm that Planck constant (and hence other fundamental constants which depend on h) is varied on time due to changing of geometry. As an example the variation of the fine structure constant is calculated. Its relative variation ((da/dt)/a) consist 1.0x10(-18) (1/s). We show that on the Finsler manifold characterized by adiabatically changed geometry, classical free electromagnetic field is quantized geometrically, from the properties of the manifold in such manner that adiabatic invariant of field is ET=6x10(-27)=h. Electrodynamic equations on the Finslerian manifold are suggested. It is stressed that quantization naturally appears from these equations and is provoked by adiabatically changed geometry of manifold. We consider in details tw...
Pterygium-induced corneal refractive changes
Maheshwari Sejal
2007-01-01
Full Text Available To study the effect of pterygium on corneal topography, a retrospective analysis of 151 eyes with primary pterygia was done. All cases underwent videokeratography preoperatively and one month postoperatively. Statistical analysis of average corneal power (ACP, corneal astigmatism, surface regularity index (SRI and surface asymmetry index (SAI was done before and one month after surgery. Topographic indices were compared statistically for various grades of pterygia. Increase in the grade of pterygia had a significant effect on topographic indices. Corneal astigmatism reduced from 4.40±3.64 diopter (D to 1.55±1.63D ( P value < 0.001 following surgery. The regularity of corneal surface improved and asymmetry of the cornea reduced one month after surgery. Pterygium leads to significant changes in corneal refractive status, which increase with the increase in the grade of pterygia and improve following pterygium excision.
Refractive change after vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane in pseudophakic eyes
Hamoudi, Hassan; Kofod, Mads; La Cour, Morten
2013-01-01
Purpose: To report the change in refraction in pseudophakic eyes following 23-gauge vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane (ERM), without use of silicone oil, intraocular gas or scleral buckling. Methods: Retrospective review of the records of 28 pseudophakic eyes in 28 patients undergoing 23-gauge...... the mean postoperative refraction was -0.41 ± 0.93 D. Thus, a myopic shift was observed following vitrectomy with a mean change in refraction of -0.26 ± 0.60 D (range +0.75 to -2.13 D, p = 0.032). The postoperative change in refraction was within ±0.25, ±0.50 and ±1.00 D in 39%, 68% and 96% of the...... eyes, respectively. The mean absolute refractive error was 0.47 ± 0.44 D. The change in refraction in fellow eyes was +0.01 D (p = 0.82). Conclusion: The change in refraction following 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for ERM in pseudophakic eyes was -0.26 D....
Oscillating adiabatic temperature change of 2D diamagnetic materials
Studies on magnetocaloric effect generally concern ferromagnetic materials, due to their high magnetocaloric potential near phase transitions. Recently, this effect on diamagnetic materials was explored and oscillations on the entropy change observed as a consequence of the crossing of the Landau levels through the Fermi energy. The present paper explores the adiabatic temperature change in graphenes and thin films of non-relativistic diamagnetic materials and then compares the results with those from 3D diamagnets. Applying 10 T of magnetic field, the temperature change of a gold thin film reaches 1 K, while for bulk gold the temperature change is smaller than 6 mK. For graphenes, the temperature change reaches 4 K with a field of ∼1 T. - Highlights: • We studied magnetocaloric properties of 2D diamagnetic materials. • Temperature change of low-dimensional materials exhibits an oscillating behavior. • The effect of scattering from impurity in graphene strongly reduces the temperature change. • We propose an application involving field sensors
Posterior corneal curvature changes following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction
Ganesh, Sri
2015-01-01
Sri Ganesh, Utsav Patel, Sheetal Brar Phaco and Refractive Surgery Department, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Purpose: To compare the posterior corneal curvature changes, in terms of corneal power and asphercity, following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE) procedure for low, moderate, and high myopia.Methods: This retrospective, non randomized, comparative, interventional trial; included 52 eyes of 26 patients, divided in thr...
Laser induced changes of refractive index of lead - silicate glasses
The mechanisms of photoinduced changes of refractive index of the TΦ lead - silicate glasses (analogous with the SF glasses from Schott catalog) under the effect of high power laser radiation with quantum energy less bandgap have been studied. It is shown that the laser induced color centers results in increase of refractive index into the exposed bulk during the laser pulse action. This leads to considerable redistribution of irradiance and decrease of laser radiation brightness even in the case of optical elements less 1 mm thickness. The observed effect may be connected both with radiation induced dilatation of matter and heating of interaction region owing to absorption of radiation by color centers. Comparison the kinetics of refractive index change of the glass after exposure by laser pulse at 0.53 μm and the kinetics of color centers decay allowed to draw a conclusion about heat character of observed changes
Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films
Ravinder Kumar Banyal; B Raghavendra Prasad
2007-03-01
We report the pump-probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.
Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in bacteriorhodopsin films
Banyal, Ravinder Kumar; Raghavendra Prasad, B.
2007-03-01
We report the pump--probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is based on a convenient and accurate determination of optical path difference using digital interferometry-based local fringe shift. The results are presented for the wild-type as well as genetically modified D96N variant of the bacteriorhodopsin.
Refractive index change detection based on porous silicon microarray
Chen, Weirong; Jia, Zhenhong; Li, Peng; Lv, Guodong; Lv, Xiaoyi
2016-05-01
By combining photolithography with the electrochemical anodization method, a microarray device of porous silicon (PS) photonic crystal was fabricated on the crystalline silicon substrate. The optical properties of the microarray were analyzed with the transfer matrix method. The relationship between refractive index and reflectivity of each array element of the microarray at 633 nm was also studied, and the array surface reflectivity changes were observed through digital imaging. By means of the reflectivity measurement method, reflectivity changes below 10-3 can be observed based on PS microarray. The results of this study can be applied to the detection of biosensor arrays.
Fishman, S.; Soffer, A.
2016-07-01
We employ the recently developed multi-time scale averaging method to study the large time behavior of slowly changing (in time) Hamiltonians. We treat some known cases in a new way, such as the Zener problem, and we give another proof of the adiabatic theorem in the gapless case. We prove a new uniform ergodic theorem for slowly changing unitary operators. This theorem is then used to derive the adiabatic theorem, do the scattering theory for such Hamiltonians, and prove some classical propagation estimates and asymptotic completeness.
Posterior corneal curvature changes following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction
Ganesh S
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Sri Ganesh, Utsav Patel, Sheetal Brar Phaco and Refractive Surgery Department, Nethradhama Superspeciality Eye Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India Purpose: To compare the posterior corneal curvature changes, in terms of corneal power and asphercity, following Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE procedure for low, moderate, and high myopia.Methods: This retrospective, non randomized, comparative, interventional trial; included 52 eyes of 26 patients, divided in three groups: low myopia (myopia ≤3 D [diopters] spherical equivalent [SE], moderate myopia (myopia >3 D and <6 D SE, and high myopia (myopia ≥6 D SE. All patients were treated for myopia and myopic astigmatism using ReLEx SMILE. The eyes were examined pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively using SCHWIND SIRIUS, a three-dimensional rotating Scheimpflug camera with a Placido disc topographer to assess corneal changes with regard to keratometric power and asphericity of the cornea.Results: A statistically significant increase in mean keratometric power in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones of the posterior corneal surface compared with its pre-ReLEx SMILE value was detected after 3 months in the moderate myopia group (pre-operative [pre-op] -6.14±0.23, post-operative [post-op] -6.29±0.22, P<0.001 and high myopia group (pre-op -6.19±0.16, post-op -6.4±0.18, P<0.001, but there was no significant change in keratometric power of the posterior surface in the low myopia group (pre-op -5.87±0.17, post-op -6.06±0.29, P=0.143. Asphericity (Q-value of the posterior surface changed significantly (P<0.001 after ReLEx SMILE in the moderate myopia group in the 3, 5, and 7 mm zones, and in the high myopia group in the 3 and 7 mm zones; but there was no significant change in the Q-value in the low myopia group in all three zones (pre-op 0.23±0.43, post-op -0.40±0.71, P=0.170, and in the high myopia group in the 5 mm zone (P=0.228.Conclusion: ReLEx SMILE causes significant
Within the adiabatic theorem we must explicitly add to the instantaneous adiabatic vectors, parametrized by an external parameter following an open curve, a dynamical as well as a geometrical phase contribution to be able to predict the quantum observables. We give an alternative to Berry's proof for cyclic paths without use of Stokes's theorem that is then generalized to open paths. Recent analyses that argued, for an adiabatic open path case, that there is only dynamical phase change or that the situation is undefined are shown to be incorrect. The noncyclic geometric phase correction is discussed in detail for the spin in a magnetic field, an Aharonov-Bohm experiment and a resonator. Properties of the geometric phase contribution for open paths are studied. First, it is shown that degeneracies play an important role. Second, it is shown to be semiclassically related to a geometric angle shift on the final torus. The revival structure of wavepackets is shown to be affected by the noncyclic geometric phases of the, contributing instantaneous vectors that make the revived wavepacket to be shifted on the final torus by the classical geometric angle. We also propose two measures of quantum sensitivity to initial conditions. The first one is valid for quantum and classical Liouville states and it is given by the different distances of two close states to a third fixed state. The second measure is given by the divergence of the flow lines of suitable quantum phase space representations and reduces to the classical Lyapunov exponent. (author)
Refractive changes after vitrectomy and phacovitrectomy for macular hole and epiretinal membrane
Hamoudi, Hassan; La Cour, Morten
2013-01-01
Several studies have described changes in refraction toward myopia in eyes having vitrectomy and phacovitrectomy. This article reviews studies of the refractive outcome in phakic and pseudophakic eyes after vitrectomy and phacovitrectomy for macular hole or epiretinal membrane. Several factors play...
Mechanisms of the refractive index change in DO11/PMMA due to photodegradation
Anderson, Benjamin R
2014-01-01
Using a white light interferometric microscope (WLIM) we measure the photodamage induced change in the complex index of refraction of disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate. We find that the change in the imaginary part of the refractive index is consistent with previous measurements of photodamage-induced absorbance change. Additionally, we find that the change in the real refractive index can be separated into a component due to damage to the dye molecules and a component due to irreversible damage to the polymer.
Refractive Index Change and Color Center Formation in LiYF_4 Crystal Induced by a Femtosecond Laser
无
2003-01-01
The refractive index change and color centers formation in LiYF4 crystal at room temperature are induced by a femtosecond laser irradiation. A mechanism for refractive index change and color centers formation is proposed.
Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids
Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.
1975-01-01
A double‐beam interferometer has been designed for detecting changes of refractive index in transparent liquids associated with the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, due to short electron beam pulses from an accelerator. The response time of the interferometer is less than 0.2 μsec, and...... refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3 °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...
Change in peripheral refraction and curvature of field of the human eye with accommodation
Ho, Arthur; Zimmermann, Frederik; Whatham, Andrew; Martinez, Aldo; Delgado, Stephanie; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Sankaridurg, Padmaja
2009-02-01
Recent research showed that the peripheral refractive state is a sufficient stimulus for myopia progression. This finding led to the suggestion that devices that control peripheral refraction may be efficacious in controlling myopia progression. This study aims to understand whether the optical effect of such devices may be affected by near focus. In particular, we seek to understand the influence of accommodation on peripheral refraction and curvature of field of the eye. Refraction was measured in twenty young subjects using an autorefractor at 0° (i.e. along visual axis), and 20°, 30° and 40° field angles both nasal and temporal to the visual axis. All measurements were conducted at 2.5 m, 40 cm and 30 cm viewing distances. Refractive errors were corrected using a soft contact lens during all measurements. As field angle increased, refraction became less hyperopic. Peripheral refraction also became less hyperopic at nearer viewing distances (i.e. with increasing accommodation). Astigmatism (J180) increased with field angle as well as with accommodation. Adopting a third-order aberration theory approach, the position of the Petzval surface relative to the retinal surface was estimated by considering the relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) and J180 terms of peripheral refraction. Results for the estimated dioptric position of the Petzval surface relative to the retina showed substantial asymmetry. While temporal field tended to agree with theoretical predictions, nasal response departed dramatically from the model eye predictions. With increasing accommodation, peripheral refraction becomes less hyperopic while the Petzval surface showed asymmetry in its change in position. The change in the optical components (i.e. cornea and/or lens as opposed to retinal shape or position) is implicated as at least one of the contributors of this shift in peripheral refraction during accommodation.
W. F. Harris
2009-01-01
If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye? Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc) to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye. In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye with intraocular lens placed 5 mm behi...
W. F. Gool; R.D. van Gool
2009-01-01
If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye? Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc) to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye. In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye withintraocular lens placed 5 mm behin...
Arasa, Josep; Pizarro, Carles; Blanco, Patricia
2016-06-01
Injection molded plastic lenses have continuously improved their performance regarding optical quality and nowadays are as usual as glass lenses in image forming devices. However, during the manufacturing process unavoidable fluctuations in material density occur, resulting in local changes in the distribution of refractive index, which degrade the imaging properties of the polymer lens. Such material density fluctuations correlate to phase delays, which opens a path for their mapping. However, it is difficult to transfer the measured variations in refractive index into conventional optical simulation tool. Thus, we propose a method to convert the local variations in refractive index into local changes of one surface of the lens, which can then be described as a free-form surface, easy to introduce in conventional simulation tools. The proposed method was tested on a commercial gradient index (GRIN) lens for a set of six different object positions, using the MTF sagittal and tangential cuts to compare the differences between the real lens and a lens with homogenous refractive index, and the last surface converted into a free-form shape containing the internal refractive index changes. The same procedure was used to reproduce the local refractive index changes of an injected plastic lens with local index changes measured using an in-house built polariscopic arrangement, showing the capability of the method to provide successful results.
Photoinduced changes in refractive index of nanostructured shungite-containing polyimide systems
Kamanina, N. V.; Serov, S. V.; Shurpo, N. A.; Rozhkova, N. N.
2011-10-01
Photoinduced changes in the refractive index of a conjugate polyimide (PI) matrix sensitized by shungite carbon nanoparticles have been studied for the first time. The results are compared to the data of previous investigations of the photorefractive properties of PI matrices doped with fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and quantum dots. The nonlinear refractive index of the proposed material has been determined using the dynamic holography techniques. The position of conjugate polymer materials of this type among the other nonlinear optical systems is considered.
Mechanisms of a change in the refractive index of an intensely pumped Yb:YAG crystal
Mechanisms of a change in the refractive index appearing in an intensely diode-pumped Yb:YAG-laser disk element are studied with the help of polarisation interferometry and dynamic grating testing. It is found that changes in the electronic component of the refractive index arising upon changing the populations of electronic levels of Yb3+ ions (the ground 2F7/2 state and the upper 2F5/2 level of the laser transition) and caused by the difference in the polarisability of these levels are an order of magnitude greater than thermal changes in the refractive index. It is shown that the difference Δp in the polarisability at the probe wavelength of 633 nm is 1.9 x 10-26 cm3 and at the laser transition wavelength of 1029 nm is 1.6 x 10-26 cm3. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 1: Theory
Vaitkus, Jesse A; Greentree, Andrew D
2016-01-01
Spatial adiabatic passage represents a new way to design integrated photonic devices. In conventional adiabatic passage designs require smoothly varying waveguide separations. Here we show modelling of adiabatic passage devices where the waveguide separation is varied digitally. Despite digitisation, our designs show robustness against variations in the input wavelength and refractive index contrast of the waveguides relative to the cladding. This approach to spatial adiabatic passage opens new design strategies and hence the potential for new photonics devices.
Takei, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Norio
1996-04-01
Bacteriorhodopsin exhibits photoinduced changes in both absorption and refractive index at 633 nm. To explore the possibility of exploiting this property in constructing a photoaddressed spatial light modulator, we investigated the transmission property of a Fabry-Perot interferometer containing a bacteriorhodopsin thin film. Film was formed that had a phase shift of pi /4 and sufficient interference fringe contrast for spatial light modulation. This establishes the possibility of constructing a spatial light modulator that features nonlinear input-output characteristics and can operate at moderate light intensities of the order of tens of milliwatts per centimeter square. spatial light modulation, complex refractive index.
Min Kyu Yang
Full Text Available To assess the characteristic findings and effects of laser capsulotomy in patients with late postoperative capsular bag distension syndrome (CBDS.Twenty patients diagnosed with late postoperative CBDS between July 2010 and August 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Before and 1 week after capsulotomy, changes in the anterior chamber depth (ACD were assessed using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Changes in the refractive status and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA were also measured 1 week and 1 month after capsulotomy. For patients who received bilateral cataract surgery, preoperative ACD and axial length measured by IOLMaster were compared between the two eyes.Twenty-two eyes from 20 patients who had undergone laser capsulotomy showed a mean UCVA improvement of 0.27 ± 0.24 logMAR (range, 0.00-0.90. ACD was increased by an average of +0.04 mm (95% confidence interval, +0.01 to +0.06 mm, p = 0.034, equivalent to predicted refractive change of +0.10 D. The discrepancy between actual (+1.33 D and predicted refractive change after capsulotomy suggests that refractive change may not be generated from IOL displacement in late postoperative CBDS. Preoperative ACD was deeper in the eye with late postoperative CBDS in all bilaterally pseudophakic patients (mean, 3.68 mm vs. 3.44 mm in the fellow eye, p = 0.068.Late postoperative CBDS showed refractive changes that were resolved successfully after laser capsulotomy. The convex lens effects of opalescent material in the distended capsular bag may play a major role in myopic shift. A larger preoperative ACD is possibly associated with the development of late postoperative CBDS.
Influence of Temperature and Pressure Change on Adiabatic and Isothermal Methanation Processes
Porubova, Jekaterina; Klemm, Marco; Kiendl, Isabel; Valters, Karlis; Markova, Darja; Repele, Mara; Bazbauers, Gatis
2012-09-01
Energy plans of many countries anticipate an increased use of biomethane for energy supply, i.e., in power and heat production as well as in the transport sector. Existing infrastructure of natural gas storage, supply and application provides a good platform to facilitate transfer to biomethane utilization on a larger scale. One key element of the biomethane system is the upgrade of the biomass-derived synthesis gas originating from different sources, to a quality of natural gas (SNG - Synthesis Natural Gas) via the methanation process for further injection into the natural gas grid.. The maximisation of efficiency of the methanation process is of critical importance in order to make biomethane technology viable for wider application. The aim of the study was to improve efficiency of the methanation process by finding the optimum temperatures and pressure. Theoretical modelling of adiabatic and isothermal methanation processes by using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations was introduced as a method for the study. The results show the impact of temperature and pressure changes on the overall efficiency of methane production. It can be concluded from the study that knowledge about the relation between temperature, pressure and the efficiency of the methanation process makes it possible to optimize the process under various biomass synthesized gas input conditions.
Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul; Balling, Peter
2014-01-01
A new method for direct writing of localized, circularly symmetric refractive-index changes in optical fibers with a femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The refractive-index changes are characterized using a novel approach employing comparison of numerical simulations to the measured far...
McCullough, Sara J.; O’Donoghue, Lisa; Saunders, Kathryn J
2016-01-01
Objective To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data. Design Population-based prospective study. Participants The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study Phase 1 examined 1068 children in two cohorts aged 6–7 years and 12–13 years. Prospective data for six-year follow-up (Phase 3) are available for 21...
