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Sample records for adhesive protein coatings

  1. Micro patterning of cell and protein non-adhesive plasma polymerized coatings for biochip applications

    Bouaidat, Salim; Berendsen, C.; Thomsen, P.;

    2004-01-01

    Micro scale patterning of bioactive surfaces is desirable for numerous biochip applications. Polyethyleneoxide-like (PEO-like) coating with non-fouling functionality has been deposited using low frequency AC plasma polymerization. The non-fouling properties of the coating were tested with human...... cells ( HeLa) and fluorescence labeled proteins (isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, i.e. FITC-BSA). The PEO-like coatings were fabricated by plasma polymerization of 12-crown-4 (ppCrown) with plasma polymerized hexene (ppHexene) as adhesion layer. The coatings were micro patterned using...

  2. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  3. Recombinant mussel adhesive protein fp-5 (MAP fp-5) as a bulk bioadhesive and surface coating material.

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Kang, Dong Gyun; Lim, Seonghye; Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Chang Sup; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2011-08-01

    Mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) attach to all types of inorganic and organic surfaces, even in wet environments. MAP of type 5 (fp-5), in particular, has been considered as a key adhesive material. However, the low availability of fp-5 has hampered its biochemical characterization and practical applications. Here, soluble recombinant fp-5 is mass-produced in Escherichia coli. Tyrosinase-modified recombinant fp-5 showed ∼1.11 MPa adhesive shear strength, which is the first report of a bulk-scale adhesive force measurement for purified recombinant of natural MAP type. Surface coatings were also performed through simple dip-coating of various objects. In addition, complex coacervate using recombinant fp-5 and hyaluronic acid was prepared as an efficient adhesive formulation, which greatly improved the bulk adhesive strength. Collectively, it is expected that this work will enhance basic understanding of mussel adhesion and that recombinant fp-5 can be successfully used as a realistic bulk-scale bioadhesive and an efficient surface coating material. PMID:21770718

  4. Surface-modified nanoparticles as a new, versatile, and mechanically robust nonadhesive coating : Suppression of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion

    Holmes, P. F.; Currie, E. P. K.; Thies, J. C.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of surface-modified silica nanoparticles, chemically grafted with acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups, and the ability of the resulting crosslinked coatings to inhibit protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion are explored. Water contact angles, nanoindentation, and atomic

  5. Studies on cell adhesion and recognition. II. The kinetics of cell adhesion and cell spreading on surfaces coated with carbohydrate- reactive proteins (glycosidases and lectins) and fibronectin

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of cell attachment and cell spreading on the coated surfaces of two classes of carbohydrate-reactive proteins, enzymes and lectins, have been compared with those on fibronectin-coated surfaces with the following results: (a) A remarkable similarity between the kinetics of cell attachment to fibronectin-coated and glycosidase- coated surfaces was found. In contrast, cell attachment kinetics induced by lectin- and galactose oxidase-coated surfaces, in general, were strikingly diffe...

  6. Coating to enhance metal-polymer adhesion

    Parthasarathi, A.; Mahulikar, D. [Olin Metals Research Laboratories, New Haven, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An ultra-thin electroplated coating has been developed to enhance adhesion of metals to polymers. The coating was developed for microelectronic packaging applications where it greatly improves adhesion of metal leadframes to plastic molding compounds. Recent tests show that the coating enhances adhesion of different metals to other types of adhesives as well and may thus have wider applicability. Results of adhesion tests with this coating, as well as its other characteristics such as corrosion resistance, are discussed. The coating is a very thin transparent electroplated coating containing zinc and chromium. It has been found to be effective on a variety of metal surfaces including copper alloys, Fe-Ni alloys, Al alloys, stainless steel, silver, nickel, Pd/Ni and Ni-Sn. Contact resistance measurements show that the coating has little or no effect on electrical resistivity.

  7. Enhanced adhesion of diamond coatings

    Zheng, Zhido

    potential layers identified: TiN and TiC. Crystalline diamond coatings are subsequently deposited on these layers by hot filament CVD. A large grained TiC coating with a relatively rough surface was found to provide the best adhesion to the diamond layer. As judged qualitatively by the extent of spallation adjacent to hardness indentation, this intermediate layer performs better than similar TiC layers reported in the literature. The residual stresses in the diamond coatings are analysed using Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and compared with the predictions of the analytical model. The adhesion of the diamond coatings on various substrates with and without an intermediate layer of TiC is quantitatively evaluated by measuring the length of the delamination crack surrounding through-thickness holes in the coating and comparing with the relationship derived between crack length and strain energy release rate. The measured adherence on WC-Co substrates, as characterised by the critical strain energy release rate for growth of the delamination crack, was found to be significantly higher in the presence of the TiC intermediate layer developed during the course of this work.

  8. Impact of oils and coatings on adhesion of structural adhesives

    Hagström, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This is a master thesis project conducted for Scania CV AB in collaboration with Swerea Kimab. The purpose is to examine how oils and coatings on the surface affect the adhesion of adhesives. Earlier work done by Scania indicate that the amount of oil applied may have an impact on the adhesion. Substrates tested are hot dipped galvanised steel, electro galvanised. AlSi and ZnMg. Oils used are Anticorit RP 3802 that is an anti-corrosive oil and Renoform 3802 that is a drawing oil. The two adhes...

  9. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  10. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  11. Amino acid sequences mediating vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 binding to integrin alpha 4: homologous DSP sequence found for JC polyoma VP1 coat protein

    Michael Andrew Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4 to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3. For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  12. Nanostructured niobium oxide coatings influence osteoblast adhesion.

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Müller, M; Thull, R; Breme, J

    2006-10-01

    The interaction of osteoblasts was correlated to the roughness of nanosized surface structures of Nb(2)O(5) coatings on polished CP titanium grade 2. Nb(2)O(5) sol-gel coatings were selected as a model surface to study the interaction of osteoblasts with nanosized surface structures. The surface roughness was quantified by determination of the average surface finish (Ra number) by means of atomic force microscopy. Surface topographies with Ra = 7, 15, and 40 nm were adjusted by means of the annealing process parameters (time and temperature) within a sol-gel coating procedure. The observed osteoblast migration was fastest on smooth surfaces with Ra = 7 nm. The adhesion strength, spreading area, and collagen-I synthesis showed the best results on an intermediate roughness of Ra = 15 nm. The surface roughness of Ra = 40 nm was rather peaked and reduced the speed of cell reactions belonging to the adhesion process. PMID:16788971

  13. Activated platelets form protected zones of adhesion on fibrinogen and fibronectin-coated surfaces

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes form zones of close apposition when they adhere to ligand- coated surfaces. Because plasma proteins are excluded from these contact zones, we have termed them protected zones of adhesion. To determine whether platelets form similar protected zones of adhesion, gel-filtered platelets stimulated with thrombin or ADP were allowed to adhere to fibrinogen- or fibronectin-coated surfaces. The protein- coated surfaces with platelets attached were stained with either fluorochrome-conjugate...

  14. Coatings against corrosion and microbial adhesion

    Telegdi, J.; Szabo, T.; Al-Taher, F.; Pfeifer, E.; Kuzmann, E.; Vertes, A. [Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1025 Budapest, Pusztaszeri ut 59/67 (Hungary)

    2010-12-15

    A systematic study on anti-corrosion and anti-fouling effect of hydrophobic Langmuir-Blodgett and self-assembled molecular layers deposited on metal surfaces, as well as anti-microbial adhesion properties of coatings with biocide is presented. Both types of efficiencies produced by LB films are enhanced by Fe{sup 3+} ions built in the molecular film. The quaternary ammonium type biocide embedded into the cross-linked gelatin decreased significantly the microbial adhesion, the biofilm formation. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Grit Blasting Scribes Coats For Tests Of Adhesion

    Novak, Howard L.

    1991-01-01

    Grit-blasting technique for cutting line gaps in paints, hard coats, lubricants, and other coating films undergoing development. Line gaps cut in chevron patterns, groups of parallel lines, or other prescribed patterns, in preparation for testing adhesions of coats to substrates by attempting to peel patterned areas off with adhesive tapes. Damage to substrate reduced.

  16. Quantifying adhesion energy of mechanical coatings at atomistic scale

    Coatings of transition metal compounds find widespread technological applications where adhesion is known to influence or control functionality. Here, we, by first-principles calculations, propose a new way to assess adhesion in coatings and apply it to analyze the TiN coating. We find that the calculated adhesion energies of both the (1 1 1) and (0 0 1) orientations are small under no residual stress, yet increase linearly once the stress is imposed, suggesting that the residual stress is key to affecting adhesion. The strengthened adhesion is found to be attributed to the stress-induced shrinkage of neighbouring bonds, which results in stronger interactions between bonds in TiN coatings. Further finite elements simulation (FEM) based on calculated adhesion energy reproduces well the initial cracking process observed in nano-indentation experiments, thereby validating the application of this approach in quantifying adhesion energy of surface coating systems.

  17. Polymer adhesion at surfaces: biological adhesive proteins and their synthetic mimics

    Messersmith, Phillip

    2008-03-01

    Mussels are famous for their ability to permanently adhere to a wide variety of wet surfaces, such as rocks, metal and polymer ship hulls, and wood structures. They accomplish this through specialized proteins collectively referred to as mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs). The biophysical aspects of MAP adhesion is being revealed through the use of single molecule force measurements. The results provide insight into the adhesive roles of key amino acids found in these proteins, including the magnitude of adhesive forces, cooperative effects, and their self-healing properties. This molecular-level information is being incorporated into designs of biomimetic polymer coatings for a variety of applications. Our biomimetic approach to polymer design will be illustrated by a few examples where adhesive constituents found in MAPs are exploited to make wet-adhesive polymer coatings. In addition, small molecule analogs of MAPs can be used to apply thin functional films onto virtually any material surface using a facile approach. These coatings have a variety of potential uses in microelectronics, water treatment, prevention of environmental biofouling, and for control of biointerfacial phenomena at the surfaces of medical/diagnostic devices.

  18. ADHESION STRENGTH OF COATING SUBSTRATE AND SURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF PRETREATMENT

    2003-01-01

    Premature failure of coated tool often results from a poor adhesion of coating-substrate and shortens the lifetime of the tool.The results of increasing the adhesion strength of thin film coatings on cutting tool inserts by pretreating the inserts with sandblasting technique to obtain a desirable surface morphology of the inserts are presented.A geometric model representing the ideal surface morphology is established to enhance the nucleation density and adhesion strength of coating-substrate.Thin film coating experiment is conducted on the substrates of four different sample groups.Indentation and wear tests are performed on coated inserts to evaluate the effect of sandblasting on the adhesion strength of the coatings.A theoretical analysis is provided on the formation and growth of atom clusters in terms of the contact angle and the thermodynamic barrier of a substrate to predict thin film nucleation.

  19. Tensile adhesion test measurements on plasma-sprayed coatings

    Berndt, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion measurements on plasma-sprayed coatings are briefly studied, including a critical analysis of the experimental scatter for duplicate tests. The application of a simple method which presents adhesion strength data in a fracture mechanics perspective is demonstrated. Available data are analyzed in a way which suggests an approach to finding the overall defect contribution to reducing the apparent strength of coatings.

  20. Adhesion between coating layers based on epoxy and silicone

    Svendsen, Jacob R.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Kiil, Søren;

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion between a silicon tie-coat and epoxy primers, used in marine coating systems, has been studied in this work. Six epoxy coatings (with varying chain lengths of the epoxy resins), some of which have shown problems with adhesion to the tie-coat during service life, have been considered....... The experimental investigation includes measurements of the surface tension of the tie-coat and the critical surface tensions of the epoxies, topographic investigation of the surfaces of cured epoxy coatings via atomic force microscopy (AFM), and pull-off tests for investigating the strength of...

  1. Formation of tunable graphene oxide coating with high adhesion.

    Lin, Liangxu; Wu, Huaping; Green, Stephen J; Crompton, Joanna; Zhang, Shaowei; Horsell, David W

    2016-02-10

    Graphene oxide (GO) can be applied as a coating on metals, but few of these coatings have an adhesion suitable for practical applications. We demonstrate here how to form a GO coating on metals with a high adhesion (∼10.6 MPa) and tuneable surface, which can be further applied using similar/modified techniques for special applications (e.g. anti-corrosion and anti-biofouling). PMID:26814138

  2. Cell Adhesion to Plasma-Coated PVC

    Elidiane C. Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce environments suitable for cell culture, thin polymer films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from radiofrequency acetylene-argon plasmas. The proportion of argon in the plasmas, PAr, was varied from 5.3 to 65.8%. The adhesion and growth of Vero cells on the coated surfaces were examined for different incubation times. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using spectroscopic methods. Carbon, O, and N were detected in all the samples using XPS. Roughness remained almost unchanged in the samples prepared with 5.3 and 28.9% but tended to increase for the films deposited with PAr between 28.9 and 55.3%. Surface free energy increased with increasing PAr, except for the sample prepared at 28.9% of Ar, which presented the least reactive surface. Cells proliferated on all the samples, including the bare PVC. Independently of the deposition condition there was no evidence of cytotoxicity, indicating the viability of such coatings for designing biocompatible devices.

  3. Humidity dependence of adhesion for silane coated microcantilevers

    This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C(sub 18)H(sub 37)SiCl(sub 3)) or FDTS (C(sub 8)F(sub 17)C(sub 2)H(sub 4)SiCl(sub 3)) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115(degree)) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112(degree)), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase

  4. Adhesion of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Brock, Ryan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Miller, David C.

    2016-06-16

    The development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method is reported, which allows the measurement of adhesion on the fragile thin substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. We address the adhesion of several antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology, we demonstrate the ensuing effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp Heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We show that even with germanium substrates that fracture easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can still be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  5. Osteoblast adhesion to orthopaedic implant alloys: effects of cell adhesion molecules and diamond-like carbon coating.

    Kornu, R; Maloney, W J; Kelly, M A; Smith, R L

    1996-11-01

    In total joint arthroplasty, long-term outcomes depend in part on the biocompatibility of implant alloys. This study analyzed effects of surface finish and diamond-like carbon coating on osteoblast cell adhesion to polished titanium-aluminum-vanadium and polished or grit-blasted cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys. Osteoblast binding was tested in the presence and absence of the cell adhesion proteins fibronectin, laminin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin and was quantified by measurement of DNA content. Although adherence occurred in serum-free medium, maximal osteoblast binding required serum and was similar for titanium and cobalt alloys at 2 and 12 hours. With the grit-blasted cobalt alloy, cell binding was reduced 48% (p Coating the alloys with diamond-like carbon did not alter osteoblast adhesion, whereas fibronectin pretreatment increased cell binding 2.6-fold (p enhance cell adhesion. These results support the hypothesis that cell adhesion proteins can modify cell binding to orthopaedic alloys. Although osteoblast binding was not affected by the presence of diamond-like carbon, this coating substance may influence other longer term processes, such as bone formation, and deserves further study. PMID:8982128

  6. Practical measurements of adhesion and strain for improved optical coatings

    Adhesion and strain are two important physical properties which determine the success or failure of thin-film coatings in optical applications. In this paper we describe the design and operation of a dynamically loaded scratch tester for making measurements of relative adhesive strength, and a modulated transmission ellipsometer for measuring total and internal strain. Numerous examples for coating/substrate systems of interest to optical applications are given

  7. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  8. Adhesion Improvement of Zirconium Coating on Polyurethane Modified by Plasmas

    Gao, Yi; Hao, Xiaofei; Liu, Jiwei

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the adhesion of the middle frequency magnetic sputtered zirconium coating on a polyurethane film, an anode layer source was used to pretreat the polyurethane film with nitrogen and oxygen ions. SEMs and AFM roughness profiles of treated samples and the contrast groups were obtained. Besides, XPS survey spectrums and high resolution spectrums were also investigated. The adhesion test revealed that ion bombardment could improve the adhesion to the polyurethane coating substrate. A better etching result of oxygen ions versus nitrogen predicts a higher bonding strength of zirconium coating on polyurethane and, indeed, the highest bonding strengths are for oxygen ion bombardment upto 13.3 MPa. As demonstrated in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the oxygen ion also helps to introduce more active groups, and, therefore, it achieves a high value of adhesion strength.

  9. A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating

    One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems. Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include depositing a coating on the implant. However, there is a risk of coating failure due to low substrate adhesion. This paper describes a method to obtain bioactivity combined with a high coating adhesion via a gradient structure of the coating. Gradient coatings were deposited on Ti (grade 5) using reactive magnetron sputtering with increasing oxygen content. To increase the grain size in the coating, all coatings were post annealed at 385 deg. C. The obtained coating exhibited a gradual transition over 70 nm from crystalline titanium oxide (anatase) at the surface to metallic Ti in the substrate, as shown using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Using scratch testing, it could be shown that the adhesion to the substrate was well above 1 GPa. The bioactivity of the coating was verified in vitro by the spontaneous formation of hydroxylapatite upon storage in phosphate buffer solution at 37 deg. C for one week. The described process can be applied to implants irrespective of bulk metal in the base and should introduce the possibility to create safer permanent implants like reconstructive devices, dental, or spinal implants.

  10. Adhesive strength of hydroxyl apatite(HA) coating and biomechanics behavior of HA-coated prosthesis:an experimental study

    Tian-yang ZHANG; Duan, Yong-hong; Zhu, Shu; Jin-yu ZHU; Zhu, Qing-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite(HA) coating on the post-implantation stability of HA-coated prosthesis.Methods The adhesive strength and biomechanics behavior of HA coating were studied by histopathological observation,material parameters and biomechanical testing,the titanium(Ti)-coated prosthesis was employed as control.Results Scratch test showed that the adhesive strength of HA coating was significantly lower than that of Ti coating(P < 0.01).Hist...

  11. Bacterial adhesion on amorphous and crystalline metal oxide coatings

    Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Facultad de Odontología, División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra, E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Calzada México-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 México D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Galicia, Rey; Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the influence of surface properties (surface energy, composition and topography) of biocompatible materials on the adhesion of cells/bacteria on solid substrates; however, few have provided information about the effect of the atomic arrangement or crystallinity. Using magnetron sputtering deposition, we produced amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings with controlled micro and nanoscale morphology. The effect of the structure on the physical–chemical surface properties was carefully analyzed. Then, we studied how these parameters affect the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our findings demonstrated that the nano-topography and the surface energy were significantly influenced by the coating structure. Bacterial adhesion at micro-rough (2.6 μm) surfaces was independent of the surface composition and structure, contrary to the observation in sub-micron (0.5 μm) rough surfaces, where the crystalline oxides (TiO{sub 2} > ZrO{sub 2}) surfaces exhibited higher numbers of attached bacteria. Particularly, crystalline TiO{sub 2}, which presented a predominant acidic nature, was more attractive for the adhesion of the negatively charged bacteria. The information provided by this study, where surface modifications are introduced by means of the deposition of amorphous or crystalline oxide coatings, offers a route for the rational design of implant surfaces to control or inhibit bacterial adhesion. - Highlights: • Amorphous (a) and crystalline (c) TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings were deposited. • The atomic ordering influences the coatings surface charge and nano-topography. • The atomic ordering modifies the bacterial adhesion for the same surface chemistry. • S. aureus adhesion was lower on a-TiO{sub 2} and a-ZrO{sub 2} than on their c-oxide counterpart. • E. coli adhesion on a-TiO{sub 2} was lower than on the c-TiO{sub 2}.

  12. Adhesion failures on hard coatings induced by interface anomalies

    Silva, Carlos W. Moura e; E. Alves; Ramos, A. R.; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Cavaleiro, A

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the lack of adhesion occurred during the up-scaling of the deposition of tribological coatings in a semi-industrial apparatus is interpreted. The adhesion problems were detected for both hard and self-lubricant coatings from W-Ti-N and W:C systems, respectively, when they were deposited in a 4 cathodes TEER® chamber by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering. In spite of cleaning the substrates surface by ion bombardment prior to deposition, by establishing a discharge close to...

  13. Rabbit cationic protein enhances leukocyte adhesiveness.

    Oseas, R S; Allen, J; Yang, H. H.; Baehner, R. L.; Boxer, L A

    1981-01-01

    Cationic protein purified from rabbit peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was demonstrated to incite autoaggregation of the rabbit PMN and promote adhesiveness of human PMN to endothelial cells. PMN aggregation induced by supernatants derived from secretory PMN was blocked by a specific anticationic protein antibody. These studies reveal that a positively charged protein derived from the PMN can alter surface properties of the PMN itself and imply a role for this protein in PMN immo...

  14. Quantitative Adhesion Characterization of Antireflective Coatings in Multijunction Photovoltaics

    Brock, Ryan; Rewari, Raunaq; Novoa, Fernando D.; Hebert, Peter; Ermer, James; Miller, David C.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the development of a new composite dual cantilever beam (cDCB) thin-film adhesion testing method, which enables the quantitative measurement of adhesion on the thin and fragile substrates used in multijunction photovoltaics. In particular, we address the adhesion of several 2- and 3-layer antireflective coating systems on multijunction cells. By varying interface chemistry and morphology through processing, we demonstrate the marked effects on adhesion and help to develop an understanding of how high adhesion can be achieved, as adhesion values ranging from 0.5 J/m2 to 10 J/m2 were measured. Damp heat (85 degrees C/85% RH) was used to invoke degradation of interfacial adhesion. We demonstrate that even with germanium substrates that fracture relatively easily, quantitative measurements of adhesion can be made at high test yield. The cDCB test is discussed as an important new methodology, which can be broadly applied to any system that makes use of thin, brittle, or otherwise fragile substrates.

  15. UV curable release coating and adhesive formulations containing vinylethers

    Vinylether monomers offer unique properties for UV/EB curing due to their efficiency as reactive diluents and their ability to undergo both cationic homopolymerization and free-radical copolymerization. The benefits derived from the inclusion of vinylethers into commercial UV-curable epoxysilicone formulations include viscosity reduction, improved cationic photoinitiator miscibility, and lower costs. The addition of up to 60 wt.% of monovinylethers to epoxysilicone systems maintains the release performance, resulting in high-performance coatings and valuable cost savings. On the other hand, divinylethers may be used to impart a controlled release behavior to the epoxysilicone systems. Vinylethers may also be used in the formulation of acrylate-free pressure-sensitive adhesives and laminating adhesives. In this paper, we have first elucidated the advantages offered by the inclusion of vinylethers in UV curable release coatings, followed by a discussion of UV curable pressure-sensitive and laminating adhesive formulations based on vinylethers

  16. Mapping molecular adhesion sites inside SMIL coated capillaries using atomic force microscopy recognition imaging.

    Leitner, Michael; Stock, Lorenz G; Traxler, Lukas; Leclercq, Laurent; Bonazza, Klaus; Friedbacher, Gernot; Cottet, Hervé; Stutz, Hanno; Ebner, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is a powerful analytical technique for fast and efficient separation of different analytes ranging from small inorganic ions to large proteins. However electrophoretic resolution significantly depends on the coating of the inner capillary surface. High technical efforts like Successive Multiple Ionic Polymer Layer (SMIL) generation have been taken to develop stable coatings with switchable surface charges fulfilling the requirements needed for optimal separation. Although the performance can be easily proven in normalized test runs, characterization of the coating itself remains challenging. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for topographical investigation of biological and analytical relevant surfaces with nanometer resolution and yields information about the surface roughness and homogeneity. Upgrading the scanning tip to a molecular biosensor by adhesive molecules (like partly inverted charged molecules) allows for performing topography and recognition imaging (TREC). As a result, simultaneously acquired sample topography and adhesion maps can be recorded. We optimized this technique for electrophoresis capillaries and investigated the charge distribution of differently composed and treated SMIL coatings. By using the positively charged protein avidin as a single molecule sensor, we compared these SMIL coatings with respect to negative charges, resulting in adhesion maps with nanometer resolution. The capability of TREC as a functional investigation technique at the nanoscale was successfully demonstrated. PMID:27265903

  17. Fundamentals of adhesion of thermal spray coatings: Adhesion of single splats

    Indentation experiments were performed inside a scanning electron microscope to measure adhesive strength of individual alumina splats on a steel substrate. The in situ nature of experimental evaluations made characterization of interfacial crack propagation possible by direct observation. The increase in the strain energy of brittle alumina splats originating from indentation deformation was correlated to the strain energy release rate through the characterization of interfacial crack propagation. An analytical model previously reported and evaluated in studies of the adhesive strength of thin films was employed. An average calculated strain energy release rate of 80 J m-2 was found for single splats. This high value suggests that splat adhesion can make a significant contribution to the adhesion of thermal sprayed coatings.

  18. Biodegradable electrospun nanofibers coated with platelet-rich plasma for cell adhesion and proliferation

    Diaz-Gomez, Luis [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto de Ortopedia y Banco de Tejidos Musculoesqueléticos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.alvarez.lorenzo@usc.es [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Concheiro, Angel [Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Silva, Maite [Instituto de Ortopedia y Banco de Tejidos Musculoesqueléticos, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15872 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Dominguez, Fernando [Fundación Publica Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sheikh, Faheem A.; Cantu, Travis; Desai, Raj; Garcia, Vanessa L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States); Macossay, Javier, E-mail: jmacossay@utpa.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78541 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Biodegradable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were coated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. PRP was obtained from human buffy coat, and tested on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to confirm cell proliferation and cytocompatibility. Then, PRP was adsorbed on the PCL scaffolds via lyophilization, which resulted in a uniform sponge-like coating of 2.85 (S.D. 0.14) mg/mg. The scaffolds were evaluated regarding mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain), sustained release of total protein and growth factors (PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 and VEGF), and hemocompatibility. MSC seeded on the PRP–PCL nanofibers showed an increased adhesion and proliferation compared to pristine PCL fibers. Moreover, the adsorbed PRP enabled angiogenesis features observed as neovascularization in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Overall, these results suggest that PRP–PCL scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can be adsorbed on electrospun fibers via lyophilization. • PRP coating enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation on scaffolds. • PRP-coated scaffolds showed sustained release of growth factors. • Adsorbed PRP provided angiogenic features. • PRP-poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications.

  19. Biodegradable electrospun nanofibers coated with platelet-rich plasma for cell adhesion and proliferation

    Biodegradable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were coated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. PRP was obtained from human buffy coat, and tested on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to confirm cell proliferation and cytocompatibility. Then, PRP was adsorbed on the PCL scaffolds via lyophilization, which resulted in a uniform sponge-like coating of 2.85 (S.D. 0.14) mg/mg. The scaffolds were evaluated regarding mechanical properties (Young's modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain), sustained release of total protein and growth factors (PDGF-BB, TGF-β1 and VEGF), and hemocompatibility. MSC seeded on the PRP–PCL nanofibers showed an increased adhesion and proliferation compared to pristine PCL fibers. Moreover, the adsorbed PRP enabled angiogenesis features observed as neovascularization in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Overall, these results suggest that PRP–PCL scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can be adsorbed on electrospun fibers via lyophilization. • PRP coating enhanced mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and proliferation on scaffolds. • PRP-coated scaffolds showed sustained release of growth factors. • Adsorbed PRP provided angiogenic features. • PRP-poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds hold promise for tissue regeneration applications

  20. Cell surface molecules and fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion: effect of proteolytic digestion of membrane proteins

    1982-01-01

    Proteases have been used as a tool to investigate the role of surface molecules in fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Proteolytic digestion of membrane-proteins by pronase (1 mg/ml for 20 min at 37 degrees C) completely inhibited adhesion of baby hamster kidney (BHK) fibroblasts on fibronectin-coated plastic dishes. Various degrees of inhibition were also obtained after treatment with proteinase K, chymotrypsin, papain, subtilopeptidase A, and thermolysin. Protein synthesis was required to r...

  1. Assessing heat-adhesive emulsions for tack coats

    Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo

    2005-01-01

    The use of conventional emulsions for tack coats can cause problems as they frequently stick to the tyres of construction vehicles. Consequently, the bond between the asphalt layers is inadequate. Recently, new types of emulsions have been developed from very lowpenetration bitumen that contain no flux. They are known as ‘heat-adhesive’ emulsions and they are resistant to construction vehicles. However, the adhesive ability of these new emulsions has not previously been studied closely,...