Ozturk, Emine; Sokmen, Ismail
2011-10-01
In this study, both the linear intersubband transitions and the refractive index changes in coupled double quantum well (DQW) with different well shapes for different electric fields are theoretically calculated within framework of the effective mass approximation. Results obtained show that intersubband transitions and the energy levels in coupled DQW can importantly be modified and controlled by the electric field strength and direction. By considering the variation of the energy differences, it should point out that by varying electric field we can obtain a blue or red shift in the intersubband optical transitions. The modulation of the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes which can be suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infrared optical device applications can be easy obtained by tuning applied electric field strength and direction.
Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskii, Igor'O.; Sementsov, Dmitrii I.
2009-03-01
Dynamics of soliton-like wave packets in fibres with a travelling refractive-index-change wave is studied. It is shown that both a soliton-like propagation regime of a pulse and a self-compression regime in the region of normal group velocity dispersion are possible. It is also shown that in the case of a copropagating or counterpropagating pulse and optically inhomogeneous wave nonreciprocal effects appear.
In this study, we have calculated the linear, nonlinear and total refractive index changes and absorption coefficients for the transitions 1s–1p, 1p–1d and 1d–1f in a spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential. Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method have been employed to calculate the wavefuctions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that impurity, dot radius, stoichiometric ratio, incident optical intensity and carrier density of the system have important effects on the optical refractive index changes and absorption coefficients. Also, we find that as the transitions between orbitals with big l value move to lower energy region in case with parabolic potential, in case without parabolic potential these transitions move to higher energy region. - Highlights: ► A spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential has been considered. ► Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method have been used to calculate the wave functions and the total energy. ► The detailed refractive index changes and absorption coefficients of quantum dot have been investigated.
赵建林; 张鹏; 周俭波; 杨德兴; 杨东升; 李恩普
2003-01-01
We propose a novel approach to visualize the light-induced refractive index changes in photorefractive crystals employing digital holography. The holograms formed in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are recorded by a twodimensional CCD camera. From these holograms, the phase differences, which contain the information of the index changes in photorefractive crystals, are determined by utilizing digital holographic interferometry. Then the two-dimensional visualizations of index changes in the crystals can be obtained. This method is successfully demonstrated in LiNbO3:Fe, KNSBN:Ce and SBN:Cr crystals.
The analytical expressions of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a quantum dot with a hydrogenic impurity are obtained by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The wave functions and the energy levels are obtained by using the variational method. Numerical results show that the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are strongly affected by the hydrogenic impurity. (paper)
A Comparison of Kretschmann-Raether Angular Regimes for Measuring Changes in Bulk Refractive Index
KASUNIC, K.J.
1999-09-16
We compare 2 angular regimes for the measurement of changes in the real refractive index of bulk fluid analytes. The measurements are based on the use of the Kretschmann-Raether configuration to sense a change in reflectivity with index. Specifically, we numerically simulate the relative sensitivities of the total internal reflection (TIR) and surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) regimes. For a fixed-angle apparatus, the method which gives the greatest change in reflectivity varies with metal film thickness. For films thicker than the skin depth, the SPR regime is the most sensitive to index changes. For thinner films, however, the TIR angle is then dominant, with increases in sensitivity on the order of 75% for 10 nm gold or silver media.
Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza
2007-12-18
For the study in this thesis {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions with the energy of about 40 MeV were applied. The results of these studies show a timely very stable anisotrope refractive-index change in the range of some 10{sup -3}. The radiation damages caused by ions cause a decreasement of the ordinary refractive index n{sub o} and an increasement of the extra-ordinary refractive index n{sub e}. While the absolute values for {delta}n{sub o} and {delta}n{sub e} are nearly equal the birefringence of the material (n{sub e}-n{sub o}) smaller. The generated refractive-index change is dose dependent and the curve {delta}n has at increasing dose a strongly nonlinear slope with a characteristic stage at the radiation dose of about 2 x 10{sup 20} ions/m{sup 2}.
Owen, Albert K.
1987-01-01
A computer code was written which utilizes ray tracing techniques to predict the changes in position and geometry of a laser Doppler velocimeter probe volume resulting from refraction effects. The code predicts the position change, changes in beam crossing angle, and the amount of uncrossing that occur when the beams traverse a region with a changed index of refraction, such as a glass window. The code calculates the changes for flat plate, cylinder, general axisymmetric and general surface windows and is currently operational on a VAX 8600 computer system.
... the eye keeps you from focusing well. The cause could be the length of the eyeball (longer or shorter), changes in the shape of the cornea, or aging of the lens. Four common refractive errors are Myopia, or nearsightedness - clear vision close up ...
Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses
Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun
2016-05-01
In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.
Large refractive index changes in tunable-electron-density InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells
The authors present measurements of electrorefraction and electroabsorption in a novel multiple quantum well waveguide structure in which each InGaAs quantum well is provided with an individual electron reservoir. External bias transfers electrons into the wells, thus quenching the absorption and producing a refractive index change at wavelengths below the bandedge which is linear in the applied voltage. The authors demonstrate that in this type of structure both the change in refractive index per applied field and the ratio of optical phase to intensity modulation can be significantly enhanced over those found in the quantum confined Stark effect
W. F. Harris
2009-12-01
Full Text Available If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye? Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye. In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye with intraocular lens placed 5 mm behind the cornea the sensitivity to errors in the power of the intraocular lens is about 71 . 0 − 71 for an intraocular lens of power for an intraocular lens of power 20 D, that is, the refractive compensation decreases by about 0.71 dioptres per dioptre increase in the power of the intraocular lens. More generally the sensitivity is approximately ( m 0037 . 0 63 . 0 F − − 0.63 ( 003 . 0 63 . 0 − − (0.0037mF where FI is the power of the intraocular lens. Also for Gullstrand’s simplified eye the sensitivity of refractive compensation to axial displacement of the intraocular lens is approximately linear in FI about (64D FI, in fact. That is, for each dioptre of the power of the intraocular lens the refractive compensation increases by about 0.064 dioptres per millimetre of axial displacement towards the retina.
Rami Reddy Bommareddi
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.
Träger, Jens; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Hampp, Norbert
2006-02-01
Before an intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted during cataract surgery, biometric data of the patient's eye have to be determined to calculate the thickness and shape of the IOL. In particular the postoperative anterior chamber depth is an important parameter to predict the correct shape of the IOL. This value, however, cannot be measured without significant uncertainities. We present a solution to this problem, describe novel polymers suitable for IOLs which refractive indices can be changed non-invasively in a photo-induced process. The focal length can be modified by about 2 D, which is sufficient to achive ideal acuteness of vision for almost all patients with implanted IOLs. The change in refractive index is accomplished by linking or cleaving bonds between a sufficiently large number of side groups of the polymer main chain in a photoinduced cyloaddition or cycloreversion, respectively. The photochemical reaction can also be triggered by a two-photon process (TPA) using a pulsed laser system, i.e. the energy required for bond breaking is provided by two photons in the visible range. Light in the UV as well as the visible range of the spectrum cannot induce undesired changes of the refractive index owing to the strong UV-absorption of the cornea and photon densities much too low for TPA, respectively. Due to the excellent spatial resolution that can be achieved with two-photon processes not only modification of the refractive index of the entire lens but also selectively in well defined areas is possible enabling the correction for aberrations such as astigmatism.
João Jorge Nassaralla Junior
2003-10-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: A prospective study was conducted to compare the refractive changes after three different types of scleral buckling surgery. METHODS: A total of 100 eyes of 100 patients were divided into three groups according to the type of performed buckling procedure: Group 1, encircling scleral buckling (42 patients; Group 2, encircling with vitrectomy (30 patients; Group 3, encircling with additional segmental buckling (28 patients. Refractive examinations were performed before and at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: Changes in spherical equivalent and axial length were significant in all 3 groups. The amount of induced astigmatism was more significant in Group 3. No statistically significant difference was found in the amount of surgically induced changes between Groups 1 and 2, at any postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: All three types of scleral buckling surgery were found to produce refractive changes. A correlation exists between additional segments and extent of refractive changes.OBJETIVO: Estudo prospectivo foi realizado para comparar as alterações refracionais encontradas após três diferentes tipos de cirurgia com explante escleral. MÉTODOS: Cem olhos de 100 pacientes foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o tipo de cerclagem retiniana realizada: Grupo 1, cerclagem simples (42 pacientes; Grupo 2, cerclagem associada a vitrectomia (30 pacientes; Grupo 3, cerclagem associado a implante escleral segmentar (28 pacientes. Exames refracionais foram realizados antes e após 1, 3 e 6 meses da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A indução de astigmatismo foi maior no Grupo 3. Alterações no equivalente esférico e no diâmetro ântero-posterior foram significantes nos 3 grupos após a cirurgia. Nenhuma diferença estaticamente significativa foi encontrada nas alterações induzidas pela cirurgia entre os grupos 1 e 2, em nenhum momento após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: Os três tipos de retinopexia causam alteração refracional. Existe correla
W.D.H. Gillan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The investigation of myopia and soft contact lenses is not new. Many reports show that the wearing of silicone hydrogel lenses as opposed to conventional disposable hydrogel lenses results in little progression of myopia in the eyes wearing silicone hydrogels. Method: Six subjects wore a silicone hydro-gel lens on one eye while the other eye wore a habitual disposable hydrogel lens for six months of daily wear. Fifty measurements of refractive state in each eye were taken prior to the subjects wearing a silicone lens in one eye and a conven-tional hydrogel lens in the other eye. After six months of daily wear another fifty measurements of refractive state were taken for each subject. Results: Although there is no statisti-cal support for the findings of this study, comet stereo-pairs are used to show the chang-es in refractive state for each subject. Four of the six subjects showed an increase in myopia in the eye wearing the silicone lens. Discussion: The increase in myopia in eyes wearing a silicone hydrogel lens is contrary to the findings of other studies.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate systematically the mechanisms of alterations in the optical properties of whole blood immersed in the biocompatible agent dextran, and to define the optimal concentration of dextrans required for blood optical clearing in order to enhance the capability of light penetration depth for optical imaging applications. In the experiments, dextrans with different molecular weights and various concentrations were employed and investigated by the use of the optical coherence tomography technique. Changes in light attenuation, refractive index and aggregation properties of blood immersed in dextrans were studied. It was concluded from the results that the mechanisms for blood optical clearing are characteristic of the types of dextrans employed, their concentrations and the application stages. Among the substances applied, Dx500 at a concentration at 0.5 g dl-1 gives the best result in improving light penetration depth through the blood. The increase of light transmission at the beginning of the addition of dextrans is mainly attributed to refractive index matching between the scattering centres and the ground matter. Thereafter, the transmission change is probably due to a dextran-induced aggregation-disaggregation effect. Overall, light scattering in the blood could be effectively reduced by the application of dextrans. It represents a promising approach to increasing the imaging depth for in vivo optical imaging of biological tissue, for example optical coherence tomography
Xu Xiangqun [Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Wang, Ruikang K [Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Elder, James B [School of Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom); Tuchin, Valery V [Department of Optics, Saratov State University, 155 Moskovskaya Str., 410026 Saratov (Russian Federation)
2003-05-07
The purpose of the present study is to investigate systematically the mechanisms of alterations in the optical properties of whole blood immersed in the biocompatible agent dextran, and to define the optimal concentration of dextrans required for blood optical clearing in order to enhance the capability of light penetration depth for optical imaging applications. In the experiments, dextrans with different molecular weights and various concentrations were employed and investigated by the use of the optical coherence tomography technique. Changes in light attenuation, refractive index and aggregation properties of blood immersed in dextrans were studied. It was concluded from the results that the mechanisms for blood optical clearing are characteristic of the types of dextrans employed, their concentrations and the application stages. Among the substances applied, Dx500 at a concentration at 0.5 g dl{sup -1} gives the best result in improving light penetration depth through the blood. The increase of light transmission at the beginning of the addition of dextrans is mainly attributed to refractive index matching between the scattering centres and the ground matter. Thereafter, the transmission change is probably due to a dextran-induced aggregation-disaggregation effect. Overall, light scattering in the blood could be effectively reduced by the application of dextrans. It represents a promising approach to increasing the imaging depth for in vivo optical imaging of biological tissue, for example optical coherence tomography.
Zhang, M.X. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Liu, J., E-mail: liujian@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Y.; Dong, J.D.; Yan, A.R. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Skokov, K.P. [Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gutfleisch, O. [Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fraunhofer IWKS, Project Group for Material Cycles and Resource Strategy, 63457 Hanau (Germany)
2015-03-01
We report on the microstructure, phase constitution and magnetocaloric properties in rapidly solidified La(Fe,Mn){sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} flakes prepared by strip casting technique. After a relatively short-time annealing at 1323 K for 12 h, LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} flakes constituting a nearly single NaZn{sub 13}-structured La(Fe,Si){sub 13}, i.e. 1:13 phase, exhibit a large entropy change of 19.2 J/kg K and adiabatic temperature change of 6.5 K when the application of a magnetic field of 2 T at which temperature. These features are comparable to those observed in the bulk samples. More importantly, the thermal and magnetic hysteresis of the present flakes is significantly smaller than that in the bulk alloys. The Curie temperature can be accurately tuned through replacing Fe by Mn. Thus, La–Fe–Si-based strip-cast flakes are promising for magnetic refrigerants in mass production. - Highlights: • La(Fe,Mn){sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} flakes were prepared by strip casting technique in kilogram quantities. • La(Fe,Mn){sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} flakes show a large magnetocaloric effect accompanied by negligible hysteresis upon short-time annealing. • With replacing Fe by Mn, the Curie temperature of La(Fe,Mn){sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} can be accurately tuned.
Jinxin Han
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The light-induced refractive index change in Mn:KLTN crystal, illuminated by focused light sheet, is visualized in situ and quantified by digital holographic interferometry. By numerically retrieving a series of sequential phase maps from recording digital holograms, the spatial distribution of the induced refractive index change can be visualized and estimated readily. This technique enables the observation of the temporal evolution of the refractive index change under different recording situations such as writing laser power, applied voltage, and temperature, and the photoconductivity of Mn:KLTN crystal can be calculated as well, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theory. The research results suggest that the presented method is successful and feasible.
Quantum adiabatic machine learning
Pudenz, Kristen L.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2011-01-01
We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this app...
Sara J McCullough
Full Text Available To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data.Population-based prospective study.The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER study Phase 1 examined 1068 children in two cohorts aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years. Prospective data for six-year follow-up (Phase 3 are available for 212 12-13 year olds and 226 18-20 year olds in each cohort respectively.Cycloplegic refractive error was determined using binocular open-field autorefraction (Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001, cyclopentolate 1%. Participants were defined by spherical equivalent refraction (SER as myopic SER ≤-0.50D, emmetropic -0.50D
El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat (Morocco); LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); A John Peter [P.G. & Research Department of Physics, Goverment Arts and Science College, Melur 625106, Madurai (India)
2015-04-01
In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors.
In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors
In this paper, we have studied the simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes of a hydrogenic impurity confined in a cylindrical quantum wire with convex bottom. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the direct matrix diagonalization method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. Our results indicate that, the wire radius, convexity parameter, hydrogenic impurity and external electric and magnetic fields have a great influence on the linear and the third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system
Longitudinal Change and Stability of Refractive, Keratometric, and Internal Astigmatism in Childhood
Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Sherrill, Duane L.
2015-01-01
Native American children from a tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism show little change in astigmatism with age. Longitudinal data suggest that internal compensation for keratometric astigmatism may contribute to the stability of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.
Adiabatic pumping through quantum dots
A finite charge can be pumped through a mesoscopic system in the absence of an applied bias voltage by changing periodically in time some parameters of the system. If these parameters change slowly with respect to all internal time scales of the system, pumping is adiabatic. The scope of this work is to investigate adiabatic pumping through a quantum dot, in particular the influence of Coulomb interaction between electrons in the dot on the pumped charge. On one hand we develop a formalism based on Green's functions, in order to calculate the pumped charge from the weak-tunnel-coupling regime down to the Kondo regime. We extend our calculations to a system with a superconducting contact. On the other hand we use a systematic perturbation expansion for the calculation of the pumped charge, giving us the possibility to analyze processes which contribute to charge pumping and to highlight the important role of interaction-induced level renormalization. (orig.)
Quantum adiabatic machine learning
Pudenz, Kristen L
2011-01-01
We develop an approach to machine learning and anomaly detection via quantum adiabatic evolution. In the training phase we identify an optimal set of weak classifiers, to form a single strong classifier. In the testing phase we adiabatically evolve one or more strong classifiers on a superposition of inputs in order to find certain anomalous elements in the classification space. Both the training and testing phases are executed via quantum adiabatic evolution. We apply and illustrate this approach in detail to the problem of software verification and validation.
Quantum and classical dynamics in adiabatic computation
Crowley, P. J. D.; Duric, T.; Vinci, W.; Warburton, P. A.; Green, A. G.
2014-01-01
Adiabatic transport provides a powerful way to manipulate quantum states. By preparing a system in a readily initialized state and then slowly changing its Hamiltonian, one may achieve quantum states that would otherwise be inaccessible. Moreover, a judicious choice of final Hamiltonian whose ground state encodes the solution to a problem allows adiabatic transport to be used for universal quantum computation. However, the dephasing effects of the environment limit the quantum correlations th...
Oreshkov, Ognyan
2010-01-01
We propose a theory of adiabaticity in quantum Markovian dynamics based on a structural decomposition of the Hilbert space induced by the asymptotic behavior of the Lindblad semigroup. A central idea of our approach is that the natural generalization of the concept of eigenspace of the Hamiltonian in the case of Markovian dynamics is a noiseless subsystem with a minimal noisy cofactor. Unlike previous attempts to define adiabaticity for open systems, our approach deals exclusively with physical entities and provides a simple, intuitive picture at the underlying Hilbert-space level, linking the notion of adiabaticity to the theory of noiseless subsystems. As an application of our theory, we propose a framework for decoherence-assisted computation in noiseless codes under general Markovian noise. We also formulate a dissipation-driven approach to holonomic computation based on adiabatic dragging of subsystems that is generally not achievable by non-dissipative means.
Comparison of the refractive error changes among young children in ten years interval
Hai-Yan Li
2013-07-01
Full Text Available AIM: To compare the optometric examination results of myopic young children between those diagnosed in the period from 1998 to 2000 and those diagnosed in the period from 2008 to 2010; and to find out the causes of myopia and factors that worsen the condition, and suggest methods of its prevention and treatment.METHODS: This study was a retrospective case study. We randomly selected sample from out-patient department register of cases and divided them into two main groups, ‘ten year before group'(TYBG(1998/2000 year casesand ‘ten years later group'(2008/2010 year cases(TYLG. Each group was further subdivided into three sub-groups by age: under-six years old children group(CG, seven-twelve years old primary-school group(PSGand thirteen-eighteen years old middle-school group(MSG. The optometric examination results were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: The difference of the mean dioptre between the TYBG and TYLG was strongly statistically significant, also forward-lead trend of age when children suffered from myopia was found(P0.01. There was a significant increase of dioptre among PSG and MSG in TYLG compared to TYBG(PCONCLUSION: Our study shows that the age of getting myopia was forward lead, the dioptre increases by 1.00 degree and the prevalence of myopia is increasing gradually. This situation may due to the modern life style and changes of living standard of the population. Therefore, prevention of myopia should concentrate more on younger children at kindergarten and primary school stage students.
Goodrich, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.
1984-01-01
The adiabatic energy gain of electrons in the stationary electric and magnetic field structure of collisionless shock waves was examined analytically in reference to conditions of the earth's bow shock. The study was performed to characterize the behavior of electrons interacting with the cross-shock potential. A normal incidence frame (NIF) was adopted in order to calculate the reversible energy change across a time stationary shock, and comparisons were made with predictions made by the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) model (1950). The electron energy gain, about 20-50 eV, is demonstrated to be consistent with a 200-500 eV potential jump in the bow shock quasi-perpendicular geometry. The electrons lose energy working against the solar wind motional electric field. The reversible energy process is close to that modeled by HT, which predicts that the motional electric field vanishes and the electron energy gain from the electric potential is equated to the ion energy loss to the potential.
Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, Miguel E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, Carlos A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)
2013-01-15
In this work the variations of the exciton-related optical absorption and the change of the refractive index in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As double quantum well as functions of the geometric parameters of the heterostructure are investigated. The variational method is applied within the framework of the parabolic band and effective mass approximations, in order to obtain the 1s-like exciton energy spectrum. The outcome for the related optical coefficients shows a quenched and redshifted light absorption as a result of the increment in the inner barrier and right-hand well widths, with the possibility of an enhancement of the excitonic contribution to the relative change in the refractive index.
Yuan, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Hai
2015-12-01
Guo and Du (2013) reported theirs result for the linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells with applied electric field. We find both the energy and the corresponding wavefunction for the low-lying state are wrong to applied in their works. For the same set of parameters studied by Guo and Du, we obtain new and reliable results via the differential method.
Wireless adiabatic power transfer
Research highlights: → Efficient and robust mid-range wireless energy transfer between two coils. → The adiabatic energy transfer is analogous to adiabatic passage in quantum optics. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to any resonant constraints. → Wireless energy transfer is insensitive to noise in the neighborhood of the coils. - Abstract: We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.
Zou Liner; Wang Gouri; Shen Yun; Chen Baoxue; Mamoru Iso
2011-01-01
The refractive index of as-evaporated amorphous semiconductor As2S8 film upon an annealing and saturation irradiation and annealing cycle is reversible.Upon successive treatment with annealing and non-saturation irradiation and further annealing,the refractive index of the as-evaporated amorphous semiconductor As2 S8 film reaches a maximum value and then its reversibility occurs upon annealing.The annealing of the amorphous semiconductor As2S8 films results in the stabilization of the structure through changes of the S-S bonds in the nearest environment,accompanied by a decrease of film thickness.The As2S8 planar waveguide after annealing (130 ℃)and saturation irradiation and annealing (130 ℃) shows a good propagation characteristic with ca.0.27 dB/cm low propagation loss of the 632.8 nm guided mode.
Adiabatically implementing quantum gates
We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process
Wireless adiabatic power transfer
Rangelov, A. A.; Suchowski, H.; Silberberg, Y.; Vitanov, N. V.
2010-01-01
We propose a technique for efficient mid-range wireless power transfer between two coils, by adapting the process of adiabatic passage for a coherently driven two-state quantum system to the realm of wireless energy transfer. The proposed technique is shown to be robust to noise, resonant constraints, and other interferences that exist in the neighborhood of the coils.
Chomát, Miroslav; Berková, Daniela; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kašík, Ivan; Kaňka, Jiří; Slavík, Radan; Jančárek, A.; Bittner, P.
[Monastir] : [Faculté des Sciences de Monastir], 2004. s. 88. [Journees Maghreb-Europe sur les Materiaux et Leurs Applications aux Dispositifs et Capteurs MADICA 2004 /4./. 29.11.2004-01.12.2004, Tunis] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical fibres * fibre optic sensors * refractive index Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Ikeda, Tsunehiko
2014-01-01
Tsunehiko Ikeda,1 Masahiro Minami,1 Kimitoshi Nakamura,2 Teruyo Kida,1 Masanori Fukumoto,1 Takaki Sato,1 Eisuke Ishizaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan; 2Nakamura Eye Clinic, Nagano, JapanBackground: Nuclear sclerosis (NS) based on the Emery–Little classification and refractive values after lens-sparing vitrectomy was compared between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients and nondiabetic patients.Methods: Progression of NS based on the E...
Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Wilks, Scott
2012-01-01
The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated pl...
Pulsed adiabatic structure and complete population transfer
Population can be transferred between atomic or molecular energy states in a variety of ways. The basic idea of adiabatic transfer, discussed in many textbooks, is as follows. One begins with an atom that is in some single energy state (an eigenstate of an initial Hamiltonian). This energy state is one of many possible states, known variously as the unperturbed states or basis states or diabatic states. Next one begins to change the Hamiltonian very slowly. The changes may occur in either the diagonal elements (the basis state energies) or in the off-diagonal elements (interactions between basis states). If there are off-diagonal elements then the Hamiltonian will no longer commute with the original one. Because the Hamiltonian is no longer the one that was used to define the original basis states, it will cause these states to become mixed. However, if the change is sufficiently slow, the system can remain in a single eigenstate of the changing Hamiltonian -- an adiabatic state, composed of a combination of basis states. Finally, at some later time, one examines the system once again in the original basis. One finds that the population has undergone a change, and now resides in a different unperturbed state. One has produced population transfer. There are many illustrative examples of adiabatic passage, both theory and experiment. The author mentions briefly two common examples, inelastic collisions between atoms, and the static Stark effect in Rydberg atoms, before continuing with the main objective, a discussion of adiabatic passage induced by laser pulses
Exploring adiabatic quantum trajectories via optimal control
Adiabatic quantum computation employs a slow change of a time-dependent control function (or functions) to interpolate between an initial and final Hamiltonian, which helps to keep the system in the instantaneous ground state. When the evolution time is finite, the degree of adiabaticity (quantified in this work as the average ground-state population during evolution) depends on the particulars of a dynamic trajectory associated with a given set of control functions. We use quantum optimal control theory with a composite objective functional to numerically search for controls that achieve the target final state with a high fidelity while simultaneously maximizing the degree of adiabaticity. Exploring the properties of optimal adiabatic trajectories in model systems elucidates the dynamic mechanisms that suppress unwanted excitations from the ground state. Specifically, we discover that the use of multiple control functions makes it possible to access a rich set of dynamic trajectories, some of which attain a significantly improved performance (in terms of both fidelity and adiabaticity) through the increase of the energy gap during most of the evolution time. (paper)
Owen, A. K.
1994-01-01
The laser anemometer has provided the fluid dynamicist with a powerful tool for nonintrusively measuring fluid velocities. One of the more common types of laser anemometers, the laser fringe anemometer, divides a single laser beam into two parallel beams and then focuses them on a point in space called the "probe volume" (PV) where the fluid velocity is measured. Many applications using this method for measuring fluid velocities require the observation of fluids through a window. The passage of the laser beams through materials having different indices of refraction has the following effects: 1) the position of the probe volume will change; 2) the beams will uncross, i.e., no longer lie in the same plane at the probe volume location; and 3) for nonflat plate windows, the crossing angle of the two beams will change. OPTMAIN uses a ray tracing technique, which is not restricted to special cases, to study the changes in probe volume geometry and position due to refraction effects caused by both flat and general smooth windows. Input parameters are the indices of refraction on both sides of the window and of the window itself, the window shape, the assumed position of the probe volume and the actual position of the focusing lens relative to the window, the orientation of the plane which contains the laser beams, the beam crossing angle, and the laser beam wavelength. OPTMAIN is written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution. It has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS 5.0 with a virtual memory requirement of 50K. OPTMAIN was developed in 1987.
W. D. H. Gillan
2006-01-01
Introduction: The investigation of myopia and soft contact lenses is not new. Many reports show that the wearing of silicone hydrogel lenses as opposed to conventional disposable hydrogel lenses results in little progression of myopia in the eyes wearing silicone hydrogels. Method: Six subjects wore a silicone hydro-gel lens on one eye while the other eye wore a habitual disposable hydrogel lens for six months of daily wear. Fifty measurements of refractive state in each eye were taken ...
Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun
2016-01-01
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO₂ nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry-Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO₂ nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO₂ on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373-1.3500. Due to TiO₂'s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field. PMID:27537885
Different ability to ion exchange from the salts of lithium-sodium-silicate glass melt containing calcium (or strontium, or barium) and titanium oxides in addition has been shown. CaO, SrO and BaO have negative effect, but TiO2 -positive one on the fullness of ion exchange of lithium-sodium and on the rate of interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glass. The value of change in index of refraction of glass with TiO2 is twice higher than glass with calcium oxide (or strontium, or barium) as the fourth component
Petrov, P. V.; Kolchevsky, N.N.
2013-01-01
Compound concave refractive lenses are used for focusing neutron beam. Investigations of spectral and focusing properties of a refractive neutron lens are presented. Resolution of the imaging system on the base of refractive neutron lenses depends on material properties and parameters of neutron source. Model of refractive neutron lens are proposed. Results of calculation diffraction resolution and focal depth of refractive neutron lens are discussed.
Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap
Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu
2016-01-01
Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.
Avron, Joseph
2016-01-01
We derive the relativistically exact Eikonal equation for ring interferometers undergoing adiabatic deformations. The leading term in the adiabatic expansion of the phase shift is independent of the refraction index $n$ and is given by a line integral generalizing results going back to Sagnac to all orders in $\\beta$. The next term in the adiabaticity is of lower order in $\\beta$ and may be as important as the first in nonrelativistic cases. This term is proportional to $n^2$ and has the form of a double integral. It generalizes previous results to fibers with chromatic dispersion and puts Sagnac and Fizeau interferometers under a single umbrella.
J. D. Biamonte
2011-06-01
Full Text Available In his famous 1981 talk, Feynman proposed that unlike classical computers, which would presumably experience an exponential slowdown when simulating quantum phenomena, a universal quantum simulator would not. An ideal quantum simulator would be controllable, and built using existing technology. In some cases, moving away from gate-model-based implementations of quantum computing may offer a more feasible solution for particular experimental implementations. Here we consider an adiabatic quantum simulator which simulates the ground state properties of sparse Hamiltonians consisting of one- and two-local interaction terms, using sparse Hamiltonians with at most three-local interactions. Properties of such Hamiltonians can be well approximated with Hamiltonians containing only two-local terms. The register holding the simulated ground state is brought adiabatically into interaction with a probe qubit, followed by a single diabatic gate operation on the probe which then undergoes free evolution until measured. This allows one to recover e.g. the ground state energy of the Hamiltonian being simulated. Given a ground state, this scheme can be used to verify the QMA-complete problem LOCAL HAMILTONIAN, and is therefore likely more powerful than classical computing.
Frimurer, Thomas M.; Günther, Peter H.; Sørensen, Morten Dahl;
1999-01-01
adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)......adiabatic mapping, conformational change, essentialdynamics, free energy simulations, Kunitz type inhibitor *ga3(VI)...
Adiabatic logic future trend and system level perspective
Teichmann, Philip
2012-01-01
Adiabatic logic is a potential successor for static CMOS circuit design when it comes to ultra-low-power energy consumption. Future development like the evolutionary shrinking of the minimum feature size as well as revolutionary novel transistor concepts will change the gate level savings gained by adiabatic logic. In addition, the impact of worsening degradation effects has to be considered in the design of adiabatic circuits. The impact of the technology trends on the figures of merit of adiabatic logic, energy saving potential and optimum operating frequency, are investigated, as well as degradation related issues. Adiabatic logic benefits from future devices, is not susceptible to Hot Carrier Injection, and shows less impact of Bias Temperature Instability than static CMOS circuits. Major interest also lies on the efficient generation of the applied power-clock signal. This oscillating power supply can be used to save energy in short idle times by disconnecting circuits. An efficient way to generate the p...
Is the sech/tanh Adiabatic Pulse Really Adiabatic?
Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zur, Yuval
1998-05-01
Adiabatic pulses are most conveniently studied in the frequency frame which is a frame of reference rotating at the instantaneous frequency of the pulse. In this frame the adiabatic condition ‖γBeff‖ ≫ |θ≳| sets an upper limit on the sweep rate θ≳ of the Beffvector. This, in turn, places a lower bound on the pulse duration. Adiabatic behavior is studied at the threshold duration and two pulses are examined: (i) a pulse with a constant sweep rate (CAPpulse) and (ii) a conventional sech/tanh adiabatic pulse. It is shown that the sech/tanh pulse performs robust magnetization inversion although it seems to violate the adiabatic condition. This puzzling phenomenon is solved by switching into a second-order rotating frame of reference (SORF) where it is shown that the adiabatic condition is fulfilled. This frame coincides with the frequency frame at the beginning of the pulse. Assuming an RF field along thex-axis of the frequency frame, the SORF then rotates about the commony-axis during the pulse with thez-axis of the new frame aligned with the Beffvector. It is shown that adiabatic motion may be performed in the SORF, in which the sweep rate is increased indefinitely; the adiabatic condition is violated by this motion in the frequency frame but is fulfilled in the SORF. The lower bound on the sweep rate in the frequency frame is thereby lifted.
Adiabatic and non-adiabatic processes in strong Coulomb fields
Adiabatic and non-adiabatic behaviour of relativistic electrons in external Coulomb fields of time-dependent strength is studied within the framework of a model for the description of a shell electron's behaviour during a heavy-ion collision. A classification scheme for types of non-adiabatic behaviour is suggested; its relevance for the analysis of pair production processes in strong Coulomb fields is discussed (K-Shell Ionization). An ansatz for the vacuum polarization potential is introduced and employed to demonstrate the special role of vacuum polarization for adiabatic and non-adiabatic behaviour in very strong Coulomb fields (Zα > 1). The implications of the underlaying specific features of the vacuum polarization charge density in very strong fields for pair production mechanisms are considered. (orig.)
Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem
Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas
2012-01-01
We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.…
Karia, S. P.; Pathak, K. N.
2011-03-01
The present study reports the analysis of GPS based TEC for our station Surat (21.16°N, 72.78°E) located at the northern crest of equatorial anomaly region in India at times close to some earthquake events (M ⩾ 5) during the year 2009 in India and its neighbouring regions. The TEC data used in the study are obtained from GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitoring (GISTM) system. The TEC data has been analysed corresponding to 11 earthquakes in low solar activity period and quiet geomagnetic condition. We found that, out of 11 cases of earthquakes (M > 5) there were seven cases in which enhancement in TEC occurred on earthquake day and in other four cases there was depletion in TEC on earthquake day. The variation in refractivity prior to earthquake was significant for the cases in which the epicentre lied within a distance of 600 km from the receiving station. By looking into the features on temporal enhancement and depletion of TEC a prediction was made 3-2 days prior to an earthquake (on 28 October 2009 in Bhuj - India). The paper includes a brief discussion on the method of potentially identifying an impending earthquake from ionospheric data.
... the cornea, or aging of the lens can cause refractive errors. What is refraction? Refraction is the bending of ... for objects at any distance, near or far. Astigmatism is a condition in ... This can cause images to appear blurry and stretched out. Presbyopia ...
Rojas-Briseño, J.G.; Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia)
2013-09-01
In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions.
In this work we are reporting the energy level spectrum for a quantum system consisting of an n-type double δ-doped quantum well with a Schottky barrier potential in a Gallium Arsenide matrix. The calculated states are taken as the basis for the evaluation of the linear and third-order nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient and to the relative refractive index change, making particular use of the asymmetry of the potential profile. These optical properties are then reported as a function of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) and the separation distance between the δ-doped quantum wells. Also, the effects of the application of hydrostatic pressure are studied. The results show that the amplitudes of the resonant peaks are of the same order of magnitude of those obtained in the case of single δ-doped field effect transistors; but tailoring the asymmetry of the confining potential profile allows the control the resonant peak positions
Zuev, V.S.; Korol' kov, K.S.; Netemin, V.N.; Nosach, O.Y.; Orlov, E.P.
1976-11-01
An optical delay method is proposed for investigation of the change in the refractive index of the active medium of a laser at the wavelength of its stimulated emission. Criteria of the validity of this method are obtained and an analysis is made of the errors in the measurement of ..delta..n. A specific optical delay system is described and tested in an experimental determination of the distribution of ..delta..n in an iodine laser pumped by an open discharge. The results of simultaneous measurements of ..delta..n in the light of a ruby laser are also reported. The distributions of ..delta..n at the emission wavelength of the iodine laser (1.315 ..mu..) and at the ruby laser wavelength (0.6943 ..mu..) are identical. The experimental results are used in an estimate of the characteristics of the wave front of the radiation emitted from the iodine laser.
Fiber optic refractive index monitor
Weiss, Jonathan David
2002-01-01
A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.
Adiabatic frequency conversion of quantum optical information in atomic vapor
Vewinger, Frank; Appel, Juergen; Figueroa, Eden; Lvovsky, A. I.
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a quantum communication protocol that enables frequency conversion and routing of quantum optical information in an adiabatic and thus robust way. The protocol is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency in systems with multiple excited levels: transfer and/or distribution of optical states between different signal modes is implemented by adiabatically changing the control fields. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed using the hyperfine levels ...
Adiabatic boiling of two-phase coolant in upward flow
A mathematical model of the process of adiabatic boiling (self-condensation) of a two-phase coolant in upward (downward) flow is developed. The model takes account of changes in phase properties with static pressure decrease. The process is investigated numerically. Approximate analytical formulas for design calculations are obtained. It is shown that effects of adiabatic boiling (self-condensation) should be taken into account when calculating two-phase coolant flow in stretched vertical channels
Non-adiabatic primordial fluctuations
Noller, J
2009-01-01
We consider general non-adiabatic single fluid cosmological perturbations. We derive the second-order action and its curvature variables assuming only the (linearized) Einstein equations for a perfect fluid stress-energy tensor. The derivation is therefore carried out at the same level of generality that has been achieved before for adiabatic modes. We also allow for arbitrary "speed of sound" profiles in our derivation. As a result we find a new conserved super-horizon quantity and relate it to the adiabatically conserved curvature perturbation. We then use the formalism to investigate a family of non-adiabatic hydrodynamical primordial matter models and the power spectra they produce. This yields a new scale-invariant solution that can resolve the horizon problem if implemented in a contracting phase.
Lee, Min Joung; Lee, Sang Mok; Lee, Hyun Ju; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak; Kim, Mee Kum
2007-01-01
Purpose To compare forward shift of posterior corneal surface and higher-order aberration (HOA) changes after LASIK, LASEK, and wavefront-guided LASEK surgery in moderate myopia Methods One hundred eighty four eyes undergoing LASIK, LASEK and wavefront-guided LASEK with VISX STAR S4 were included in this study. The posterior corneal elevation was measured with Orbscan before, 2 and 4 months after surgery. Changes of the elevation were assessed using the difference map generated from preoperat...
Naidoo, Kovin S; Jyoti Jaggernath
2012-01-01
Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error S...
Ungan, F., E-mail: fungan@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Restrepo, R.L. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia AA 7516, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensade-UdeA, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)
2014-02-01
The effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and electric field on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transition in a typical GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the graded quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation and envelope wave function approach. The analytical expressions of the optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method. The numerical results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties depend strongly on the intense laser field and electric field but weakly on the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Additionally, it has been found that the electronic and optical properties in a GaAs/Ga{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}As graded quantum well under the intense laser field can be tuned by changing these external inputs. Thus, these results give a new degree of freedom in the devices applications.