  2. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Steven J. Severtson

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  3. Adhesion enhancement of Al coatings on carbon/epoxy composite surfaces by atmospheric plasma

    Adhesion strengths between aluminium thin film coatings and manufactured carbon/epoxy composite surfaces were measured by assessing fracture tensile strengths using pull-off tests. The effect of the substrate roughness (nm to μm) of these composite surfaces on adhesion was studied by examining the surface free energies and adhesion strengths. The adhesion strengths of the coatings varied significantly. To improve the coating adhesion, each composite surface was treated with atmospheric plasma prior to deposition, which resulted in an increase in the surface free energy from approximately 40 mJ/m2 to 70 mJ/m2 because the plasma pretreatment led to the formation of hydrophilic C-O and C=O bonds on the composite surfaces, as demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The adhesion strengths of the coatings were enhanced for all surface roughnesses studied. In our study, the effect of mechanical adhesion due to roughness was separated from the effect of modifying the chemical bonds with plasma activation. The adhesion ability of the pure resin was relatively weak. Increasing the surface roughness largely improved the adhesion of the resin surface. Plasma treatment of the pure resin also increased the surface adhesion. Our study shows that plasma activation effectively enhances the adhesion of manufactured composites, even when the surface roughness is on the order of microns. The ageing of the surface activation was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that atmospheric plasma has potential for use in the pretreatment of composite materials.

  4. Do adhesive systems leave resin coats on the surfaces of the metal matrix bands? An adhesive remnant characterization.

    Arhun, Neslihan; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak

    2013-01-01

    Reestablishing proximal contacts with composite resins may prove challenging since the applied adhesives may lead to resin coating that produces additional thickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface of metal matrix bands after application of adhesive systems and blowing or wiping off the adhesive before polymerization. Seventeen groups of matrix bands were prepared. The remnant particles were characterized by energy dispersive spectrum and scanning electron microscopy. Total etch and two-step self-etch adhesives did not leave any resin residues by wiping and blowing off. All-in-one adhesive revealed resin residues despite wiping off. Prime and Bond NT did not leave any remnant with compomer. Clinicians must be made aware of the consequences of possible adhesive remnants on matrix bands that may lead to a defective definitive restoration. The adhesive resin used for Class II restorations may leave resin coats on metal matrix bands after polymerization, resulting in additional thickness on the metal matrix bands and poor quality of the proximal surface of the definitive restoration when the adhesive system is incorporated in the restoration. PMID:23484179

  5. Cell resistant zwitterionic polyelectrolyte coating promotes bacterial attachment: an adhesion contradiction.

    Martinez, Jessica S; Kelly, Kristopher D; Ghoussoub, Yara E; Delgado, Jose D; Keller Iii, Thomas C S; Schlenoff, Joseph B

    2016-04-22

    Polymers of various architectures with zwitterionic functionality have recently been shown to effectively suppress nonspecific fouling of surfaces by proteins and prokaryotic (bacteria) or eukaryotic (mammalian) cells as well as other microorganisms and environmental contaminants. In this work, zwitterionic copolymers were used to make thin coatings on substrates with the layer-by-layer method. Polyelectrolyte multilayers, PEMUs, were built with [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)], PAH, and copolymers of acrylic acid and either the AEDAPS zwitterionic group 3-[2-(acrylamido)-ethyldimethyl ammonio] propane sulfonate (PAA-co-AEDAPS), or benzophenone (PAABp). Benzophenone allowed the PEMU to be toughened by photocrosslinking post-deposition. The attachment of two mammalian cell lines, rat aortic smooth muscle (A7r5) and mouse fibroblasts (3T3), and the biofilm-forming Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli was studied on PEMUs terminated with PAA-co-AEDAPS. Consistent with earlier studies, it is shown that PAH/PAA-co-AEDAPS PEMUs resist the adhesion of mammalian cells, but, contrary to our initial hypothesis, are bacterial adhesive and significantly so after maximizing the surface presentation of PAA-co-AEDAPS. This unexpected contrast in the adhesive behavior of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is explained by differences in adhesion mechanisms as well as different responses to the topology and morphology of the multilayer surface. PMID:26872345

  6. The adhesion behavior of carbon coating studied by re-indentation during in situ TEM nanoindentation

    Fan, Xue; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We report a nanoscale adhesion induced nano-response in terms of re-indentation during in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) nanoindentation on the carbon coating with silicon substrate. The adhesive force generated with nanoindentation was measured, and re-indentation phenomenon during unloading with displacement sudden drop and external loading force change from tension to compression was found. The occurrence of re-indentation during unloading was ascribed to the adhesive force of the contact interface between the indenter and the coating surface. Adhesion energies released for re-indentation processes were quantitatively analyzed from the re-indentation load-displacement curves, and carbon coating reduced the impact of adhesion for silicon substrate. The adhesion induced nano-response of contact surfaces would affect the reliability and performance of nano devices.

  7. Adhesion strength of sputtered TiAlN-coated WC insert tool

    Budi, Esmar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No. 10, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md. [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka Karung Berkunci No 1752 Pejabat Pos Durian Tunggal 76109 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2013-09-09

    The adhesion strength of TiAlN coating that deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering on WC insert tool are studied. TiAlN coating are deposited on Tungsten Carbide (WC) insert tool by varying negatively substrate bias from 79 to 221 volt and nitrogen flow rate from 30 to 72 sccm. The adhesion strength are obtained by using Rockwell indentation test method with a Brale diamond at applied load of 60,100 and 150 kgf. The lateral diameter of indentation is plotted on three different applied loads and the adhesion strength of TiAlN coating was obtained from the curved slopes at 100 and 150 kgf. The lower curve slop indicated better adhesion strength. The results shows that the adhesion strength of sputterred TiAlN coating tend to increase as the negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate are increased.

  8. Adhesion strength of sputtered TiAlN-coated WC insert tool

    The adhesion strength of TiAlN coating that deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering on WC insert tool are studied. TiAlN coating are deposited on Tungsten Carbide (WC) insert tool by varying negatively substrate bias from 79 to 221 volt and nitrogen flow rate from 30 to 72 sccm. The adhesion strength are obtained by using Rockwell indentation test method with a Brale diamond at applied load of 60,100 and 150 kgf. The lateral diameter of indentation is plotted on three different applied loads and the adhesion strength of TiAlN coating was obtained from the curved slopes at 100 and 150 kgf. The lower curve slop indicated better adhesion strength. The results shows that the adhesion strength of sputterred TiAlN coating tend to increase as the negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate are increased

  9. Laser processing of natural mussel adhesive protein thin films

    Doraiswamy, A. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States); Narayan, R.J. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States)]. E-mail: roger_narayan@unc.edu; Cristescu, R. [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-04-15

    A novel laser processing technique is presented for depositing mussel adhesive protein thin films. Synthetic adhesives (e.g., acrylics, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, phenolics, polyurethanes, and silicones) have largely displaced natural adhesives in the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, electronic, and marine equipment industries over the past century. However, rising concerns over the environmental and health effects of solvents, monomers, and additives used in synthetic adhesives have led the adhesives community to seek natural alternatives. Marine mussel adhesive protein is a formaldehyde-free natural adhesive that demonstrates excellent adhesion to several classes of materials, including pure metals, metal oxides, polymers, and glasses. We have demonstrated the deposition of Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 thin films using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum data suggest that the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation process does not cause significant damage to the chemical structure of M. edulis foot protein-1. In addition, matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation appears to provide a better control over film thickness and film roughness than conventional solvent-based thin film processing techniques. MAPLE-deposited mussel adhesive protein thin films have numerous potential electronic, medical, and marine applications.

  10. Laser processing of natural mussel adhesive protein thin films

    A novel laser processing technique is presented for depositing mussel adhesive protein thin films. Synthetic adhesives (e.g., acrylics, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, phenolics, polyurethanes, and silicones) have largely displaced natural adhesives in the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, electronic, and marine equipment industries over the past century. However, rising concerns over the environmental and health effects of solvents, monomers, and additives used in synthetic adhesives have led the adhesives community to seek natural alternatives. Marine mussel adhesive protein is a formaldehyde-free natural adhesive that demonstrates excellent adhesion to several classes of materials, including pure metals, metal oxides, polymers, and glasses. We have demonstrated the deposition of Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 thin films using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum data suggest that the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation process does not cause significant damage to the chemical structure of M. edulis foot protein-1. In addition, matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation appears to provide a better control over film thickness and film roughness than conventional solvent-based thin film processing techniques. MAPLE-deposited mussel adhesive protein thin films have numerous potential electronic, medical, and marine applications

  11. A novel coating strategy towards improving interfacial adhesion strength of Cu–Sn alloy coated steel with vulcanized rubber

    Highlights: • We propose a double layer Cu–Sn alloy coating strategy on steel to improve adhesion. • Uniform coating with adequate penetration inside micro-roughness was observed. • XPS and GDOES study revealed improved substrate surface coverage by coating. • TEM investigation confirmed compact, uniform and micro-porosity free interface. • Peel test with vulcanized rubber confirmed improved adhesion with cohesive fracture. - Abstract: A comparative assessment in terms of uniformity, coating coverage and coating deposition mechanism has been carried out for two different types of Cu–Sn coatings on steel substrate with varying Sn composition (2–6.5 wt%) deposited via immersion technique, viz. (i) single layer Cu–Sn coating and (ii) double layer coating consisting of a thin Cu strike layer followed by a Cu–Sn layer. Coating morphology, surface coverage, coating-substrate interface, and coating composition at surface and along the depth were studied using laser confocal microscope (OLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitative depth profiling using GDOES and surface compositional analysis via XPS suggested improvement in surface coverage in the case of double layer coatings. SEM-EDS and TEM analysis confirmed that the coating deposition was more uniform with sufficient coating penetration inside the deep roughness troughs resulting in compact and micro-porosity free interface for this type of coatings. Better adhesion strength with less variation in peel force and cohesive mode of fracture within the rubber was observed for the double layer coated samples during the peel test carried out on coated steel samples vulcanized with rubber. On the other hand, the single layer coated samples showed large variation in peel force with adhesive

  12. Evaluation for Adhesion Strength of Coating and Substrate by Burying Beforehand Specimen

    2003-01-01

    Adhesion strength is an important target in evaluating the quality of coating layers.The traditional way of adhesion strength test is bonding pull-off method for thick layers and scratch test for thin films.The drawbacks of these two methods are discussed in this paper,and an evaluating method for adhesion strength of coating by burying beforehand specimen is proposed.The adhesion strength of samples is measured with two methods.The dispersity of testing data is lower than that in the ASTM-C663-79 Standard.

  13. Influence of isothermal and cyclic heat treatments on the adhesion of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Eriksson, Robert; Brodin, Håkan; Johansson, Sten; Östergren, Lars; Li, Xin-hai

    2011-01-01

    The adhesion of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been studied using the standard method described in ASTM C633, which makes use of a tensile test machine to measure the adhesion. The studied specimens consist of air plasma sprayed (APS) TBC deposited on disc-shaped substrate coupons of Ni-base alloy Hastelloy X. The bond coat (BC) is of a NiCoCrAlY type and the top coat (TC) consists of yttria–stabilised–zirconia. Before the adhesion test, the specimens were subjected to three different hea...

  14. Mechanical and water soaking properties of medium density fiberboard with wood fiber and soybean protein adhesive.

    Li, Xin; Li, Yonghui; Zhong, Zhikai; Wang, Donghai; Ratto, Jo A; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2009-07-01

    Soybean protein is a renewable and abundant material that offers an alternative to formaldehyde-based resins. In this study, soybean protein was modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an adhesive for wood fiber medium density fiberboard (MDF) preparation. Second-order response surface regression models were used to study the effects and interactions of initial moisture content (IMC) of coated wood fiber, press time (PT) and temperature on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Results showed that IMC of coated fiber was the dominant influencing factor. Mechanical and soaking properties improved as IMC increased and reached their highest point at an IMC of 35%. Press time and temperature also had a significant effect on mechanical and water soaking properties of MDF. Second-order regression results showed that there were strong relationships between mechanical and soaking properties of MDF and processing parameters. Properties of MDF made using soybean protein adhesive are similar to those of commercial board. PMID:19329303

  15. Aspects of Characterisation of Thin Coating Adhesion at the Nano-Scale

    Jisheng E; Aiyang Zhang; Ben D. Beake

    2002-01-01

    In response to current development of materials in nano-science,characterisation of thin coating adhesion on a nano-scale becomes one of the most important research areas,as new coatings get ever thinner and more technologically advanced. With a review of technology and mechanisms of evaluating the adhesion failure of coatings,three techniques,nano impact ,nano-scratch and nano-indentation techniques ,for charactering the adhesion of thin coatings on a nano scale are described.Results of charactering the adhesion faliure of thin coatings using three different techniques indicate that the nano-scratch and nano-indentation techniques are very useful tools ,particularly in charactering the performance of thin coatings under nano-abra sive wear conditions. However,results from these types of tests cannot be easily applied to predict the performance of coatings whose are subject to nano-erosive wear,cyclic nano-fatigue or multiple nano-impacts during service. Instead,results of the new dynamic testing technique ,impact technique ,are found to correlate well with the coating performance under fatigue conditions,precisely because the impact test more closely simulates the actual contact (adhesion failure and wear)conditions of thin coatings occurring in nano-erosive/nano-fatigue/nano-impact wear.

  16. Mg Content Dependence of EML-PVD Zn-Mg Coating Adhesion on Steel Strip

    Jung, Woo Sung; Lee, Chang Wook; Kim, Tae Yeob; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of coating thickness and Mg concentration on the adhesion strength of electromagnetic levitation physical vapor deposited Zn-Mg alloy coatings on steel strip was investigated. The phase fraction of Zn, Mg2Zn11, and MgZn2 was determined for a coating Mg concentration in the 0 to 15 wt pct range. Coatings with a Mg content less than 5 pct consisted of an Zn and Mg2Zn11 phase mixture. The coatings showed good adhesion strength and ductile fracture behavior. Coatings with a higher Mg concentration, which consisted of a Mg2Zn11 and MgZn2 phase mixture, had a poor adhesion strength and a brittle fracture behavior. The adhesion strength of PVD Zn-Mg alloy coatings was found to be related to the pure Zn phase fraction. The effect of coating thickness on adhesion strength was found to be negligible. The microstructure of the interface between steel and Zn-Mg alloy coatings was investigated in detail by electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and atom probe tomography.

  17. Optimized Baxter model of protein solutions: electrostatics versus adhesion

    Prinsen, P.; Odijk, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is set up of spherical proteins interacting by screened electrostatics and constant adhesion, in which the effective adhesion parameter is optimized by a variational principle for the free energy. An analytical approach to the second virial coefficient is first outlined by balancing the repulsive electrostatics against part of the bare adhesion. A theory similar in spirit is developed at nonzero concentrations by assuming an appropriate Baxter model as the reference state. The first-...

  18. The hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance of coatings developed for cobalt-base alloys

    Cockeram, B.V.; Wilson, W.L.

    2000-05-01

    One potential approach for reducing the level of nuclear plant radiation exposure that results from activated cobalt wear debris is the use of a wear resistant coating. However, large differences in stiffness between a coating/substrate can result in high interfacial stresses that produce coating de-adhesion when a coated substrate is subjected to high stress wear contact. Scratch adhesion and indentation tests have been used to identify four promising coating processes [1,2]: (1) the use of a thin Cr-nitride coating with a hard and less-stiff interlayer, (2) the use of a thick, multilayered Cr-nitride coating with graded layers, (3) use of the duplex approach, or nitriding to harden the material subsurface followed by application of a multilayered Cr-nitride coating, and (4) application of nitriding alone. The processing, characterization, and adhesion of these coating systems are discussed. The wear resistance and performance has been evaluated using laboratory pin-on-disc, 4-ball, and high stress rolling contact tests. Based on the results of these tests, the best coating candidate from the high-stress rolling contact wear test was the thin duplex coating, which consists of ion nitriding followed deposition of a thin Cr-nitride coating, while the thin Cr-nitride coating exhibited the best results in the 4-ball wear test.

  19. MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microsphere composite-coated titanium surfaces promote increased adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts

    Infection and epithelial downgrowth are two major problems with maxillofacial transcutaneous implants, and both are mainly due to lack of stable closure of soft tissues at transcutaneous sites. Fibroblasts have been shown to play a key role in the formation of biological seals. In this work, titanium (Ti) model surfaces were coated with mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) utilizing its unique adhesion ability on diverse inorganic and organic surfaces in wet environments. Prepared basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres can be easily synthesized and combined onto MAPs-coated Ti surfaces, due to the negative surface charges of microspheres in aqueous solution, which is in contrast to the positive charges of MAPs. Titanium model surfaces were divided into three groups. Group A: MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microspheres composite-coated Ti surfaces. Group B: MAPs-coated Ti surfaces. Group C: uncoated Ti surfaces. The effects of coated Ti surfaces on adhesion of fibroblasts, cytoskeletal organization, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expressions were examined. The results revealed increased adhesion (P < 0.05), enhanced actin cytoskeletal organization, and up-regulated ECM-related gene expressions in groups A and B compared with group C. Increased proliferation of fibroblasts during five days of incubation was observed in group A compared with groups B and C (P < 0.05). Collectively, the results from this in vitro study demonstrated that MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microspheres composite-coated Ti surfaces had the ability to increase fibroblast functionality. In addition, MAPs/bFGF-PLGA microsphere composite-coated Ti surfaces should be studied further as a method of promoting formation of stable biological seals around transcutaneous sites. (paper)

  20. Adhesive strength of hydroxyl apatite(HA coating and biomechanics behavior of HA-coated prosthesis:an experimental study

    Tian-yang ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the influence of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite(HA coating on the post-implantation stability of HA-coated prosthesis.Methods The adhesive strength and biomechanics behavior of HA coating were studied by histopathological observation,material parameters and biomechanical testing,the titanium(Ti-coated prosthesis was employed as control.Results Scratch test showed that the adhesive strength of HA coating was significantly lower than that of Ti coating(P < 0.01.Histopathological examination and bone morphometry showed that,at the early stage of prosthesis implantation,the bony growth around HA-coated prosthesis was significantly higher than that around Ti-coated prosthesis(P < 0.01,but the ultimate shear strength of HA-coated prosthesis was much lower than that of Ti-coated prosthesis(P < 0.01.After the push-out test with prosthesis,histopathological observation showed that there were accumulations of clump-and strip-like granular residues on the surface of bones that newly grew around the HA-coated prosthesis,and surface energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX analysis also confirmed that the shear stress induced HA decohesion from the substrate of prosthesis.Conclusions Although HA coating showed a satisfactory effect on early bone formation and prosthetic stability,due to the deficiencies of adhesive strength,the early stability of prosthesis may be gradually destroyed by the shear loads of human body and coating degradation.

  1. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms. (author)

  2. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms

  3. Adhesion enhancement of hard coatings deposited on flexible plastic substrates using an interfacial buffer layer

    Liu, Day-Shan; Wu, Cheng-Yang, E-mail: dsliu@sunws.nfu.edu.t [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Taiwan 63201 (China)

    2010-05-05

    An interfacial buffer layer has been developed to improve the silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) hard coating adhered to a flexible plastic substrate through a consecutive plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition process, using the same organosilicon precursor. The adhesion of the hard coating structure, correlated with the buffer layer thickness, was rated by the standard tape-peeling test. An excellent adhesion (rank 5B) was available for the hard coating structure with an interfacial buffer layer deposited on polycarbonate and polymethylmethacrylate substrates. The degree of adhesion strength for the hard coating structures was measured by the standard scratch test. The increase in the critical loads determined from the scratch test was well correlated with the tape-peeling test results. The hard coating structure showed excellent adhesion and also corresponded to a minimum residual stress. The mechanisms responsible for the adhesion enhancement were linked to the specific chemical bonds of the hydrocarbon C-H bond, and cross-linking Si-C bond appeared in the interfacial buffer layer. The C-H bond was recognized as a hydrophobic group that was favourable for minimizing the adsorption of ambient contaminants potentially arising during deposition, while the cross-linking Si-C bond functioned to compensate the large tensile stress residing in the SiO{sub x} hard coating. As a consequence, a close contact and progressive morphology resulting in excellent adhesion were observed at the interface of the hard coating structure with an interfacial buffer layer.

  4. Soy protein isolate molecular level contributions to bulk adhesive properties

    Shera, Jeanne Norton

    Increasing environmental awareness and the recognized health hazards of formaldehyde-based resins has prompted a strong demand for environmentally-responsible adhesives for wood composites. Soy protein-based adhesives have been shown to be commercially viable with 90-day shelf stability and composite physical properties comparable to those of commercial formaldehyde-based particleboards. The main research focus is to isolate and characterize the molecular level features in soy protein isolate responsible for providing mechanical properties, storage stability, and water resistance during adhesive formulation, processing, and wood composite fabrication. Commercial composite board will be reviewed to enhance our understanding of the individual components and processes required for particleboard production. The levels of protein structure will be defined and an overview of current bio-based technology will be presented. In the process, the logic for utilizing soy protein as a sole binder in the adhesive will be reinforced. Variables such as adhesive components, pH, divalent ions, blend aging, protein molecular weight, formulation solids content, and soy protein functionalization will relate the bulk properties of soy protein adhesives to the molecular configuration of the soybean protein. This work has demonstrated that when intermolecular beta-sheet interactions and protein long-range order is disrupted, viscosity and mechanical properties decrease. Storage stability can be maintained through the stabilization of intermolecular beta-sheet interactions. When molecular weight is reduced through enzymatic digestion, long-range order is disrupted and viscosity and mechanical properties decrease accordingly. Processibility and physical properties must be balanced to increase solids while maintaining low viscosity, desirable mechanical properties, and adequate storage stability. The structure of the soybean protein must be related to the particleboard bulk mechanical

  5. Optimized Baxter model of protein solutions: electrostatics versus adhesion

    Prinsen, P.; Odijk, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theory is set up of spherical proteins interacting by screened electrostatics and constant adhesion, in which the effective adhesion parameter is optimized by a variational principle for the free energy. An analytical approach to the second virial coefficient is first outlined by balancing the rep

  6. Adhesion enhancement of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated quartz optical fibers

    Wang, Yihua; Liu, Jing; Wu, Xu; Yang, Bin, E-mail: yangbin665959@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) film was prepared on optical fiber through a multi-step sol–gel process. The influence of annealing temperature on the adhesion of ITO coated optical fibers was studied. Different surface treatments were applied to improve the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and Avometer were used to characterize the morphology, crystal structure and photo-electric properties. A thermal shock test was used to evaluate the adhesion. The result shows that the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber can be strongly influenced by the annealing process, and optimal adhesion can be acquired when annealing temperature is 500 °C. Surface treatments of ultrasonic cleaning and the application of surface-active agent have effectively enhanced the adhesion and photo-electric properties of indium tin oxide film coated quartz optical fiber.

  7. Non-destructive method of determination of elastic properties and adhesion coefficient of different coating materials

    M. Kubisztal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents a non-destructive method of determination of Young’s modulus and adhesion coefficient of different coating materials (metallic coatings, polymer, composite etc.. Some of the results obtained by applying this method are discussed in detail.Design/methodology/approach: The presented method consists in measuring the dynamic response of the examined material in the form of a flat rectangular bar subjected to external periodic mechanical stress i.e. the so called vibrating reed technique. General equations describing elastic properties of the sample consisting of a substrate and a deposited coating are derived and discussed in detail.Findings: It was shown that the application of the proposed approach to the metallic, polymeric and composite coatings allowed to obtain a quantitative data concerning the change of both the elastic properties and the adhesion coefficient with a change of: coating thickness, measurement temperature, chemical composition of coating, surface preparation or in the case of epoxy resin coatings with a change of curing time or curing temperature.Research limitations/implications: The proposed method can be applied in many scientific problems in the field of coating materials (e.g. elastic properties of porous coating, crystallization of amorphous coating, adhesion of different polymeric coatings.Practical implications: It was shown that the described method can be successfully used in optimisation of some technological processes of deposition of different coatings on metallic substrate.Originality/value: The paper presents methodology of a non-destructive approach to determination of elastic properties and adhesion coefficient of coating materials with an overview of some applications already publish and also the new ones. Especially interesting are the results concerning the influence of surface preparation on adhesion coefficient which are published for the first time.

  8. A study on the adhesion characteristics of the protective coatings by immersion for nuclear power plants

    The surface of the liner plate in containment is applied with the protective coatings to control corrosion and radioactive contamination levels, and to protect surfaces from wear. So, the protective coatings should be capable of withstanding the high temperature, humidity, pressure, and radioactivity caused at the simulated design basis accident and operating conditions. For this reason, they are classified into the safety related items and produced under the strict quality control. When Reg-Guide 1.54(Rev.0) was issued in 1973, it was expected that the protective coatings that met this guide would keep the function for the designed durability period. But, examining the operation history of N.P.P.s, we can find many kinds of deteriorations like unexpected cracks and delamination from substrata in the qualified protective coatings. Therefore, it is very important to understand the adhesion characteristics of the coatings. Adhesive performance of film to a substrate is a very important property, and even the best coating material has no value as coating materials if the adhesion is not good. Especially, in the protective coatings of containment, the most important performance is adhesive strength. However, adhesive mechanism of the coating materials has not become clear and there might be an error since it has been explained on the basis of construction experience. In this work, we conducted the accelerated deterioration experiment by immersion. The three types of test specimens were manufactured according to the ASTM D5139 standard. They were made in the construction site with a poor working condition in humid rainy season and cured in normal temperature for about 3 years. They were immersed into the distilled water at 25±1 degree C, 50±1 degree C and 75±1 degree C and investigated for 180 days. Adhesion test was performed according to ASTM D4541 with Elcometer Adhesion Tester. Epoxy Adhesive was used as a bonding agent of Dolly and we measured the adhesive

  9. Role of Powder Granulometry and Substrate Topography in Adhesion Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Kromer, R.; Cormier, J.; Costil, S.

    2016-06-01

    APS coating is deposited with different treated surfaces to understand the effects of surface topography and particle sizes on adhesion bond strength. Grit blasting and laser surface texturing have been used to create a controlled roughness and controlled surface topography, respectively. Coating adhesion is mainly controlled by a mechanical interlocking mechanism. Fully melted Ni-Al powder fills the respected target surface with high-speed radial flow. Pores around central flattening splat are usually seen due to splash effects. Laser surface texturing has been used to study near interface coating depending on the target shape and in-contact area. Pull-off test results have revealed predominant correlation with powder, surface topography, and adhesion bond strength. Adhesion bond strength is linked to the in-contact area. So, coating adhesion might be optimized with powder granulometry. Pores near the interface would be localized zones for crack initiations and propagations. A mixed-mode failure has been reported for sharp interface (interface and inter-splats cracks) due to crack kicking out phenomena. Coating toughness near the interface is a key issue to maximize adhesion bond strength. Volume particles and topography parameters have been proposed to enhance adhesion bond strength for thermal spray process for small and large in-contact area.

  10. Role of Powder Granulometry and Substrate Topography in Adhesion Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Kromer, R.; Cormier, J.; Costil, S.

    2016-05-01

    APS coating is deposited with different treated surfaces to understand the effects of surface topography and particle sizes on adhesion bond strength. Grit blasting and laser surface texturing have been used to create a controlled roughness and controlled surface topography, respectively. Coating adhesion is mainly controlled by a mechanical interlocking mechanism. Fully melted Ni-Al powder fills the respected target surface with high-speed radial flow. Pores around central flattening splat are usually seen due to splash effects. Laser surface texturing has been used to study near interface coating depending on the target shape and in-contact area. Pull-off test results have revealed predominant correlation with powder, surface topography, and adhesion bond strength. Adhesion bond strength is linked to the in-contact area. So, coating adhesion might be optimized with powder granulometry. Pores near the interface would be localized zones for crack initiations and propagations. A mixed-mode failure has been reported for sharp interface (interface and inter-splats cracks) due to crack kicking out phenomena. Coating toughness near the interface is a key issue to maximize adhesion bond strength. Volume particles and topography parameters have been proposed to enhance adhesion bond strength for thermal spray process for small and large in-contact area.