The effects of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, and electric field on the optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes associated with intersubband transition in a typical GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As graded quantum well under intense laser field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the graded quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation and envelope wave function approach. The analytical expressions of the optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach and the iterative method. The numerical results show that the linear and nonlinear optical properties depend strongly on the intense laser field and electric field but weakly on the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. Additionally, it has been found that the electronic and optical properties in a GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As graded quantum well under the intense laser field can be tuned by changing these external inputs. Thus, these results give a new degree of freedom in the devices applications
AN ADIABATIC APPROACH FOR LOW POWER FULL ADDER DESIGN
Prof. Dinesh Chandra
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, several adiabatic logic styles have been reported. This paper deals with the design of a 1-bit full adder using several adiabatic logic styles, which are derived from static CMOS logic, without a large change. The full adders are designed using 180nm technology parameters provided by predictive technology and simulated using HSPICE. The full adders designed are compared in terms of average power consumption with different values of load capacitance, temperature and input frequency. The different designs of full adder are also compared on the basis of propagation delay exhibit by them. It is found that, full adders designed with adiabatic logic styles tends to consume very low power in comparison to full adder designed with static CMOS logic. Under certain operating conditions, one of adiabatic designs of full adder achieves upto 74% power saving in comparison to the full adder designedwith static CMOS logic.
Dohn, Søren; Greve, Anders; Svendsen, Winnie Edith;
2010-01-01
It has been speculated that the initial bending of cantilevers has a major influence on the detector signal in a cantilever-based sensor using the optical lever readout method. We have investigated theoretically as well as experimentally the changes induced in the detector signal when the optical...... experimentally using an environmental chamber and varying the pressure. We sketch routes to circumvent the problem and formulas suitable for data treatment are given....
Adiabatic graph-state quantum computation
Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and holonomic quantum computation (HQC) are two very different computational methods. The computation in MBQC is driven by adaptive measurements executed in a particular order on a large entangled state. In contrast in HQC the system starts in the ground subspace of a Hamiltonian which is slowly changed such that a transformation occurs within the subspace. Following the approach of Bacon and Flammia, we show that any MBQC on a graph state with generalized flow (gflow) can be converted into an adiabatically driven holonomic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then investigate how properties of AGQC relate to the properties of MBQC, such as computational depth. We identify a trade-off that can be made between the number of adiabatic steps in AGQC and the norm of H-dot as well as the degree of H, in analogy to the trade-off between the number of measurements and classical post-processing seen in MBQC. Finally the effects of performing AGQC with orderings that differ from standard MBQC are investigated. (paper)
Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry
Al-Hagan, Ola
2014-05-02
In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.
ZHANG; Peng; ZHAO; Jianlin; XU; Honglai; SUN; Yidong; YANG
2005-01-01
According to the Kukhtarev equations and a simplified model based on the photovoltaic charge carriers transport mechanism, the distributions of the index changes (DICs) in LiNbO3:Fe crystals induced by sheet beams with various intensity profiles are theoretically analyzed. The numerically simulated results coincide with the analytic expressions deduced from the simplified model. The DICs in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal induced by sheet beams with rectangular, Gaussian and square law profiles are measured by using the interferometric method. By employing the analytic expressions, the experimental data points are well fitted. By utilizing the angular spectrum theory and the ray equation, the uniformities of the intensity profiles of the writing beams along the propagation directions and the influences of the self-defocusing effect of the crystal are numerically simulated, respectively. The results show that the experimental results are reliable. The numerically simulated method and the analytic expressions can be both employed to predict the DICs induced by sheet beams with various light intensity profiles. Furthermore, utilizing writing beams with proper intensity profiles, any desired index distributions could be obtained.
Electro-refractive photonic device
Zortman, William A.; Watts, Michael R.
2015-06-09
The various technologies presented herein relate to phase shifting light to facilitate any of light switching, modulation, amplification, etc. Structures are presented where a second layer is juxtaposed between a first layer and a third layer with respective doping facilitating formation of p-n junctions at the interface between the first layer and the second layer, and between the second layer and the third layer. Application of a bias causes a carrier concentration change to occur at the p-n junctions which causes a shift in the effective refractive index per incremental change in an applied bias voltage. The effective refractive index enhancement can occur in both reverse bias and forward bias. The structure can be incorporated into a waveguide, an optical resonator, a vertical junction device, a horizontal junction device, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a tuneable optical filter, etc.
The split of a generalised Chaplygin gas with an equation of state p=−A/ρα into an interacting mixture of pressureless matter and a dark-energy component with equation of state pΛ=−ρΛ implies the existence of non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. We demonstrate that the square of the effective (non-adiabatic) sound speed cs of the medium is proportional to the ratio of the perturbations of the dark energy to those of the dark matter. Since, as demonstrated explicitly for the particular case α=−1/2, dark-energy perturbations are negligible compared with dark-matter perturbations on scales that are relevant for structure formation, we find |cs2|≪1. Consequently, there are no oscillations or instabilities which have plagued previous adiabatic Chaplygin-gas models
Optimizing adiabaticity in quantum mechanics
MacKenzie, R; Renaud-Desjardins, L
2011-01-01
A condition on the Hamiltonian of a time-dependent quantum mechanical system is derived which, if satisfied, implies optimal adiabaticity (defined below). The condition is expressed in terms of the Hamiltonian and in terms of the evolution operator related to it. Since the latter depends in a complicated way on the Hamiltonian, it is not yet clear how the condition can be used to extract useful information about the optimal Hamiltonian. The condition is tested on an exactly-soluble time-dependent problem (a spin in a magnetic field), where perfectly adiabatic evolution can be easily identified.
Kovin S Naidoo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.
Optimization of Adiabatic Selective Pulses
Rosenfeld, Daniel; Panfil, Shimon L.; Zur, Yuval
1997-06-01
Adiabatic RF pulses play an important role in spin inversion due to their robust behavior in presence of inhomogeneous RF fields. These pulses are characterized by the trajectory swept by the tip of theBeffvector and the rate of motion upon it. In this paper, a method is described for optimizing adiabatic inversion pulses to achieve a frequency-selective magnetization inversion over a given bandwidth in a shorter time and to improve slice profile. An efficient adiabatic pulse is used as an initial condition. This pulse allows for flexibility in choosing its parameters; in particular, the transition sharpness may be traded off against the inverted bandwidth. The considerations for selecting the parameters of the pulse according to the requirements of the design are discussed. The optimization process then improves the slice profile by optimizing the rate of motion along the trajectory of the pulse while preserving the trajectory itself. The adiabatic behavior of the optimized pulses is fully preserved over a twofold range of variation in the RF amplitude which is sufficient for imaging applications in commercial high-field MRI machines. Design examples demonstrate the superiority of the optimized pulses over the conventional sech/tanh pulse.
A Many Particle Adiabatic Invariant
Hjorth, Poul G.
For a system of N charged particles moving in a homogeneous, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a many-particle adiabatic invariant constrains the collisional exchange of energy between the degrees of freedom perpendicular to and parallel to the magnetic field. A description of the phenomenon in...
Studies in Chaotic adiabatic dynamics
Chaotic adiabatic dynamics refers to the study of systems exhibiting chaotic evolution under slowly time-dependent equations of motion. In this dissertation the author restricts his attention to Hamiltonian chaotic adiabatic systems. The results presented are organized around a central theme, namely, that the energies of such systems evolve diffusively. He begins with a general analysis, in which he motivates and derives a Fokker-Planck equation governing this process of energy diffusion. He applies this equation to study the open-quotes goodnessclose quotes of an adiabatic invariant associated with chaotic motion. This formalism is then applied to two specific examples. The first is that of a gas of noninteracting point particles inside a hard container that deforms slowly with time. Both the two- and three-dimensional cases are considered. The results are discussed in the context of the Wall Formula for one-body dissipation in nuclear physics, and it is shown that such a gas approaches, asymptotically with time, an exponential velocity distribution. The second example involves the Fermi mechanism for the acceleration of cosmic rays. Explicit evolution equations are obtained for the distribution of cosmic ray energies within this model, and the steady-state energy distribution that arises when this equation is modified to account for the injection and removal of cosmic rays is discussed. Finally, the author re-examines the multiple-time-scale approach as applied to the study of phase space evolution under a chaotic adiabatic Hamiltonian. This leads to a more rigorous derivation of the above-mentioned Fokker-Planck equation, and also to a new term which has relevance to the problem of chaotic adiabatic reaction forces (the forces acting on slow, heavy degrees of freedom due to their coupling to light, fast chaotic degrees)
Design of Selective Adiabatic Inversion Pulses Using the Adiabatic Condition
Rosenfeld, Daniel; Panfil, Shimon L.; Zur, Yuval
1997-12-01
Adiabatic RF pulses play an important role in spin inversion due to their robust behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous RF fields. These pulses are characterized by the trajectory swept by the tip of theBeffvector and the rate of motion along it. In this paper, we describe a method by which optimized modulation functions can be constructed to render insensitivity toB1inhomogeneity over a predeterminedB1range and over a wide band of frequencies. This is accomplished by requiring that the optimized pulse fulfill the adiabatic condition over this range ofB1inhomogeneity and over the desired frequency band for the complete duration of the pulse. A trajectory similar to the well-known sech/tanh adiabatic pulse, i.e., a half-ellipse, is used. The optimization process improves the slice profile by optimizing the rate of motion along this trajectory. The optimized pulse can be tailored to the specific design requirements; in particular, the transition sharpness may be traded off against the inverted bandwidth. Two design examples, including experimental results, demonstrate the superiority of the optimized pulses over the conventional sech/tanh pulse: in the first example, a large frequency band is to be inverted using a weak RF amplitude in a short time. In the second example, a pulse with a very sharp transition is required.
Complete text of publication follows. The effect of Vis-IR laser irradiation at various energy densities on refractive index and thickness of SiO2 thin film onto polycarbonate was reported in this paper. Transmittance spectra were used for determination the above characteristics of these films by application of analytical formulas was to the interference extrema. (Swanepoel method). It has been found that the thickness of films decrease by increasing the photon energy of laser and its energy density. It has been observed that the transmittance decreases with the increase of film thickness. From transmittance data, the dispersion of refractive index of sample has been studied. It was found that at high energy density (50 .35 J/cm2), the refractive index of sample was more increased. The highest increased in refractive index (Δn ∼ 0.1) was found for sample which irradiated by 532 nm laser beam with 50.35 J/cm2 energy density.
Adiabatic theory for the bipolaron
A translation-invariant adiabatic theory is constructed for the bipolaron. It is shown that motions in the bipolaron are divided: the relative electron coordinates describe fast electron oscillations in the induced polarization well and the center of mass coordinates represent slow electron movement followed by polarization. Nonlinear differential bipolaron equations are derived which are asymptotically exact in the adiabatic limit. Particlelike solutions of these equations correspond to the bipolaron bound state. The exact solution yields the value of the ion critical parameter η=0.31 for which the bipolaron state is stable, where η=ε∞/ε0 and ε∞,ε0 are high-frequency and static dielectric permittivities. The energy, the total energy, the effective mass, the radius, and the critical values of the electron-phonon coupling constants are calculated for the bipolaron. The results obtained are generalized to the case of two-dimensional bipolarons
Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices
Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan
2015-10-01
Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands.
Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots
Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro
2016-08-01
In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.
Adiabatic collapse of rotating gas clouds
The gravitational, axisymmetric and adiabatic collapse of rotating gas clouds with various initial conditions has been calculated numerically by means of Fluid-In-Cell method. We have assumed that the gas is ideal and its change is adiabatic except for heat production by shock waves and that, initially, a cloud has no motion in a meridional plane and has spherical and polytropic distributions of mass and temperature. The results of calculations show that a cloud which has initially larger rotational energy bounced more easily, i.e., bounces at lower central density. The bounce occurs first in the direction of the rotation axis and next in direction perpendicular to it. A shock wave generated by the bounce is strong especially in the vicinity of the rotation axis. At first the shock front is nearly parallel to the equatorial plane but it becomes gradually spherical as it propagates outwards. Calculations have been performed until the mass enclosed inside the shock front becomes as large as 95 percent of the total mass. At this final stage either a rotating spheroidal core or a rotating ring is left in the central region; a ring is formed if initially a cloud is rotating more rapidly, less centrally condensed and at lower temperature. (auth.)
Colina, M., E-mail: monica.colina.brito@upm.e [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C.; Holgado, M. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Gandia, J. [Dept. de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nos, O. [CeRMAE Dept. Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ocana, J.L. [Centro Laser UPM, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain)
2010-07-01
Laser scribing of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a crucial step in the fabrication of thin film photovoltaic modules. During such process, inherent thermo-mechanical effects associated to laser ablation mechanisms lead to thermal damages. In that sense, the state of the material remaining in the vicinity of the ablated area has a critical influence on the electrical properties of the final devices. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of refractive index variations for the material surrounding the ablated area by means of Infrared-Visible Fourier transform spectrometry is proposed. Besides, in order to evaluate the material microstructure, Raman spectroscopy is employed as a complimentary technique. It was seen that the refractive index variation decreased as the distance from the center of the ablated groove was increased. Likewise, a clear transition from highly crystalline to amorphous material could be also observed as a function of the distance from the groove.
Adiabatic Mass Loss Model in Binary Stars
Ge, H. W.
2012-07-01
onset of dynamical time scale mass transfer; if the ratio of donor to accretor masses exceeds this critical value, the dynamical time scale mass transfer ensues. The grid of criterion for all stars can be used to be the basic input as the binary population synthetic method, which will be improved absolutely. In common envelope evolution, the dissipation of orbital energy of the binary provides the energy to eject the common envelope; the energy budget for this process essentially consists of the initial orbital energy of the binary and the initial binding energies of the binary components. We emphasize that, because stellar core and envelope contribute mutually to each other's gravitational potential energy, proper evaluation of the total energy of a star requires integration over the entire stellar interior, not the ejected envelope alone as commonly assumed. We show that the change in total energy of the donor star, as a function of its remaining mass along an adiabatic mass-loss sequence, can be calculated. This change in total energy of the donor star, combined with the requirement that both remnant donor and its companion star fit within their respective Roche lobes, then circumscribes energetically possible survivors of common envelope evolution. It is the first time that we can calculate the accurate total energy of the donor star in common envelope evolution, while the results with the old method are inconsistent with observations.
Adiabatic processes in monatomic gases
A kinetic model is used to predict the temperature evolution of a monatomic ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic expansion or compression at a constant finite rate, and it is then generalized to treat real gases. The effects of interatomic forces are considered, using as examples the gas with the square-well potential and the van der Waals gas. The model is integrated into a Carnot cycle operating at a finite rate to compare the efficiency's rate-dependent behavior with the reversible result. Limitations of the model, rate penalties, and their importance are discussed
Additional adiabatic heating of plasma
A theoretical possibility of a plasma additional adiabatic heating up to temperatures needed for the begin of D-T thermonuclear fusion reaction, has been found on the base of the polyenergetic conjugation expression, developed in the Thermodynamics of Accumulation Processes. TAP is a branch of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes is another branch of the entire non-equilibrium thermodynamics. TAP deals with the phenomena associated with the introduction, conversion and accumulation of mass or energy or both in the affected, open or closed systems. (author) 2 refs
Adiabatic Floquet model for the optical response in femtosecond filaments
Hofmann, Michael
2016-01-01
The standard model of femtosecond filamentation is based on phenomenological assumptions which suggest that the ionization-induced carriers can be treated as free according to the Drude model, while the nonlinear response of the bound carriers follows the all-optical Kerr effect. Here, we demonstrate that the additional plasma generated at a multiphoton resonance dominates the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index. Since resonances are not captured by the standard model, we propose a modification of the latter in which ionization enhancements can be accounted for by an ionization rate obtained from non-Hermitian Floquet theory. In the adiabatic regime of long pulse envelopes, this augmented standard model is in excellent agreement with direct quantum mechanical simulations. Since our proposal maintains the structure of the standard model, it can be easily incorporated into existing codes of filament simulation.
A New Approach to the Quantum Adiabatic Condition
The quantum adiabatic theorem is the basis of adiabatic quantum computation. However, the exact necessary and sufficient conditions for adiabatic evolution are still under debate. We discuss the adiabatic condition of a system undergoing a special evolution route, and obtain an explicit formula that is necessary and sufficient for the adiabatic evolution in this route. Based on this formula, we find that the traditional adiabatic condition is neither sufficient nor necessary. Finally, we show that no adiabatic process can occur even the evolution speed goes to 0 in some examples, which is surprising since the adiabatic theorem states that if the evolution of a system is slow enough, the adiabatic process could occur
Rice, Daniel
2012-10-01
A threshold aerogel Cherenkov detector is being constructed at CUA to allow for the study of kaons in experiments at the Jefferson Laboratory. These subatomic particles move faster than light through the aerogel material, emitting Cherenkov radiation. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) convert the photons from the Cherenkov radiation into electrons and multiply the electrons sufficiently to get a readable electronic signal, which can be analyzed. An important part of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov detector is its use of aerogel material of several refractive indices to cover the full dynamic range over which one wants to detect the particles of interest (in this case the kaon). Uniform coverage in refractive index is important as the location of the incoming particle will not be constant throughout the testing. In addition to testing for uniform coverage, we must also verify these refractive indices to ensure that the particles we are detecting are in fact kaons. The last test on the aerogel that needs to be performed is the measurement of transparency. Although aerogel is highly transparent, it is still necessary to find the amount of light being absorbed, reflected, or scattered versus how much will actually be measured by the PMTs used.
Variable refractive index in environment matte
ZHAO Ming-tian; XIAO Shuang-jiu; YANG Xu-bo; MA Li-zhuang
2006-01-01
Environment matting and compositing is a technique to extract a foreground object, including color, opacity, reflective and refractive properties, from a real-world scene, and synthesize new images by placing it into new environments. The description of the captured object is named environment matte. Recent matting and compositing techniques can produce quite realistic images for objects with complex optical properties. This paper presents an approximate method to transform the matte by simulating variation of the foreground object's refractive index. Our algorithms can deal with achromatous-and-transparent objects and the experimental results are visually acceptable. Our idea and method can be applied to produce some special video effects, which could be very useful in film making, compared with the extreme difficulty of physically changing an object's refractive index.
Complete Adiabatic Quantum Search in Unsorted Databases
Xu, Nanyang; Peng, Xinhua; Shi, Mingjun; Du, Jiangfeng
2008-01-01
We propose a new adiabatic algorithm for the unsorted database search problem. This algorithm saves two thirds of qubits than Grover's algorithm in realizations. Meanwhile, we analyze the time complexity of the algorithm by both perturbative method and numerical simulation. The results show it provides a better speedup than the previous adiabatic search algorithm.
Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers
Eric A Hendricks
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane
Shortcut to adiabatic gate teleportation
Santos, Alan C.; Silva, Raphael D.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.
2016-01-01
We introduce a shortcut to the adiabatic gate teleportation model of quantum computation. More specifically, we determine fast local counterdiabatic Hamiltonians able to implement teleportation as a universal computational primitive. In this scenario, we provide the counterdiabatic driving for arbitrary n -qubit gates, which allows to achieve universality through a variety of gate sets. Remarkably, our approach maps the superadiabatic Hamiltonian HSA for an arbitrary n -qubit gate teleportation into the implementation of a rotated superadiabatic dynamics of an n -qubit state teleportation. This result is rather general, with the speed of the evolution only dictated by the quantum speed limit. In particular, we analyze the energetic cost for different Hamiltonian interpolations in the context of the energy-time complementarity.