  11. A method for predicting critical load evaluating adhesion of coatings in scratch testing

    CHEN Xi-fang(陈溪芳); YAN Mi(严密); YANG De-ren(杨德人); HIROSE Yukio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper based on the experiment principle of evaluating adhesion property by scratch testing, the peeling mechanism of thin films is discussed by applying contact theory and surface physics theory. A mathematical model predicting the critical load is proposed for calculating critical load as determined by scratch testing. The factors for correctly evaluating adhesion of coatings according to the experimental data are discussed.

  12. A method for predicting critical load evaluating adhesion of coatings in scratch testing

    陈溪芳; 严密; 杨德人; HIROSEYukio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper based on the experiment principle of evaluating adhesion property by scratch testing, the peeling mechanism of thin films is discussed by applying contact theory and surface physics theory. A mathematical model predicting the critical load is proposed for calculating critical load as determined byscratch testing. The factors for correctly evaluating adhesion of coatings according to the experimental data arediscussed.

  13. A Cold Adhesion for Self-fused Alloy Coat by High Frequency Induction

    ZHANGZeng-zhi; AIBo

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a method to prepare self-fused alloy coat, which started with a cold adhesion precoating and then induction fusing plus, is presented. It also intended to analyze the mechanism, microstnlcture and anitwear ability of the coat. The workpiece was precoated with Ni60 powder through an adhesion agent. The oven-dried precoat was then heated by a high frequency induction generated by 100kw power with a frequency of 250kHz. The technological parameters of the method were determined through analysis of tbe thermal magnetism, thermal resislivity, and anti-induction mechanism. By comparing the microsLrUclures and properties of the coat produced by cold adhesion, thermal spraying and laser refusing, it is concluded that: (1) One side of the workpiece should be preheated to 200℃ before induction fusion, and the range of induction frequency should be 200-250kHz. (2) The microstructure of the coat by cold adhesion is superior to that by themal spraying, but the particle size range should be 0.047-0.044mm (200-320 meshes) (3) The corrosion resistance of Ni60 coat by cold adhesion is better than that by thermal spraying, and the cold adhesion is the best method to prepare the antiwear coat.

  14. A Cold Adhesion for Self-fused Alloy Coat by High Frequency Induction

    ZHANG Zeng-zhi; AI Bo

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a method to prepare self-fused alloy coat, which started with a cold adhesion precoating and then induction fusing plus, is presented. It also intended to analyze the mechanism, microstructure and anitwear ability of the coat. The workpiece was precoated with Ni60 powder through an adhesion agent. The oven-dried precoat was then heated by a high frequency induction generated by 100kw power with a frequency of 250kHz. The technological parameters of the method were determined through analysis of the thermal magnetism, thermal resistivity and anti-induction mechanism. By comparing the microstrucrures and properties of the coat produced by cold adhesion, thermal spraying and laser refusing, it is concluded that: (1) One side of the workpiece should be preheated to 200℃ before induction fusion, and the range of induction frequency should be 200~250kHz. (2) The microstrucrure of the coat by cold adhesion is superior to that by thermal spraying, but the particle size range should be 0.047~0.044mm (200~320 meshes) (3) The corrosion resistance of Ni60 coat by cold adhesion is better than that by thermal spraying, and the cold adhesion is the best method to prepare the antiwear coat.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion to nanohydroxyapatite in the presence of model proteins

    Bacterial infections can have adverse effects on the efficacy, lifetime, and safety of an implanted device. The aim of this study was to investigate the initial adhesion of several strains, namely S. aureus and S. epidermidis, on two distinct types of nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA), sintered at 725 °C and 1000 °C. A comparison was also made with nanohydroxyapatite having adsorbed fetal bovine serum (FBS), human fibronectin (FN) and human serum albumin (HSA). Adhered bacterial cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy and quantified as colony forming units after being released by sonication. The wettability of the sample surface with and without adsorbed protein was assessed by contact-angle measurements. NanoHA sintered at 1000 °C showed lower bacterial adhesion than this heat-treated at 725 °C. Adsorption of FBS onto the nanoHA surface caused a decrease in the adhesion of all strains on both materials. The bacterial adhesion patterns in the presence of FN were different for both nanoHA substrates; the adherence of the bacterial strains, except for the clinical strain of S. epidermidis, was significantly higher on nanoHA 1000 in comparison to nanoHA 1000 without protein and the bacterial adhesion on the FN-coated nanoHA 725 was lower in comparison to the bare nanoHA 725. The effect of HSA on bacterial adhesion was concentration and bacterial strain dependent. (paper)

  16. Mussel-mimetic protein-based adhesive hydrogel.

    Kim, Bum Jin; Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Han, Dong Keun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2014-05-12

    Hydrogel systems based on cross-linked polymeric materials which could provide both adhesion and cohesion in wet environment have been considered as a promising formulation of tissue adhesives. Inspired by marine mussel adhesion, many researchers have tried to exploit the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) molecule as a cross-linking mediator of synthetic polymer-based hydrogels which is known to be able to achieve cohesive hardening as well as adhesive bonding with diverse surfaces. Beside DOPA residue, composition of other amino acid residues and structure of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) have also been considered important elements for mussel adhesion. Herein, we represent a novel protein-based hydrogel system using DOPA-containing recombinant MAP. Gelation can be achieved using both oxdiation-induced DOPA quinone-mediated covalent and Fe(3+)-mediated coordinative noncovalent cross-linking. Fe(3+)-mediated hydrogels show deformable and self-healing viscoelastic behavior in rheological analysis, which is also well-reflected in bulk adhesion strength measurement. Quinone-mediated hydrogel has higher cohesive strength and can provide sufficient gelation time for easier handling. Collectively, our newly developed MAP hydrogel can potentially be used as tissue adhesive and sealant for future applications. PMID:24650082

  17. The inclined impact test, an efficient method to characterize coatings' cohesion and adhesion properties

    The impact test, supported by its finite elements method (FEM) simulation, has been successfully used to characterize the fatigue performance of coatings. In this test, the load is exercised perpendicularly to the coated surface by a cemented carbides ball. In the inclined impact test, the successive impacts are applied on an inclined surface. In this way, the coated surfaces are loaded vertically and tangentially simultaneously. The coating fatigue failure modes were classified by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalyses. The experimental method is supported by a developed FEM simulation, which considers the mechanical elastic-plastic properties of the coating and of the substrate, as well as of the ball indenter during the impact test, thus enabling the elucidation of the coating failure modes. In this way, critical equivalent stresses were determined and the coating cohesive and adhesive impact performance was systematically investigated. The inclined impact test implies a new reference to the prediction of the coatings' cohesive and adhesive failure, managing to approach loading directions for a variety of coated surfaces in different applications. Examples for an efficient use of this test are presented and a characteristic magnitude, the coating impact adhesion (CIA), is introduced

  18. Enhanced protein adsorption and patterning on nanostructured latex-coated paper.

    Juvonen, Helka; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Viitala, Tapani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Peltonen, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    Specific interactions of extracellular matrix proteins with cells and their adhesion to the substrate are important for cell growth. A nanopatterned latex-coated paper substrate previously shown to be an excellent substrate for cell adhesion and 2D growth was studied for directed immobilization of proteins. The nanostructured latex surface was formed by short-wavelength IR irradiation of a two-component latex coating consisting of a hydrophilic film-forming styrene butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer and hydrophobic polystyrene particles. The hydrophobic regions of the IR-treated latex coating showed strong adhesion of bovine serum albumin (cell repelling protein), fibronectin (cell adhesive protein) and streptavidin. Opposite to the IR-treated surface, fibronectin and streptavidin had a poor affinity toward the untreated pristine latex coating. Detailed characterization of the physicochemical surface properties of the latex-coated substrates revealed that the observed differences in protein affinity were mainly due to the presence or absence of the protein repelling polar and charged surface groups. The protein adsorption was assisted by hydrophobic (dehydration) interactions. PMID:24802964

  19. Possibilities of Increase of Adhesion of the Cubic Boron Nitride Coatings by Applying an Interfacial Layers

    Maciej Kupczyk

    2004-01-01

    In the work the chosen investigations of the adhesion force of thin, superhard coatings to the cutting edges made of cemented carbides are presented. For identification of the adhesion force of coatings to substrate an automatic scratch tester constructed at Poznan University of Technology was applied. The estimation of the adhesion force (value of critical load measured during scratch test) was carried out on the base of the vibration signal. Results of investigations are pointed at the influence of a surface preparation (degreasing, etching, low and high-temperature sputtering) on a critical load values.It was found that the most effective method for surface preparation is low temperature sputtering. The influence of the TiC+Al2O3+TiN interfacial layer on increase of the adhesion force of BN coating to cemented carbides substrate was observed.

  20. Possibilities of Increase of Adhesion of the Cubic Boron Nitride Coatings by Applying an Interfacial Layers

    MaciejKupczyk

    2004-01-01

    In the work the chosen investigations of the adhesion force of thin, superhard coatings to the cutting edges made of cemented carbides are presented. For identification of the adhesion force of coatings to substrate an automatic scratch tester constructed at Poznan University of Technology was applied. The estimation of the adhesion force (value of critical load measured during scratch test) was carried out on the base of the vibration signal. Results of investigations are pointed at the influence of a surface preparation (degreasing, etching, low and high-temperature sputtering) on a critical load values. It was round that the most effective method for surface preparation is low temperature sputtering. The influence of the TiC+Al2O3+TiN interracial layer on increase of the adhesion force of BN coating to cemented carbides substrate was observed.

  1. Enhanced reversible adhesion of dopamine methacrylamide-coated elastomer microfibrillar structures under wet conditions.

    Glass, Paul; Chung, Hoyong; Washburn, Newell R; Sitti, Metin

    2009-06-16

    In this work, we take previously developed gecko-foot-hair-inspired elastomer microfiber arrays with film-terminated and mushroom-shaped tips that have demonstrated enhanced adhesion with respect to unpatterned materials under dry conditions and coat them with synthetic DOPA-containing mussel-inspired polymers to enhance adhesion repeatedly in fully submerged wet environments. A new protocol for the development of this hybrid patterned, coated adhesive, which is suitable for use in contact with both wet and dry nonflat surfaces, is described. The experimental evaluation of repeatable adhesion under both wet and dry conditions for these materials is described and compared with unpatterned and/or uncoated materials. Macroscale reversible fibrillar adhesion enhancement on a nonflat, smooth glass surface when compared with unpatterned materials under fully submerged conditions is demonstrated with no suction effect. PMID:19456091

  2. Effect of corrosion rate and surface energy of silver coatings on bacterial adhesion.

    Shao, Wei; Zhao, Q

    2010-03-01

    Many studies suggest a strong antimicrobial activity of silver coatings. The biocidal activity of silver is related to the biologically active silver ion released from silver coatings. However, no studies have been reported on the effect of surface energy of silver coatings on antibacterial performance. In this paper, three silver coatings with various corrosion rates and surface energies were prepared on stainless steel plates using AgNO(3) based electroless plating solutions. The corrosion rate and surface energy of the silver coatings were characterized with CorrTest Electrochemistry Workstation and Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer, respectively. The antibacterial performance of the silver coatings was evaluated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, which frequently causes medical device-associated infections. The experimental results showed that surface energy had significant influence on initial bacterial adhesion at low corrosion rate. The extended DLVO theory was used to explain the bacterial adhesion behavior. PMID:19910169

  3. Evaluation of the Interfacial Adhesion between Brittle Coating and Ductile Substrate by Cross-Sectional Indention

    SUJian-yu; ZHANGKun; CHENGuang-nan

    2004-01-01

    The cross-sectional indentation method is extended to evaluate the interracial adhesion between brittle coating and ductile substrate. The experimental results on electroplated chromium coating/steel substrate show that the interracial separation occurs due to the edge chipping of brittle coating. The comesponding models are established to elucidate interracial separation processes. This work further highlights the advantages and potential of this novel indentation method.

  4. Evaluation of the Interfacial Adhesion between Brittle Coating and Ductile Substrate by Cross-Secitional Indention

    SU Jian-yu; ZHANG Kun; CHEN Guang-nan

    2004-01-01

    The cross-sectional indentation method is extended to evaluate the interfacial adhesion between brittle coating and ductile substrate. The experimental results on electroplated chromium coating/steel substrate show that the interfacial separation occurs due to the edge chipping of brittle coating. The corresponding models are established to elucidate interfacial separation processes. This work further highlights the advantages and potential of this novel indentation method.

  5. The adhesion of epoxy cataphoretic coating on phosphatized hot-dip galvanized steel

    Bajat Jelena B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hot-dip galvanized steel surface pretreatment on the adhesion of epoxy cataphoretic coating was investigated. Phosphate coatings were deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel and the influence of fluoride ions in the phosphating plating bath, as well as the deposition temperature of the plating bath, were investigated. The dry and wet adhesion of epoxy coating were measured by a standard pull-off method. The surface roughness of phosphatized galvanized steel was determined, as well as the wettability of the metal surface by emulsion of the epoxy resin in water. The adhesion of epoxy coatings on phosphatized hot-dip galvanized steel was investigated in 3wt.%NaCI.

  6. Inhibitory effect of coated mannan against the adhesion of Candida biofilms to denture base resin.

    Sato, Maki; Ohshima, Tomoko; Maeda, Nobuko; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    The adherence of Candida on dentures is related to diseases such as denture stomatitis and aspiration pneumonia. Mannan is a major component of the Candida cell surface, and contributes to the cell adherence. A previous report indicated that the adherence of C. albicans to culture dishes was inhibited by the coating them with mannan. The purpose of this study was to examine the adhesion inhibitory effect of mannan coating on acrylic denture surfaces against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The amount of Candida attached on the acrylic surfaces coated with mannan was calibrated by culture methods. Mannan showed significant inhibitory effects on Candida adhesion in both the yeast and hyphal form in a concentration-dependent manner, and the durability of the inhibitory effect continued for three days. These results suggest that mannan coating on the denture base acrylic can prevent Candida adhesion on the denture. PMID:23718993

  7. Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell variants defective in adhesion to fibronectin-coated collagen

    1980-01-01

    Variant clones of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were selected for reduced adhesion to serum-coated tissue culture plates. These clones also displayed reduced adhesion to substrata composed of collagen layers coated with bovine serum or with fibronectin (cold-insoluble globulin). Wild-type (WT) and adhesion variant (ADv) cells grew at comparable rates in suspension culture, but the adhesion variants could not be grown in monolayer culture because of their inability to attach to the substra...

  8. Deposition and adhesion of PECVD boron coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) has been used to produce elemental boron coatings on Ti-6Al-4V substrates. Deposition has been accomplished using a novel PECVD reactor in which a serpentine, rather than a helical, RF coil has been employed. Transmission electron microscopy has confirmed the amorphous nature of these boron coatings. Scratch adhesion properties of this coating/substrate system, including an investigation of the effects of nitrogen ion implantation energy and fluence prior to deposition, have been determined. Both acoustic emission and frictional force measurements have been recorded during scratch removal traverses to detect incipient coating and/or substrate failure. Differences in failure mechanism have been found to result as a consequence of the substrate surface pretreatment, with untreated substrates giving rise to adhesive failures and ion implanted substrates leading to cohesive coating failures. The acoustic emission technique has demonstrated great sensitivity in the detection of both adhesive and cohesive coating failures, and scanning electron microscopy has been effective in differentiating adhesive failures, such as spallation, from coating microcracking in a cohesive failure mode

  9. Adhesion Issues with Polymer/Oxide Barrier Coatings on Organic Displays

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hall, Michael G.; Mast, Eric S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Rutherford, Nicole M.; Moro, Lorenza; Rosenblum, Martin; Praino, Robert F.; Visser, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Multilayer polymer/oxide coatings are being developed to protect sensitive organic display devices, such as OLEDs, from oxygen and water vapor permeation. The coatings have permeation levels ~ 10-6 g/m2/d for water vapor and ~10-6 cc/m2/d for oxygen, and are deposited by vacuum polymer technology. The coatings consist of either a base Al2O3 or acrylate polymer adhesion layer followed by alternating Al2O3/polymer layers. The polymer is used to decouple the 30 nm-thick Al2O3 barrier layers. Adhesion of the barrier coating to the substrate and display device is critical for the operating lifetime of the device. The substrate material could be any transparent flexible plastic. The coating technology can also be used to encapsulate organic-based electronic devices to protect them from atmospheric degradation. Plasma pretreatment is also needed for good adhesion to the substrate, but if it is too aggressive, it will damage the organic display device. We report on the effects of plasma treatment on the adhesion of barrier coatings to plastic substrates and the performance of OLED devices after plasma treatment and barrier coating deposition. We find that initial OLED performance is not significantly affected by the deposition process and plasma treatment, as demonstrated by luminosity and I-V curves.

  10. Intrinsic Surface-Drying Properties of Bio-adhesive Proteins

    Akdogan, Yasar; Wei, Wei; Huang, Kuo-Ying; Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Danner, Eric W.; Miller, Dusty R.; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Herbert Waite, J.; Han, Songi

    2014-01-01

    Sessile marine mussels must “dry” underwater surfaces before adhering to them. Synthetic adhesives have yet to overcome this fundamental challenge. Previous studies of bio-inspired adhesion have largely been performed under applied compressive forces but these are poor predictors of an adhesive’s ability to spontaneously penetrate surface hydration layers. In a force-free approach to measuring molecular-level interaction via the surface water diffusivity, different mussel foot proteins were f...

  11. Use of Acoustic Emission During Scratch Testing for Understanding Adhesion Behavior of Aluminum Nitride Coatings

    Choudhary, R. K.; Mishra, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, acoustic emission during scratch testing of the aluminum nitride coatings formed on stainless steel substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering was analyzed to assess the coating failure. The AlN coatings were formed under the variation of substrate temperature, substrate bias potential, and discharge power. The coatings deposited in the temperature range of 100 to 400 °C showed peak acoustic emission less than 1.5%, indicating ductile nature of the coating. However, for coatings formed with substrate negative bias potential of 20 to 50 V, numerous sharp acoustic bursts with maximum emission approaching 80% were observed, indicating brittle nature of the coatings with large number of defects present. The shift in the intensity of the first major acoustic peak toward higher load, with the increasing bias potential, confirmed improved adhesion of the coating. Also, the higher discharge power resulted in increased acoustic emission.

  12. Use of Acoustic Emission During Scratch Testing for Understanding Adhesion Behavior of Aluminum Nitride Coatings

    Choudhary, R. K.; Mishra, P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, acoustic emission during scratch testing of the aluminum nitride coatings formed on stainless steel substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering was analyzed to assess the coating failure. The AlN coatings were formed under the variation of substrate temperature, substrate bias potential, and discharge power. The coatings deposited in the temperature range of 100 to 400 °C showed peak acoustic emission less than 1.5%, indicating ductile nature of the coating. However, for coatings formed with substrate negative bias potential of 20 to 50 V, numerous sharp acoustic bursts with maximum emission approaching 80% were observed, indicating brittle nature of the coatings with large number of defects present. The shift in the intensity of the first major acoustic peak toward higher load, with the increasing bias potential, confirmed improved adhesion of the coating. Also, the higher discharge power resulted in increased acoustic emission.

  13. Tamarindus indica pectin blend film composition for coating tablets with enhanced adhesive force strength.

    Khurana, Rajneet; Singh, Kuldeep; Sapra, Bharti; Tiwary, A K; Rana, Vikas

    2014-02-15

    Tablet coating is the most useful method to improve tablet texture, odour and mask taste. Thus, the present investigation was aimed at developing an industrially acceptable aqueous tablet coating material. The physico-chemical, electrical and SEM investigations ensures that blending of Tamarindus indica (Linn.) pectin (TP) with chitosan gives water resistant film texture. Therefore, CH-TP (60:40) spray coated tablets were prepared. The evaluation of CH-TP coated tablets showed enhanced adhesive force strength (between tablet surface to coat) and negligible cohesive force strength (between two tablets) both evaluated using texture analyzer. The comparison of CH-TP coated tablets with Eudragit coated tablets further supported superiority of the former material. Thus, the findings pointed towards the potential of CH-TP for use as a tablet coating material in food as well as pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24507255

  14. Electrochemical Characterization of Poly-L-Lysine Coating on Indium Tin Oxide Electrode for Enhancing Cell Adhesion.

    Choi, Yonghyun; Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Cho, Sungbo

    2015-10-01

    Nano or microelectrode-based cell chip for stimulating or recording neuronal signals requires better cell adhesion procedures in order to achieve efficient cell based assays for effective cellular diagnosis and for high throughput screening of drug candidates. The cells can be adhered on protein pre-coated sensing electrodes, but the electrochemical characteristics of cells are highly influenced by the electrical charge of the underlying protein interface. Thus, in this study, we report on experimental and theoretical aspects of poly-L-lysine (PLL) adsorption on transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes and the interaction between PLL and human embryonic kidney 293/GFP cells. PLL coated ITO electrodes showed a lower transfer resistance compared to bare or bovine serum albumin coated ITO electrodes. In addition, they exhibited more positive potential and higher magnitude of redox peak currents with increased immersion time of PLL solution. Finally, results of the impedance analysis showed that adhesion of cells was enhanced by PLL coating on ITO electrodes compared to bare ITO electrodes. PMID:26726433

  15. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  16. Effects of zincate treatment on adhesion of electroless Ni-P coating onto various aluminum alloys

    Makoto HINO; Koji MURAKAMI; Yutaka MITOOKA; Ken MURAOKA; Teruto KANADANI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of alloying elements on zincate treatment and adhesion of electroless Ni-P coating onto various aluminum alloy substrates were examined. Surface morphology of zinc deposits in the 1st zincate treatment and its adhesion were changed depending on the alloying element. The zinc deposits in the 2nd zincate treatment became thinly uniform, and the adhesion between aluminum alloy substrate and Ni-P coating was improved irrespective of the alloying element. XPS analysis revealed the existence of zinc on the surface of each aluminum alloy substrate after the pickling in 5% nitric acid. This zinc on the surface should be an important factor influencing the morphology of zinc deposit at the 2nd zincate treatment and its adhesion.

  17. Aging effects of plasma polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) thin films on cell-adhesive implant coatings

    Testrich, H., E-mail: holger.testrich@uni-greifswald.de [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Rebl, H. [University of Rostock, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Finke, B.; Hempel, F. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Nebe, B. [University of Rostock, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Meichsner, J. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Thin plasma polymer films from ethylenediamine were deposited on planar substrates placed on the powered electrode of a low pressure capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz discharge. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) as well as by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after derivatization of the primary amino groups. The PPEDA films undergo an alteration during the storage in ambient air, particularly, due to reactions with oxygen. The molecular changes in PPEDA films were studied over a long-time period of 360 days. Simultaneously, the adhesion of human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 (ATCC) was investigated on PPEDA coated corundum blasted titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), which is applied as implant material in orthopedic surgery. The cell adhesion was determined by flow cytometry and the cell shape was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Compared to uncoated reference samples a significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation were measured for PPEDA coated samples, which have been maintained after long-time storage in ambient air and additional sterilization by γ−irradiation. - Highlights: • Development of cell-adhesive nitrogen-rich coatings for biomedical applications. • Plasma polymer films from low pressure 13.56 MHz discharge in argon-ethylenediamine. • Enhanced osteoblast adhesion/proliferation on coated implant material (Ti-6Al-4V). • Despite film aging over 360 days the enhanced cell adhesion of the coating remains. • No influence of additional y-sterilization on the enhanced cell adhesion.

  18. On the effect of roughness and degree of cold working on adhesion strength of plasma coatings

    The effect of surface roughness and coldhardening on the adhesion properties of the chromium-nickel spinel thermal control plasma spray-coating on the base D16AT alloy and steel Kh18N10T substrates is considered. The formula which shows the relationship between the height of the substrate surface miero irregularities, parameters of shot blasting, and hardness of the material. The optimum parameters which insure maximum adhesion between the plating and the substrate are determined

  19. Adhesion of Actinomyces viscosus to Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis-coated hexadecane droplets.

    Rosenberg, M; Buivids, I A; Ellen, R P

    1991-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion (coadhesion) is considered a major determinant of dental plaque ecology. In this report, we studied several aspects of the adhesion of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis to hexadecane in order to use the liquid hydrocarbon as a convenient substratum for coadhesion assays. Washed suspensions of hydrophobic P. gingivalis 2561 cells were vortexed with hexadecane to yield highly stable cell-coated droplets. Kinetics of coadhesion between Actinomyces viscosus cells and ...

  20. Friction, adhesion and corrosion performance of metallurgical coatings in HTGR-helium

    The friction-, adhesion-, thermal cycling- and corrosion performance of several metallurgical coating systems have been tested in a simulated HTGR-test atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The coatings were applied to a solid solution strengthened Ni-based superalloy. Component design requires coatings for the protection of mating surfaces, since under reactor operating conditions, contacting surfaces of metallic components under high pressures are prone to friction and wear damage. The coatings will have to protect the metal surface for 30 years up to 9500C in HTGR-helium. The materials tested were various refractory carbides with or without metallic binders and intermetallic compounds. The coatings evaluated were applied by plasma spraying-, detonation gun- and chemical vapor deposition techniques. These yielded two types of coatings which employ different mechanisms to improve the tribiological properties and maintain coating integrity. (Auth.)

  1. Halofuginone- and Chitosan-Coated Amnion Membranes Demonstrate Improved Abdominal Adhesion Prevention

    Scott Washburn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether coating the amniotic membrane with halofuginone, a type 1 collagen synthase inhibitor, with or without the hemostasis-inducing substance chitosan, reduced the number and severity of adhesions in the rat uterine horn injury model. Sixty retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats underwent midline laparotomy and a zone of ischemia was created in the left uterine horn of each animal. Rats were randomized to one of six treatment groups: (1 untreated control, (2 oxidized regenerated cellulose (Interceed® (ORC, (3 plain amnion, (4 amnion coated on both sides with 0.5% solution of halofuginone (HAH, (5 amnion coated on one side with 0.5% halofuginone and on the other side with chitosan (CAH, or (6 amnion coated on both sides with chitosan (CAC. The zone of ischemia in each left uterine horn was wrapped in each treatment. Rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after laparotomy, and adhesions were counted and scored for severity. Data were analyzed using Chi square and a p <0.05 was considered significant. Our results showed that there were no differences in the percentage of animals with adhesions in the untreated, ORC, plain amnion, or CAC groups. No adhesions formed in any animal in the HAH group and only 14% of the animals developed adhesions to the uterine horn in the CAH group (p < 0.05. The percentage of animals with moderate and severe adhesions did not differ between untreated controls and the ORC groups, but were significantly reduced in all four of the amnion groups: plain amnion, HAH, CAH, and CAC (p < 0.05. Amnion coated with halofuginone alone or in combination with chitosan reduced the percentage of animals with adhesions, as well as the percentage of animals with moderate and severe adhesions compared to untreated controls and the ORC group in the rat uterine horn injury model. Amnion alone or coated with chitosan reduced the percentage of rats with moderate and severe adhesions, but not the percentage of rats with

  2. In situ forming, metal-adhesive heparin hydrogel surfaces for blood-compatible coating.

    Joung, Yoon Ki; You, Seung Soo; Park, Kyung Min; Go, Dong Hyun; Park, Ki Dong

    2012-11-01

    Durable and blood-compatible coating of metallic biomaterials remains a major issue in biomedical fields despite its long history of development. In this study, in situ forming, metal-adhesive heparin hydrogels were developed to coat metallic substrates to enhance blood compatibility. The hydrogels are composed of metal-adhesive and enzyme-reactive amphiphilic block copolymer (Tetronic-tyramine/dopamine; TTD) and enzyme-reactive heparin derivatives (heparin-tyramine or heparin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine), which are cross-linkable in situ via an enzyme reaction. The combinations of heparin and Tetronic formed hydrogels with relatively high mechanical strengths of 300-5000 Pa within several tens of seconds; this was also confirmed by observing a dried porous structure as coated on a metal surface. The introduction of dopamine to the hydrogel network enhanced the durability of the hydrogel layers coated on metal, such that more than 60% heparin remained for 7 days. Compared to bare metal surfaces, hydrogel-coated metal surfaces exhibited significantly enhanced blood compatibility. Reduced fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion showed that blood compatibility was 3-5-fold-enhanced on coated hydrogel layers than on the bare metal surface. In conclusion, hydrogels containing heparin and dopamine prepared by enzyme reaction have the potential to be an alternative coating method for enhancing blood compatibility of metallic biomaterials. PMID:22100384

  3. Titanium Surface Coating with a Laminin-Derived Functional Peptide Promotes Bone Cell Adhesion

    Seung-Ki Min

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminin-derived peptide coatings can enhance epithelial cell adhesion to implants, and the positive effect of these peptides on bone cell adhesion has been anticipated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement in bone cell attachment to and activity on titanium (Ti scaffolds coated with a laminin-derived functional peptide, Ln2-P3 (the DLTIDDSYWYRI motif. Four Ti disc surfaces were prepared, and a human osteosarcoma (HOS cell attachment test was performed to select two candidate surfaces for peptide coating. These two candidates were then coated with Ln2-P3 peptide, a scrambled peptide, or left uncoated to measure cell attachment to each surface, following which one surface was chosen to assess alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteogenic marker gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR. On the commercially pure Ti surface, the Ln2-P3 coating significantly increased cellular ALP activity and the expression levels of ALP and bone sialoprotein mRNA as compared with the scrambled peptide-coated and uncoated surfaces. In conclusion, although further in vivo studies are needed, the findings of this in vitro study indicate that the Ln2-P3-coated implant surface promotes bone cell adhesion, which has clinical implications for reducing the overall treatment time of dental implant therapy.