Demming, Anna
2012-12-01
Refractive index effects using nanoscale systems are frequently applied in new imaging, sensing and even visibility cloaking technology. In this issue, researchers in Japan use simulations and experiments to describe the confinement of optical vortices in nanoscale fin structures and the sensitivity of these systems to the refractive index of the surrounding media [1]. The effects of refraction as light rays pass between different media were recorded as long ago as the first century AD, by Ptolemy [2]. Over the following centuries the phenomena inspired Ibn Sahl in 984 [3], Thomas Harriot in 1602 [4], Willebrord Snellius in 1621 [5] and Rene Descartes in 1637 [6] to independently derive the more accurate and elegant equation for refraction so familiar to us today. Recent studies of the interactions between light and matter continue to reveal a wealth of phenomena that originate in the effects of the refractive indices of materials. Nanostructures can be used to manipulate conditions that affect the refractive indices of materials, such as temperature. A E Aliev et al at the University of Texas reported a striking demonstration of temperature-dependent refractive index effects using a free-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotube aerogel sheet [7]. They used the extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of transparent carbon nanotube sheets to enable high-frequency modulation of the sheet temperature over an enormous temperature range. The resulting sharp, rapidly changing gradient of the refractive index in the surrounding liquid or gas makes objects seem to disappear and can be used for visibility cloaking. Light-matter interaction resonances, where light is confined at the nanoscale, can be extremely sensitive to changes in the refractive index of the surrounding media [8], even allowing single-molecule detection [9]. Plasmons, the collective oscillations of electrons in response to incident light, are a typical example. Researchers at Rice
Quantum gates with controlled adiabatic evolutions
Hen, Itay
2015-02-01
We introduce a class of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we claim may be interpreted as the equivalents of the unitary gates of the quantum gate model. We argue that these gates form a universal set and may therefore be used as building blocks in the construction of arbitrary "adiabatic circuits," analogously to the manner in which gates are used in the circuit model. One implication of the above construction is that arbitrary classical boolean circuits as well as gate model circuits may be directly translated to adiabatic algorithms with no additional resources or complexities. We show that while these adiabatic algorithms fail to exhibit certain aspects of the inherent fault tolerance of traditional quantum adiabatic algorithms, they may have certain other experimental advantages acting as quantum gates.
Yesilgul, U., E-mail: uyesilgul@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Ungan, F. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E.; Sarı, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)
2014-01-15
The effects of the intense high-frequency laser field on the optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/GaAlAs parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy levels and the envelope wave functions of the parabolic quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation. Analytical expressions for optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach. The numerical results show that the intense high-frequency laser field has a large effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. Also we can observe that the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes are very sensitive to the electric field in large dimension wells. Thus, this result gives a new degree of freedom in the optoelectronic device applications. -- Highlights: • ILF has a large effect on the optical properties of parabolic quantum wells. • The total absorption coefficients increase as the ILF increases. • The RICs increase as the ILF increases.
The effects of the intense high-frequency laser field on the optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/GaAlAs parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy levels and the envelope wave functions of the parabolic quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation. Analytical expressions for optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach. The numerical results show that the intense high-frequency laser field has a large effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. Also we can observe that the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes are very sensitive to the electric field in large dimension wells. Thus, this result gives a new degree of freedom in the optoelectronic device applications. -- Highlights: • ILF has a large effect on the optical properties of parabolic quantum wells. • The total absorption coefficients increase as the ILF increases. • The RICs increase as the ILF increases
On the statistical mechanics of an adiabatic ensemble
S.N.Andreev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Different descriptions of an adiabatic process based on statistical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are discussed. Equality of the so-called adiabatic and isolated susceptibilities and its generalization as well as adiabatic invariants are essentially used to describe adiabatic processes in the framework of quantum and classical statistical mechanics. It is shown that distribution function in adiabatic ensemble differs from a quasi-equilibrium canonical form provided the heat capacity of the system is not constant in adiabatic process.
Koshel', K. V.; Shishkarev, A. A.
1993-02-01
A perturbation theory for complex propagation constants is considered, based on the invariant imbedding method. This approach makes it possible to describe the effect of nonstratified fluctuations of the refractive index on transhorizon propagation of ultrashort waves in the framework of the adiabatic approximation in the case when an evaporation duct exists. Examples of calculations are presented, and characteristic stochastic effects are studied.
Refractive index based measurements
2014-01-01
In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....
Negative refractive index metamaterials
Willie J. Padilla
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.
Partial evolution based local adiabatic quantum search
Recently, Zhang and Lu provided a quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution, which beats the time bound of local adiabatic search when the number of marked items in the unsorted database is larger than one. Later, they found that the above two adiabatic search algorithms had the same time complexity when there is only one marked item in the database. In the present paper, following the idea of Roland and Cerf [Roland J and Cerf N J 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 042308], if within the small symmetric evolution interval defined by Zhang et al., a local adiabatic evolution is performed instead of the original “global” one, this “new” algorithm exhibits slightly better performance, although they are progressively equivalent with M increasing. In addition, the proof of the optimality for this partial evolution based local adiabatic search when M = 1 is also presented. Two other special cases of the adiabatic algorithm obtained by appropriately tuning the evolution interval of partial adiabatic evolution based quantum search, which are found to have the same phenomenon above, are also discussed. (general)
Refractive laser surgery for myopia
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of myopia is increasing. Constant near-work, race, gender and genes are associated with development of myopia. Refractive laser surgery is eye surgey aimed at altering the refractive power of the cornea, and the procedures are among the most commonly performed in medicine. The main indication for refractive surgery of myopia is cosmetic; patients deem it a good alternative to wearing contact lenses and glasses. PURPOSE: This paper gives an overview of the histor...
Digital Waveguide Adiabatic Passage Part 2: Experiment
Ng, Vincent; Chaboyer, Zachary J; Nguyen, Thach; Dawes, Judith M; Withford, Michael J; Greentree, Andrew D; Steel, M J
2016-01-01
Using a femtosecond laser writing technique, we fabricate and characterise three-waveguide digital adiabatic passage devices, with the central waveguide digitised into five discrete waveguidelets. Strongly asymmetric behaviour was observed, devices operated with high fidelity in the counter-intuitive scheme while strongly suppressing transmission in the intuitive. The low differential loss of the digital adiabatic passage designs potentially offers additional functionality for adiabatic passage based devices. These devices operate with a high contrast ($>\\!90\\%$) over a 60~nm bandwidth, centered at $\\sim 823$~nm.
Adiabatic Compression of Oxygen: Real Fluid Temperatures
Barragan, Michelle; Wilson, D. Bruce; Stoltzfus, Joel M.
2000-01-01
The adiabatic compression of oxygen has been identified as an ignition source for systems operating in enriched oxygen atmospheres. Current practice is to evaluate the temperature rise on compression by treating oxygen as an ideal gas with constant heat capacity. This paper establishes the appropriate thermodynamic analysis for the common occurrence of adiabatic compression of oxygen and in the process defines a satisfactory equation of state (EOS) for oxygen. It uses that EOS to model adiabatic compression as isentropic compression and calculates final temperatures for this system using current approaches for comparison.
Fermat's principle with complex refractive indices and local light-ray rotation
Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Courtial, Johannes
2008-01-01
We describe local light-ray rotation in terms of complex refractive indices. We show that Fermat's principle holds, and we derive an extended Snell's law. The change in the angle of a light ray with respect to the normal to a refractive-index interface is described by the modulus of the refractive-index ratio, the rotation around the interface normal is described by the argument of the refractive-index ratio.
Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions
George Levy
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.
Dispersion tuning with a varifocal diffractive-refractive hybrid lens.
Harm, Walter; Roider, Clemens; Jesacher, Alexander; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika
2014-03-10
We present a hybrid diffractive-refractive optical lens doublet consisting of a varifocal Moiré Fresnel lens and a polymer lens of tunable refractive power. The wide range of focal tunability of each lens and the opposite dispersive characteristics of the diffractive and the refractive element are exploited to obtain an optical system where both the Abbe number and the refractive power can be changed separately. We investigate the performance of the proposed hybrid lens at zero overall refractive power by tuning the Abbe number of a complementary standard lens while maintaining a constant overall focal length for the central wavelength. As an application example, the hybrid lens is used to tune to an optimal operating regime for quantitative phase microscopy based on a two-color transport of intensity (TIE) approach which utilizes chromatic aberrations rather than intensity recordings at several planes to reconstruct the optical path length of a phase object. PMID:24663866
Comparison Between Radar and Automatic Weather Station Refractivity Variability
Hallali, Ruben; Dalaudier, Francis; Parent du Chatelet, Jacques
2016-08-01
Weather radars measure changes in the refractive index of air in the atmospheric boundary layer. The technique uses the phase of signals from ground targets located around the radar to provide information on atmospheric refractivity related to meteorological quantities such as temperature, pressure and humidity. The approach has been successfully implemented during several field campaigns using operational S-band radars in Canada, UK, USA and France. In order to better characterize the origins of errors, a recent study has simulated temporal variations of refractivity based on Automatic Weather Station (AWS) measurements. This reveals a stronger variability of the refractivity during the summer and in the afternoon when the refractivity is the most sensitive to humidity, probably because of turbulence close to the ground. This raises the possibility of retrieving information on the turbulent state of the atmosphere from the variability in radar refractivity. An analysis based on a 1-year dataset from the operational C-band radar at Trappes (near Paris, France) and AWS refractivity variability measurements was used to measure those temporal and spatial variabilities. Particularly during summer, a negative bias increasing with range is observed between radar and AWS estimations, and is well explained by a model based on Taylor's hypotheses. The results demonstrate the possibility of establishing, depending on season, a quantitative and qualitative link between radar and AWS refractivity variability that reflects low-level coherent turbulent structures.
Adiabatic Invariance of Oscillons/I-balls
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takeda, Naoyuki
2015-01-01
Real scalar fields are known to fragment into spatially localized and long-lived solitons called oscillons or $I$-balls. We prove the adiabatic invariance of the oscillons/$I$-balls for a potential that allows periodic motion even in the presence of non-negligible spatial gradient energy. We show that such potential is uniquely determined to be the quadratic one with a logarithmic correction, for which the oscillons/$I$-balls are absolutely stable. For slightly different forms of the scalar potential dominated by the quadratic one, the oscillons/$I$-balls are only quasi-stable, because the adiabatic charge is only approximately conserved. We check the conservation of the adiabatic charge of the $I$-balls in numerical simulation by slowly varying the coefficient of logarithmic corrections. This unambiguously shows that the longevity of oscillons/$I$-balls is due to the adiabatic invariance.
Adiabatic hydrodynamics: The eightfold way to dissipation
Haehl, Felix M; Rangamani, Mukund
2015-01-01
We provide a complete solution to hydrodynamic transport at all orders in the gradient expansion compatible with the second law constraint. The key new ingredient we introduce is the notion of adiabaticity, which allows us to take hydrodynamics off-shell. Adiabatic fluids are such that off-shell dynamics of the fluid compensates for entropy production. The space of adiabatic fluids is quite rich, and admits a decomposition into seven distinct classes. Together with the dissipative class this establishes the eightfold way of hydrodynamic transport. Furthermore, recent results guarantee that dissipative terms beyond leading order in the gradient expansion are agnostic of the second law. While this completes a transport taxonomy, we go on to argue for a new symmetry principle, an Abelian gauge invariance that guarantees adiabaticity in hydrodynamics. We suggest that this symmetry is the macroscopic manifestation of the microscopic KMS invariance. We demonstrate its utility by explicitly constructing effective ac...
On adiabatic invariant in generalized Galileon theories
Ema, Yohei; Jinno, Ryusuke; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori
2015-01-01
We consider background dynamics of generalized Galileon theories in the context of inflation, where gravity and inflaton are non-minimally coupled to each other. In the inflaton oscillation regime, the Hubble parameter and energy density oscillate violently in many cases, in contrast to the Einstein gravity with minimally coupled inflaton. However, we find that there is an adiabatic invariant in the inflaton oscillation regime in any generalized Galileon theory. This adiabatic invariant is us...
Adiabatic Connection for Strictly-Correlated Electrons
Liu, Zhenfei; Burke, Kieron
2009-01-01
Modern density functional theory (DFT) calculations employ the Kohn-Sham (KS) system of non-interacting electrons as a reference, with all complications buried in the exchange-correlation energy (Exc). The adiabatic connection formula gives an exact expression for Exc. We consider DFT calculations that instead employ a reference of strictly-correlated electrons. We define a "decorrelation energy" that relates this reference to the real system, and derive the corresponding adiabatic connection...
Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility
Mostafazadeh, Ali
2014-01-01
arXiv:1401.4315v3 [quant-ph] 27 Feb 2014 Adiabatic Approximation, Semiclassical Scattering, and Unidirectional Invisibility Ali Mostafazadeh∗ Department of Mathematics, Ko¸c University, 34450 Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract The transfer matrix of a possibly complex and energy-dependent scattering potential can be identified with the S-matrix of a two-level time-dependent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian H( ). We show that the application of the adiabatic approximation ...
Adiabatic compression of elongated field-reversed configurations
The simplest model of plasma dynamics is the adiabatic model. In this model the plasma is assumed to be in MHD equilibrium at each instant of time. The equilibria are connected by the requirement that they all have the same entropy per unit flux, i.e., the equilibria form a sequence generated by adiabatic changes. The standard way of computing such a sequence of equilibria was developed by Grad, but its practical use requires a fairly complicated code. It would be helpful if approximately the same results could be gotten either with a much simpler code or by analytical techniques. A one-dimensional equilibrium code is described and its results are checked against a two-dimensional equilibrium. An even simpler analytic calculation is then presented
Influence of accommodation and refractive status on the peripheral refractive profile
Davies, Leon Nicholas; Mallen, Edward Arthur Harry
2009-01-01
Abstract Background: To determine, objectively and non-invasively, whether changes in accommodative demand modify differentially the peripheral refraction in emmetropic and myopic human eyes. Methods: Forty subjects (19 male, 21 female) aged 20 to 30 years (mean?SD: 22.7?2.8 years), twenty-one emmetropes (mean spherical equivalent refractive error [MSE]?SD: -0.13?0.29D) and 19 myopes (MSE?SD: -2.95?1.76D) participated in the study. Ametropia was corrected with soft ...
An Integrated Programming and Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Optimization
Humble, Travis S.; McCaskey, Alex J.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Billings, Jay J.; D'Azevedo, Ed F.; Sullivan, Blair D.; Klymko, Christine F.; Seddiqi, Hadayat
2013-01-01
Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization called JADE tha...
On criterion of modal adiabaticity
WANG; Ning(
2001-01-01
［1］Pierce, A. D., Extension of the method of normal modes to sound propagation in an almost-stratified medium, J. Acoust.Soc. Am., 1965, 37: 19－27.［2］Wang, D. Z. , Shang, E. C., Underwater Acoustics (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1981.［3］Zhang Renhe, Li Fenghua, Beam-displacement rya-mode theory of sound propagation in shallow water, Science in China, Ser.A, 1999, 42(7): 739－749.［4］Zhou Jixun, Zhang Xuezhen, Rogers P., Resonance interaction of sound waves with internal solitons in coastal zone, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1991, 90: 2042－2054.［5］Shang, E. C., Wang, Y. Y., The impact of mesoscale oceanic structure on global-scale acoustic propagation, in Theoretical and Computational Acoustics (ed. Ding Lee et al. ), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. , 1996, 409－431.［6］Milder, D. M., Ray and wave invariants for SOFAR channel propagation, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1969, 46: 1259－1263.［7］Nag l, A., Milder, D. M., Adiabatic mode theory of underwater sound propagation in a range-dependent environment, J.Acoust. Soc. Am., 1978, 63: 739－749.［8］Brekhovskikh, L. M., Waves in Layered Media, 2nd ed., New York: Academic Press Inc., 1973.［9］Brekhovskikh, L. M., Lysanov, Yu., Fundamental of Ocean Acoustics, Ch. 7, Sec. 7.2, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1982.［10］Evans, R. B., A coupled mode solution for acoustic propagation in a wave-guide with stepwise depth variations of a penerable bottom, J. Acoust. Soc. A.m., 1983, 74: 188－195.［11］Jensen, F. B., Kuperman, W. A., Porter, M. B. et al., Computational Ocean Acoustics, New York: Springer-Verlag,1992.［12］Wang Ning, Inverse scattering problem for the coupled second order ODE, Journal of The Physical Society of Japan, 1995, 64(12): 4907－4915.
Adiabatic shear mechanisms for the hard cutting process
Yue, Caixu; Wang, Bo; Liu, Xianli; Feng, Huize; Cai, Chunbin
2015-05-01
The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remains some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high strain domain caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.
Adiabatic Shear Mechanisms for the Hard Cutting Process
YUE Caixu; WANG Bo; LIU Xianli; FENG Huize; CAI Chunbin
2015-01-01
The most important consequence of adiabatic shear phenomenon is formation of sawtooth chip. Lots of scholars focused on the formation mechanism of sawtooth, and the research often depended on experimental approach. For the present, the mechanism of sawtooth chip formation still remalns some ambiguous aspects. This study develops a combined numerical and experimental approach to get deeper understanding of sawtooth chip formation mechanism for Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) tools orthogonal cutting hard steel GCr15. By adopting the Johnson-Cook material constitutive equations, the FEM simulation model established in this research effectively overcomes serious element distortions and cell singularity in high straln domaln caused by large material deformation, and the adiabatic shear phenomenon is simulated successfully. Both the formation mechanism and process of sawtooth are simulated. Also, the change features regarding the cutting force as well as its effects on temperature are studied. More specifically, the contact of sawtooth formation frequency with cutting force fluctuation frequency is established. The cutting force and effect of cutting temperature on mechanism of adiabatic shear are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of the cutting condition on sawtooth chip formation are researched. The researching results show that cutting feed has the most important effect on sawtooth chip formation compared with cutting depth and speed. This research contributes a better understanding of mechanism, feature of chip formation in hard turning process, and supplies theoretical basis for the optimization of hard cutting process parameters.
Refracting profiles and generalized holodiagrams
Criado, C; Rabal, H
2004-01-01
The recently developed concept of refracting profiles and that of refraction holodiagrams are combined so that the classical Abramson holodiagrams can be generalized taking into account a wider class of wave fronts and refraction at an interface, whenever regions of caustics are avoided. These holodiagrams are obtained as envelopes of specific families of Cartesian Ovals with an appropriate parametrization. Classical and reflecting holodiagrams are particular cases of this class. Several of the properties of the classical holodiagrams are shared by their richer generalized versions
Symmetry-Protected Quantum Adiabatic Transistors
Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.
2014-03-01
An essential development in the history of computing was the invention of the transistor as it allowed logic circuits to be implemented in a robust and modular way. The physical characteristics of semiconductor materials were the key to building these devices. We aim to present an analogous development for quantum computing by showing that quantum adiabatic transistors (as defined by Flammia et al.) are built upon the essential qualities of symmetry-protected (SP) quantum ordered phases in one dimension. Flammia et al. and Renes et al. have demonstrated schemes for universal adiabatic quantum computation using quantum adiabatic transistors described by interacting spin chain models with specifically chosen Hamiltonian terms. We show that these models can be understood as specific examples of the generic situation in which all SP phases lead to quantum computation on encoded edge degrees of freedom by adiabatically traversing a symmetric phase transition into a trivial symmetric phase. This point of view is advantageous as it allows us to readily see that the computational properties of a quantum adiabatic transistor arise from a phase of matter rather than due to carefully tuned interactions.
Accurate adiabatic correction in the hydrogen molecule
Pachucki, Krzysztof, E-mail: krp@fuw.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Komasa, Jacek, E-mail: komasa@man.poznan.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)
2014-12-14
A new formalism for the accurate treatment of adiabatic effects in the hydrogen molecule is presented, in which the electronic wave function is expanded in the James-Coolidge basis functions. Systematic increase in the size of the basis set permits estimation of the accuracy. Numerical results for the adiabatic correction to the Born-Oppenheimer interaction energy reveal a relative precision of 10{sup −12} at an arbitrary internuclear distance. Such calculations have been performed for 88 internuclear distances in the range of 0 < R ⩽ 12 bohrs to construct the adiabatic correction potential and to solve the nuclear Schrödinger equation. Finally, the adiabatic correction to the dissociation energies of all rovibrational levels in H{sub 2}, HD, HT, D{sub 2}, DT, and T{sub 2} has been determined. For the ground state of H{sub 2} the estimated precision is 3 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup −1}, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of the best previous result. The achieved accuracy removes the adiabatic contribution from the overall error budget of the present day theoretical predictions for the rovibrational levels.
Adiabatic cooling of a single trapped ion
Poulsen, Gregers
2012-01-01
We present experimental results on adiabatic cooling of a single 40Ca+ ion in a linear radiofrequency trap. After a period of laser cooling, the secular frequency along the rf-field-free axis is adiabatically lowered by nearly a factor of eight from 583 kHz to 75 kHz. For an ion originally Doppler laser cooled to a temperature of 0.65 +/- 0.03 mK, a temperature of 87 +/- 7 \\mu K is measured after the adiabatic expansion. Applying the same adiabatic cooling procedure to a single sideband cooled ion in the ground state (P0 = 0.978 +/- 0.002) resulted in a final ground state occupation of 0.947 +/- 0.005. Both results are in excellent agreement with an essentially fully adiabatic behavior. The results have a wide range of perspectives within such diverse fields as ion based quantum information science, high resolution molecular ion spectroscopy and ion chemistry at ultra-low temperatures.
Adiabatic process reversibility: microscopic and macroscopic views
The reversibility of adiabatic processes was recently addressed by two publications. In the first (Miranda 2008 Eur. J. Phys. 29 937-43), an equation was derived relating the initial and final volumes and temperatures for adiabatic expansions of an ideal gas, using a microscopic approach. In that relation the parameter r accounts for the process reversibility, ranging between 0 and 1, which corresponds to the free and reversible expansion, respectively. In the second (Anacleto and Pereira 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30 177-83), the authors have shown that thermodynamics can effectively and efficiently be used to obtain the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas, including compressions, for which r≥1. The present work integrates and extends the aforementioned studies, providing thus further insights into the analysis of the adiabatic process. It is shown that Miranda's work is wholly valid for compressions. In addition, it is demonstrated that the adiabatic reversibility coefficient given in terms of the piston velocity and the root mean square velocity of the gas particles is equivalent to the macroscopic description, given just by the quotient between surroundings and system pressure values. (letters and comments)
Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction
We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials’ parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.
ZHANG; Tao
2007-01-01
The roles of the magnetic field and electric field of the light are investigated when the light is refracted in the medium. The model of the electron cloud conductor is presented. Electron cloud in a molecule is treated as a conductor and the Faraday's Law is applied to this conductor that is in the alternating magnetic field of the light. dBM/dt of the light gives rise to an alternating induced current on the electron cloud conductor, and the light exchanges energy, i.e. the refractive energy, with the electron cloud conductor. Formulas of refractive index, which is the ratio of light speed in vacuum to that in the medium, are derived with this model. These formulas are tested with several mediums and Langevin's diamagnetic susceptibility of helium gas, and the results are in good agreement with the measured data. The anisotropy and the nonlinearity of the refractive index are explained with the theory described in this work.
Nonadiabatic exchange dynamics during adiabatic frequency sweeps
Barbara, Thomas M.
2016-04-01
A Bloch equation analysis that includes relaxation and exchange effects during an adiabatic frequency swept pulse is presented. For a large class of sweeps, relaxation can be incorporated using simple first order perturbation theory. For anisochronous exchange, new expressions are derived for exchange augmented rotating frame relaxation. For isochronous exchange between sites with distinct relaxation rate constants outside the extreme narrowing limit, simple criteria for adiabatic exchange are derived and demonstrate that frequency sweeps commonly in use may not be adiabatic with regard to exchange unless the exchange rates are much larger than the relaxation rates. Otherwise, accurate assessment of the sensitivity to exchange dynamics will require numerical integration of the rate equations. Examples of this situation are given for experimentally relevant parameters believed to hold for in-vivo tissue. These results are of significance in the study of exchange induced contrast in magnetic resonance imaging.
Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic
Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2. (paper)
Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands
Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test
The Optics of Refractive Substructure
Johnson, Michael D; Narayan, Ramesh
2016-01-01
Newly recognized effects of refractive scattering in the ionized interstellar medium have broad implications for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at extreme angular resolutions. Building upon work by Blandford & Narayan (1985), we present a simplified, geometrical optics framework, which enables rapid, semi-analytic estimates of refractive scattering effects. We show that these estimates exactly reproduce previous results based on a more rigorous statistical formulation. We then deriv...
Superconducting system for adiabatic quantum computing
We study the Hamiltonian of a system of inductively coupled flux qubits, which has been theoretically proposed for adiabatic quantum computation to handle NP problems. We study the evolution of a basic structure consisting of three coupled rf-SQUIDs upon tuning the external flux bias, and we show that the adiabatic nature of the evolution is guaranteed by the presence of the single-SQUID gap. We further propose a scheme and the first realization of an experimental device suitable for verifying the theoretical results
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
Jiang Qingquan, E-mail: qqjiangphys@yeah.net [College of Physics and Electronic Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002 (China); Han Yan [College of Mathematic and Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002 (China)
2012-12-05
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form I{sub adia}= Contour-Integral p{sub i}dq{sub i}. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub p}{sup 2} in the Schwarzschild and Painleve coordinates.
Staying adiabatic with unknown energy gap
Nehrkorn, J; Ekert, A; Smerzi, A; Fazio, R; Calarco, T
2011-01-01
We introduce an algorithm to perform an optimal adiabatic evolution that operates without an apriori knowledge of the system spectrum. By probing the system gap locally, the algorithm maximizes the evolution speed, thus minimizing the total evolution time. We test the algorithm on the Landau-Zener transition and then apply it on the quantum adiabatic computation of 3-SAT: The result is compatible with an exponential speed-up for up to twenty qubits with respect to classical algorithms. We finally study a possible algorithm improvement by combining it with the quantum Zeno effect.
Ramsey numbers and adiabatic quantum computing
Gaitan, Frank; Clark, Lane
2011-01-01
The graph-theoretic Ramsey numbers are notoriously difficult to calculate. In fact, for the two-color Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$ with $m,n\\geq 3$, only nine are currently known. We present a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers $R(m,n)$. We show how the computation of $R(m,n)$ can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution can be found using adiabatic quantum evolution. We numerically simulate this adiabatic quantum algorithm and show that it correctl...
Complexity of the Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm
Hen, Itay
2013-01-01
The Quantum Adiabatic Algorithm (QAA) has been proposed as a mechanism for efficiently solving optimization problems on a quantum computer. Since adiabatic computation is analog in nature and does not require the design and use of quantum gates, it can be thought of as a simpler and perhaps more profound method for performing quantum computations that might also be easier to implement experimentally. While these features have generated substantial research in QAA, to date there is still a lack of solid evidence that the algorithm can outperform classical optimization algorithms.
Adiabatic Flame Temperature for Combustion of Methane
Rebeca Pupo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This project calculated the adiabatic flame temperature of a combustion reaction of pure methane and oxygen, assuming that all of the heat liberated by the combustion reaction goes into heating the resulting mixture. Mole fractions of methane to oxygen were computed from 0.05 to 0.95, in increments of 0.05, and then an integral was computed was computed with respect to temperature using the moles of product produced or leftover moles of reactants from the starting mole fraction times the specific heat of each respective gas. The highest adiabatic flame temperature evaluated, occurred at a mole fraction of 0.35.
Numerical studies of optical forces from adiabatic rapid passage
Stack, Daniel; Elgin, John; Metcalf, Harold [Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Anisimov, Petr M. [Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2011-07-15
We present a numerical study of the properties of optical forces on moving atoms derived from purely stimulated processes produced by multiple adiabatic rapid-passage sequences. The optical Bloch equations are solved for a carefully timed sequence of frequency-swept pulses that can produce a force much larger than the ordinary radiative force. We describe the effects of the sweep range, peak intensity, sweep direction, number of pulses, atomic velocity, and spontaneous emission. Since the momentum of thermal atoms is much larger than that transferred by a single absorption-stimulated emission cycle, multiple repetitions are needed to make a significant velocity change.
Marcelo F. Gaal Vadas
2001-08-01
Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar o comportamento da refração e da curvatura corneana em pacientes com esotropia essencial submetidos à cirurgia monocular para correção do estrabismo. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo em que 42 olhos de 21 pacientes com esotropia essencial de ângulo moderado, sem quaisquer outros estrabismos associados, foram selecionados e submetidos ao exame oftalmológico completo e à cirurgia monocular. O olho contralateral serviu como grupo controle. Foram feitas avaliações de pré-operatório, pós-operatório de 1 mês e pós-operatório de 6 meses. O astigmatismo pré-operatório foi confrontado com os astigmatismos pós-operatórios por análise vetorial e cálculo do valor polar. Resultados: Obtivemos, nos olhos operados, redução significante (pPurpose: To evaluate changes in refraction and corneal curvature following surgery for correction of acquired esotropia. Methods: 42 eyes of 21 patients with acquired moderate angle esotropia without any other form of strabismus were prospectively enrolled and submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination followed by recess/resect procedure in a single eye. Data from the fellow eye were selected as control. Ophthalmological assessment was carried out preoperatively, 1 month after surgery and 6 months after surgery, where astigmatism was compared using vector analysis and the polar value concept. Results: The eyes submitted to surgery revealed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in spherical equivalent, from 3.28 ± 1.98 diopters to 3.05 ± 1.95 diopters. Refraction data disclosed a significant increase in the 90° component of net astigmatism, from 0.458 ± 0.594 diopters to 1.002 ± 0.718 diopters, which was also observed in keratometric readings:1.083 ± 0.560 diopters to 1.690 ± 0.591 diopters. Surgically induced astigmatism, assessed using refraction data was 0.63 ± 0.27 diopters at an average axis of 92.30 ± 14.91 degrees, and 0.71 ± 0.27 diopters at an average axis of 94.45
On the double adiabatic continuous spectrum
In earlier work it has been found that the Alfven and cusp (or slow) continuous spectra can become unstable in toroidal geometry, as judged from the linearized double adiabatic equations. In this paper the validity of fluid approaches to the present problem is investigated. The physical implications of the stability conditions are discussed. (Author)
Adiabatic reversible compression: a molecular view
The adiabatic compression (or expansion) of an ideal gas has been analysed. Using the kinetic theory of gases the usual relation between temperature and volume is obtained, while textbooks follow a thermodynamic approach. In this way we show, once again, the agreement between a macroscopic view (thermodynamics) and a microscopic one (kinetic theory). (author)
Adiabatic Excitation of Longitudinal Bunch Shape Oscillations
By modulating the rf voltage at near twice the synchrotrons frequency we are able to modulate the longitudinal bunch shape. We show experimentally that this can be done while preserving the longitudinal emittance when the rf voltage modulation is turned on adiabatically. Experimental measurements will be presented along with theoretical predictions
Adiabatic transition probability for a tangential crossing
Watanabe, Takuya
2006-01-01
We consider a time-dependent Schrödinger equation whose Hamiltonian is a $2\\times 2$ real symmetric matrix. We study, using an exact WKB method, the adiabatic limit of the transition probability in the case where several complex eigenvalue crossing points accumulate to one real point.
Semi adiabatic theory of seasonal Markov processes
Talkner, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The dynamics of many natural and technical systems are essentially influenced by a periodic forcing. Analytic solutions of the equations of motion for periodically driven systems are generally not known. Simulations, numerical solutions or in some limiting cases approximate analytic solutions represent the known approaches to study the dynamics of such systems. Besides the regime of weak periodic forces where linear response theory works, the limit of a slow driving force can often be treated analytically using an adiabatic approximation. For this approximation to hold all intrinsic processes must be fast on the time-scale of a period of the external driving force. We developed a perturbation theory for periodically driven Markovian systems that covers the adiabatic regime but also works if the system has a single slow mode that may even be slower than the driving force. We call it the semi adiabatic approximation. Some results of this approximation for a system exhibiting stochastic resonance which usually takes place within the semi adiabatic regime are indicated. (author) 1 fig., 8 refs.
Recent adiabaticity results from orbit calculations
There has been much activity recently in an attempt to find a straightforward method of predicting the limits of adiabatic behavior in high-beta magnetic-mirror configurations. The particle-orbit code TIBRO was used to obtain numerical results on nonadiabatic behavior with which the predictions of theoretical expressions can be compared. These results are summarized. (MOW)
Communication: Adiabatic and non-adiabatic electron-nuclear motion: Quantum and classical dynamics
Albert, Julian; Kaiser, Dustin; Engel, Volker
2016-05-01
Using a model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion we investigate the range from negligible to strong non-adiabatic coupling. In the adiabatic case, the quantum dynamics proceeds in a single electronic state, whereas for strong coupling a complete transition between two adiabatic electronic states takes place. It is shown that in all coupling regimes the short-time wave-packet dynamics can be described using ensembles of classical trajectories in the phase space spanned by electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom. We thus provide an example which documents that the quantum concept of non-adiabatic transitions is not necessarily needed if electronic and nuclear motion is treated on the same footing.
The dynamic instability of adiabatic blast waves
Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.
1991-01-01
Adiabatic blastwaves, which have a total energy injected from the center E varies as t(sup q) and propagate through a preshock medium with a density rho(sub E) varies as r(sup -omega) are described by a family of similarity solutions. Previous work has shown that adiabatic blastwaves with increasing or constant postshock entropy behind the shock front are susceptible to an oscillatory instability, caused by the difference between the nature of the forces on the two sides of the dense shell behind the shock front. This instability sets in if the dense postshock layer is sufficiently thin. The stability of adiabatic blastwaves with a decreasing postshock entropy is considered. Such blastwaves, if they are decelerating, always have a region behind the shock front which is subject to convection. Some accelerating blastwaves also have such region, depending on the values of q, omega, and gamma where gamma is the adiabatic index. However, since the shock interface stabilizes dynamically induced perturbations, blastwaves become convectively unstable only if the convective zone is localized around the origin or a contact discontinuity far from the shock front. On the other hand, the contact discontinuity of accelerating blastwaves is subject to a strong Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The frequency spectra of the nonradial, normal modes of adiabatic blastwaves have been calculated. The results have been applied to the shocks propagating through supernovae envelopes. It is shown that the metal/He and He/H interfaces are strongly unstable against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability will induce mixing in supernovae envelopes. In addition the implications of this work for the evolution of planetary nebulae is discussed.
Influence of viscosity and the adiabatic index on planetary migration
Bitsch, B.; Boley, A.; Kley, W.
2013-02-01
Context. The strength and direction of migration of low mass embedded planets depends on the disk's thermodynamic state. It has been shown that in active disks, where the internal dissipation is balanced by radiative transport, migration can be directed outwards, a process which extends the lifetime of growing embryos. Very important parameters determining the structure of disks, and hence the direction of migration, are the viscosity and the adiabatic index. Aims: In this paper we investigate the influence of different viscosity prescriptions (α-type and constant) and adiabatic indices on disk structures. We then determine how this affects the migration rate of planets embedded in such disks. Methods: We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of accretion disks with embedded planets. We use the explicit/implicit hydrodynamical code NIRVANA that includes full tensor viscosity and radiation transport in the flux-limited diffusion approximation, as well as a proper equation of state for molecular hydrogen. The migration of embedded 20 MEarth planets is studied. Results: Low-viscosity disks have cooler temperatures and the migration rates of embedded planets tend toward the isothermal limit. Hence, in these disks, planets migrate inwards even in the fully radiative case. The effect of outward migration can only be sustained if the viscosity in the disk is large. Overall, the differences between the treatments for the equation of state seem to play a more important role in disks with higher viscosity. A change in the adiabatic index and in the viscosity changes the zero-torque radius that separates inward from outward migration. Conclusions: For larger viscosities, temperatures in the disk become higher and the zero-torque radius moves to larger radii, allowing outward migration of a 20-MEarth planet to persist over an extended radial range. In combination with large disk masses, this may allow for an extended period of the outward migration of growing
Inverse engineering rigorous adiabatic Hamiltonian for non-Hermitian system
Wu, Qi-Cheng; Chen, Ye-Hong; Huang, Bi-Hua; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie
2016-01-01
We generalize the quantum adiabatic theorem to the non-Hermitian system and build a rigorous adiabaticity condition with respect to the adiabatic phase. The non-Hermitian Hamiltonian inverse engineering method is proposed for the purpose to adiabatically drive a artificial quantum state. For the sake of clearness, we take a concrete two-level system as an example to show the usefulness of the inverse engineering method. The numerical simulation result shows that our scheme can work well even ...
Perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton systems
Ding Ning; Fang Jian-Hui
2008-01-01
Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant,this paper studies the perturbation to Mei symmetry and adiabatic invariants for Hamilton systems.The exact invaxiants of Mei symmetry for the system without perturbation are given.The perturbation to Mei symmetry is discussed and the adiabatic invariants induced from the perturbation to Mei symmetry of the system are obtained.
Characterising Conical Refraction Optical Tweezers
McDonald, Craig; Rafailov, Edik; McGloin, David
2014-01-01
Conical refraction occurs when a beam of light travels through an appropriately cut biaxial crystal. By focussing the conically refracted beam through a high numerical aperture microscope objective, conical refraction optical tweezers can be created, allowing for particle manipulation in both Raman spots and in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings. We present a thorough quantification of the trapping properties of such a beam, focussing on the trap stiffness and how this varies with trap power and trapped particle location. We show that the lower Raman spot can be thought of as a single-beam optical gradient force trap, while radiation pressure dominates in the upper Raman spot, leading to optical levitation rather than trapping. Particles in the Lloyd/Poggendorff rings experience a lower trap stiffness than particles in the lower Raman spot but benefit from rotational control.
The Optics of Refractive Substructure
Johnson, Michael D
2016-01-01
Newly recognized effects of refractive scattering in the ionized interstellar medium have broad implications for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at extreme angular resolutions. Building upon work by Blandford & Narayan (1985), we present a simplified, geometrical optics framework, which enables rapid, semi-analytic estimates of refractive scattering effects. We show that these estimates exactly reproduce previous results based on a more rigorous statistical formulation. We then derive new expressions for the scattering-induced fluctuations of VLBI observables such as closure phase, and we demonstrate how to calculate the fluctuations for arbitrary quantities of interest using a Monte Carlo technique.
Perfect imaging without negative refraction
Leonhardt, Ulf
2009-01-01
Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...
Perfect imaging without negative refraction
Leonhardt, Ulf
2009-01-01
Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation.
Zhong Lin
Full Text Available To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children' refractive error progression in Chinese urban students.The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student's refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline.At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4% were reexamined. 226 students (58.5% with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993-1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003-2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (β = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001, with more myopic refraction at baseline (β = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01, and with older maternal reproductive age (β = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01, had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04 had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found.In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades.