  4. The significant adhesion enhancement of Ag–polytetrafluoroethylene antibacterial coatings by using of molecular bridge

    Highlights: • The more effective coupling agent is employed to modify surface. • S–Ag displays more intensive bond strength than that of N–Ag. • The coatings possess the highest level of adhesion. - Abstract: Weak adhesion between the metal-based antibacterial coatings and polymer substrates limits their clinical applications; surface modification is an effective way to solve this intrinsic problem. In this study, UV irradiation was employed to activate the inert silicon rubber substrates, and the grafting of coupling agent (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into the UV-irradiated substrates generated reactive surface containing −SH groups. During electroless plating S which has lone pair electrons anchored Ag+ and produced antibacterial coatings with improved adhesion. The grafting of (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into silicon rubber was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion was tested by American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM D 3359-02). Surface elements content and distribution were observed and analyzed by X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The antibacterial performance was characterized by inhibition halo test and shake flash method. The results showed that the as-prepared composite Ag–polytetrafluoroethylene coatings possessed remarkably enhanced adhesion and superior antibacterial activity

  5. The significant adhesion enhancement of Ag–polytetrafluoroethylene antibacterial coatings by using of molecular bridge

    Guo, Ruijie, E-mail: guoruijie@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030024 (China); Yin, Guangda; Sha, Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030024 (China); Zhao, Qi [Division of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wei, Liqiao; Wang, Huifang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030024 (China)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The more effective coupling agent is employed to modify surface. • S–Ag displays more intensive bond strength than that of N–Ag. • The coatings possess the highest level of adhesion. - Abstract: Weak adhesion between the metal-based antibacterial coatings and polymer substrates limits their clinical applications; surface modification is an effective way to solve this intrinsic problem. In this study, UV irradiation was employed to activate the inert silicon rubber substrates, and the grafting of coupling agent (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into the UV-irradiated substrates generated reactive surface containing −SH groups. During electroless plating S which has lone pair electrons anchored Ag{sup +} and produced antibacterial coatings with improved adhesion. The grafting of (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into silicon rubber was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion was tested by American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM D 3359-02). Surface elements content and distribution were observed and analyzed by X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The antibacterial performance was characterized by inhibition halo test and shake flash method. The results showed that the as-prepared composite Ag–polytetrafluoroethylene coatings possessed remarkably enhanced adhesion and superior antibacterial activity.

  6. Influence of heat treatment on the Al-Si coating adhesion to steel strips

    K. Żaba

    2010-01-01

    A division of methods of coatings adhesion investigations, with special emphasis on qualitative methods is presented in the paper. Theobtained results the Al-Si coating adhesion to a steel strips of DX52D grade are given. This strip was examined before and after the heattreatment in temperatures 250-700oC during 30-1440 minutes. Methods of thermal shock, bending, filing, network of cuts and tensile wereapplied in examinations. The assessment of the method adequacy was performed. Structure cha...

  7. Interface adhesion properties of functional coatings on titanium alloy formed by microarc oxidation method

    Three functional coatings (namely Al-C, Si-P-Al and P-F-Al coating) were fabricated by microarc oxidation method on Ti6Al4V alloy in different aqueous solutions. The microstructure, phase and chemical composition of coatings were investigated using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interface adhesion failure mode of the coating is revealed by shear, tensile and thermal shock methods. The coatings exhibit high adhesion strength by the quantitative shearing test, registering as 110, 70, and 40 MPa for Al-C, Si-P-Al and P-F-Al coating, respectively. The tensile test of the coated samples shows that microarc oxidation treatment does not significantly deteriorate mechanical properties of substrate titanium alloy. The observations of the coating failure after subjected to the identical tensile elongation of 3.0% are well in agreement with those results of the shear test. The thermal cycle test indicates that all the coatings have good anti-thermal shocking properties.

  8. Protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide

    Caccavo, F. Jr.

    1999-11-01

    The rate and extent of bacterial Fe(III) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. These interactions are poorly understood. This study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of Shewanella alga BrY to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to HFO. The proteolytic enzymes Streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited the adhesion of S. alga BrY cells to HFO through catalytic degradation of surface proteins. Trypsin inhibited S. alga BrY adhesion solely through surface-coating effects. Protease and chymotrypsin also mediated desorption of adhered S. alga BrY cells from HFO while trypsin did not mediate cell desorption. Protease removed a single peptide band that represented a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Chymotrypsin removed two peptide bands that represented proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 31 kDa. These proteins represent putative HGO adhesion molecules. A. alga BrY adhesion was inhibited by up to 46% when cells were cultured at sub-MICs of chloramphenicol, suggesting that protein synthesis is necessary for adhesion. Proteins extracted from the surface of S. alga BrY cells inhibited adhesion to HFO by up to 41%. A number of these proteins bound specifically to HFO, suggesting that a complex system of surface proteins mediates S. alga BrY adhesion to HFO.

  9. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form...... then treated with kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 for 2h, IRM indicated a reduction in focal adhesion formation at concentrations where protein kinase C (PKC) should be inhibited. In contrast, focal adhesions formed normally at concentrations of these inhibitors where cyclic AMP- or cyclic GMP......-dependent kinases should be inactivated. Inhibition of PKC, but not that of cyclic AMP- or cyclic GMP-dependent kinases, also prevented the formation of stress fibers and induced a dispersal of talin and vinculin, but not integrin beta 1 subunits, from small condensations present at 1h. Consistent with the...

  10. Nanoparticulate sol-gel pretreatments as barrier coatings and adhesion promoters for metallic corrosion protection

    Jiménez Morales, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The Spanish University Carlos III de Madrid has developed sol-gel coatings for the corrosion protection of alloys. Sol-gel coatings represent a physical barrier between the metallic substrate and the aggressive environment of exposition and act as adhesion promoters through interfacial bonding. Optimization of the coating’s properties may be easily achivied by changing the processing parameters and formulation of the layer. Interest in licensing the applied patent or technical cooperation wit...

  11. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic coating with high adhesive effect to substrates and tunable wettability

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Zhu, Xiaotao; Men, Xuehu; Ge, Bo; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a new superhydrophobic coating was successfully prefabricated by a facile sol-gel process which was made up of first the surface chemical reaction of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (A-187) and SiO2 particles and subsequent spray-coating onto the substrate. Further hardening treatment and surface fluorination allowed the SiO2 coating with the optimum mass ratio of 2.0:1 to exhibit nice superhydrophobic property and high adhesive effect to substrates. Our researches indicated that the mass ratio of A-187 and SiO2 particles could significantly control the surface morphology (or the wettability) and affect adhesion force of the superhydrophobic coating to substrates. In the process, hardening temperature was quite important for rapid evaporation of the solvent and then fast hardening of the coating despite the absence of the similar effect to the mass ratio of A-187 and SiO2 particles on the superhydrophobic coating, and moreover, a higher hardening temperature could also highly improve transparency of the superhydrophobic coating. These findings suggest that the superhydrophobic coating should have promising commercial applications as a self-cleaning product.

  12. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  13. Thermal Processing Effects on the Adhesive Strength of PS304 High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coatings

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Edmonds, Brian J.; Benoy, Patricia A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the effects of post deposition heat treatments on the cohesive and adhesive strength properties of PS304, a plasma sprayed nickel-chrome based, high temperature solid lubricant coating deposited on stainless steel, are studied. Plasma spray deposited coating samples were exposed in air at temperatures from 432 to 650 C for up to 500 hr to promote residual stress relief, enhance particle to particle bonding and increase coating to substrate bond strength. Coating pull-off strength was measured using a commercial adhesion tester that utilizes 13 mm diameter aluminum pull studs attached to the coating surface with epoxy. Pull off force was automatically recorded and converted to coating pull off strength. As deposited coating samples were also tested as a baseline. The as-deposited (untreated) samples either delaminated at the coating-substrate interface or failed internally (cohesive failure) at about 17 MPa. Samples heat treated at temperatures above 540 C for 100 hr or at 600 C or above for more than 24 hr exhibited strengths above 31 MPa, nearly a two fold increase. Coating failure occurred inside the body of the coating (cohesive failure) for nearly all of the heat-treated samples and only occasionally at the coating substrate interface (adhesive failure). Metallographic analyses of heat-treated coatings indicate that the Nickel-Chromium binder in the PS304 appears to have segregated into two phases, a high nickel matrix phase and a high chromium precipitated phase. Analysis of the precipitates indicates the presence of silicon, a constituent of a flow enhancing additive in the commercial NiCr powder. The exact nature and structure of the precipitate phase is not known. This microstructural change is believed to be partially responsible for the coating strength increase. Diffusion bonding between particles may also be playing a role. Increasing the heat treatment temperature, exposure time or both accelerate the heat treatment process. Preliminary

  14. 78 FR 52429 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 175 Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings CFR Correction In Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 170 to...

  15. Adhesive plasters. [Patent application; coatings for crucibles, control rods, etc

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Swain, R.L.; Banker, J.G.; Edwards, C.C.

    1975-09-26

    Adhesive plaster compositions are provided by treating particles of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Eu/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/, or Nd/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with dilute acid solutions. The resulting compositions were found to harden spontaneously into rigid reticulated masses resembling plaster of Paris. Upon heating, the hardened material is decomposed into the oxide, yet retains the reticulated rigid structure. 1 table.

  16. Effect of tetraethoxysilane coating on the improvement of plasma treated polypropylene adhesion

    Polypropylene is one of the most used polymers due to its lightweight and recyclability properties, among others. However, its poor characteristics regarding surface energy and lack of polar functional groups have to be overcome to perform adhesion processes. The main objective of this work is to improve the adhesion behavior of polypropylene by combining atmospheric pressure plasma surface activation and silane adhesion promoter. Tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis and condensation are followed through infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflectance in order to set the coating conditions. Contact angle measurements and surface energy calculations as well as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to evaluate polymer chemical modifications. Morphological changes are studied through scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Results show the ability of plasma treatment to create active oxydised functional groups on the polypropylene surface. These groups lead to a proper wetting of the polymer by the silane. Shear strength of single-lap bonding of polypropylene with a polyurethane adhesive suffers a significant improvement when the silane coating is applied on previously plasma activated samples. It has been also demonstrated that the silane curing conditions play a decisive role on the adhesion response. Finally, the stability of the silane solution is tested up to 30 days, yielding diminished but still acceptable adhesion strength values.

  17. Effect of tetraethoxysilane coating on the improvement of plasma treated polypropylene adhesion

    Pantoja, M.; Encinas, N.; Abenojar, J.; Martínez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Polypropylene is one of the most used polymers due to its lightweight and recyclability properties, among others. However, its poor characteristics regarding surface energy and lack of polar functional groups have to be overcome to perform adhesion processes. The main objective of this work is to improve the adhesion behavior of polypropylene by combining atmospheric pressure plasma surface activation and silane adhesion promoter. Tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis and condensation are followed through infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflectance in order to set the coating conditions. Contact angle measurements and surface energy calculations as well as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to evaluate polymer chemical modifications. Morphological changes are studied through scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Results show the ability of plasma treatment to create active oxydised functional groups on the polypropylene surface. These groups lead to a proper wetting of the polymer by the silane. Shear strength of single-lap bonding of polypropylene with a polyurethane adhesive suffers a significant improvement when the silane coating is applied on previously plasma activated samples. It has been also demonstrated that the silane curing conditions play a decisive role on the adhesion response. Finally, the stability of the silane solution is tested up to 30 days, yielding diminished but still acceptable adhesion strength values.

  18. Platelet adhesion studies on dipyridamole coated polyurethane surfaces

    Aldenhoff Y. B.J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of polyurethanes (PUs by covalent attachment of dipyridamole (Persantinregistered is known to reduce adherence of blood platelets upon exposure to human platelet rich plasma (PRP. This effect was investigated in further detail. First platelet adhesion under static conditions was studied with four different biomaterial surfaces: untreated PU, PU immobilised with conjugate molecule 1, PU immobilised with conjugate molecule 2, and PU immobilised with conjugate molecule 3. In PU immobilised with 1 dipyridamole is directly linked to the surface, in PU immobilised with 2 there is a short hydrophilic spacer chain in between the surface and the dipyridamole, while conjugate molecule 3 is merely the spacer chain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to characterise platelet adhesion from human PRP under static conditions, and fluorescence imaging microscopy was used to study platelet adhesion from whole blood under flow. SEM experiments encompassed both density measurements and analysis of the morphology of adherent platelets. In the static experiments the surface immobilised with 2 showed the lowest platelet adherence. No difference between the three modified surfaces emerged from the flow experiments. The surfaces were also incubated with washed blood platelets and labeled with Oregon-Green Annexin V. No capture of Oregon-Green Annexin V was seen, implying that the adhered platelets did not expose any phosphatidyl serine at their exteriour surface.

  19. The effect of adhesive strength of hydroxyapatite coating on the stability of hydroxyapatite-coated prostheses in vivo at the early stage of implantation

    Duan, Yonghong; Zhu, Shu; Guo, Fei; Zhu, Jinyu; Li,Mao; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2012-01-01

    Introduction With the increase in joint revision surgery after arthroplasty, defects of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated prostheses have been observed increasingly often. These defects adversely affect the prosthetic stability in vivo. This study has analyzed the potential effect of the adhesive strength of HA coating on the stability of HA-coated prostheses in vivo after its implantation. Material and methods Sixty experimental rabbits were divided into HA- and Ti-coated groups. HA-coated prosthes...

  20. Tribological behaviour of H- and W-DLC coatings: Effects of environment and temperature on adhesion

    Abou Gharam, Ahmed

    The objective of this study was to gain insight into the friction, aluminum adhesion, and wear mechanisms of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, and to provide guidelines for coating design and development. Mechanisms that control the tribological behaviour of DLC coatings and the effects of dopants (i.e. hydrogen (H-DLC), and tungsten (W-DLC)) against aluminum alloys were investigated under various environments and test temperatures. The effects of temperature and an oxygen-rich environment on dopant-free DLC, H- DLC, and W- DLC were investigated. Experimental analyses of dopant-free DLC showed that, when it was tested in an atmosphere consisting of 50% oxygen and 45% moisture, a high COF of 0.6 observed during the running-in against aluminum was eliminated compared to environment without moisture. At elevated temperatures, presence of hydrogen reduced the COF of H-DLC (e.g., to 0.06 at 200 ºC). W-DLC coatings provided a low COF of 0.18 and minimized aluminum adhesion at temperatures ranging between 400 ºC and 500 ºC, which was attributed to the formation of a tungsten oxide film. Additionally, DLC coatings were found to generate a low COF at subzero temperatures (-196 ºC), with W-DLC and H-DLC generating a COF of 0.18. The work of adhesion (Wad) was determined using a nano-indentation pull-off force method. In this way, insight was gained into the nature of atomic interactions contributing to tribological mechanisms at elevated temperatures. The results showed that the adhesion of the diamond tip against all four samples tested (H-DLC, dopant-free DLC, W-DLC, and aluminum) decreased with temperature. At 25 °C, no aluminum adhesion was observed on the diamond tip, due to OH passivation of the diamond surface in agreement with the low COF of 0.12 for the dopant-free DLC coating. The elimination of meniscus forces due to adsorbed water molecules on the sample surface was identified as an important factor contributing to the adhesion at room temperature. The

  1. Biodegradable electrospun nanofibers coated with platelet-rich plasma for cell adhesion and proliferation

    Díaz-Gómez, Luis; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Concheiro, Angel; Silva, Maite; Dominguez, Fernando; Faheem A. Sheikh; Cantu, Travis; Desai, Raj; Garcia, Vanessa L.; Macossay, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were coated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. PRP was obtained from human buffy coat, and tested on human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to confirm cell proliferation and cytocompatibility. Then, PRP was adsorbed on the PCL scaffolds via lyophilization, which resulted in uniform sponge-like coating of 2.85 (s.d. 0.14) mg/mg. The scaffolds were evaluated regarding mechanical p...

  2. Coat proteins isolated from clathrin coated vesicles can assemble into coated pits

    1989-01-01

    Isolated human fibroblast plasma membranes that were attached by their extracellular surface to a solid substratum contained numerous clathrin coated pits that could be removed with a high pH buffer (Moore, M.S., D.T. Mahaffey, F.M. Brodsky, and R.G.W. Anderson. 1987. Science [Wash. DC]. 236:558-563). When these membranes were incubated with coat proteins extracted from purified bovine coated vesicles, new coated pits formed that were indistinguishable from native coated pits. Assembly was de...

  3. Research on Processes and Adhesion of Electroless Plating Ni-Cu-P Coating

    HUANG Yan-bin; LIU Bo; ZHANG Ping; LIU De-gang; XU Xiao-li

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the coatings of electroless plating Ni-Cu-P and broaden its application, an optimizing mathematical theory test has been applied in this research. The processing parameters have been optimized and some Ni-Cu-P coatings have been obtained with smooth and glittering appearance. At the same time,the composite complexants can prevent copper from depositing first and obtain coatings with strong adhesion. The porosity of Ni-Cu-P coating (20 μm) ranked class 9. The changing color time of the coating is more than 800 seconds with HNO3 dropthan 0.5 g/L. The surface appearance of deposition is typical cystiform cells by SEM,which rank close and neatly.

  4. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins by silicon–oxygen thin film coatings

    Adhesion of bacteria on dental materials can be reduced by modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of their surfaces, either through the application of specific surface treatments or by the deposition of thin film coatings. Since this approach does not rely on the use of drugs or antimicrobial agents embedded in the materials, its duration is not limited by their possible depletion. Moreover it avoids the risks related to possible cytotoxic effects elicited by antibacterial substances released from the surface and diffused in the surrounding tissues. In this work, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis was studied on four composite resins, commonly used for manufacturing dental prostheses. The surfaces of dental materials were modified through the deposition of a-SiOx thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemical bonding structure of the coatings was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the dental materials before and after the coating deposition was assessed by means of optical microscopy and high-resolution mechanical profilometry, while their wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements. The sample roughness was not altered after coating deposition, while a noticeable increase of wettability was detected for all the samples. Also, the adhesion of S. mitis decreased in a statistically significant way on the coated samples, when compared to the uncoated ones, which did not occur for S. mutans. Within the limitations of this study, a-SiOx coatings may affect the adhesion of bacteria such as S. mitis, possibly by changing the wettability of the composite resins investigated. (paper)

  5. Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coating adhesion mechanism on a Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy

    Li, Jianzhong; Zheng, Hua; Sinkovits, Theo; Hee, Ay Ching; Zhao, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coatings deposited on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy substrates by the filtered arc deposition system were examined using scratch testing and depth-sensing indentation in terms of the relationship between the coating adhesion, deformation mechanism, and microstructure, and mechanical properties at the film/substrate interface. The results show that multilayer TiN/Ti coatings offer a greater resistance to cracking and delamination than monolithic TiN coatings under the same conditions on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates. And increasing the number of layers for TiN multilayer coating improves the coatings adhesion. In contrast, for the coatings on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates that were heat-treated to a higher hardness, the limited deformation in the substrates improved remarkably the coating adhesion indiscriminately. The substrate mechanical properties play the major roles in controlling the coating adhesion, and increasing thickness and layers of the TiN multilayer have a limited improvement to the adhesion of coating.

  6. Using scratch testing to measure the adhesion strength of calcium phosphate coatings applied to poly(carbonate urethane) substrates.

    Barnes, Dunstan; Johnson, Scott; Snell, Robert; Best, Serena

    2012-02-01

    Bioactive coatings are applied to components of modern orthopædic implants to improve the host tissue response to the implants. Such coatings cannot be applied to polymeric implants by high-temperature techniques, because the use of high temperatures may critically degrade the polymer substrate. Regardless of the coating technique that is used, the coating must be sufficiently well adhered to the underlying substrate to provide any practical benefit. This paper investigates the use of scratch testing to measure the adhesion strength of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings that were applied to a poly(carbonate urethane) (PCU) substrate by an aqueous process at temperatures of 19, 28, 37, and 50 °C. This work represents the first time that scratch testing analysis has been used to study CaP coatings deposited by an aqueous, low-temperature process on to a polymer substrate. Scratch testing was shown to be a useful technique for obtaining comparative, rather than absolute, values of adhesion strength for hard coatings formed on a compliant substrate. Generally, the coating temperature was not found to influence the CaP-PCU adhesion strength. Although CaP coatings formed at 19 °C exhibited considerably lower adhesion strengths than CaP coatings formed at 28, 37, and 50 °C, this finding was attributable to the inconsistency of CaP coatings formed on the PCU substrates at 19 °C. The coating-substrate adhesion strength was measured for CaP coatings of four different coating ages (0, 1, 2, and 3 years). CaP coatings that were aged for 0, 1, or 2 years exhibited similar coating-substrate adhesion strengths to each other. In contrast, CaP coatings that were aged for 3 years demonstrated considerably lower coating-substrate adhesion strengths. The observed reduction in adhesion strength with age was thought to be attributable to suspected "drying out" of the CaP coatings. PMID:22301182

  7. Chitosan-Coated Collagen Membranes Promote Chondrocyte Adhesion, Growth, and Interleukin-6 Secretion

    Nabila Mighri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing scaffolds made from natural polymers may be highly attractive for tissue engineering strategies. We sought to produce and characterize chitosan-coated collagen membranes and to assess their efficacy in promoting chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and cytokine secretion. Porous collagen membranes were placed in chitosan solutions then crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analyses showed elevated absorption at 1655 cm-1 of the carbon–nitrogen (N=C bonds formed by the reaction between the (NH2 of the chitosan and the (C=O of the glutaraldehyde. A significant peak in the amide II region revealed a significant deacetylation of the chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the chitosan-coated membranes exhibited surface variations, with pore size ranging from 20 to 50 µm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS revealed a decreased C–C groups and an increased C–N/C–O groups due to the reaction between the carbon from the collagen and the NH2 from the chitosan. Increased rigidity of these membranes was also observed when comparing the chitosan-coated and uncoated membranes at dried conditions. However, under wet conditions, the chitosan coated collagen membranes showed lower rigidity as compared to dried conditions. Of great interest, the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan-coated collagen membranes promoted chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and interleukin (IL-6 secretion. Overall results confirm the feasibility of using designed chitosan-coated collagen membranes in future applications, such as cartilage repair.

  8. Silk Fibroin Aqueous-Based Adhesives Inspired by Mussel Adhesive Proteins.

    Burke, Kelly A; Roberts, Dane C; Kaplan, David L

    2016-01-11

    Silk fibroin from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori is a naturally occurring biopolymer with charged hydrophilic terminal regions that end-cap a hydrophobic core consisting of repeating sequences of glycine, alanine, and serine residues. Taking inspiration from mussels that produce proteins rich in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to adhere to a variety of organic and inorganic surfaces, the silk fibroin was functionalized with catechol groups. Silk fibroin was selected for its high molecular weight, tunable mechanical and degradation properties, aqueous processability, and wide availability. The synthesis of catechol-functionalized silk fibroin polymers containing varying amounts of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG, 5000 g/mol) side chains was carried out to balance silk hydrophobicity with PEG hydrophilicity. The efficiency of the catechol functionalization reaction did not vary with PEG conjugation over the range studied, although tuning the amount of PEG conjugated was essential for aqueous solubility. Adhesive bonding and cell compatibility of the resulting materials were investigated, where it was found that incorporating as little as 6 wt % PEG prior to catechol functionalization resulted in complete aqueous solubility of the catechol conjugates and increased adhesive strength compared with silk lacking catechol functionalization. Furthermore, PEG-silk fibroin conjugates maintained their ability to form β-sheet secondary structures, which can be exploited to reduce swelling. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) proliferated on the silks, regardless of PEG and catechol conjugation. These materials represent a protein-based approach to catechol-based adhesives, which we envision may find applicability as biodegradable adhesives and sealants. PMID:26674175

  9. Flame Sprayed Al-12Si Coatings for the Improvement of the Adhesion of Composite Casting Profiles

    Voyer, Joël; Peterlechner, Christian; Noster, Ulf

    2008-12-01

    In this study, flame sprayed Al-12Si coatings were produced on the surface of inlays (aluminum profiles) of composite castings parts. The aim was to enhance the strength between the joining partners inlay and cast. Due to the high surface roughness and the presence of pores in the coatings, combined with the formation of an intermetallic phase at the interface, the adhesion of flame sprayed inlays could be enhanced by a factor of 2 compared to blank inlays and by a factor of 1.3 when compared to sand-blasted inlays. However, results also show that gaps are present, mostly at the interface between the inlays and the flame sprayed coatings, and these gaps have a negative effect on the joining strength of the composite casting parts. Therefore, optimizing the adhesion of the coating on the Al profiles via an improvement in both the sand-blasting and the flame spraying parameters would be beneficial for further enhancement of the adhesion of composite casting parts.

  10. The Influence of Interface Characteristics on the Adhesion/Cohesion of Plasma Sprayed Tungsten Coatings

    Pavel Sachr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is the prime candidate material for plasma facing components of future fusion devices. Plasma spraying, with its ability to coat large areas, including non-planar surfaces, with a significant thickness, is a prospective fabrication technology for components subject to moderate heat loads, e.g., the first wall of the Demonstration Reactor (DEMO. The functionality of such coatings is critically dependent on their adhesion to the underlying material. This in turn, is influenced by a variety of processing-related factors, chief among them being the state of the interface. In this study, the effects of two factors—surface roughness and the presence of thin interlayers—were investigated. Two different levels of roughness of steel substrates were induced by grit blasting, and two thin interlayers—titanium (Ti and tungsten (W—were applied by physical vapor deposition prior to plasma spraying of W by a Water Stabilized Plasma (WSP torch. Coating adhesion was determined by a shear adhesion test. The structures of the coatings and the interfaces, as well as the characteristics of the fractured surfaces, were observed by SEM.

  11. Influence of superconductor film composition on adhesion strength of coated conductors

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Khatri, Narayan; Liu, Yuhao; Delgado, Louis; Galstyan, Eduard; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2015-11-20

    The effect of high temperature superconductor (HTS) film composition on the adhesion strength of rare- earth barium copper oxide coated conductors (CCs) has been studied. It has been found that the mechanical integrity of the superconductor layer is very susceptible to the defects especially those along the ab plane, probably due to the weak interfaces between the defects and the matrix. Gd and Y in the standard composition were substituted with Sm and the number of in-plane defects was drastically reduced. Consequently, a four-fold increase in adhesion or peeling strength in Sm-based CCs was achieved compared to the standard GdYBCO samples.