Integrated Microfibre Device for Refractive Index and Temperature Sensing
Sulaiman W. Harun
2012-08-01
Full Text Available A microfibre device integrating a microfibre knot resonator in a Sagnac loop reflector is proposed for refractive index and temperature sensing. The reflective configuration of this optical structure offers the advantages of simple fabrication and ease of sensing. To achieve a balance between responsiveness and robustness, the entire microfibre structure is embedded in low index Teflon, except for the 0.5–2 mm diameter microfibre knot resonator sensing region. The proposed sensor has exhibited a linear spectral response with temperature and refractive index. A small change in free spectral range is observed when the microfibre device experiences a large refractive index change in the surrounding medium. The change is found to be in agreement with calculated results based on dispersion relationships.
ADIABATIC MASS LOSS IN BINARY STARS. I. COMPUTATIONAL METHOD
binary provides the energy to eject the common envelope; the energy budget for this process consists essentially of the initial orbital energy of the binary and the initial self-energies of the binary components. We emphasize that, because the stellar core and envelope contribute mutually to each other's gravitational potential energy, proper evaluation of the total energy of a star requires integration over the entire stellar interior, and not just over the ejected envelope alone as commonly assumed. We show that the change in total energy of the donor star, as a function of its remaining mass along an adiabatic mass-loss sequence, can be calculated either by integration over initial and final models, or by a path integral along the mass-loss sequence. That change in total energy of the donor star, combined with the requirement that both remnant donor and its companion star fit within their respective Roche lobes, then circumscribes energetically possible survivors of common envelope evolution.
陈瑛; 马进; 朱铁培
2011-01-01
Objective To compare the changes in refractive status after 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy and 20-gauge standard vitrectomy. Methods One hundred and twenty-one eyes of 121 patients who presented with vitreoretinal disease were included in this prospective study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, the A group, 61 eyes that underwent 20-gauge standard vitrectomy, and the B group, 60 eyes that underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy. Outcome measures included visual acuity, refractive power, and changes in corneal topography after surgery. Data were analyzed with chi-square test, independent samples t test, one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test. Results The visual acuity of the B group was much better than that of the A group at one week and one month after surgery (x2=8.81, P=0.012; x2=65, P=0.036). The postoperative refractive error in the A group developed into hyperopia, then gradually returned to baseline at three months after surgery. The spherical and astigmatism powers for each timepoint were significantly different in the A group (F=530.12, P＜0.05, F=392.06, P＜0.05), but no significant difference was found in the B group. In the A group, changes of spherical power at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks after surgery were (+1.93±0.07)D, (+1.06±0.04)D, (+0.15±0.03)D, and changes of astigmatism power were (1.62±0.07)D, (1.05±0.05)D, (0.41±0.03)D. In the B group, changes of spherical power at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks after surgery were (-0.06±0.02)D, (-0.04±0.03)D, (-0.03±0.02)D, and changes of astigmatism power were (0.05±0.01)D, (0.03±0.01)D, (0.03±0.02)D. Change of spherical power between the A and B groups at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks after surgery was significant different (t=200.6, 159.3, 26.0, P＜0.01 for all), as well as astigmatism power (t= 173.4, 156.3, 82.3, P＜0.01 for all). At one week after surgery, corneal topography analysis showed that corneal SimK1-K2, surface asymmetry index (SAI), and surface regularity index (SRI) were
On the power of coherently controlled quantum adiabatic evolutions
We provide a new approach to adiabatic state preparation that uses coherent control and measurement to average different adiabatic evolutions in ways that cause their diabatic errors to cancel, allowing highly accurate state preparations using less time than conventional approaches. We show that this new model for adiabatic state preparation is polynomially equivalent to conventional adiabatic quantum computation by providing upper bounds on the cost of simulating such evolutions on a circuit-based quantum computer. Finally, we show that this approach is robust to small errors in the quantum control register and that the system remains protected against noise on the adiabatic register by the spectral gap. (paper)
Cherkezyan, Lusik; Subramanian, Hariharan; Stoyneva, Valentina; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Yang, Seungmoo; Damania, Dhwanil; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim
2012-01-01
Various staining techniques are commonly used in biomedical research to investigate cellular morphology. By inducing absorption of light, staining dyes change the intracellular refractive index due to the Kramers-Kronig relationship. We present a method for creating 2-D maps of real and imaginary refractive indices of stained biological cells using their thickness and absorptance. We validate our technique on dyed polystyrene microspheres and quantify the alteration in refractive index of sta...
Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall
Hadayat eSeddiqi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.
Weinberg Soft Theorems from Weinberg Adiabatic Modes
Mirbabayi, Mehrdad
2016-01-01
Soft theorems for the scattering of low energy photons and gravitons and cosmological consistency conditions on the squeezed-limit correlation functions are both understood to be consequences of invariance under large gauge transformations. We apply the same method used in cosmology -- based on the identification of an infinite set of "adiabatic modes" and the corresponding conserved currents -- to derive flat space soft theorems for electrodynamics and gravity. We discuss how the recent derivations based on the asymptotic symmetry groups (BMS) can be continued to a finite size sphere surrounding the scattering event, when the soft photon or graviton has a finite momentum. We give a finite distance derivation of the antipodal matching condition previously imposed between future and past null infinities, and explain why all but one radiative degrees of freedom decouple in the soft limit. In contrast to earlier works on BMS, we work with adiabatic modes which correspond to large gauge transformations that are $...
Quantum adiabatic evolution with energy degeneracy levels
Zhang, Qi
2016-01-01
A classical-kind phase-space formalism is developed to address the tiny intrinsic dynamical deviation from what is predicted by Wilczek-Zee theorem during quantum adiabatic evolution on degeneracy levels. In this formalism, the Hilbert space and the aggregate of degenerate eigenstates become the classical-kind phase space and a high-dimensional subspace in the phase space, respectively. Compared with the previous analogous study by a different method, the current result is qualitatively different in that the first-order deviation derived here is always perpendicular to the degeneracy subspace. A tripod-scheme Hamiltonian with two degenerate dark states is employed to illustrate the adiabatic deviation with degeneracy levels.
Adiabatic Quantum Simulation of Quantum Chemistry
Babbush, Ryan; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2014-10-01
We show how to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm directly to the quantum computation of molecular properties. We describe a procedure to map electronic structure Hamiltonians to 2-body qubit Hamiltonians with a small set of physically realizable couplings. By combining the Bravyi-Kitaev construction to map fermions to qubits with perturbative gadgets to reduce the Hamiltonian to 2-body, we obtain precision requirements on the coupling strengths and a number of ancilla qubits that scale polynomially in the problem size. Hence our mapping is efficient. The required set of controllable interactions includes only two types of interaction beyond the Ising interactions required to apply the quantum adiabatic algorithm to combinatorial optimization problems. Our mapping may also be of interest to chemists directly as it defines a dictionary from electronic structure to spin Hamiltonians with physical interactions.
Overview of Laser Refractive Surgery
Hung-Chi Jesse Chen
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Since approval of the use of the excimer laser in 1995 toreshape the cornea, significant developments in the correctionof refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatismhave been achieved. Combined with other advanced ophthalmologicalinstruments (e.g. anterior segment imaging systems,the femtosecond laser, wavefront-guided customized ablationand the knowledge accumulated concerning the basic scienceof refractive errors (e.g. biomechanics and wound healing ofthe cornea, higher-order aberrations, laser refractive surgeryhas promisingly outshone other conventional techniques (e.g.radial keratotomy [RK], automated lamellar keratectomy[ALK] in terms of both safety and efficacy. Photorefractivekeratectomy (PRK produces stable and predictable resultswith a safe profile. Similarly, laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK is also safe and efficacious with the additional advantagesof rapid visual recovery and minimal postoperative pain. The choice between the twomethods is made only after thoughtful discussion between the surgeon and the patient.Despite these advances, certain limitations and complications do exist. There are also specificand controversial circumstances for which studies should be conducted to make furtherbreakthroughs and avoid annoying complications. In this review, the basic knowledge, surgicalissues, and clinical outcomes, of laser refractive surgery, as well as complex cases, willbe presented.
Robust Classification with Adiabatic Quantum Optimization
Denchev, Vasil S.; Ding, Nan; Vishwanathan, S. V. N.; Neven, Hartmut
2012-01-01
We propose a non-convex training objective for robust binary classification of data sets in which label noise is present. The design is guided by the intention of solving the resulting problem by adiabatic quantum optimization. Two requirements are imposed by the engineering constraints of existing quantum hardware: training problems are formulated as quadratic unconstrained binary optimization; and model parameters are represented as binary expansions of low bit-depth. In the present work we...
Adiabatic density surface, neutral density surface, potential density surface, and mixing path
HUANG Rui-xin
2014-01-01
In this paper, adiabatic density surface, neutral density surface and potential density surface are compared. The adiabatic density surface is defined as the surface on which a water parcellcan move adiabatically, without changing its potential temperature and salinity. For a water parcelltaken at a given station and pressure level, the corresponding adiabatic density surface can be determined through simple calculations. This family of surface is neutrally buoyant in the world ocean, and different from other surfaces that are not truly neutrally buoyant. In order to explore mixing path in the ocean, a mixing ratio m is introduced, which is defined as the portion of potential temperature and salinity of a water parcellthat has exchanged with the environment during a segment of migration in the ocean. Two extreme situations of mixing path in the ocean are m=0 (no mixing), which is represented by the adiabatic density curve, and m=1, where the original information is completely lost through mixing. The latter is represented by the neutral density curve. The reality lies in between, namely, 0
Interpolation approach to Hamiltonian-varying quantum systems and the adiabatic theorem
Pan, Yu; James, Matthew R. [Australian National University, Research School of Engineering, Canberra (Australia); Miao, Zibo [The University of Melbourne, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Melbourne (Australia); Amini, Nina H. [CNRS, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systemes (L2S) Supelec, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ugrinovskii, Valery [University of New South Wales at ADFA, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Canberra (Australia)
2015-12-15
Quantum control could be implemented by varying the system Hamiltonian. According to adiabatic theorem, a slowly changing Hamiltonian can approximately keep the system at the ground state during the evolution if the initial state is a ground state. In this paper we consider this process as an interpolation between the initial and final Hamiltonians. We use the mean value of a single operator to measure the distance between the final state and the ideal ground state. This measure resembles the excitation energy or excess work performed in thermodynamics, which can be taken as the error of adiabatic approximation. We prove that under certain conditions, this error can be estimated for an arbitrarily given interpolating function. This error estimation could be used as guideline to induce adiabatic evolution. According to our calculation, the adiabatic approximation error is not linearly proportional to the average speed of the variation of the system Hamiltonian and the inverse of the energy gaps in many cases. In particular, we apply this analysis to an example in which the applicability of the adiabatic theorem is questionable. (orig.)
Pterygium-induced corneal refractive changes
Maheshwari Sejal
2007-01-01
To study the effect of pterygium on corneal topography, a retrospective analysis of 151 eyes with primary pterygia was done. All cases underwent videokeratography preoperatively and one month postoperatively. Statistical analysis of average corneal power (ACP), corneal astigmatism, surface regularity index (SRI) and surface asymmetry index (SAI) was done before and one month after surgery. Topographic indices were compared statistically for various grades of pterygia. Increase in the grade of...
Enhanced Nonlinear Refractive Index in ε-Near-Zero Materials.
Caspani, L; Kaipurath, R P M; Clerici, M; Ferrera, M; Roger, T; Kim, J; Kinsey, N; Pietrzyk, M; Di Falco, A; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A; Faccio, D
2016-06-10
New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here, we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the ε-near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a sixfold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index (n_{2}) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to ultrafast light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics. PMID:27341234
Enhanced nonlinear refractive index in epsilon-near-zero materials
Caspani, L; Clerici, M; Ferrera, M; Roger, T; Di Falco, A; Kim, J; Kinsey, N; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A; Faccio, D
2016-01-01
New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a six-fold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index ($n_2$) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics.
Non-adiabatic dynamics in 10Be with the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model
Ito, M
2006-01-01
The alpha+6He low-energy reactions and the structural changes of 10Be in the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model are studied by the generalized two-center cluster model with the Kohn-Hulthen-Kato variation method. It is found that, in the inelastic scattering to the alpha+6He(2+) channel, characteristic enhancements are expected as the results of the parity-dependent non-adiabatic dynamics. In the positive parity state, the enhancement originates from the no-adiabatic eigenstate generated by the radial excitation of the relative motion between two alpha-cores. On the other hand, the enhancement in the negative parity state is induced by the Landau-Zener level-crossing. These non-adiabatic processes are discussed in connection to the formation of the inversion doublet in the compound system of 10Be.
Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network
Goto, Hayato
2016-02-01
The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence.
Bifurcation-based adiabatic quantum computation with a nonlinear oscillator network.
Goto, Hayato
2016-01-01
The dynamics of nonlinear systems qualitatively change depending on their parameters, which is called bifurcation. A quantum-mechanical nonlinear oscillator can yield a quantum superposition of two oscillation states, known as a Schrödinger cat state, via quantum adiabatic evolution through its bifurcation point. Here we propose a quantum computer comprising such quantum nonlinear oscillators, instead of quantum bits, to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems. The nonlinear oscillator network finds optimal solutions via quantum adiabatic evolution, where nonlinear terms are increased slowly, in contrast to conventional adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing, where quantum fluctuation terms are decreased slowly. As a result of numerical simulations, it is concluded that quantum superposition and quantum fluctuation work effectively to find optimal solutions. It is also notable that the present computer is analogous to neural computers, which are also networks of nonlinear components. Thus, the present scheme will open new possibilities for quantum computation, nonlinear science, and artificial intelligence. PMID:26899997
Refractive Status and Prevalence of Refractive Errors in Suburban School-age Children
Lian-Hong Pi, Lin Chen, Qin Liu, Ning Ke, Jing Fang, Shu Zhang, Jun Xiao, Wei-Jiang Ye, Yan Xiong, Hui Shi, Zheng-Qin Yin
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the distribution pattern of refractive status and prevalence of refractive errors in school-age children in Western China to determine the possible environmental factors. Methods: A random sampling strategy in geographically defined clusters was used to identify children aged 6-15 years in Yongchuan, a socio-economically representative area in Western China. We carried out a door-to-door survey and actual eye examinations, including visual acuity measurements, stereopsis examination, anterior segment and eyeball movements, fundus examinations, and cycloplegic retinoscopy with 1% cyclopentolate. Results: A total of 3469 children living in 2552 households were selected, and 3070 were examined. The distributions of refractive status were positively-skewed for 6-8-year-olds, and negatively-skewed for 9-12 and 13-15-year-olds. The prevalence of hyperopia (≥+2.00 D spherical equivalent [SE], myopia (≤-0.50 D SE, and astigmatism (≥1.00 diopter of cylinder [DC] were 3.26%, 13.75%, and 3.75%, respectively. As children's ages increased, the prevalence rate of hyperopia decreased (P<0.001 and that of myopia increased significantly (P<0.001. Children in academically challenging schools had a higher risk of myopia (P<0.001 and astigmatism (≥1.00DC, P =0.04 than those in regular schools. Conclusion: The distribution of refractive status changes gradually from positively-skewed to negatively-skewed distributions as age increases, with 9-year-old being the critical age for the changes. Environmental factors and study intensity influence the occurrence and development of myopia.
Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra
Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang
2016-02-01
We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.
AB INITIO SIMULATIONS FOR MATERIAL PROPERTIES ALONG THE JUPITER ADIABAT
We determine basic thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen-helium-water mixtures for the extreme conditions along Jupiter's adiabat via ab initio simulations, which are compiled in an accurate and consistent data set. In particular, we calculate the electrical and thermal conductivity, the shear and longitudinal viscosity, and diffusion coefficients of the nuclei. We present results for associated quantities like the magnetic and thermal diffusivity and the kinematic shear viscosity along an adiabat that is taken from a state-of-the-art interior structure model. Furthermore, the heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient, the isothermal compressibility, the Grüneisen parameter, and the speed of sound are calculated. We find that the onset of dissociation and ionization of hydrogen at about 0.9 Jupiter radii marks a region where the material properties change drastically. In the deep interior, where the electrons are degenerate, many of the material properties remain relatively constant. Our ab initio data will serve as a robust foundation for applications that require accurate knowledge of the material properties in Jupiter's interior, e.g., models for the dynamo generation.
General background conditions for K-bounce and adiabaticity
Romano, Antonio Enea
2016-01-01
We study the background conditions for a bounce in a single scalar field model with a generalized kinetic term $K(X)$. At the background level we impose the existence of two turning points where the derivative of the Hubble parameter $H$ changes sign and of a bounce point where the Hubble parameter vanishes. We find the conditions for $K(X)$ and the potential which ensure the above requirements. We then give the examples of two models constructed according to these conditions. One is based on a quadratic $K$, and the other on a $K$ which is avoiding divergences of the second time derivative of the scalar field, which may otherwise occur. An appropriate choice of the initial conditions can lead to a sequence of consecutive bounces. In models where the bounce occurs when the potential is not constant, large non adiabatic perturbations are produced, which can in turn source the growth of anisotropies. In the region where these models have a constant potential they became adiabatic on any scale and because of thi...
Prevalence of refractive errors in Mexican patients with keratoconus
Cruz-Becerril A
2015-06-01
correction is the spherical rigid contact lens. Finally, the parameters to adjust contact lenses change according to disease progression. Keywords: keratoconus, visual acuity, refractive errors, rigid contact lens
Mathematical description and measurement of refractive parameters of freeform spectacle lenses.
Yu, Jing; Qiu, Zhongjun; Fang, Fengzhou
2014-08-01
Refractive parameters are the main design and evaluation parameters of freeform spectacle lenses. In this paper, the mathematical model of refractive parameters is established, and the refractive power distribution on the whole surface is drawn with a radial basis function. The measurement methods are analyzed, and typical freeform spectacle lenses are measured with a freeform verifier. The refractive power distribution on the whole surface, the cylinder view, and the refractive power curve along the progressive corridor are drawn up. There are no evident image changes on the whole surface. The refractive power smoothly varies along the progressive corridor. In comparing the results with the analysis, measurement results are in agreement with the calculation. PMID:25090322
Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays
Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;
2008-01-01
Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation....
Past and present of corneal refractive surgery
Vestergaard, Anders Højslet
Surgical correction of refractive errors is becoming increasingly popular. In the 1990s, the excimer laser revolutionized the field of corneal refractive surgery with PRK and LASIK, and lately refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx) of intracorneal tissue, using only a femtosecond laser, has become...
Second order nonlinear refraction measurement of dithiooxamide using moire deflectometry method
In this paper, we measure the second order nonlinear refractive index of saturated water solution of Dithiooxamide (NH2CSCSNH2) using the moire deflectometry technique. By this method, the sign and the magnitude of nonlinear refractive index (n2) are obtained. In this experiment, the nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the nonlinear refractive change (Δn) were obtained - 5.8*10-6 (cm2/W) and -3.13*10-5 respectively, using a 6.6 milliwatt He-Ne laser with wavelength 632.8 nanometer.