  12. The Mussel Adhesive Protein (Mefp-1) : A GREEN Corrosion Inhibitor

    Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion of metallic materials is a natural process, and our study shows that even in an alkaline environment severe corrosion may occur on a carbon steel surface. While corrosion cannot be stopped it can be retarded. Many of the traditional anti-corrosion approaches such as the chromate process are effective but hazardous to the environment and human health. Mefp-1, a protein derived from blue mussel byssus, is well known for its extraordinary adhesion and film forming properties. Moreover,...

  13. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    Sharifi Golru, S., E-mail: samanesharifi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Attar, M.M., E-mail: attar@aut.ac.ir [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B. [Department of Surface Coating and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology, No. 59,Vafamanesh St, Hosainabad Sq, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly.

  14. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly

  15. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p 2 CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  16. Adhesion of YSZ suspension plasma-sprayed coating on smooth and thin substrates

    The design concept of the gas-cooled fast reactor which is a 4. generation nuclear reactor, requires protective coatings able to operate at 850 C and protect the underlying structure in case of sudden increase of the functional temperature up to 1250 C and depressurization from 0.70 MPa to atmospheric pressure. The parts to be covered are made of 1 mm thick materials resistant to heat and erosion and exhibiting high mechanical properties at high temperatures, such as the Haynes (R)230 nickel-based alloy. In this study, the use of suspension plasma spraying to manufacture zirconia coatings is explored. The spraying conditions were optimized for the elaboration of coatings on stainless steel AISI 304L substrates and then adapted for Haynes 230 substrates. A special attention was paid to coating adhesion that was investigated by using a Vickers indentation cracking method. (authors)

  17. Bendable bulk metallic glass: Effects of a thin, adhesive, strong, and ductile coating

    We demonstrate, for the first time, that a thin, strong, ductile, and adhesive coating renders bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) bendable. The bending ductility of 3 mm thick BMGs, Zr50Cu30Al10Ni10 in this case, can be dramatically enhanced from ∼0% to ∼13.7% by the deposition of a thin bilayer film on the tensile side of the BMG sample. The bilayer, consisting of a 25 nm thick Ti adhesive layer with a 200 nm thick metallic glass (MG) overlayer, exhibits the required synergistic combination of good adhesion, high strength, and ductility compared with other single-layer films examined (Ti, TiN, and MG). Cross-sectional scanning and transmission electron microscopy, together with finite element modeling, reveal that the bilayer coating absorbs deformation while allowing more homogeneous formation of a high density of smaller shear bands at the bilayer/BMG interface. The bilayer coating, in turn, covers surface weak points and minimizes the formation of localized shear bands which lead to catastrophic failure under bending. As a result, the average shear-band spacing in bilayer-coated BMGs is small, 54 μm, and approximately equal to that found in bendable, 450 μm thick, MG ribbons. Thus, coated BMGs can accommodate large strains and overcome the MG size effect, without sacrificing their extraordinary mechanical properties. Our results for both coated and uncoated BMGs, as well as previously reported results for uncoated metallic glasses, with thicknesses ranging from ribbons to thin plates to bulk, are well described by a simple power law relationship between plastic strain to failure and shear band spacing. This scaling law may be useful in guiding future experiments toward producing more flexible BMGs.

  18. Adhesion properties of MgO-ZrO2 insulation coatings for 5 Tesla HTS coils

    Self insulating substrate tapes (SIST) is the most promising insulation technique for high temperature MgO-ZrO2 coatings on Ag and AgMg sheathed Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox (Bi-2212) superconducting tapes and wires in applications of HTS/LTS coils and magnets. We have already reported successful results as to the synthesis, characterizations and applications of the insulation coatings using the SIST. In order to provide no electrical short circuit in Jc measurements of HTS/LTS coils, the bonding of the coatings onto the substrate is a very important issue. In this present research, the adhesion properties of high temperature MgO-ZrO2 coatings were scrutinized for different processing parameters. Lap joints were fabricated by laying fresh sol-gel coated silver tape samples over each other and then by heat-treating at temperature range of 500-800 deg. C for several times in air. These joint samples were pulled to failure by using a mini tensile tester. MgO-ZrO2 was coated on Ag tapes by sol-gel process using Mg and Zr based precursors. The obtained results obviously pointed out that the best Mg precursor is Mg(C5H7O2)·2H2O to prepare solution and there is a strong relationship between film growth and adhesion properties. Also, MgO content in ZrO2 increased its bonding strength. The optimum heat treatment conditions are 600 deg. C and 15 min for best bonding for these high temperature insulation coatings on HTS tape conductor. The failure mode of all samples was in the form of a mixed type interfacial/cohesive defects in MgO-ZrO2 coating

  19. Silver nanowire/optical adhesive coatings as transparent electrodes for flexible electronics.

    Miller, Michael S; O'Kane, Jessica C; Niec, Adrian; Carmichael, R Stephen; Carmichael, Tricia Breen

    2013-10-23

    We present new flexible, transparent, and conductive coatings composed of an annealed silver nanowire network embedded in a polyurethane optical adhesive. These coatings can be applied to rigid glass substrates as well as to flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic and elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates to produce highly flexible transparent conductive electrodes. The coatings are as conductive and transparent as indium tin oxide (ITO) films on glass, but they remain conductive at high bending strains and are more durable to marring and scratching than ITO. Coatings on PDMS withstand up to 76% tensile strain and 250 bending cycles of 15% strain with a negligible increase in electrical resistance. Since the silver nanowire network is embedded at the surface of the optical adhesive, these coatings also provide a smooth surface (root mean squared surface roughnesstransparent conducting electrodes in flexible light-emitting electrochemical cells. These devices continue to emit light even while being bent to radii as low as 1.5 mm and perform as well as unstrained devices after 20 bending cycles of 25% tensile strain. PMID:24007382

  20. Contact Resistance and Metallurgical Connections Between Silver Coated Polymer Particles in Isotropic Conductive Adhesives

    Pettersen, Sigurd R.; Kristiansen, Helge; Nagao, Shijo; Helland, Susanne; Njagi, John; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in silver thin film coated polymer spheres as conductive fillers in isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs). Such ICAs yield resistivities similar to conventional silver flake based ICAs while requiring only a fraction of the silver content. In this work, effects of the nanostructure of silver thin films on inter-particle contact resistance were investigated. The electrical resistivity of ICAs with similar particle content was shown to decrease with increasing coating thickness. Scanning electron micrographs of ion milled cross-sections revealed that the silver coatings formed continuous metallurgical connections at the contacts between the filler particles after adhesive curing at 150°C. The electrical resistivity decreased for all samples after environmental treatment for 3 weeks at 85°C/85% relative humidity. It was concluded that after the metallurgical connections formed, the bulk resistance of these ICAs were no longer dominated by the contact resistance, but by the geometry and nanostructure of the silver coatings. A figure of merit (FoM) was defined based on the ratio between bulk silver resistivity and the ICA resistivity, and this showed that although the resistivity was lowest in the ICAs containing the most silver, the volume of silver was more effectively used in the ICAs with intermediate silver contents. This was attributed to a size effect due to smaller grains in the thickest coating.

  1. Design and characterization of a carbon-nanotube-reinforced adhesive coating for piezoelectric ceramic discs

    The silver paste electrode of piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic discs has been shown to produce a weak interface bond between a bare PZT and its paste coating under a peeling force. In this work, an investigation was conducted to reinforce the bond with a high density array of oriented carbon nanotube nano-electrodes (CNTs-NEA), between a bare PZT ceramic and a metal substrate. The ensuing design and fabrication of a carbon-nanotube-coated piezoelectric disc (CPZT) is presented along with a study of the bondline integrity of a CPZT mounted on a hosting structure. The CPZT has its electrode silver paste coating replaced with a high density array of CNTs-NEA. Mechanical tests were performed to characterize the shear strength of the bondline between CPZT discs and the substrate. The test results were compared with shear strengths of the bondlines made of pure non-conductive adhesive and adhesive with randomly mixed CNTs. The comparison showed the oriented CNT coating on PZTs could significantly enhance the interfacial shear strength. Through the microscopic examination, it was evident that the ratio between the CNT length (Lc) and the bond thickness (H) significantly influenced the bond strength of CPZT discs. Three major interface microstructure types and their corresponding failure modes for specific Lc/H values were identified. The study also showed that failure did not occur along the interface between the PZT ceramic element and the CNT coating

  2. Contact Resistance and Metallurgical Connections Between Silver Coated Polymer Particles in Isotropic Conductive Adhesives

    Pettersen, Sigurd R.; Kristiansen, Helge; Nagao, Shijo; Helland, Susanne; Njagi, John; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in silver thin film coated polymer spheres as conductive fillers in isotropic conductive adhesives (ICAs). Such ICAs yield resistivities similar to conventional silver flake based ICAs while requiring only a fraction of the silver content. In this work, effects of the nanostructure of silver thin films on inter-particle contact resistance were investigated. The electrical resistivity of ICAs with similar particle content was shown to decrease with increasing coating thickness. Scanning electron micrographs of ion milled cross-sections revealed that the silver coatings formed continuous metallurgical connections at the contacts between the filler particles after adhesive curing at 150°C. The electrical resistivity decreased for all samples after environmental treatment for 3 weeks at 85°C/85% relative humidity. It was concluded that after the metallurgical connections formed, the bulk resistance of these ICAs were no longer dominated by the contact resistance, but by the geometry and nanostructure of the silver coatings. A figure of merit (FoM) was defined based on the ratio between bulk silver resistivity and the ICA resistivity, and this showed that although the resistivity was lowest in the ICAs containing the most silver, the volume of silver was more effectively used in the ICAs with intermediate silver contents. This was attributed to a size effect due to smaller grains in the thickest coating.

  3. Adhesion of composite carbon/hydroxyapatite coatings on AISI 316L medical steel

    J. Gawroński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are contains the results of studies concerning the problems associated with increased of hydroxyapatite (HAp adhesion, manufactured by using Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD method, to the austenitic steel (AISI 316L through the coating of carbon interlayer on it. Carbon coating was deposited by Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (RF PACVD method.Test results unequivocally showed that the intermediate carbon layer in a determined manner increase the adhesion of hydroxyapatite to the metallic substrate. Obtained results give rise to deal with issues of manufacturing composite bilayer – carbon film/HAp – on ready implants, casted from austenitic cast steel by lost-wax process method as well as in gypsum forms.

  4. Environmentally safe curing and cross-linking of surface coatings and adhesives with low energy electrons

    Solvent free, fast, controlled through-curing, as well as immediate stacking and subsequent treatment, are the main arguments in favour of the industrial application of electron beam (EBC) in the board industry for wood and similar substrates. The Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) of Germany has announced that projects to reduce emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) will be supported. The concern here is with solvents which are used when lacquering, printing and treating adhesives. This target of reducing VOC emissions will be reached by further development of environmentally harmless coating systems, such as powder coating technology and EBC. In the printing and adhesive sectors, solvents should be replaced completely by other procedures or be ecologically safe solvents. The German Government sponsors research and development (F+E) projects using EBC to avoid the use of solvents and the production of wastes. (author). 13 refs, 14 figs

  5. ADHESION STRENGTH OF TiN COATINGS AT VARIOUS ION ETCHING DEPOSITED ON TOOL STEELS USING CATHODIC ARC PVD TECHNIQUE

    MUBARAK ALI; ESAH HAMZAH; NOUMAN ALI

    2009-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of ion etching with and without titanium (Ti) and chromium (Cr) on the adhesion strength of TiN coatings deposited on tool steels. From the scratch tester, it was observed that by increasing Ti ion etching showed an increase in adhesion strength of the deposited coatings. ...

  6. The effect of temperature on adhesion forces between surfaces and model foods containing whey protein and sugar

    Goode, K. R.; Bowen, J.; Akhtar, N; Robbins, P. T.; Fryer, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of fouling deposit from foods and food components is a severe problem in food processing and leads to frequent cleaning. The design of surfaces that resist fouling may decrease the need for cleaning and thus increase efficiency. Atomic force microscopy has been used to measure adhesion forces between stainless steel (SS) and fluoro-coated glass (FCG) microparticles and the model food deposits (i) whey protein (WPC), (ii) sweetened condensed milk, and (iii) caramel. Measurements ...

  7. Biofouling and barnacle adhesion data for fouling-release coatings subjected to static immersion at seven marine sites

    Swain, G.; Anil, A.C.; Baier, R.E.; Chia, F.-S.; Conte, E.; Cook, A.; Hadfield, M.; Haslbeck, E.; Holm, E.; Kavanagh, C.; Kohrs, D.; Kovach, B.; Lee, C.; Mazzella, L.; Meyer, A.E.; Qian, P.-Y.; Sawant, S.S.; Schultz, M.; Sigurdsson, J.; Smith, C.; Soo, L.; Terlizzi, A.; Wagh, A.; Zimmerman, R.; Zupo, V.

    Little is known about the performance of fouling release coatings at different geographical locations. An investigation was designed to measure the differences in biofouling and biofouling adhesion strength on three known silicone formulations...

  8. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  9. Wear and Adhesive Failure of Al2O3 Powder Coating Sprayed onto AISI H13 Tool Steel Substrate

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyun, Young-Sik

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an alumina (Al2O3) ceramic powder was sprayed onto an AISI H13 hot-work tool steel substrate that was subjected to sanding and ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment processes. The significance of the UNSM technique on the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating and on the hardness of the substrate was investigated. The adhesive failure of the coating sprayed onto sanded and UNSM-treated substrates was investigated by a micro-scratch tester at an incremental load. It was found, based on the obtained results, that the coating sprayed onto the UNSM-treated substrate exhibited a better resistance to adhesive failure in comparison with that of the coating sprayed onto the sanded substrate. Dry friction and wear property of the coatings sprayed onto the sanded and UNSM-treated substrates were assessed by means of a ball-on-disk tribometer against an AISI 52100 steel ball. It was demonstrated that the UNSM technique controllably improved the adhesive failure of the Al2O3 coating, where the critical load was improved by about 31%. Thus, it is expected that the application of the UNSM technique to an AISI H13 tool steel substrate prior to coating may delay the adhesive failure and improve the sticking between the coating and the substrate thanks to the modified and hardened surface.

  10. Adsorption of alginate and albumin on aluminum coatings inhibits adhesion of Escherichia coli and enhances the anti-corrosion performances of the coatings

    He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yi; Huang, Jing; Chen, Xiuyong; Ren, Kun; Li, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Thermal-sprayed aluminum coatings have been extensively used as protective layers against corrosion for steel structures in the marine environment. The corrosion usually deteriorates from marine biofouling, yet the mechanism of accelerated corrosion of the coatings remains elusive. As the first stage participating in biofouling process, adsorption of molecules plays critical roles in mediating formation of biofilm. Here, we report at molecular level the adsorption behaviors of albumin and marine polysaccharide on arc-sprayed aluminum coatings and their influence on adhesion of Escherichia coli. The adsorption of alginate and albumin was characterized by infrared spectra analyses and atomic force microscopic observation. The adsorption inhibits effectively adhesion of the bacteria. Further investigation indicates that alginate/albumin altered the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the coatings instead of impacting the survival of the bacteria to decline their adhesion. The conditioning layer composed of the molecules enhances anti-corrosion performances of the coatings.

  11. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm

  12. An evaluation of the adhesion of solid oral dosage form coatings to the oesophagus.

    Smart, John D; Dunkley, Sian; Tsibouklis, John; Young, Simon

    2015-12-30

    There is a requirement for the development of oral dosage forms that are adhesive and allow extended oesophageal residence time for localised therapies, or are non-adhesive for ease of swallowing. This study provides an initial assessment of the in vitro oesophageal retention characteristics of several widely utilised pharmaceutical coating materials. To this end, a previously described apparatus has been used to measure the force required to pull a coated disc-shaped model tablet across a section of excised oesophageal tissue. Of the materials tested, the well-studied mucoadhesive polymer sodium alginate was found to be associated with significant oesophageal adhesion properties that was capable of 'self-repairing'. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose exhibited less pronounced bioadhesive behaviour and blending this with plasticiser or with low molecular weight polymers and surfactants did not significantly affect this. Low molecular weight water soluble polymers, were found to behave similarly to the uncoated glass control disc. Polysorbates exhibited bioadhesion behaviour that was majorly influenced by the nature of the surfactant. The insoluble polymer ethylcellulose, and the relatively lipophilic surfactant sorbitan monooleate were seen to move more readily than the uncoated disc, suggesting that these may have a role as 'easy-to-swallow' coatings. PMID:26453786

  13. Chemically vapour deposited diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbides: Substrate pretreatments, adhesion and cutting performance

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond films onto Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools and wear parts presents several problems due to interfacial graphitization induced by the binder phase and thermal expansion mismatch of diamond and WC-Co. Methods used to improve diamond film adhesion include substrate-modification processes that create a three-dimensional compositionally graded interface. This paper reviews substrate pretreatments and adhesion issues of chemically vapour deposited diamond films on WC-Co. The combined effect of pretreatments and substrate microstructure on the adhesive toughness and wear rate of CVD diamond in dry machining of highly abrasive materials was analyzed. The role of diamond film surface morphology on chip evacuation in dry milling of ceramics was also investigated by comparing feed forces of coated and uncoated mills. The overall tribological performance of diamond coated mills depended on coating microstructure and smoothness. The use of smother films did allow to reduce cutting forces by facilitating chip evacuation

  14. A multilayer innovative solution to improve the adhesion of nanocrystalline diamond coatings

    Poulon-Quintin, A., E-mail: poulon@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Faure, C.; Teulé-Gay, L.; Manaud, J.P. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the NCD adhesion on WC-12%Co substrates for tooling applications using a multi-interlayer additional system. • Reduction of the graphite layer thickness and continuity at the interface with the diamond. • Transmission electron microscopy study for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) films grown under negative biased substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are widely used as surface overlay coating onto cermet WC-Co cutting tools to get better performances. To improve the diamond adhesion to the cermet substrate, suitable multi-layer systems have been added. They are composed of a cobalt diffusion barrier close to the substrate (single and sequenced nitrides layers) coated with a nucleation extra layer to improve the nucleus density of diamond during CVD processing. For all systems, before and after diamond deposition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been performed for a better understanding of the diffusion phenomena occurring at the interfaces and to evaluate the presence of graphitic species at the interface with the diamond. Innovative multilayer system dedicated to the regulation of cobalt diffusion coated with a bilayer system optimized for the carbon diffusion control, is shown as an efficient solution to significantly reduce the graphite layer formation at the interface with the diamond down to 10 nm thick and to increase the adhesion of NCD diamond layer as scratch-tests confirm.

  15. The influence of organophosphonic acid and conducting polymer on the adhesion and protection of epoxy coating on aluminium alloy

    Dalmoro, Viviane; Alemán Llansó, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos Arthur; Dos Santos, J.H.Z.; Azambuja, Denise S.; Armelín Diggroc, Elaine Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we compared the beneficial effect on the incorporation of modified silane nanocoating and conducting polymer additive to the adhesion and protection of aluminium surface with epoxy coating. Results proved that the protection imparted by the silane coating, suitably modified with phosphonic groups, showed an excellent adhesion to the metallic substrate as well as good adherence with the epoxy outer layer, which result in an improved corrosion resistance. The incorporation ...

  16. Comparison of the adhesion and wear resistance of the PVD coatings

    M. Polok-Rubiniec

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of the paper was comparison of the adhesion and antiwear properties of the multilayer TiN/(Ti,AlNPVD coatings deposited onto heat treated and plasma nitrited X37CrMoV5-1 type hot work tool steel.Design/methodology/approach: Hardness test of the investigated specimens from hot work steel in the heattreated state has been made using Rockwell method. The distribution of microhardness in the nitriding layermeasured using Vickers micro-hardness testing method. The evaluation of the adhesion of coatings to thesubstrate was made using the scratch test. Wear resistance tests with the pin-on-disc method were carried out onthe CSEM THT (High Temperature Tribometer device at the room temperature and at the temperature of 500˚C.The friction coefficient between the ball and disc was measured during the test.Findings: In case of the TiN/(Ti,AlN coating deposited onto the X37CrMoV5-1 nitrided hot work steel show avery good adhesion which has been revealed to the substrate material is comparison to the TiN/(Ti,AlN coatingdeposited onto heat treated hot work steel. Taking into account the results of measurements, one can state thatthe lowest wear at certain conditions in both room and elevated temperatures show TiN/(Ti,AlN deposited ontoplasma nitrited X37CrMo V5-1 hot work steel type.Practical implications: The investigation results will provide useful information to applying of the TiN/(Ti,AlNPVD coating for the improvement of wear resistance of tools made from hot work steels.Originality/value: The paper contributes to better understanding the wear resistance at the elevated temperatureto 500ºC of the multilayer TiN/(Ti,AlN PVD coating deposited onto heat treated and plasma nitrited hot worktool steel

  17. Dependence of corneal keratocyte adhesion, spreading, and integrin β1 expression on deacetylated chitosan coating.

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chou, Shih-Feng; Lai, Jui-Yang; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-06-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the regulation of corneal keratocyte adhesion, spreading, morphology, and integrin gene expression on chitosan coating due to the effects of deacetylation. The degree of deacetylation (DD) in chitosan materials was confirmed by elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In this study, chitosan samples with the same molecular weight level but varying DD (74.1±0.5%, 84.4±0.7%, and 94.2±0.5%) were obtained by heat-alkaline treatment under a nitrogen atmosphere. For higher DD groups, the biopolymer carried abundant amino groups since the deacetylation process removed larger amount of acetyl groups from the chitosan molecules. Results showed that the mechanical stability and crystallinity of the chitosan coatings significantly increased with increasing DD value. Fibronectin adsorption, keratocyte adhesion, and cell spreading exhibited a positive correlation with DD due to the chemical functionality of polysaccharides (bearing acetyl and amino groups) and increase of substrate stiffness and crystallinity. In particular, when adhered to chitosan coatings with a DD value of 74.1%, the keratocytes appeared to be fibroblastic, elongated, and spindle shape, indicating a loss of their characteristic dendritic morphology. Furthermore, the gene expression of integrin β1 (i.e., a cell-matrix adhesion molecule) was significantly up-regulated on the chitosan coatings with higher DD, which supports favorable attachment of corneal keratocytes. Our findings suggest that DD-mediated physicochemical properties of chitosan coatings greatly affect cell-substrate crosstalk during corneal keratocyte cultivation. PMID:27040214

  18. Self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for improved adhesion between aluminum alloy substrate and polyurethane coating

    A good adhesion between a polymer coating and a metal or metal alloy substrate such as Al 2024-T3 plays a critical role in corrosion protection of metal substrates. In our study, a self-assembled monolayer film of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane was formed on Al 2024-T3 substrate by covalent bonding. The adhesion property of a self-priming polyurethane coating was evaluated by pull-off adhesion test, wet tape test and thermal cycling test. All the testing results indicate that both dry and wet adhesion properties of the polyurethane coating were improved significantly after APS treatment of Al 2024-T3 in polar solvents such as methanol and acetone. In nonpolar solvents such as hexane, the APS treatment led to inconsistent improvement or sometime decreased adhesion of polyurethane coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study revealed that while a monolayer film was formed on the aluminum alloy surface after treating the substrate with APS in methanol and acetone, a multilayer film was formed on the substrate surface when the treatment was conducted in hexane. The APS monolayer film served as a covalent bond linkage between polymer coating and aluminum alloy substrates, which led to the increased adhesion property of polymer coating and corrosion resistance of the metal alloy substrate

  19. Effect of the glass transition of coating adhesive on temperature performance of fiber optic gyroscope and its optimization

    Wang, Yueze; Wang, Tieshui; Ma, Lin; Yu, Hao; Liu, Bohan

    2015-10-01

    The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)based on Sagnac effect has became to one of the most important sensors in developing due to light in quality, high accuracy, compact in dimension and long life and has played a very important role in both military and civil use. It is the most difficult problem that the FOG has an obvious bias drift caused by temperature change and temperature grade, so its application is limited to a great extent. Fiber coil is one of the most critical components in FOG. Here, the characteristic of temperature error of the fiber optical coil was analyzed. At first, by studying the glass transition of coating adhesive in the fiber coil, the element model of the fiber coil with the glass transition of coating adhesive in FOG was built. Then the discrete mathematics model of SHUPE error with the glass transition of coating adhesive in FOG was built. Finally, based on the temperature models mentioned above, the effects caused by the glass transition of coating adhesive on temperature performance of fiber optic gyroscope were analyzed. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that effect caused by the glass transition of coating adhesive had seriously affected the temperature performance of FOG. By optimizing the glass transition temperature of coating adhesive, the SHUPE error of fiber coils can be reduced. At the same time, the amplitude uniformity of the SHUPE error can be improved greatly to reduce the difficulty in temperature compensation.

  20. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Dewidar, Montasser; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2012-11-01

    The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  1. Microhardness and adhesion of TiB sub 2 coatings produced by dynamic ion mixing

    Riviere, J.P.; Guesdon, P. (Lab. de Matallurgie Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 86 - Poitiers (France)); Farges, G.; Degout, D. (Etablissement Technique Central de l' Armement, 94 - Arcueil (France))

    1990-10-01

    The production at room temperature of adherent ceramic coatings on metallic substrates necessitates the improvement of conventional deposition techniques. Ion beam deposition processes using low energy ion beams have proved to be powerful methods for producing a wide variety of surface alloys. More recently, the use of high energy heavy ion beams in coating technology was investigated in order to improve the interface mixing effect and to control the structural state of the coating. We have deposited TiB{sub 2} alloy films on a tool steel via dynamic ion mixing (DIM) using either 320 keV Ar{sup 2+} ions or 320 keV Xe{sup 2+} ions. The depositing atom flux was obtained by sputtering a TiB{sub 2} target with an intense Ar{sup +} ion beam of 1.2 keV delivered by a Kaufman-type ion source. The microstructure of the films was characterized by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It is recognized that crystallization is induced by DIM and that the interface mixing has a beneficial influence on the adhesion performance of the coating. The relative increase in the Vickers microhardness of the coated tool steel substrate is of the order of 23%. The intrinsic hardness of the 1 {mu}m TiB{sub 2} coatings on these substrates is estimated to about 2200 kgf mm{sup -2} by application of the composite hardness model. (orig.).

  2. Effect of pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality and adhesion of HFCVD diamond coating on cemented carbide inserts

    Sarangi, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    In the present investigation, diamond coating was deposited on cemented carbide substrate by hot filament chemical vapour deposition. The effect of substrate pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality, and adhesion of the diamond film were studied. The carbide inserts were pretreated with acid, Murakami's solution, and Murakami's solution followed by acid, respectively. The chamber pressure was set at 6.6, 13.2, 26.4, 39.6 and 66 mbar. Deposition carried out at pressure of 26.4 and 39.6 mbar on inserts pretreated with acid exhibited uniform crystal habit and provided coating-substrate adhesion adequate for machining application. Good coating morphology was obtained when deposition was done at 6.6 mbar on carbide inserts treated with Murakami's solution. Pretreatment with Murakami's solution followed by acid and deposition at 6.6 mbar also resulted in good morphology of diamond film. Indentation (Rockwell C scale) was done on diamond-coated inserts to assess coating-substrate adhesion under three loads of 294, 588 and 980 N. The diameter of the indentation crack at the coating-substrate interface was observed under SEM. The results suggested that diamond coating deposited at medium pressure of 26.4 mbar on carbide substrate treated with acid not only exhibited best morphology but also highest coating-substrate adhesion and improved machining performance.

  3. 金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原样蛋白-5抑制人脐血源性内皮祖细胞黏附功能及其机制研究%Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein-5 inhibits adhesion of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells to P-selectin-coated surface

    梁华; 曲小龙; 胡厚源; 宋治远; 程彦; 张静

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原样蛋白-5 (staphylococcal superantigen-like protein-5,SSL5)与人脐血源性内皮祖细胞(endothelial progenitor cells,EPCs)表面P-选择素糖蛋白配体-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1,PSGL-1) 的结合情况,及其对内皮祖细胞黏附功能的影响.方法 从金黄色葡萄球菌 NCTC 8325菌株的基因组中,扩增ssl5基因,并进行重组SSL5蛋白表达载体的构建.采用密度梯度离心法分离得到脐血中的单个核细胞并进行体外培养,对贴壁细胞在激光共聚焦显微镜下观察其摄取乙酰化低密度脂蛋白(DiI-acLDL)和结合荆豆凝集素(FITC-UEA-1)的情况.以流式细胞仪分析SSL5与EPCs表面PSGL-1的结合情况;以calcein-AM负载EPCs后,定量分析SSL5对EPCs在P-选择素包被表面黏附的抑制作用.结果 DiI-acLDL/ FITC-UEA-1双染阳性的细胞为EPCs.PSGL-1在EPCs表面有较丰富的表达,阳性细胞率为76.6%.SSL5与EPCs的结合随着SSL5浓度的增加而显著升高;并且,SSL5可竞争性抑制抗PSGL-1单克隆抗体(KPL-1)与EPCs的结合.SSL5可显著抑制EPCs在P-选择素表面的黏附,终浓度为30 mg/L的SSL5对EPCs在P-选择素表面黏附的抑制率已接近10 mg/L的KPL-1的效应,两者与空白对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 SSL5可与EPCs表面的PSGL-1结合,而抑制EPCs在P-选择素表面的黏附,提示SSL5可能通过抑制EPCs与损伤内皮或激活的血小板之间的黏附,进而抑制EPCs对损伤内皮的修复作用.%Objective To investigate the binding of staphylococcal superantigen-like protein-5 (SSL5) to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) on human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the inhibitive effect of SSL5 on the adhesion of EPCs to P-selectin-coated surface.Methods SSL5 gene was amplified from the genome of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and cloned into a vector for expressing recombinant SSL5 protein. Mononuclear cells were

  4. Adhesion Strength of Cellulosic Varnish Coated Wood Species as Function of Their Surface Roughness

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate adhesion strength of four wood species, namely, beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata Yalt., spruce (Picea orientalis L. Link, and fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. coated with cellulosic varnish. Samples were prepared in tangential and radial grain orientations from the above species. Surface quality of the specimens was also measured employing stylus type equipment after samples of all four types of species were sanded with 80- and 180-grit sandpaper prior to coating process. Surface roughness of the specimens sanded with 80-grit sandpaper resulted in significantly higher mean peak-to-valley height (Rz values based on the measurement employing stylus type profilometer. The highest adhesion strength values of 2.39 N/mm2 and 2.03 N/mm2 were found for beech and alder samples, respectively. It appears that overall higher roughness characteristics of the specimens exhibited enhanced adherence between substrate and varnish resulting in higher adhesion strength values.

  5. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Highlights: ► The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. ► The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. ► Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. ► Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. ► Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc–solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might widen the use of Mg based implants.

  6. Biocorrosion behavior and cell viability of adhesive polymer coated magnesium based alloys for medical implants

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla [Departmentt of Bionano System Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Dewidar, Montasser [Department of Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Energy Engineering, South Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Lim, Jae Kyoo, E-mail: jklim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Design Engineering, Advanced wind power system research institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion behavior of magnesium for orthopedic applications is extremely poor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent (DCM, THF and DMF) had a strong effect on the coatings performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg bar alloy coated with PVAc/DCM layers provided an excellent bonding strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treated samples indicated significant damping for the degradation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytocompatibility on MC3T3 cells of the PVAc/DCM samples revealed a good behavior. - Abstract: The present study was ultimately aimed to design novel adhesive biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), coatings onto Mg based alloys by the dip-coating technique in order to control the degradation rate and enhance the biocompatibility of magnesium alloys. The influence of various solvents on PVAc surface topography and their protection of Mg alloys were dramatically studied in vitro. Electrochemical polarization, degradation, and PVAc film cytocompatibility were also tested. Our results showed that the solvent had a significant effect on coating quality. PVAc/dichloromethane solution showed a porous structure and solution concentration could control the porous size. The coatings prepared using tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide solvents are exceptional in their ability to generate porous morphology even at low polymer concentration. In general, the corrosion performance appears to be different on different PVAc-solvent system. Immersion tests illustrated that the porous morphology on PVAc stabilized corrosion rates. A uniform corrosion attack in artificial simulation body fluid was also exhibited. The cytocompatibility of osteoblast cells (MC3T3) revealed high adherence, proliferation, and survival on the porous structure of PVAc coated Mg alloy, which was not observed for the uncoated samples. This novel PVAc coating is a promising candidate for biodegradable implant materials, which might

  7. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors

    Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet;

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic ...

  8. Evaluation of interface adhesion of hot-dipped zinc coating on TRIP steel with tensile testing and finite element calculation

    Song, G.M.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Sloof, W. G.; Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for the determination of the interface adhesion strength of zinc coating on TRIP steel is present. This method consists of a conventional tensile test in combination with finite element calculation. The relation between the average interface crack length and the applied tensile stress is determined on the partially delaminated coating with in-situ tensile test. The delamination process of zinc coating on steel substrate is simulated by using a two-grain finite elem...

  9. Integrin-mediated adhesion of human mesenchymal stem cells to extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to polymer surfaces

    In vitro, degradable aliphatic polyesters are widely used as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering, despite their lack of biological cues. Their biological active surface is rather determined by an adsorbed layer of proteins from the surrounding media. Initial cell fate, including adhesion and proliferation, which are key properties for efficient cell carriers, is determined by the adsorbed layer of proteins. Herein we have investigated the ability of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibronectin and vitronectin which are present in plasma and serum. hBMSC expressed integrins for collagens, laminins, fibronectin and vitronectin. Accordingly, hBMSC strongly adhered to these purified ECM proteins by using the corresponding integrins. Although purified fibronectin and vitronectin adsorbed to aliphatic polyesters to a lower extent than to cell culture polystyrene, these low levels were sufficient to mediate adhesion of hBMSC. It was found that plasma- and serum-coated polystyrene adsorbed significant levels of both fibronectin and vitronectin, and fibronectin was identified as the major adhesive component of plasma for hBMSC; however, aliphatic polyesters adsorbed minimal levels of fibronectin under similar conditions resulting in impaired cell adhesion. Altogether, the results suggest that the efficiency of aliphatic polyesters cell carriers could be improved by increasing their ability to adsorb fibronectin. (paper)

  10. Washing-resistant surfactant coated surface is able to inhibit pathogenic bacteria adhesion

    Treter, Janine; Bonatto, Fernando; Krug, Cristiano; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2014-06-01

    Surface-active substances, which are able to organize themselves spontaneously on surfaces, triggering changes in the nature of the solid-liquid interface, are likely to influence microorganism adhesion and biofilm formation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate chemical non-ionic surfactants activity against pathogenic microbial biofilms and to cover biomaterial surfaces in order to obtain an anti-infective surface. After testing 11 different surfactants, Pluronic F127 was selected for further studies due to its non-biocidal properties and capability to inhibit up to 90% of biofilm formation of Gram-positive pathogen and its clinical isolates. The coating technique using direct impregnation on the surface showed important antibiofilm formation characteristics, even after extensive washes. Surface roughness and bacterial surface polarity does not influence the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, the material coated surface became extremely hydrophilic. The phenotype of S. epidermidis does not seem to have been affected by the contact with surfactant, reinforcing the evidence that a physical phenomenon is responsible for the activity. This paper presents a simple method of surface coating employing a synthetic surfactant to prevent S. epidermidis biofilm formation.

  11. In situ synthesis of mesoporous polyvinyl alcohol/hydroxyapatite composites for better biomedical coating adhesion

    Hussain, Riaz; Tabassum, Sobia; Gilani, Mazhar Amjad; Ahmed, Ejaz; Sharif, Ahsan; Manzoor, Faisal; Shah, Asma Tufail; Asif, Anila; Sharif, Faiza; Iqbal, Farasat; Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) shows diverse biomedical applications as bone filler and coating material for metal implants to enhance osteoconduction. Four different PVAHA composites were synthesized in situ by an economical co-precipitation wet methodology. The FTIR spectra of PVAHA composites showed characteristic signals of HA and PVA. The BET surface area of PVAHA composites were in range of 41.3-63.7 m2/g. The composites showed type IV nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm, a characteristic for mesoporous material. The pore diameter range (6.3-8.1 nm) of PVAHA composites also confirmed their mesoporous nature. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore size distribution curves indicated a narrow pore size distribution. To obtain a homogeneous crack free coating with EPD on stainless steel (SS) plates, different parameters such as PVA percentages in PVAHA composites, solvent, deposition time and voltage were optimized. The PVAHA composites were stable after EPD as confirmed by FTIR spectra recorded before and after EPD. The SEM images of the coating showed a homogeneous morphology. The thickness of the coating was controlled by varying voltage and time. The best results were obtained with c-PVAHA composite at 30 volts for 5-10 min and current density was around 4.5 to 5 mA. The adhesion strength of c-PVAHA coating was measured by using ASTM standard F1044-99. The average value was approximately 9.328 ± 1.58 MPa.

  12. Surface Treatments and Functional Coatings for Biocompatibility Improvement and Bacterial Adhesion Reduction in Dental Implantology

    Pietro Mandracci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of dental implants is a key process in the production of these medical devices, and especially titanium implants used in the dental practice are commonly subjected to surface modification processes before their clinical use. A wide range of treatments, such as sand blasting, acid etching, plasma etching, plasma spray deposition, sputtering deposition and cathodic arc deposition, have been studied over the years in order to improve the performance of dental implants. Improving or accelerating the osseointegration process is usually the main goal of these surface processes, but the improvement of biocompatibility and the prevention of bacterial adhesion are also of considerable importance. In this review, we report on the research of the recent years in the field of surface treatments and coatings deposition for the improvement of dental implants performance, with a main focus on the osseointegration acceleration, the reduction of bacterial adhesion and the improvement of biocompatibility.

  13. Adhesion strength characterization of PVDF/HA coating on cp Ti surface modified by laser beam irradiation

    Highlights: ► Titanium substrates are superficially treated by laser beam irradiation. ► Treated titanium substrates are coated with α-PVDF and α-PVDF/HA films. ► Three-point bending test is used to assess the adhesion strength of coatings. ► The coatings show good physical adhesion on treated titanium substrates. ► Three-point bending test appears as an alternative for measuring adhesion strength. - Abstract: Up to the moment, there is no standardized test for measuring the adhesion strength of polymeric coatings on titanium substrate modified by laser beam irradiation. The present work aimed to assess the adhesion strength of polyvinylidene fluoride (α-PVDF)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite coating on commercially pure titanium (α-cp Ti) substrate surface modified by laser beam irradiation, using the three-point bending test. The preparation of coating was carried out by mixing α-PVDF pellets dissolved in dimethylacetamide (DMA) with HA/DMA emulsion. The mixture was poured onto the α-cp Ti sample and left to dry in an oven. Commercially pure titanium plates were coated with α-PVDF/HA composite film, in proportions of 100/00 (PVDF) and 60/40 (PVDF/HA) in weight. The Ti-PVDF/HA samples were subjected to the three-point bending test and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, PVDF and PVDF/HA coatings showed a good adhesion strength on α-cp Ti surface, since no detachment was observed.

  14. Adhesion strength characterization of PVDF/HA coating on cp Ti surface modified by laser beam irradiation

    Ribeiro, A.A., E-mail: aantunesr@yahoo.com.br [Department of Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Vaz, L.G. [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP, P.O. Box 331, Araraquara, SP 14801-903 (Brazil); Guastaldi, A.C. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, UNESP, P.O. Box 331, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Campos, J.S.C. [Department of Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium substrates are superficially treated by laser beam irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treated titanium substrates are coated with {alpha}-PVDF and {alpha}-PVDF/HA films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-point bending test is used to assess the adhesion strength of coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coatings show good physical adhesion on treated titanium substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-point bending test appears as an alternative for measuring adhesion strength. - Abstract: Up to the moment, there is no standardized test for measuring the adhesion strength of polymeric coatings on titanium substrate modified by laser beam irradiation. The present work aimed to assess the adhesion strength of polyvinylidene fluoride ({alpha}-PVDF)/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite coating on commercially pure titanium ({alpha}-cp Ti) substrate surface modified by laser beam irradiation, using the three-point bending test. The preparation of coating was carried out by mixing {alpha}-PVDF pellets dissolved in dimethylacetamide (DMA) with HA/DMA emulsion. The mixture was poured onto the {alpha}-cp Ti sample and left to dry in an oven. Commercially pure titanium plates were coated with {alpha}-PVDF/HA composite film, in proportions of 100/00 (PVDF) and 60/40 (PVDF/HA) in weight. The Ti-PVDF/HA samples were subjected to the three-point bending test and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. According to the results, PVDF and PVDF/HA coatings showed a good adhesion strength on {alpha}-cp Ti surface, since no detachment was observed.

  15. Thermal stability and adhesion of low-emissivity electroplated Au coatings.

    Jorenby, Jeff W.; Hachman, John T., Jr.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Chames, Jeffrey M.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-12-01

    We are developing a low-emissivity thermal management coating system to minimize radiative heat losses under a high-vacuum environment. Good adhesion, low outgassing, and good thermal stability of the coating material are essential elements for a long-life, reliable thermal management device. The system of electroplated Au coating on the adhesion-enhancing Wood's Ni strike and 304L substrate was selected due to its low emissivity and low surface chemical reactivity. The physical and chemical properties, interface bonding, thermal aging, and compatibility of the above Au/Ni/304L system were examined extensively. The study shows that the as-plated electroplated Au and Ni samples contain submicron columnar grains, stringers of nanopores, and/or H{sub 2} gas bubbles, as expected. The grain structure of Au and Ni are thermally stable up to 250 C for 63 days. The interface bonding is strong, which can be attributed to good mechanical locking among the Au, the 304L, and the porous Ni strike. However, thermal instability of the nanopore structure (i.e., pore coalescence and coarsening due to vacancy and/or entrapped gaseous phase diffusion) and Ni diffusion were observed. In addition, the study also found that prebaking 304L in the furnace at {ge} 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr promotes surface Cr-oxides on the 304L surface, which reduces the effectiveness of the intended H-removal. The extent of the pore coalescence and coarsening and their effect on the long-term system integrity and outgassing are yet to be understood. Mitigating system outgassing and improving Au adhesion require a further understanding of the process-structure-system performance relationships within the electroplated Au/Ni/304L system.

  16. Adsorption of alginate and albumin on aluminum coatings inhibits adhesion of Escherichia coli and enhances the anti-corrosion performances of the coatings

    He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yi; Huang, Jing; Chen, Xiuyong; Ren, Kun; Li, Hua, E-mail: lihua@nimte.ac.cn

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption behaviors of alginate and albumin on Al coatings were investigated at molecular level. • The adsorption inhibits effectively the colonization of Escherichia coli bacteria. • The adsorption alters the wettability of the Al coatings. • The conditioning layer enhances anti-corrosion performances of the Al coatings. - Abstract: Thermal-sprayed aluminum coatings have been extensively used as protective layers against corrosion for steel structures in the marine environment. The corrosion usually deteriorates from marine biofouling, yet the mechanism of accelerated corrosion of the coatings remains elusive. As the first stage participating in biofouling process, adsorption of molecules plays critical roles in mediating formation of biofilm. Here, we report at molecular level the adsorption behaviors of albumin and marine polysaccharide on arc-sprayed aluminum coatings and their influence on adhesion of Escherichia coli. The adsorption of alginate and albumin was characterized by infrared spectra analyses and atomic force microscopic observation. The adsorption inhibits effectively adhesion of the bacteria. Further investigation indicates that alginate/albumin altered the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the coatings instead of impacting the survival of the bacteria to decline their adhesion. The conditioning layer composed of the molecules enhances anti-corrosion performances of the coatings.

  17. Adsorption of alginate and albumin on aluminum coatings inhibits adhesion of Escherichia coli and enhances the anti-corrosion performances of the coatings

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption behaviors of alginate and albumin on Al coatings were investigated at molecular level. • The adsorption inhibits effectively the colonization of Escherichia coli bacteria. • The adsorption alters the wettability of the Al coatings. • The conditioning layer enhances anti-corrosion performances of the Al coatings. - Abstract: Thermal-sprayed aluminum coatings have been extensively used as protective layers against corrosion for steel structures in the marine environment. The corrosion usually deteriorates from marine biofouling, yet the mechanism of accelerated corrosion of the coatings remains elusive. As the first stage participating in biofouling process, adsorption of molecules plays critical roles in mediating formation of biofilm. Here, we report at molecular level the adsorption behaviors of albumin and marine polysaccharide on arc-sprayed aluminum coatings and their influence on adhesion of Escherichia coli. The adsorption of alginate and albumin was characterized by infrared spectra analyses and atomic force microscopic observation. The adsorption inhibits effectively adhesion of the bacteria. Further investigation indicates that alginate/albumin altered the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the coatings instead of impacting the survival of the bacteria to decline their adhesion. The conditioning layer composed of the molecules enhances anti-corrosion performances of the coatings

  18. Comparison of the adhesion and wear resistance of the PVD coatings

    M. Polok-Rubiniec; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Adamiak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of the paper was comparison of the adhesion and antiwear properties of the multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)NPVD coatings deposited onto heat treated and plasma nitrited X37CrMoV5-1 type hot work tool steel.Design/methodology/approach: Hardness test of the investigated specimens from hot work steel in the heattreated state has been made using Rockwell method. The distribution of microhardness in the nitriding layermeasured using Vickers micro-hardness testing method. The evaluation of the adhes...

  19. Pin test – an approach to adhesion/cohesion assesment of thermal spray coatings

    Pejchal, Václav; Mušálek, Radek; Matějíček, Jiří

    Trenčín : LISS,a.s, 2011 - (Šošovičková, J.), s. 135-140 ISBN 978-80-970824-0-6. [Vrstvy a povlaky 2011. Rožnov pod Radhoštěm (CZ), 17.10.2011-18.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : thermal spray * adhesion/cohesion testing * coating failure Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials http://vrstvyapovlaky.cz/-aktualni-info-

  20. Development of mussel adhesive polypeptide mimics coating for in-situ inducing re-endothelialization of intravascular stent devices.

    Yin, Min; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Jing

    2009-05-01

    In this study, to improve the attachment, growth and adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs) and thus accelerate the re-endothelialization of stents, a synthesized mussel adhesive polypeptide mimics containing dihydroxyphenylalanine and L-lysine (MAPDL) was immobilized onto 316L stainless steel (316LSS) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecule as spacer arm by using cold plasma-induced grafting technique. To immobilize MAPDL effectively, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) was first coated onto 316LSS. Different molecular weights of PEG and grafting times were tested to obtain the optimal cell bioactivity. XPS and water contact angles measurement indicated the successful immobilization of MAPDL. In vitro cell culture results showed that compared with the control of 316LSS, the attachment, adhesion and growth of cells on the MAPDL-coated EVA surface, in particular with PEG as spacer arm, were significantly enhanced, and a confluent endothelial cells layer was formed after a 2-day culture. A platelet adhesion experiment revealed that the platelet adhesion was also reduced on the MAPDL-coated EVA surface. The in vitro inflammatory assessment showed that the MAPDL coating inhibited the TNF-alpha and IL-1beta release from monocyte cells, indicative of good anti-inflammation property. Therefore, it is concluded that the MAPDL coating developed here appeared to be a promising strategy for rapid re-endothelialization of intravascular stent devices. PMID:19223071

  1. Independent control of adhesive and bulk properties of hybrid silica coatings on polycarbonate.

    Lionti, Krystelle; Cui, Linying; Volksen, Willi; Dauskardt, Reinhold; Dubois, Geraud; Toury, Berangere

    2013-11-13

    Transparent polymers are widely used in many applications ranging from automotive windows to microelectronics packaging. However, their intrinsic characteristics, in particular their mechanical properties, are significantly degraded with exposure to different weather conditions. For instance, under humid environment or UV-irradiation, polycarbonate (PC) undergoes depolymerization, leading to the release of Bisphenol A, a molecule presumed to be a hormonal disruptor, potentially causing health problems. This is a serious concern and the new REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances ) program dictates that materials releasing Bisphenol A should be removed from the market by January 1st, 2015 (2012-1442 law). Manufacturers have tried to satisfy this new regulation by depositing atop the PC a dense oxide-like protective coating that would act as a barrier layer. While high hardness, modulus, and density can be achieved by this approach, these coatings suffer from poor adhesion to the PC as evidenced by the numerous delamination events occurring under low scratch constraints. Here, we show that the combination of a N2/H2-plasma treatment of PC before depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic solution leads to a coating displaying elevated hardness, modulus, and density, along with a very high adherence to PC (> 20 J/m(2) as measured by double cantilever beam test). In this study, the sol-gel coatings were composed of hybrid O/I silica (based on organoalkoxysilanes and colloidal silica) and designed to favor covalent bonding between the hybrid network and the surface treated PC, hence increasing the contribution of the plastic deformation from the substrate. Interestingly, double-cantilever beam (DCB) tests showed that the coating's adhesion to PC was the same irrespective of the organoalkoxysilanes/colloidal silica ratio. The versatility of the sol-gel deposition techniques (dip-coating, spray-coating, etc.), together with the

  2. Effect of Multiple Coatings of One-step Self-etching Adhesive on Microtensile Bond Strength to Primary Dentin

    Lin Ma; Jian-feng Zhou; Jian-guo Tan; Quan Jing; Ji-zhi Zhao; Kuo Wan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of multiple coatings of the one-step self-etching adhesive on immediate microtensile bond strength to primary dentin.Methods Twelve caries-free human primary molars were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 teeth each. In group 1,each tooth was hemisected into two halves. One half was assigned to control subgroup 1,which was bonded with a single-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; the other half was assigned to experimental subgroup 1 in which the adhesive was applied three times before light curing. In group 2, the teeth were also hemisected into two halves. One half was assigned to control subgroup 2, which was bonded with the single-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; the other half was assigned to experimental subgroup 2 in which three layers of adhesive were applied with light curing each successive layer. Microtensile bond strength was immediately tested after specimen preparation.Results When the adhesive was applied three times before light curing, the bond strength of the experimental subgroup 1 (n=33, 57.49±11.61 MPa) was higher than that of the control subgroup 1 (n=31,49.71±11.43 MPa, P0.05).Conclusion multiple coatings of one-step self-etching adhesive can increase the immediate bond strength to primary dentin when using the technique of light-curing after applying three layers of adhesive.

  3. Lubricin as a novel nanostructured protein coating to reduce fibroblast density

    Aninwene, George Ejiofor; Yang, Zifan; Ravi, Vishnu; Jay, Gregory D; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on the surface of medical implants (such as catheters, endotracheal tubes, intraocular lenses, etc) can lead to major postsurgical complications. This study showed that when coated on tissue culture polystyrene, lubricin, a nanostructured mucinous glycoprotein found in the synovial fluid of joints, decreased fibroblast density for up to 2 days of culture compared to controls treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). When examining why, similar antifibroblast density results were found when coating tissue culture polystyrene with bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), an even smaller protein closely related to the central subregion of lubricin. Additionally, results from this study demonstrated that in contrast to BSM or controls (PBS-coated and non-coated samples), lubricin was better at preserving the health of nonadherent or loosely adherent fibroblasts; fibroblasts that did not adhere or loosely adhered on the lubricin-coated tissue culture polystyrene adhered and proliferated well for up to an additional day when they were reseeded on uncoated tissue culture polystyrene. In summary, this study provides evidence for the promise of nanostructured lubricin (and to a lesser extent BSM) to inhibit fibroblast adhesion and growth when coated on medical devices; lubricin should be further explored for numerous medical device applications. PMID:25028550

  4. Dissecting signaling and functions of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors

    Araç, Demet; Aust, Gabriela; Calebiro, Davide;

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise an expanded superfamily of receptors in the human genome. Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) form the second largest class of GPCRs. Despite the abundance, size, molecular structure, and functions in facilitating cell and matri...

  5. PVD-Alumina Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools: A Study About the Effect on Friction and Adhesion Mechanism

    S.E. Cordes

    2012-01-01

    Crystalline PVD γ-alumina coatings are interesting for machining operations due to their outstanding characteristics, such as high hot hardness, high thermal stability and low tendency to adhesion. In the present work (Ti,Al)N/γ-Al2O3-coatings are deposited on cemented carbide by means of MSIP. Objectives of this work are to study the effects of coating and cutting fluid regarding friction in tribological tests and to study the wear mechanisms and cutting performance of γ-Al2O3-based coated c...

  6. MULTILAYER COATINGS Ti/TiN, Cr/CrN AND W/WN DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION TO BASE MATERIALS

    Jakub Horník

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of single and multilayer layer PVD coatings based on Cr and Ti widely used in tool application. Additionally, W and WN based coating which are not so widespread were designed and deposited as functionally graded material. The coatings properties were evaluated from the point of view of hardness and adhesion. The hardness measuring was carried out using nanoindentation method. The scratch test was performed to test adhesion. Moreover, the presence of metallic interlayer in functionally graded materials further increases the coating adhesion by gradually approaching its composition to the substrate. Coatings consisting of W and WN have showed very good adhesion. With regard to the results of the scratch test, the multilayer coatings of CrN, TiN and WN have increased adhesion and can be assumed to have their protective function improved. Results will be appliedin development of functionally graded layers for functionally graded materials.

  7. Effect of vacuum conditions and plasma concentration on the chemical composition and adhesion of vacuum-plasma coatings

    Borisov, D. P.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Slabodchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on the chemical composition of titanium nitride (TiN) and silicon (Si) coatings deposited with a new technological vacuum plasma setup which comprises magnetron sputtering systems, arc evaporators, and an efficient plasma generator. It is shown that due to highly clean vacuum conditions and highly clean surface treatment in the gas discharge plasma, both the coating-substrate interface and the coatings as such are almost free from oxygen and carbon. It is found that the coating-substrate interface represents a layer of thickness ≥ 60 nm formed through vacuum plasma mixing of the coating and substrate materials. The TiN coatings obtained on the new equipment display a higher adhesion compared to brass coatings deposited by industrial technologies via intermediate titanium oxide layers. It is concluded that the designed vacuum plasma equipment allows efficient surface modification of materials and articles by vacuum plasma immersion processes.