Super-Virtual Refraction Interferometric Redatuming: Enhancing the Refracted Energy
Aldawood, Ali
2012-02-26
onshore seismic data processing. Refraction tomography is becoming a common way to estimate an accurate near surface velocity model. One of the problems with refraction tomography is the low signal to noise ration in far offset data. To improve, we propose using super-virtual refraction interferometry to enhance the weak energy at far offsets. We use Interferometric Green\\'s functions to redatum sources by cross-correlating two traces recorded at receiver stations, A and B, from a source at location W. The result is a redatumed trace with a virtual source at A and a receiver at B, which can also be obtained by correlating two traces recorded at A and B from different shots. Stacking them would enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of this "virtual" trace. We next augment redatuming with convolution and stacking. The trace recorded at B from a virtual source at A is convolved with the original trace recorded at A from a source at W. The result is a "super-virtual" trace at B in the far-offset from a source at W. Stacking N traces gives a vN-improvement. We applied our method to noisy synthetic and field data recorded over a complex near-surface and we could pick more traces at far offsets. It was possible to accommodate more picks resulting in a better subsurface coverage
Modification of Low Refractive Index Polycarbonate for High Refractive Index Applications
Rakesh Kumar Khandal
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Polycarbonates and polythiourethanes are the most popular materials in use today, for optical applications. Polycarbonates are of two types which fall in the category of low refractive index and medium refractive index. The present paper describes the conversion of low refractive index polycarbonates into high refractive index material by the use of a high refractive index monomer, polythiol, as an additive. Novel polycarbonates, where the properties of refractive index and Abbe number can be tailor made, have been obtained. Thermal studies and refractive index determination indicate the formation of a new polymer with improved properties and suitable for optical applications.
Negative refraction by photonic nanostructures
Wu, Qi
Artificially engineered optical materials composed of nano-structures have unique optical properties which are not available with naturally occurring materials. Thanks to the rapid development in nano-fabrication and numerical modeling technologies, photonic nano-structures such as metamaterials and photonic crystals and various optical devices made by these optical materials create many novel applications and offer new prospects for manipulating light. For instance, both metamaterials and photonic crystals can exhibit negative refraction and negative refractive indexes. As a result, superlens with the capability of achieving imaging with sub-wavelength resolution can be realized. In this dissertation, a new negative index metamaterial architecture based on metallic nanoclusters, negative refraction phenomena in photonic crystals and optical devices implemented with negative index photonic crystals for imaging applications are presented. The nanocluster based metamaterials, which utilizes the magnetic Mie resonances of clusters of metallic inclusions, allow us to achieve negative index materials at optical frequency region. Meanwhile, bottom-up fabrication techniques such as self-assembly can be used, which is suitable for large-scale manufacturing and applicable to 3D structures. On the other hand, negative refraction and sub-wavelength imaging by a mechanically tunable photonic crystal structure were investigated. Using a honeycomb lattice photonic crystal composed of a silicon-polyimide membrane, a mechanically tunable superlens with a tunable frequency bandwidth was numerically demonstrated. Additionally, a graded negative index lens made of photonic crystals, which is capable of focusing plane waves, exhibits superior focusing properties such as low chromatic aberrations and broadband operation. Prisms structures made of negative index photonic crystals can offer useful imaging properties such as image inversion and magnification. These devices have the
Strategies for the management and prevention of complications in refractive laser surgery
F. Hafezi (Farhad)
2008-01-01
textabstractObjective. Reoperations after refractive surgery have increased in frequency during the past 10 years. The spectrum of the indications for repeat LASIK may have changed. Methods. All cases of reoperations after refractive surgery performed between May 1, 2004 and April 30, 2005 at the In
Fabrication process and system for neutron refractive optics
The authors developed a new fabrication process and system for neutron refractive optics, and propose a new design for Fresnel lens refracting cold-neutron beam in this paper. Applying the ultraprecision electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) micro-grinding technique using cast-iron-bonded diamond wheels with edges sharpened by electrical and mechanical processes, the authors successfully fabricated the required element with sharp and smooth V-faced Fresnel structures using quartz glass or MgF2 glass. The relationship of the form accuracy of the fabricated Fresnel lens and changes in grinding wheel shape is also discussed
Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation
Butler, L.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.
Accuracy vs run time in adiabatic quantum search
Rezakhani, A T; Lidar, D A
2010-01-01
Adiabatic quantum algorithms are characterized by their run time and accuracy. The relation between the two is essential for quantifying adiabatic algorithmic performance, yet is often poorly understood. We study the dynamics of a continuous time, adiabatic quantum search algorithm, and find rigorous results relating the accuracy and the run time. Proceeding with estimates, we show that under fairly general circumstances the adiabatic algorithmic error exhibits a behavior with two discernible regimes: the error decreases exponentially for short times, then decreases polynomially for longer times. We show that the well known quadratic speedup over classical search is associated only with the exponential error regime. We illustrate the results through examples of evolution paths derived by minimization of the adiabatic error. We also discuss specific strategies for controlling the adiabatic error and run time.
Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking
Garnerone, Silvano; Lidar, Daniel A
2011-01-01
We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm to evaluate the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this quantum algorithm outputs any component of the PageRank vector-and thus the ranking of the corresponding webpage-in a time which scales polylogarithmically in the number of webpages. This would constitute an exponential speed-up with respect to all known classical algorithms designed to evaluate the PageRank.
Adiabatic chaos in the spin orbit problem
Benettin, Giancarlo; Guzzo, Massimiliano; Marini, Valerio
2008-05-01
We provide evidences that the angular momentum of a symmetric rigid body in a spin orbit resonance can perform large scale chaotic motions on time scales which increase polynomially with the inverse of the oblateness of the body. This kind of irregular precession appears as soon as the orbit of the center of mass is non-circular and the angular momentum of the body is far from the principal directions with minimum (maximum) moment of inertia. We also provide a quantitative explanation of these facts by using the theory of adiabatic invariants, and we provide numerical applications to the cases of the 1:1 and 1:2 spin orbit resonances.
Hypergraph Ramsey Numbers and Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm
Qu, Ri; Bao, Yan-ru
2012-01-01
Gaitan and Clark [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)] have recently presented a quantum algorithm for the computation of the Ramsey numbers R(m, n) using adiabatic quantum evolution. We consider that the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m, n; r) for r-uniform hypergraphs can be computed by using the similar ways in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 010501 (2012)]. In this comment, we show how the computation of R(m, n; r) can be mapped to a combinatorial optimization problem whose solution be found using adi...
Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei
Jachimowicz, P.; Kowal, M; Skalski, J.
2016-01-01
Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy we calculated static fission barriers $B_{f}$ for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei $98\\leq Z \\leq 126$, including even - even, odd - even, even - odd and odd - odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from ...
Brane World Dynamics and Adiabatic Matter creation
Gopakumar, P
2006-01-01
We have treated the adiabatic matter creation process in various three-brane models by applying thermodynamics of open systems. The matter creation rate is found to affect the evolution of scale factor and energy density of the universe. We find modification at early stages of cosmic dynamics. In GB and RS brane worlds, by chosing appropriate parameters we obtain standard scenario, while the warped DGP model has different Friedmann equations. During later stages, since the matter creation is negligible the evolution reduces to FRW expansion, in RS and GB models.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter from an additional adiabatic fluid
Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo
2016-01-01
The Dark Sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent $\\gamma$ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general $\\gamma$ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with $\\gamma = $ constant in a FLRW universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct compone...
Adiabatic Flame Temperature and Specific Heat of Combustion Gases
Torii, Shuichi; Yano, Toshiaki; Tsunoda, Yukio; トリイ, シュウイチ; ヤノ, トシアキ; ツノダ, ユキオ; 鳥居, 修一; 矢野, 利明; 角田, 幸男
1992-01-01
The aim of the present work is to examine adiabatic flame temperature and the specific heat of combustion gases for both hydrocarbon-air and alcohol-air mixtures by means of a method of chemical equilibrium calculation. Emphasis is placed on the elucidation of simplified correlation equations capable of predicting (i) adiabatic flame temperature at any equivalence ratio and (ii) the specific heat of combustion gases when the adiabatic flame temperature, the gas temperature and the equivalence...
Adiabatic renormalization in theories with modified dispersion relations
Nacir, D. Lopez; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Simeone, C.
2007-01-01
We generalize the adiabatic renormalization to theories with dispersion relations modified at energies higher than a new scale $M_C$. We obtain explicit expressions for the mean value of the stress tensor in the adiabatic vacuum, up to the second adiabatic order. We show that for any dispersion relation the divergences can be absorbed into the bare gravitational constants of the theory. We also point out that, depending on the renormalization prescription, the renormalized stress tensor may c...
Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR's) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) in space applications, it is desirable to have very light weight, small diameter, high current density...
A quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution
Zhang Ying-Yu; Hu He-Ping; Lu Song-Feng
2011-01-01
This paper presents and implements a specified partial adiabatic search algorithm on a quantum circuit. It studies the minimum energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state of the system Hamiltonian and it finds that, in the case of M=1, the algorithm has the same performance as the local adiabatic algorithm. However, the algorithm evolves globally only within a small interval, which implies that it keeps the advantages of global adiabatic algorithms without losing the speedup of the local adiabatic search algorithm.
Symmetry of the adiabatic condition in the piston problem
This study addresses a controversial issue in the adiabatic piston problem, namely that of the piston being adiabatic when it is fixed but no longer so when it can move freely. It is shown that this apparent contradiction arises from the usual definition of adiabatic condition. The issue is addressed here by requiring the adiabatic condition to be compatible with the invariance of total entropy under a system-surroundings interchange. This paper also strengthens some recently published ideas concerning the concepts of heat and dissipative work, and is primarily intended for teachers and graduate students, as well as for all who are interested in this fascinating problem.
A quantum search algorithm based on partial adiabatic evolution
This paper presents and implements a specified partial adiabatic search algorithm on a quantum circuit. It studies the minimum energy gap between the first excited state and the ground state of the system Hamiltonian and it finds that, in the case of M = 1, the algorithm has the same performance as the local adiabatic algorithm. However, the algorithm evolves globally only within a small interval, which implies that it keeps the advantages of global adiabatic algorithms without losing the speedup of the local adiabatic search algorithm. (general)
Non-adiabatic perturbations in decaying vacuum cosmology
We investigate a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology in which a decaying vacuum term causes matter production at late times. Assuming a decay proportional to the Hubble rate, the ratio of the background energy densities of dark matter and dark energy changes with the cosmic scale factor as a−3/2. The intrinsically non-adiabatic two-component perturbation dynamics of this model is reduced to a single second-order equation. Perturbations of the vacuum term are shown to be negligible on scales that are relevant for structure formation. On larger scales, dark-energy perturbations give a somewhat higher contribution but remain always smaller than the dark-matter perturbations
Adiabatic quantum pump in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction
张林
2015-01-01
The adiabatic electron transport is theoretically studied in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) junction with two time-dependent pumping electric fields. By modeling a ZGNR p–n junction and applying the Keldysh Green’s function method, we find that a pumped charge current is flowing in the device at a zero external bias, which mainly comes from the photon-assisted tunneling process and the valley selection rule in an even-chain ZGNR junction. The pumped charge current and its ON and OFF states can be efficiently modulated by changing the system parameters such as the pumping frequency, the pumping phase difference, and the Fermi level. A ferromagnetic ZGNR device is also studied to generate a pure spin current and a fully polarized spin current due to the combined spin pump effect and the valley valve effect. Our finding might pave the way to manipulate the degree of freedom of electrons in a graphene-based electronic device.
Adiabatic cooling of solar wind electrons
Sandbaek, Ornulf; Leer, Egil
1992-01-01
In thermally driven winds emanating from regions in the solar corona with base electron densities of n0 not less than 10 exp 8/cu cm, a substantial fraction of the heat conductive flux from the base is transfered into flow energy by the pressure gradient force. The adiabatic cooling of the electrons causes the electron temperature profile to fall off more rapidly than in heat conduction dominated flows. Alfven waves of solar origin, accelerating the basically thermally driven solar wind, lead to an increased mass flux and enhanced adiabatic cooling. The reduction in electron temperature may be significant also in the subsonic region of the flow and lead to a moderate increase of solar wind mass flux with increasing Alfven wave amplitude. In the solar wind model presented here the Alfven wave energy flux per unit mass is larger than that in models where the temperature in the subsonic flow is not reduced by the wave, and consequently the asymptotic flow speed is higher.
Sigismondi, C.; Boscardin, S.
2014-10-01
Ptolemy (about 150 AC) modeled atmospheric refraction influencing Al Farghani (831), Alhazen (1020), Sacrobosco (1256) and Witelo (1278): the Sun was supposed bigger at horizon like a coin appears under water in a curved bottle. The correct work of Ibn Sahl (984) remained forgotten. Tycho measured the refraction on the 1572 supernova at various altitudes. Harriot, Kepler, Snell and Descartes found independently the refraction law after 1600. A modern formulation of vertical (0.5" zenithal to 35' at horizon) and horizontal (0.5" at all altitudes) differential refraction of solar diameter appears in Du Séjour (1786). Laplace's formula (1805) computes the vertical deformation of the solar disk, while the horizontal reduction of 0.5" is proportional to the chord's length. Dicke (1967) measured the solar oblateness to determine dynamical constraints to alternative theories of General Relativity. The Astrolabe of Rio de Janeiro measured in 1998-2009 the solar diameter at all heliolatitudes, by timing solar transits across fixed altitude circles: an equatorial excess larger than RHESSI (2008) and SDS (1992-2011) data remains after refraction's corrections. Meridian transits series measured at Rome Campidoglio (1877-1937) and Greenwich (1850-1940) behave as Rio data: the scatters between annual averages were larger than statistical dispersions of each value (Gething, 1955). Anomalous refractions measured with Rio Heliometer (2013) are low frequency seeing (0.01 Hz) acting to scales of the solar diameter (32'): they affect transits measurements with random perturbations hundreds times larger than the expected values calculated from the timing accuracy. These perturbations enlarge the differences between averages values binned either in time or heliolatitude: they are larger than statistical dispersions, suggesting a wider binning. The ``adiabatic" approach of Rio Heliometer with high frequency measurements ``freezes" the slow seeing image motion component.
Koshel, Konstantin V.; Shishkarev, A. A.
1993-09-01
On the basis of invariant imbedding method the disturbance theory for complex constants of the propagation is proposed. This approach allowed us to consider influence of layer and anisotropic fluctuations of refractive index on the beyond-the-horizon propagation in the adiabatic approximation at the existence of the evaporation duct. Finally, the paper considers some examples of the calculations and investigates stochastic effects.
Theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry
Bharadwaj, Pawan
2012-01-01
Inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution by refraction traveltime tomography is a well-accepted imaging method by both the exploration and earthquake seismology communities. A significant drawback, however, is that the recorded traces become noisier with increasing offset from the source position, and so accurate picking of traveltimes in far-offset traces is often prevented. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the far-offset traces, we present the theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry where the SNR of far-offset head-wave arrivals can be theoretically increased by a factor proportional to; here, N is the number of receiver or source positions associated with the recording and generation of the head-wave arrival. There are two steps to this methodology: correlation and summation of the data to generate traces with virtual head-wave arrivals, followed by the convolution of the data with the virtual traces to create traces with supervirtual head-wave arrivals. This method is valid for any medium that generates head-wave arrivals recorded by the geophones. Results with both synthetic traces and field data demonstrate the feasibility of this method. There are at least four significant benefits of supervirtual interferometry: (1) an enhanced SNR of far-offset traces so the first-arrival traveltimes of the noisy far-offset traces can be more reliably picked to extend the useful aperture of the data, (2) the SNR of head waves in a trace that arrive later than the first arrival can be enhanced for accurate traveltime picking and subsequent inversion by later-arrival traveltime tomography, (3) common receiver-pair gathers can be analysed to detect the presence of diving waves in the first arrivals, which can be used to assess the nature of the refracting boundary, and (4) the source statics term is eliminated in the correlation operations so that the timing of the virtual traces is independent of the source excitation time. This suggests the
Determination of the complex refractive index of cell cultures by reflectance spectrometry
Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Calin, Marian Romeo; Munteanu, Constantin
2014-06-01
In this paper we propose a new approach to using reflectance spectrometry in connection with the Kramers-Kronig analysis for the determination of the complex refractive index of biological cells. Applying this procedure, the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index (refractive index and extinction coefficient) can be simultaneously determined. The accuracy of this procedure in the determination of the refractive index and extinction coefficient of culture media proved to be comparable with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Applying this procedure on the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), the results obtained from time-series measurements showed significant changes in the complex refractive index of cell cultures within 72h, the most important increases for both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index being recorded in the first 24h, when synthesis processes are happening. Thus, the analysis of the time-dependent changes in the complex refractive index provides information about the frequencies of the modifications that occur on both organizational structure and cells composition during the cell cycle. In conclusion, the combination of reflectance spectrometry with the Kramers-Kronig analysis is a feasible way to determine the complex refractive index of biological cells and to assess the events taking place during the cell cycle.
Stabilisation of refraction following extracapsular cataract extraction.
Baranyovits, P.
1990-01-01
Regular serial refraction was used to determine the rate of stabilisation of refraction following routine extracapsular cataract surgery in 85 eyes. Patients were divided into four groups depending on wound closure technique: limbal section closed by interrupted 8-0 virgin silk, 9-0 polydioxanone or 10-0 nylon sutures, and corneal section closed by continuous 10-0 nylon suture. Stabilisation of refraction, sufficient to prescribe satisfactory glasses, occurred at three months except in the in...
Refractive lens for hard x-rays
The refractive lens for hard X-rays on the base of glass capillary is presented. The fabrication techniques for lens production are described. The model of refractive lens for hard X-ray is proposed. The model assume that the compound lens work similar one thin lens the complex refraction index of which is following: n=1-δ N + i β N. On the base of this model the parameters of focussed beam are calculated and the images of object are constructed
Psychophysiology of Refractive Accommodative Esotropia
Ungsoo Samuel Kim
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the psychophysiologic aspects of refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE. Methods. I prospectively recruited patients aged 3–6 years with more than 3.0 diopters of hyperopia who presented at Kim’s Eye Hospital from January 2011 to March 2013. I compared Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL which consists of internalizing factors (social withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression and externalizing factors (social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior between RAE group and control group. Results. Two out of three internalizing indexes were significantly different between groups (somatic complaints: RAE children 50.1±4.6 and controls 46.6±5.8, P=0.026; depression/anxiety: RAE children 48.8±7.9 and controls 43.9±6.8, P=0.024. Although there was no significant difference, RAE children scored slightly higher on the externalizing behavior index. In the RAE group, the far angle of esodeviation showed a moderate correlation with withdrawn behaviors. Conclusion. Hypermetropic children with high scores on the somatic complaint and depression/anxiety subscales of the CBCL could be at high risk for developing RAE. Psychosocial problems might be related to the pathogenesis of refractive accommodative esotropia.
Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion
Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures
High Fidelity Adiabatic Quantum Computation via Dynamical Decoupling
Quiroz, Gregory
2012-01-01
We introduce high-order dynamical decoupling strategies for open system adiabatic quantum computation. Our numerical results demonstrate that a judicious choice of high-order dynamical decoupling method, in conjunction with an encoding which allows computation to proceed alongside decoupling, can dramatically enhance the fidelity of adiabatic quantum computation in spite of decoherence.
Plasmas in particle accelerators: adiabatic theories for bunched beams
Three different formalisms for discussing Vlasov's equation for bunched beam problems with anharmonic space charge forces are outlined. These correspond to the use of a drift kinetic equation averaged over random betatron motions; a fluidkinetic adiabatic regime analogous to the theory of Chew, Goldberger, and Low; and an adiabatic hydrodynamic theory
Teleportation of an Unknown Atomic State via Adiabatic Passage
无
2007-01-01
We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state via adiabatic passage. Taking advantage of adiabatic passage, the atom has no probability of being excited and thus the atomic spontaneous emission is suppressed.We also show that the fidelity can reach 1 under certain condition.