  8. Biocompatible polymer coating of titania nanotube arrays for improved drug elution and osteoblast adhesion.

    Gulati, Karan; Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Aw, Moom Sinn; Atkins, Gerald J; Findlay, David M; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infection, extensive inflammation and poor osseointegration have been identified as the major reasons for [early] orthopaedic implant failures based on titanium. Creating implants with drug-eluting properties to locally deliver drugs is an appealing way to address some of these problems. To improve properties of titanium for orthopaedic applications, this study explored the modification of titanium surfaces with titaniananotube (TNT) arrays, and approach that combines drug delivery into bone and potentially improved bone integration. A titania layer with an array of nanotube structures (∼120 nm in diameter and 50 μm in length) was synthesized on titanium surfaces by electrochemical anodization and loaded with the water-insoluble anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. A simple dip-coating process of polymer modification formed thin biocompatible polymer films over the drug-loaded TNTs to create TNTs with predictable drug release characteristics. Two biodegradable and antibacterial polymers, chitosan and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), were tested for their ability to extend the drug release time of TNTs and produce favourable bone cell adhesion properties. Dependent on polymer thickness, a significant improvement in the drug release characteristics was demonstrated, with reduced burst release (from 77% to >20%) and extended overall release from 4 days to more than 30 days. Excellent osteoblast adhesion and cell proliferation on polymer-coated TNTs compared with uncoated TNTs were also observed. These results suggest that polymer-modified implants with a TNT layer are capable of delivering a drug to a bone site over an extended period and with predictable kinetics. In addition, favourable bone cell adhesion suggests that such an implant would have good biocompatibility. The described approach is broadly applicable to a wide range of drugs and implants currently used in orthopaedic practice. PMID:21930254

  9. Enhanced osteoblast adhesion to drug-coated anodized nanotubular titanium surfaces

    George E Aninwene II

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available George E Aninwene II1, Chang Yao2, Thomas J Webster21Department of Biochemical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD; 2Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Current orthopedic implants have functional lifetimes of only 10–15 years due to a variety of reasons including infection, extensive inflammation, and overall poor osseointegration (or a lack of prolonged bonding of the implant to juxtaposed bone. To improve properties of titanium for orthopedic applications, this study anodized and subsequently coated titanium with drugs known to reduce infection (penicillin/streptomycin and inflammation (dexamethasone using simple physical adsorption and the deposition of such drugs from simulated body fluid (SBF. Results showed improved drug elution from anodized nanotubular titanium when drugs were coated in the presence of SBF for up to 3 days. For the first time, results also showed that the simple physical adsorption of both penicillin/streptomycin and dexamethasone on anodized nanotubular titanium improved osteoblast numbers after 2 days of culture compared to uncoated unanodized titanium. In addition, results showed that depositing such drugs in SBF on anodized titanium was a more efficient method to promote osteoblast numbers compared to physical adsorption for up to 2 days of culture. In addition, osteoblast numbers increased on anodized titanium coated with drugs in SBF for up to 2 days of culture compared to unanodized titanium. In summary, compared to unanodized titanium, this preliminary study provided unexpected evidence of greater osteoblast numbers on anodized titanium coated with either penicillin/streptomycin or dexamethasone using simple physical adsorption or when coated with SBF; results which suggest the need for further research on anodized titanium orthopedic implants possessing drug-eluting nanotubes.Keywords: anodization, titanium, adhesion, simulated body fluid, nanotubes

  10. Adhesion property and high-temperature oxidation behavior of Cr-coated Zircaloy-4 cladding tube prepared by 3D laser coating

    Kim, Hyun-Gil; Kim, Il-Hyun; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jeong-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    A 3D laser coating technology using Cr powder was developed for Zr-based alloys considering parameters such as: the laser beam power, inert gas flow, cooling of Zr-based alloys, and Cr powder control. This technology was then applied to Zr cladding tube samples to study the effect of Cr coating on the high-temperature oxidation of Zr-based alloys in a steam environment of 1200 °C for 2000s. It was revealed that the oxide layer thickness formed on the Cr-coated tube surface was about 25-times lower than that formed on a Zircaloy-4 tube surface. In addition, both the ring compression and the tensile tests were performed to evaluate the adhesion properties of the Cr-coated sample. Although some cracks were formed on the Cr-coated layer, the Cr-coated layer had not peeled off after the two tests.

  11. Blocking of bacterial biofilm formation by a fish protein coating

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    proteinaceous coating is characterized with regards to its biofilm-reducing properties by using a range of urinary tract infectious isolates with various pathogenic and adhesive properties. The antiadhesive coating significantly reduced or delayed biofilm formation by all these isolates under every condition......Bacterial biofilm formation on inert surfaces is a significant health and economic problem in a wide range of environmental, industrial, and medical areas. Bacterial adhesion is generally a prerequisite for this colonization process and, thus, represents an attractive target for the development of...... biofilm-preventive measures. We have previously found that the preconditioning of several different inert materials with an aqueous fish muscle extract, composed primarily of fish muscle alpha-tropomyosin, significantly discourages bacterial attachment and adhesion to these surfaces. Here, this...

  12. Evaluation of Underwater Adhesives and Friction Coatings for In Situ Attachment of Fiber Optic Sensor System for Subsea Applications

    Tang, Henry H.; Le, Suy Q.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Smith, Frederick D.; Tapia, Alma S.; Brower, David V.

    2012-01-01

    Integrity and performance monitoring of subsea pipelines and structures provides critical information for managing offshore oil and gas production operation and preventing environmentally damaging and costly catastrophic failure. Currently pipeline monitoring devices require ground assembly and installation prior to the underwater deployment of the pipeline. A monitoring device that could be installed in situ on the operating underwater structures could enhance the productivity and improve the safety of current offshore operation. Through a Space Act Agreement (SAA) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Astro Technology, Inc. (ATI), JSC provides technical expertise and testing facilities to support the development of fiber optic sensor technologies by ATI. This paper details the first collaboration effort between NASA JSC and ATI in evaluating underwater applicable adhesives and friction coatings for attaching fiber optic sensor system to subsea pipeline. A market survey was conducted to examine different commercial ]off ]the ]shelf (COTS) underwater adhesive systems and to select adhesive candidates for testing and evaluation. Four COTS epoxy based underwater adhesives were selected and evaluated. The adhesives were applied and cured in simulated seawater conditions and then evaluated for application characteristics and adhesive strength. The adhesive that demonstrated the best underwater application characteristics and highest adhesive strength were identified for further evaluation in developing an attachment system that could be deployed in the harsh subsea environment. Various friction coatings were also tested in this study to measure their shear strengths for a mechanical clamping design concept for attaching fiber optic sensor system. A COTS carbide alloy coating was found to increase the shear strength of metal to metal clamping interface by up to 46 percent. This study provides valuable data for

  13. The influence of titanium interlayers on the adhesion of PVD TiN coatings on oxidized stainless steel substrates

    It has been shown that the use of thin titanium interlayers improves the coating-substrate adhesion of physical vapour deposition (PVD) titanium nitride thin films on a stainless steel substrate. This improvement arises from a combination of chemical gettering and mechanical compliance effects. The improved adhesion of plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition TiN coatings with increasing interlayer thickness has been shown to be largely attributable to the compliance effect. The development of practical methods to improve adhesion is hampered by the difficulties involved in quantitative measurements of the effect. To avoid the influence of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters involved in scratch test and microhardness measurements, efforts have been made to apply fracture mechanical testing methods to the determination of the adhesion strength of the film on the substrate (S. Berg, S. W. Kim, V. Grajewski and E. Fromm, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 139 (1991) 345). In our study the influence of Ti interlayers on the adhesion of PVD TiN coatings on oxidized stainless steel substrates was investigated using a pull-off test for adhesion measurements and scanning tunnelling microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry for analysis of the fractured surfaces. It was shown that the thickness of the Ti layer must be chosen according to the thickness of the oxide layer. An excess of Ti leads to lower adhesion values due to failure in the Ti layer, while a shortage of Ti leads to unreacted oxide and minimum adhesion due to brittle fracture in the oxide layer, which was shown to be amorphous. (orig.)

  14. Adhesion of ceramic coating on thin and smooth metal substrate: A novel approach with a nano-structured ceramic interlayer

    The adhesion of plasma-sprayed coating is, to a large extent, controlled by the cleanness and roughness of the surface on which the coating is deposited. So, most of the plasma spray procedures involve surface pretreatment by grit-blasting to adapt the roughness of the surface to the size of the impacting particles. This preparation process brings about compressive stresses that make it inappropriate for thin substrates. The present works aim to elaborate a thick ceramic coating (about 0.5 mm thick) on a thin metal substrate (1 mm thick) with a smooth surface (Ra of about 0.4 μm). The coating system is intended for use in a Generation-IV nuclear energy system. It must exhibit a good adhesion between the ceramic topcoat and the smooth metal substrate to meet the specifications of the application. Our approach consisted of depositing the ceramic topcoat by air plasma spraying on a few micrometers thick ceramic layer made by suspension plasma spraying. This nano-structured layer played the role of a bond coat for the topcoat and made it possible to deposit it on the as-received substrate. The adhesion of the nano-structured layer was measured by the Vickers indentation cracking technique and that of the ceramic duplex coating system by tensile test. (authors)

  15. Adhesive strength and structure of micro-arc oxidation ceramic coatings grown in-situ on LY12 aluminum alloy

    WU Zhen-dong; JIANG Zhao-hua; YAO Zhong-ping

    2006-01-01

    The ceramic coatings containing zirconium dioxide were grown in-situ on LY12 aluminium alloy by micro-arc oxidation in mixed zirconate and phosphate solution. The phase composition and morphology of the coatings were studied by XRD and SEM.The adhesive strength of ceramic coatings was assessed by thermal shock test and tensile test. The results show that the coating is composed of m-ZrO2, t-ZrO2, and a little γ-Al2O3. Along the section of the coating, t-ZrO2 is more onboth sides than that in the middle, while m-ZrO2 is more in the middle than that on both sides. Meantime the coating is also composed of a dense layer and a loose layer. The coating has excellent thermal shock resistance under 550 ℃ and 600 ℃. And tensile tests show the adhesive strength of the dense layer of the coating with the substrate is more than 17.5 MPa.

  16. Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood adhesive.

    Liu, Dagang; Chen, Huihuang; Chang, Peter R; Wu, Qinglin; Li, Kaifu; Guan, Litao

    2010-08-01

    Despite the biodegradability, non-toxicity, and renewability, commercially available soy protein-based adhesives still have not been widely adopted by industry, partially due to their disappointing performances, i.e., low glue strength in the dry state and no glue strength in the wet state. In this study, biomimetic soy protein/CaCO(3) hybrid wood glue was devised and an attempt made to improve the adhesion strength. The structure and morphology of the adhesive and its fracture bonding interface and adhesion strength were investigated. Results showed that the compact rivets or interlocking links, and ion crosslinking of calcium, carbonate, hydroxyl ions in the adhesive greatly improving the water-resistance and bonding strength of soy protein adhesives. Glue strength of soy protein hybrid adhesive was higher than 6 MPa even after three water-immersion cycles. This green and sustainable proteinous hybrid adhesive, with high glue strength and good water-resistance, is a good substitute for formaldehyde wood glues. PMID:20307978

  17. Flavonoids inhibit cytokine-induced endothelial cell adhesion protein gene expression.

    Gerritsen, M. E.; Carley, W. W.; Ranges, G. E.; Shen, C. P.; Phan, S. A.; Ligon, G. F.; Perry, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of human endothelial cells with cytokines such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma induces the expression of specific leukocyte adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface. Interfering with either leukocyte adhesion or adhesion protein upregulation is an important therapeutic target as evidenced by the potent anti-inflammatory actions of neutralizing antibodies to these ligands in various animal models and in patients. In the present ...

  18. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of ...

  19. Multiple Coatings can Improve the Bond Durability of One-step Self-etching Adhesive to Primary Dentin

    Lin Ma; Jian-feng Zhou; Quan Jing; Ji-zhi Zhao; Kuo Wan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether multiple coatings can improve the bond durability of one-step self-etching adhesive to primary dentin.Methods Twelve caries-free human primary molars were randomly divided into 2 groups.In group 1,each tooth was hemisected into 2 halves.One half was assigned to the control subgroup 1,which was bonded with a commercially available one-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; the other half was assigned to experimental subgroup 1,in which the adhesive was applied three times before light curing.In group 2,one split half tooth was bonded with a commercially available one-step self-etching adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions; for the other half,three layers of adhesive were applied with each successive layer of light curing.Specimens were stored in 0.9% NaCl containing 0.02% sodium azide at 37℃ for 18 months and then were subjected to microtensile bond strength test and the fracture mode analysis.Results When the adhesive was applied three times before light curing,the bond strength of the experimental subgroup 1 was significandy higher than that of the control subgroup 1 (47.46±13.91 vs.38.12±11.21 MPa,P<0.05).When using the technique of applying multiple layers of adhesive with each successive layer of light curing,no difference was observed in bond strength between the control subgroup and the experimental subgroup (39.40±8.87 vs.40.87±9.33 MPa,P>0.05).Conclusion Multiple coatings can improve the bond durability of one-step self-etching adhesive to primary dentin when using the technique of light-curing after applying 3 layers of adhesive.

  20. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    Zhang, Pengjie; Xu, Guangqing; Liu, Jiaqin; Yi, Xiaofei; Wu, Yucheng; Chen, JingWu

    2016-02-01

    Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm2) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  1. Evaluation of interface adhesion of hot-dipped zinc coating on TRIP steel with tensile testing and finite element calculation

    Song, G.M.; De Hosson, J.T.M.; Sloof, W.G.; Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for the determination of the interface adhesion strength of zinc coating on TRIP steel is present. This method consists of a conventional tensile test in combination with finite element calculation. The relation between the average interface crack length and the applied t

  2. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti, E-mail: joserenatocq@hotmail.com [Potiguar University, Department of Biotechnology, Natal (Brazil); Nogueira Junior, Lafayette [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Massi, Marcos [Federal University of São Paulo, Institute of Science and Technology, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva [Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Department of Physics, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Özcan, Mutlu [University of Zurich, Dental Materials Unit, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Materials Science, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  3. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0-14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  4. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  5. Corrosion, haemocompatibility and bacterial adhesion behaviour of TiZrN-coated 316L SS for bioimplants

    Gobi Saravanan Kaliaraj; Vinita Vishwakarma; Ananthakumar Ramadoss; D Ramachandran; Arul Maximus Rabel

    2015-08-01

    TiZrN coating was deposited on 316L stainless steel (SS) by the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Cubic phase of TiZrN with uniform surface morphology was observed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Bacterial adhesion, haemocompatibility and corrosion behaviour of TiZrN coating were examined in order to evaluate the coating’s compatibility for ideal implant. Results revealed that TiZrN coatings exhibited less bacterial attachment against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, negligible platelets activation and superior corrosion resistance than the uncoated 316L SS.

  6. Protein Recovery from Secondary Paper Sludge and Its Potential Use as Wood Adhesive

    Pervaiz, Muhammad

    Secondary sludge is an essential part of biosolids produced through the waste treatment plant of paper mills. Globally paper mills generate around 3.0 million ton of biosolids and in the absence of beneficial applications, the handling and disposal of this residual biomass poses a serious environmental and economic proposition. Secondary paper sludges were investigated in this work for recovery of proteins and their use as wood adhesive. After identifying extracellular polymeric substances as adhesion pre-cursors through analytical techniques, studies were carried out to optimize protein recovery from SS and its comprehensive characterization. A modified physicochemical protocol was developed to recover protein from secondary sludge in substantial quantities. The combined effect of French press and sonication techniques followed by alkali treatment resulted in significant improvement of 44% in the yield of solubilized protein compared to chemical methods. The characterization studies confirmed the presence of common amino acids in recovered sludge protein in significant quantities and heavy metal concentration was reduced after recovery process. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed the presence of both low and high molecular weight protein fractions in recovered sludge protein. After establishing the proof-of-concept in the use of recovered sludge protein as wood adhesive, the bonding mechanism of protein adhesives with cellulose substrate was further elucidated in a complementary protein-modification study involving soy protein isolate and its glycinin fractions. The results of this study validated the prevailing bonding theories by proving that surface wetting, protein structure, and type of wood play important role in determining final adhesive strength. Recovered sludge protein was also investigated for its compatibility to formulate hybrid adhesive blends with formaldehyde and bio-based polymers. Apart from chemical

  7. Nanostructure protein repellant amphiphilic copolymer coatings with optimized surface energy by Inductively Excited Low Pressure Plasma.

    Bhatt, Sudhir; Pulpytel, Jérome; Ceccone, Giacomo; Lisboa, Patricia; Rossi, François; Kumar, Virendra; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2011-12-01

    Statistically designed amphiphilic copolymer coatings were deposited onto Thermanox, Si wafer, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) substrates via Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate and diethylene glycol vinyl ether in an Inductively Excited Low Pressure Plasma reactor. Plasma deposited amphiphilic coatings were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Water Contact Angle techniques. The surface energy of the coatings can be adjusted between 12 and 70 mJ/m(2). The roughness of the coatings can be tailored depending on the plasma mode used. A very smooth coating was deposited with a CW (continuous wave) power, whereas a rougher surface with R(a) in the range of 2 to 12 nm was deposited with the PW (pulsed wave) mode. The nanometer scale roughness of amphiphilic PFDA-co-DEGVE coatings was found to be in the range of the size of the two proteins namely BSA and lysozyme used to examine for the antifouling properties of the surfaces. The results show that the statistically designed surfaces, presenting a surface energy around 25 mJ/m(2), present no adhesion with respect to both proteins measured by QCM. PMID:22029599

  8. Experimental strategies for the identification and characterization of adhesive proteins in animals: a review.

    Hennebert, Elise; Maldonado, Barbara; Ladurner, Peter; Flammang, Patrick; Santos, Romana

    2015-02-01

    Adhesive secretions occur in both aquatic and terrestrial animals, in which they perform diverse functions. Biological adhesives can therefore be remarkably complex and involve a large range of components with different functions and interactions. However, being mainly protein based, biological adhesives can be characterized by classical molecular methods. This review compiles experimental strategies that were successfully used to identify, characterize and obtain the full-length sequence of adhesive proteins from nine biological models: echinoderms, barnacles, tubeworms, mussels, sticklebacks, slugs, velvet worms, spiders and ticks. A brief description and practical examples are given for a variety of tools used to study adhesive molecules at different levels from genes to secreted proteins. In most studies, proteins, extracted from secreted materials or from adhesive organs, are analysed for the presence of post-translational modifications and submitted to peptide sequencing. The peptide sequences are then used directly for a BLAST search in genomic or transcriptomic databases, or to design degenerate primers to perform RT-PCR, both allowing the recovery of the sequence of the cDNA coding for the investigated protein. These sequences can then be used for functional validation and recombinant production. In recent years, the dual proteomic and transcriptomic approach has emerged as the best way leading to the identification of novel adhesive proteins and retrieval of their complete sequences. PMID:25657842

  9. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  10. Improvement of adhesion of diamond-like coatings to steel using a transition layer of variable composition

    The influence of transition layer composition on adhesive strength of a diamond-like coating deposited on steel Kh12M is under study. The transition layer ∼ 100 nm thick was formed as a Ti-C structure with carbon content varying from 0 to 100%. This structure resulted from the deposition of arc sputtered Ti and pulsed arc sputtered graphite from two sources simultaneously. The concentration of C in the transition layer was controlled thought the variation of a carbon deposition rate at a constant Ti deposition velocity. The adhesion strength was determined from the extent of coating exfoliation near a scratch or from cone indentation of a Rockwell hardness meter. The best adhesion of coatings 1-2μ thick is attained when a 20 nm thin layer of Ti is covered with carbon-titanium mixture, not lower TiC in composition, with progressive transition to a pure diamond-like coating. Measurements of microhardness, friction properties and wear rate in abrasive powder show high quality of diamond-like coatings on steel if the transition layer is of optimal composition

  11. Structure, Substructure, Hardness and Adhesion Strength of Multiperiod Composite Coatings MoN / CrN

    S.S. Grankin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of the influence of the thickness of the layers, Us and PN on the structural engineering to obtain high mechanical properties in multilayer composite MoN / CrN vacuum-arc coatings has been conducted by means of scanning electron microscopy with energy analysis, X-ray diffraction studies microindentation and scratch testing methods. It has been determined that in the studied PN = (2-30 × 10 – 4 Torr, the content of nitrogen in the coatings varies from 6.3 to 33 at. %, which leads even at the greatest nitrogen content to the formation of lower phase by nitrogen, γ-Mo2N and isostructural CrN with the vacant sites in the nitrogen sublattice. The increase of thickness of the layers applied on the substrate in a stationary state promotes the increase of nitrogen content. Along with this, the lowest microdeformation and the average size of crystallites are formed at Ub = – 300 V, which defines the achievement of greater hardness of 35 GPa and high adhesion strength, which resists the destruction, Lc5 = 187.6 N.

  12. Effect of protein on the dissolution of HA coatings.

    Bender, S A; Bumgardner, J D; Roach; Bessho, K; Ong, J L

    2000-02-01

    The dissolution behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) in the presence and absence of protein needs to be investigated in order to fully understand the initial cellular response to HA surfaces. In this study, HA coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) prior to protein study. Fibronectin and albumin adsorption study were also performed. Calcium and phosphorus released in the presence and absence of albumin were measured. pH of the solution was measured daily. From the materials characterization, it was observed that the coatings exhibit a HA-type structure, with traces of sodium on the surface. FTIR indicated the possible presence of carbonates on the coatings. From the adsorption study, the amount of albumin adsorbed (0.052+/-0.005 microg/mm2) was statistically higher than the amount of fibronectin adsorbed on HA surfaces (0.035+/-0.002 microg/mm2). Flame atomic absorption indicated a significantly higher calcium ions released initially for HA coatings incubated with proteins as compared to coatings in the absence of proteins. However, after 7 days incubation, no significant difference in calcium ions release was observed between the HA coatings in the presence and absence of proteins. Phosphorus dissolution on HA coatings was not significantly affected by the presence of proteins. Thus, it was suggested from this study that the initial dissolution properties of calcium ions from HA coatings was dependent on the media. PMID:10646947

  13. Silver-nanoparticle-coated biliary stent inhibits bacterial adhesion in bacterial cholangitis in swine

    Wei Wen; Li-Mei Ma; Wei He; Xiao-Wei Tang; Yin Zhang; Xiang Wang; Li Liu; Zhi-Ning Fan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major limitations of biliary stents is the stent occlusion, which is closely related to the over-growth of bacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a novel silver-nanoparticle-coated polyurethane (Ag/PU) stent in bacterial cholangitis model in swine. METHODS: Ag/PU was designed by coating silver nanopar-ticles on polyurethane (PU) stent. Twenty-four healthy pigs with bacterial cholangitis using Ag/PU and PU stents were ran-domly divided into an Ag/PU stent group (n=12) and a PU stent group (n=12), respectively. The stents were inserted by standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Laboratory assay was performed for white blood cell (WBC) count, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at baseline time, 8 hours, 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after stent placements. The segment of bile duct containing the stent was examined histologically ex vivo. Implanted bili-ary stents were examined by a scan electron microscope. The amount of silver release was also measured in vitro. RESULTS: The number of inflammatory cells and level of ALT, IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly lower in the Ag/PU stent group than in the PU stent group. Hyperplasia of the mucosa was more severe in the PU stent group than in the Ag/PU stent group. In contrast to the biofilm of bacteria on the PU stent, fewer bacteria adhered to the Ag/PU stent. CONCLUSIONS: PU biliary stents modified with silver nanoparticles are able to alleviate the inflammation of pigs with bacterial cholangitis. Silver-nanoparticle-coated stents are resistant to bacterial adhesion.

  14. PROTEIN EXTRACTION FROM SECONDARY SLUDGE OF PAPER MILL WASTEWATER AND ITS UTILIZATION AS A WOOD ADHESIVE

    Muhammad Pervaiz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, secondary sludge (SS from a kraft paper mill was used as a source of biomass to recover protein and investigate its potential use as a wood adhesive. The process of protein recovery involved disruption of the floc structure in alkaline medium to disintegrate and release intercellular contents into the aqueous phase followed by separation of soluble protein. Finally, the soluble protein was subjected to low pH precipitation and the pelletized sludge protein, referred to as recovered sludge protein (RSP was tested for crude protein, moisture, and other contents. A significant process yield of 90% in terms of precipitation of soluble protein from disintegrated sludge was estimated through calorimetric studies, whereas an overall material balance confirmed a RSP yield of up to 23% based on total suspended solids of raw sludge. The RSP containing 30% crude protein was used as a wood adhesive and its adhesion performance was compared with soy protein isolate (SPI and phenol formaldehyde (PF resin. The testing of plywood lap joints has shown up to 41% shear strength level of RSP adhesive compared to PF. This work demonstrates the technical feasibility and potential of SS as a biomass resource to develop eco-friendly adhesives for wood composite applications.

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of coated vesicle protein in rodent nervous system

    1980-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry has been used to study the distribution of the major 180,000-mol wt protein of coated vesicles in rodent cerebellum. An antibody to the coat protein was prepared in rabbits and characterized by immunodiffusion and immunofixation of polyacrylamide gels. At the light microscope level the protein was primarily localized in punctate profiles surrounding Purkinje cells and within the cerebellar glomeruli. At the electron microscope level the punctate distribution was confined t...

  16. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein MEFP-2 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-02-07

    The present invention includes a Mytilus edulis cDNA having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-2 (Mefp-2), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-2 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-2 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-2 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-2 gene sequences will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  17. Cloning and expression of recombinant adhesive protein Mefp-1 of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    Silverman, Heather G.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2006-01-17

    The present invention comprises a Mytilus edulis cDNA sequenc having a nucleotide sequence that encodes for the Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 (Mefp-1), an example of a mollusk foot protein. Mefp-1 is an integral component of the blue mussels' adhesive protein complex, which allows the mussel to attach to objects underwater. The isolation, purification and sequencing of the Mefp-1 gene will allow researchers to produce Mefp-1 protein using genetic engineering techniques. The discovery of Mefp-1 gene sequence will also allow scientists to better understand how the blue mussel creates its waterproof adhesive protein complex.

  18. Study of green film-forming corrosion inhibitor based on mussel adhesive protein

    Holmér, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Today there are numerous methods to slow down a corrosion process of metallic materials. However, due to environmental effects and health risk issues, several traditional corrosion inhibitors have to be phased out. Hence, it is of great importance to develop new corrosion inhibitors that are “green”, safe, smart and multifunctional. In this essay, the focus is on mussel adhesive protein (MAP) and its possibility to reduce the rate of the corrosion process. The protein exhibit great adhesive s...

  19. Surface adhesion of fusion proteins containing the hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII from Trichoderma reesei

    Linder, Markus; Szilvay, Geza R.; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Söderlund, Hans; Penttilä, Merja

    2002-01-01

    Hydrophobins are surface-active proteins produced by filamentous fungi, where they seem to be ubiquitous. They have a variety of roles in fungal physiology related to surface phenomena, such as adhesion, formation of surface layers, and lowering of surface tension. Hydrophobins can be divided into two classes based on the hydropathy profile of their primary sequence. We have studied the adhesion behavior of two Trichoderma reesei class II hydrophobins, HFBI and HFBII, as isolated proteins and...

  20. Effect of Water-Glass Coating on HA and HA-TCP Samples for MSCs Adhesion, Proliferation, and Differentiation.

    Bajpai, Indu; Kim, Duk Yeon; Kyong-Jin, Jung; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ca-P and silicon based materials have become very popular as bone tissue engineering materials. In this study, water-glass (also known as sodium silicate glass) was coated on sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-TCP (TCP stands for tricalcium phosphate) samples and subsequently heat-treated at 600°C for 2 hrs. X-rays diffraction showed the presence of β- and α-TCP phases along with HA in the HA-TCP samples. Samples without coating, with water-glass coating, and heat-treated after water-glass coating were used to observe the adhesion and proliferation response of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Cell culture was carried out for 4 hrs, 1 day, and 7 days. Interestingly, all samples showed similar response for cell adhesion and proliferation up to 7-day culture but fibronectin, E-cadherin, and osteogenic differentiation related genes (osteocalcin and osteopontin) were significantly induced in heat-treated water-glass coated HA-TCP samples. A water-glass coating on Ca-P samples was not found to influence the cell proliferation response significantly but activated some extracellular matrix genes and induced osteogenic differentiation in the MSCs. PMID:27429988

  1. INTERFACIAL ADHESION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PMMA-COATED CaCO3 NANOPARTICLE-REINFORCED PVC COMPOSITES

    Xuehua Chen; Chunzhong Li; Shoufang Xu; Ling Zhang; Wei Shao; H. L. Du

    2006-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated nano-CaCO3 particles were prepared by in-situ emulsion polymerization. The mechanical properties of nano-CaCO3 particles-reinforced PVC were investigated using an AG-2000A universal testing machine and an XJU-2.75 izod impact tester; interfacial adhesion between CaCO3 nanoparticles and PVC matrix by SEM, and structure of PMMA coated on the surface of CaCO3 by FTIR and 1H-NMR. The results indicate that the PMMA coated on the nano CaCO3 particles consists mainly of syndiotactic structure, and their three tacticity contents were rr 52.8%, mm 7.3% and mr 39.9%, respectively. The interfacial adhesion between CaCO3 nanoparticles and PVC matrix was significantly improved when the CaCO3 nanoparticles were coated with PMMA, which led to increased Young's moduli and tensile strengths of the PMMA-coated CaCO3/PVC composites. The izod impact strengths of the composites were strongly affected by the PMMA coating thickness and increased significantly with increasing the volume fraction of CaCO3 filler in the composites.

  2. Candle soot-based super-amphiphobic coatings resist protein adsorption.

    Schmüser, Lars; Encinas, Noemi; Paven, Maxime; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Super nonfouling surfaces resist protein adhesion and have a broad field of possible applications in implant technology, drug delivery, blood compatible materials, biosensors, and marine coatings. A promising route toward nonfouling surfaces involves liquid repelling architectures. The authors here show that soot-templated super-amphiphobic (SAP) surfaces prepared from fluorinated candle soot structures are super nonfouling. When exposed to bovine serum albumin or blood serum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis showed that less than 2 ng/cm(2) of protein was adsorbed onto the SAP surfaces. Since a broad variety of substrate shapes can be coated by soot-templated SAP surfaces, those are a promising route toward biocompatible materials design. PMID:27460261

  3. Improving the Adhesion Resistance of the Boride Coatings to AISI 316L Steel Substrate by Diffusion Annealing

    Campos-Silva, I.; Bernabé-Molina, S.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Martínez-Trinidad, J.; Rodríguez-Castro, G.; Meneses-Amador, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, new results about the practical adhesion resistance of boride coating/substrate system formed at the surface of AISI 316 L steel and improved by means of a diffusion annealing process are presented. First, the boriding of AISI 316 L steel was performed by the powder-pack method at 1173 K with different exposure times (4-8 h). The diffusion annealing process was conducted on the borided steels at 1273 K with 2 h of exposure using a diluent atmosphere of boron powder mixture. The mechanical behavior of the boride coating/substrate system developed by both treatments was established using Vickers and Berkovich tests along the depth of the boride coatings, respectively. Finally, for the entire set of experimental conditions, the scratch tests were performed with a continuously increasing normal force, in which the practical adhesion resistance of the boride coating/substrate system was represented by the critical load. The failure mechanisms developed over the surface of the scratch tracks were analyzed; the FeB-Fe2B/substrate system exhibited an adhesive mode, while the Fe2B/substrate system obtained by the diffusion annealing process showed predominantly a cohesive failure mode.

  4. The Investigation of the Effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation Modes on the Adhesion Strength of Coatings

    N.Yu. Dudareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of the properties of hardened surface layers formed by micro-arc oxidation on the workpiece surfaces of aluminum alloy Al-12Si-Mg-Cu-Ni. The authors attempted to determine the influence of micro-arc oxidation modes on the properties of the modified layers. Investigation of the adhesion strength of the surface layers formed at different concentrations of electrolyte components and analysis of the change in coatings adhesion characteristics after thermal cycling were presented.

  5. PROTEIN EXTRACTION FROM SECONDARY SLUDGE OF PAPER MILL WASTEWATER AND ITS UTILIZATION AS A WOOD ADHESIVE

    Muhammad Pervaiz; Mohini Sain

    2011-01-01

    In this study, secondary sludge (SS) from a kraft paper mill was used as a source of biomass to recover protein and investigate its potential use as a wood adhesive. The process of protein recovery involved disruption of the floc structure in alkaline medium to disintegrate and release intercellular contents into the aqueous phase followed by separation of soluble protein. Finally, the soluble protein was subjected to low pH precipitation and the pelletized sludge protein, referred to as reco...

  6. Effect of adhesion proteins and surface chemistry on the procoagulant state of adherent platelets

    Grunkemeier, John Mark

    Poor hemocompatibility of a blood contacting device can lead to blood clotting, reduced blood flow, and depletion of platelets from the blood. Improved understanding of the processes by which blood-material contact leads to these responses could result in more hemocompatible materials. Platelets accelerate blood clotting by adhesion, aggregation, secretion of proteins and agonists and acceleration of thrombin generation. Platelets are said to be "procoagulant" after phosphatidylserine residues flip from the cytosolic to the extracellular face of the lipid bilayer. This then allows for the assembly of the prothrombinase complex (Xa, Va and calcium) on the platelet membrane, which can rapidly convert prothrombin to thrombin. In this study, three different methods confirmed that adhesion causes platelets to become procoagulant: shortening of clotting times of recalcified plasma, binding of FITC-annexin V, and generation of thrombin in the presence of Va, Xa and prothrombin by adherent platelets. Adherent platelets were 10--23 times more activated than bulk phase unactivated platelets and 10--24 times less activated than bulk phase platelets activated by calcium ionophore. The role of adsorbed fibrinogen, vWF, mixtures of fibrinogen and vWF, fibronectin, whole and dilute plasma, and plasma deficient in adhesion proteins in stimulating platelet procoagulant activity was investigated. The results of these experiments suggested that adhesion proteins affect procoagulant activation to varying degrees and that surfaces preadsorbed with mixtures of adhesion proteins are more activating that surfaces preadsorbed with single adhesion proteins. The hypothesis that materials that affect tightness of binding of adsorbed adhesion proteins affect platelet procoagulant activity was investigated. These studies showed that increasing fluorine content of RFGD polymerized films caused reduced platelet adhesion, but increased procoagulant activity, possibly due to their ability to adsorb

  7. Hydroxyapatite coating on the titanium substrate modulated by a recombinant collagen-like protein

    Research highlights: → Hydroxyapatite was deposited on alkali-heat treated Ti substrate by immersing in 1.5 x SBF solution containing the recombinant collagen-like protein. → The recombinant collagen-like protein accelerated the preferential nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite along c axis on the Ti substrate. → Hydroxyapatite-collagen composite on the Ti substrate promoted the attachment, subsequently proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells. - Abstract: Plenty of techniques have been developed to modify the surface character of titanium (Ti) and its alloys in order to realize their biological bond to natural bone. In this work, a biomimetic process was employed to form a hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on the alkali-heat treated Ti substrate in 1.5 times simulated body fluid (1.5 x SBF) with the addition of a recombinant collagen-like protein. The coating was characterized using SEM-EDX, FESEM, and XRD. Results showed that the recombinant collagen-like protein could accelerate the preferential nucleation and directional growth along c axis of HAp on the pretreated Ti substrates. The investigation of in vitro cell cultivation showed that the existence of recombinant collagen-like protein in coating could improve the initial cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cells, which implied the materials possessed excellent biocompatibility and had a wide potential in biomedical application.

  8. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    Mäder, Edith; Liu, Jian-Wen; Hiller, Janett; Lu, Weibang; Li, Qingwen; Zhandarov, Serge; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test. In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis. The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this, shear sliding along

  9. Coating of carbon nanotube fibers: variation of tensile properties, failure behavior and adhesion strength

    Edith eMäder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the tensile properties of CNT fibers and their interphasial behavior in epoxy matrices is reported. One of the most promising applications of CNT fibers is their use as reinforcement in multifunctional composites. For this purpose, an increase of the tensile strength of the CNT fibers in unidirectional composites as well as strong interfacial adhesion strength is desirable. However, the mechanical performance of the CNT fiber composites manufactured so far is comparable to that of commercial fiber composites. The interfacial properties of CNT fiber/polymer composites have rarely been investigated and provided CNT fiber/epoxy interfacial shear strength of 14.4 MPa studied by the microbond test.In order to improve the mechanical performance of the CNT fibers, an epoxy compatible coating with nano-dispersed aqueous based polymeric film formers and low viscous epoxy resin, respectively, was applied. For impregnation of high homogeneity, low molecular weight epoxy film formers and polyurethane film formers were used. The aqueous based epoxy film formers were not crosslinked and able to interdiffuse with the matrix resin after impregnation. Due to good wetting of the individual CNT fibers by the film formers, the degree of activation of the fibers was improved leading to increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus. Cyclic tensile loading and simultaneous determination of electric resistance enabled to characterize the fiber’s durability in terms of elastic recovery and hysteresis.The pull-out tests and SEM study reveal different interfacial failure mechanisms in CNT fiber/epoxy systems for untreated and film former treated fibers, on the one hand, and epoxy resin treated ones, on the other hand. The epoxy resin penetrated between the CNT bundles in the reference or film former coated fiber, forming a relatively thick CNT/epoxy composite layer and thus shifting the fracture zone within the fiber. In contrast to this

  10. Lubricin as a novel nanostructured protein coating to reduce fibroblast density

    Aninwene II GE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available George Ejiofor Aninwene II,1 Zifan Yang,2 Vishnu Ravi,3 Gregory D Jay,2,4 Thomas J Webster1,51Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Brown University, School of Medicine, Providence, RI, USA; 5Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Excessive fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on the surface of medical implants (such as catheters, endotracheal tubes, intraocular lenses, etc can lead to major postsurgical complications. This study showed that when coated on tissue culture polystyrene, lubricin, a nanostructured mucinous glycoprotein found in the synovial fluid of joints, decreased fibroblast density for up to 2 days of culture compared to controls treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS. When examining why, similar antifibroblast density results were found when coating tissue culture polystyrene with bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM, an even smaller protein closely related to the central subregion of lubricin. Additionally, results from this study demonstrated that in contrast to BSM or controls (PBS-coated and non-coated samples, lubricin was better at preserving the health of nonadherent or loosely adherent fibroblasts; fibroblasts that did not adhere or loosely adhered on the lubricin-coated tissue culture polystyrene adhered and proliferated well for up to an additional day when they were reseeded on uncoated tissue culture polystyrene. In summary, this study provides evidence for the promise of nanostructured lubricin (and to a lesser extent BSM to inhibit fibroblast adhesion and growth when coated on medical devices; lubricin should be further explored for numerous medical device applications.Keywords: lubricin, antiadhesive, fibroblasts, mucin

  11. The Study of the Grit-blasting Parameters and Their Effects on the Adhesive Strength of the Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    M; Heydarzadeh; Sohi; M; Frooghieh; Sh; Khameneh; Asl

    2002-01-01

    Surface Preparation is very important in adhesive b on ding of spray coatings to the surface of a work piece. The common practice is gr it-blasting of the surface before subjecting it to the spray coating process. In this study, grit-blasting of an AISI 4130 steel (of different heat treatmen ts) with Al 2O 3 particles was studied. Various grit-blasting parameters such as blasting particle size, the distance between blasting nozzle and the work pi ece (25, 30 and 40 cm.), blasting pressure (3,4,5,6 and ...

  12. Employing SiO_2 Buffer Layer to Improve Adhesion of the Frequency-doubled Antireflection Coating on LBO

    TAN Tianya; SHAN Jing; WU Wei; GUO Yongxin; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-doubled antireflection coatings simultaneously effective at 1064 nm and 532 nm were deposited on the lithium triborate(LiB_3O_5 or LBO)crystals using the electron beam evaporation method.Comparing with the sample without buffer layer,it is found that the adhesion of the sample with buffer layer of SiO_2 between coating and LBO substrate is improved significantly from 137.4 mN to greater than 200 mN.And the laser-induced damage threshold is increased by 20% from 15.1 J/cm~2 to 18.6 J/cm~2 .The strengthening mechanism of adhesion of the buffer layer of SiO_2 is discussed by considering full plastic indentation and shear theory.

  13. Influence of superalloy substrate roughness on adhesion and oxidation behavior of magnetron-sputtered NiCoCrAlY coatings

    Li, Zhiming; Qian, Shiqiang; Wang, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The present study has been conducted in order to determine the influence of superalloy substrate roughness on adhesion and oxidation behavior of magnetron-sputtered NiCoCrAlY coatings. Six types of coating samples with different substrate roughness were tested. The surface roughness and real surface area of both the substrates and coatings were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The scratch tests performed at progressive loads were employed to evaluate the adhesion of the coatings. Cyclic oxidation tests were performed at 1100 °C in air for 50 cycles, each cycle consisting of 1 h heating in the tube furnace followed by 15 min cooling in the open air. The AFM measurements exhibit that the surface roughness of the sputtered NiCoCrAlY coating increases with the increasing of the superalloy substrate roughness. The NiCoCrAlY coatings present slightly lower roughness than the corresponding superalloy substrate. The scratch adhesion tests indicate that the coatings on substrates with a smoother surface possess better adhesion than on those with a rougher surface. Both the real surface area and oxidation weight gain of the coatings decrease with the decreasing of the superalloy substrate roughness. The NiCoCrAlY coating sputtered on the superalloy substrate with lower roughness provides relatively higher antioxidant protection than that provided by the coating with rougher substrate.

  14. Coating of AFM probes with aquatic humic and non-humic NOM to study their adhesion properties

    Aubry, Cyril

    2013-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study interaction forces between four Natural Organic Matter (NOM) samples of different physicochemical characteristics and origins and mica surface at a wide range of ionic strength. All NOM samples were strongly adsorbed on positively charged iron oxide-coated silica colloidal probe. Cross-sectioning by focused ion beam milling technique and elemental mapping by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy indicated coating completeness of the NOM-coated colloidal probes. AFM-generated force-distance curves were analyzed to elucidate the nature and mechanisms of these interacting forces. Electrostatics and steric interactions were important contributors to repulsive forces during approach, although the latter became more influential with increasing ionic strength. Retracting force profiles showed a NOM adhesion behavior on mica consistent with its physicochemical characteristics. Humic-like substances, referred as the least hydrophilic NOM fraction, i.e., so called hydrophobic NOM, poorly adsorbed on hydrophilic mica due to their high content of ionized carboxyl groups and aromatic/hydrophobic character. However, adhesion force increased with increasing ionic strength, suggesting double layer compression. Conversely, polysaccharide-like substances showed high adhesion to mica. Hydrogen-bonding between hydroxyl groups on polysaccharide-like substances and highly electronegative elements on mica was suggested as the main adsorption mechanism, where the adhesion force decreased with increasing ionic strength. Results from this investigation indicated that all NOM samples retained their characteristics after the coating procedure. The experimental approach followed in this study can potentially be extended to investigate interactions between NOM and clean or fouled membranes as a function of NOM physicochemical characteristics and solution chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  16. Effects of Platinum Additions and Sulfur Impurities on the Microstructure and Scale Adhesion Behavior of Single-Phase CVD Aluminide Bond Coatings

    Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.; Zhang, Y.

    1999-02-28

    The adhesion of alumina scales to aluminide bond coats is a life-limiting factor for some advanced thermal barrier coating systems. This study investigated the effects of aluminide bond coat sulfur and platinum contents on alumina scale adhesion and coating microstructural evolution during isothermal and cyclic oxidation testing at 1150 C. Low-sulfur NiAl and NiPtAl bond coats were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Lowering the sulfur contents of CVD NiAl bond coatings significantly improved scale adhesion, but localized scale spallation eventually initiated along coating grain boundaries. Further improvements in scale adhesion were obtained with Pt additions. The observed influences of Pt additions included: (1) mitigation of the detrimental effects of high sulfur levels, (2) drastic reductions in void growth along the scale-metal interface, (3) alteration of the oxide-metal interface morphology, and (4) elimination of Ta-rich oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales during thermal cycling. The results of this study also suggested that the microstructure (especially the grain size) of CVD aluminide bond coatings plays a significant role in scale adhesion.

  17. The Effects of Surface Roughness on Adhesion Strength of Coated Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Birch (Betula L. Wood

    Justina VITOSYTĖ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of surface roughness impact on adhesion properties, the samples of dried ash (Fraxinus excelsior L. and birch (Betula L. wood were used. Before wood finishing, the surfaces of the samples were sanded. In order to get different surface roughness the abrasive material of P80, P120, P150, P180, P220 and P240 grit was used. The parameters of surface roughness Ra, Rz and Rmax were measured in three directions: along the wood grain, across the grain and in the angle of 45º. Comparison of the results showed the non-linear dependency of roughness parameters. Afterwards the wood surface was coated with three different acrylic-polyurethane coating systems (1 layer of varnish without primer, 1 layer of primer and 1 layer of varnish, and 1 layer of primer and 2 layers of varnish. The adhesion strength was assessed using the pull-off method. Also the nature of the fracture was evaluated. It was determined that the peculiarities of surface roughness, coating system type and wood species signally results the values of the adhesion strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3094

  18. AREVA coating and adhesive technology. A method to mitigate and/or prevent leaks in pools with stainless steel liners

    Kraemer, Georg [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide experience shows that stainless steel liners of concrete pools tend to leak primarily due to corrosion phenomena, although weld failure leakage can also occur. Extensive investigations by AREVA showed that mechanical defects are usually caused by mechanical impact and that the affected location is obvious. However, in the case of corrosion, which is the root cause in most of the cases, the defect in the liner begins from the concrete side and is only detected when a complete penetration occurs. Therefore, in the case of corrosion defects, it is not only vital to identify the location and repair the actual leak, but it is advantageous to apply a technology that works as a preventive measure. Repair methods based on conventional welding techniques are not promising as a preventive measure, mostly due to cost and time issues. With the AREVA coating and adhesive technology, a repair method is provided which is able to stop existing leaks. It also works as a prophylactic measure against future penetration from the concrete side of the pool. This technique covers the failure mechanisms from weld failures over corrosion to mechanical stresses. A further advantage of the coating and adhesive technology is the possibility to use remote-controlled underwater repair methods. These are particularly beneficial in the repair of leaks in spent fuel pools. Extensive laboratory testing and longstanding successful experience in nuclear power plants have proven the suitability of the coating and adhesive technology as an active and proactive method to minimize leakages in pools. (orig.)

  19. Embedded proteins and sacrificial bonds provide the strong adhesive properties of gastroliths.

    Thormann, Esben; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Jansson, Kjell; Hedin, Niklas; Fernández, M Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Rutland, Mark W; Pai, Ranjith Krishna; Bergström, Lennart

    2012-07-01

    The adhesive properties of gastroliths from a freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were quantified by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) between heavily demineralized gastrolith microparticles and gastrolith substrates of different composition. Combined AFM and transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the sequential detachment and large adhesion energies that characterise the adhesive behaviour of a native gastrolith substrate are dominated by sacrificial bonds between chitin fibres and between chitin fibres and CaCO(3). The sacrificial bonds were shown to be strongly related to the gastrolith proteins and when the majority of these proteins were removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the sequential detachment disappeared and the adhesive energy was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. PMID:22653376

  20. Bacterial adhesion to titanium-oxy-nitride (TiNOX) coatings with different resistivities : a novel approach for the development of biomaterials

    Koerner, RJ; Butterworth, LA; Mayer, [No Value; Dasbach, R; Busscher, HJ

    2002-01-01

    In this study the quantitative adhesion of a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to and the ease of removal from different TiNOX coatings was investigated by means of a parallel plate flow chamber and in situ image analysis. Quality of adhesion was d

  1. Switchable surface coatings for control over protein adsorption

    Cole, Martin A.; Jasieniak, Marek; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Thissen, Helmut; Horn, Roger; Griesser, Hans J.

    2007-12-01

    Control over biomolecule interactions at interfaces is becoming an increasingly important goal for a range of scientific fields and is being intensively studied in areas of biotechnological, biomedical and materials science. Improvement in the control over materials and biomolecules is particularly important to applications such as arrays, biosensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery and 'lab on a chip' devices. Further development of these devices is expected to be achieved with thin coatings of stimuli responsive materials that can have their chemical properties 'switched' or tuned to stimulate a certain biological response such as adsorption/desorption of proteins. Switchable coatings show great potential for the realisation of spatial and temporal immobilisation of cells and biomolecules such as DNA and proteins. This study focuses on protein adsorption onto coatings of the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) which can exhibit low and high protein adsorption properties based on its temperature dependent conformation. At temperatures above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) pNIPAM polymer chains are collapsed and protein adsorbing whilst below the LCST they are hydrated and protein repellent. Coatings of pNIPAM on silicon wafers were prepared by free radical polymerisation in the presence of surface bound polymerisable groups. Surface analysis and protein adsorption was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and contact angle measurements. This study is expected to aid the development of stimuli-responsive coatings for biochips and biodevices.

  2. Effect of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 on the Intraperitoneal Adhesion Formation

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the role of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the intra-peritoneal adhesion formation, 23 infertile patients undergoing laparoscopic operation were divided into two groups: experimental group including 12 patients with intra-peritoneal adhesion and control group including 11 patients without intra-peritoneal adhesion. Peritoneal fluid (PF) and peritoneum were collected from these patients during laparoscopic examination. The expression levels of MCP-l protein and MCP-1 mRNA were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot analysis method respectively. It was found that the levels of MCP-1 protein in PF of the patients with peritoneal adhesion were significantly higher than in the control group (0. 44±0.11 ng/ml vs 0. 19+0. 09 ng/ml respectively, P<0. 01 ). The level of MCP-1 mRNA in the peritoneum of the patients with peritoneal adhesion was significantly higher than in the control group (48.61±3.72 vs 19. 87±2.54 respectively, P<0. 01). It was suggested that MCP-1 might play a role in the adhesion formation, and chemotactic cytokines expressing in the peritoneal mesothelial cells might be take part in the process.

  3. Barnacle settlement and the adhesion of protein and diatom microfouling to xerogel films with varying surface energy and water wettability.

    Finlay, John A; Bennett, Stephanie M; Brewer, Lenora H; Sokolova, Anastasiya; Clay, Gemma; Gunari, Nikhil; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Detty, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Previous work has shown that organosilica-based xerogels have the potential to control biofouling. In this study, modifications of chemistry were investigated with respect to their resistance to marine slimes and to settlement of barnacle cyprids. Adhesion force measurements of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to xerogel surfaces prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl-containing precursors, indicated that adhesion was significantly less on the xerogel surfaces in comparison to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. The strength of adhesion of BSA on the xerogels was highest on surfaces with the highest and the lowest critical surface tensions, gamma(C) and surface energies, gamma(S), and duplicated the 'Baier curve'. The attachment to and removal of cells of the diatom Navicula perminuta from a similar series of xerogel surfaces were examined. Initial attachment of cells was comparable on all of the xerogel surfaces, but the percentage removal of attached cells by hydrodynamic shear stress increased with gamma(C) and increased wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), of the xerogel surfaces. The percentage removal of cells of Navicula was linearly correlated with both properties (R(2) = 0.74 for percentage removal as a function of theta(Ws) and R(2) = 0.69 for percentage removal as a function of gamma(C)). Several of the aminopropylsilyl-containing xerogels showed significantly greater removal of Navicula compared to a PDMSE standard. Cypris larvae of the barnacle B. amphitrite showed preferred settlement on hydrophilic/higher energy surfaces. Settlement was linearly correlated with theta(Ws) (R(2) = 0.84) and gamma(C) (R(2) = 0.84). Hydrophilic xerogels should prove useful as coatings for boats in regions where fouling is dominated by microfouling (protein and diatom slimes). PMID:20645195

  4. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film

  5. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Gartner, Hunter [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Li, Yana [Mechanical Engineering College, Wuhan Polytechnic University (China); Almenar, Eva, E-mail: ealmenar@msu.edu [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  6. Adhesion and wear behaviour of NCD coatings on Si3N4 by micro-abrasion tests.

    Silva, F G; Neto, M A; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F

    2009-06-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings offer an excellent alternative for tribological applications, preserving most of the intrinsic mechanical properties of polycrystalline CVD diamond and adding to it an extreme surface smoothness. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics are reported to guarantee high adhesion levels to CVD microcrystalline diamond coatings, but the NCD adhesion to Si3N4 is not yet well established. Micro-abrasion tests are appropriate for evaluating the abrasive wear resistance of a given surface, but they also provide information on thin film/substrate interfacial resistance, i.e., film adhesion. In this study, a comparison is made between the behaviour of NCD films deposited by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) and microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) techniques. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic discs were selected as substrates. The NCD depositions by HFCVD and MPCVD were carried out using H2-CH4 and H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures, respectively. An adequate set of growth parameters was chosen for each CVD technique, resulting in NCD films having a final thickness of 5 microm. A micro-abrasion tribometer was used, with 3 microm diamond grit as the abrasive slurry element. Experiments were carried out at a constant rotational speed (80 r.p.m.) and by varying the applied load in the range of 0.25-0.75 N. The wear rate for MPCVD NCD (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-5) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) is compatible with those reported for microcrystalline CVD diamond. The HFCVD films displayed poorer adhesion to the Si3N4 ceramic substrates than the MPCVD ones. However, the HFCVD films show better wear resistance as a result of their higher crystallinity according to the UV Raman data, despite evidencing premature adhesion failure. PMID:19504945

  7. Effects of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors on cytokine-induced adhesion molecule expression by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    May, M. J.; Wheeler-Jones, C. P.; Pearson, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. Endothelial cells can be stimulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 alpha and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha to express the leukocyte adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 but the intracellular signalling mechanisms leading to this expression are incompletely understood. We have investigated the role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) in adhesion molecule expression by cytokine-activated ...

  8. Negative staining and immunoelectron microscopy of adhesion-deficient mutants of Streptococcus salivarius reveal that the adhesive protein antigens are separate classes of cell surface fibril.

    Weerkamp, A H; Handley, P S; Baars, A; Slot, J W

    1986-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of the cell wall-associated protein antigens of Streptococcus salivarius HB, which are involved in specific adhesive properties of the cells, was studied. Mutants which had lost the adhesive properties and lacked the antigens at the cell surface were compared with the parent strain. Immunoelectron microscopy of cryosections of cells labeled with affinity-purified, specific antisera and colloidal gold-protein A complexes was used to locate the antigens. Antigen C (AgC), a glycoprotein involved in attachment to host surfaces, was mainly located in the fibrillar layer outside the cell wall. A smaller amount of label was also found throughout the cytoplasmic area in the form of small clusters of gold particles, which suggests a macromolecular association. Mutant HB-7, which lacks the wall-associated AgC, accumulated AgC reactivity intracellularly. Intracellular AgC was often found associated with isolated areas of increased electron density, but sometimes seemed to fill the entire interior of the cell. Antigen B (AgB), a protein responsible for interbacterial coaggregation, was also located in the fibrillar layer, although its distribution differed from that of the wall-associated AgC since AgB was found predominantly in the peripheral areas. A very small amount of label was also found in the cytoplasmic area as discrete gold particles. Mutant HB-V5, which lacks wall-associated AgB, was not labeled in the fibrillar coat, but showed the same weak intracellular label as the parent strain. Immunolabeling with serum against AgD, another wall-associated protein but of unknown function, demonstrated its presence in the fibrillar layer of strain HB. Negatively stained preparations of whole cells of wild-type S. salivarius and mutants that had lost wall-associated AgB or AgC revealed that two classes of short fibrils are carried on the cell surface at the same time. AgB and AgC are probably located on separate classes of short, protease

  9. Adhesion of Mussel Foot Protein Mefp-5 to Mica: An Underwater Superglue†

    Danner, Eric W.; Kan, Yajing; Hammer, Malte U.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Mussels have a remarkable ability to attach their holdfast, or byssus, opportunistically to a variety of substrata that are wet, saline, corroded, and/or fouled by biofilms. Mytilus edulis foot protein-5 (Mefp-5) is one of several proteins in the byssal adhesive plaque of the mussel M. edulis. The high content of 3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) (~30 mol%) and its localization near the plaque-substrate interface have often prompted speculation that Mefp-5 plays a key role in adhesion. Using ...

  10. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase attenuates hepatocellular carcinoma cell adhesion stimulated by adipokine resistin

    Resistin, adipocyte-secreting adipokine, may play critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistin on HCC adhesion to the endothelium, and the mechanism underlying these resistin effects. Human SK-Hep1 cells were used to study the effect of resistin on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions as well as NF-κB activation, and hence cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, was used to determine the regulatory role of AMPK on HCC adhesion to the endothelium in regard to the resistin effects. Treatment with resistin increased the adhesion of SK-Hep1 cells to HUVECs and concomitantly induced NF-κB activation, as well as ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in SK-Hep1 cells. Using specific blocking antibodies and siRNAs, we found that resistin-induced SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was through NF-κB-regulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expressions. Moreover, treatment with AICAR demonstrated that AMPK activation in SK-Hep1 cells significantly attenuates the resistin effect on SK-Hep1 cell adhesion to HUVECs. These results clarify the role of resistin in inducing HCC adhesion to the endothelium and demonstrate the inhibitory effect of AMPK activation under the resistin stimulation. Our findings provide a notion that resistin play an important role to promote HCC metastasis and implicate AMPK may be a therapeutic target to against HCC metastasis