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  1. Genetic deletion of afadin causes hydrocephalus by destruction of adherens junctions in radial glial and ependymal cells in the midbrain.

    Hideaki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Adherens junctions (AJs play a role in mechanically connecting adjacent cells to maintain tissue structure, particularly in epithelial cells. The major cell-cell adhesion molecules at AJs are cadherins and nectins. Afadin binds to both nectins and α-catenin and recruits the cadherin-β-catenin complex to the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion site to form AJs. To explore the role of afadin in radial glial and ependymal cells in the brain, we generated mice carrying a nestin-Cre-mediated conditional knockout (cKO of the afadin gene. Newborn afadin-cKO mice developed hydrocephalus and died neonatally. The afadin-cKO brain displayed enlarged lateral ventricles and cerebral aqueduct, resulting from stenosis of the caudal end of the cerebral aqueduct and obliteration of the ventral part of the third ventricle. Afadin deficiency further caused the loss of ependymal cells from the ventricular and aqueductal surfaces. During development, radial glial cells, which terminally differentiate into ependymal cells, scattered from the ventricular zone and were replaced by neurons that eventually covered the ventricular and aqueductal surfaces of the afadin-cKO midbrain. Moreover, the denuded ependymal cells were only occasionally observed in the third ventricle and the cerebral aqueduct of the afadin-cKO midbrain. Afadin was co-localized with nectin-1 and N-cadherin at AJs of radial glial and ependymal cells in the control midbrain, but these proteins were not concentrated at AJs in the afadin-cKO midbrain. Thus, the defects in the afadin-cKO midbrain most likely resulted from the destruction of AJs, because AJs in the midbrain were already established before afadin was genetically deleted. These results indicate that afadin is essential for the maintenance of AJs in radial glial and ependymal cells in the midbrain and is required for normal morphogenesis of the cerebral aqueduct and ventral third ventricle in the midbrain.

  2. Adherens junction function and regulation during zebrafish gastrulation

    Schepis, Antonino; Nelson, W. James

    2012-01-01

    The adherens junction (AJ) comprises multi-protein complexes required for cell-cell adhesion in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Mutations in key proteins and mis-regulation of AJ adhesive properties can lead to pathologies such as cancer. In recent years, the zebrafish has become an excellent model organism to integrate cell biology in the context of a multicellular organization. The combination of classical genetic approaches with new tools for live imaging and biophysica...

  3. Fibroblast growth factor signaling potentiates VE-cadherin stability at adherens junctions by regulating SHP2.

    Kunihiko Hatanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF system plays a critical role in the maintenance of vascular integrity via enhancing the stability of VE-cadherin at adherens junctions. However, the precise molecular mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed mechanism of FGF regulation of VE-cadherin function that leads to endothelial junction stabilization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In vitro studies demonstrated that the loss of FGF signaling disrupts the VE-cadherin-catenin complex at adherens junctions by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation levels of VE-cadherin. Among protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs known to be involved in the maintenance of the VE-cadherin complex, suppression of FGF signaling reduces SHP2 expression levels and SHP2/VE-cadherin interaction due to accelerated SHP2 protein degradation. Increased endothelial permeability caused by FGF signaling inhibition was rescued by SHP2 overexpression, indicating the critical role of SHP2 in the maintenance of endothelial junction integrity. CONCLUSIONS: These results identify FGF-dependent maintenance of SHP2 as an important new mechanism controlling the extent of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby regulating its presence in adherens junctions and endothelial permeability.

  4. PLEKHA7 Recruits PDZD11 to Adherens Junctions to Stabilize Nectins.

    Guerrera, Diego; Shah, Jimit; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Sluysmans, Sophie; Méan, Isabelle; Jond, Lionel; Poser, Ina; Mann, Matthias; Hyman, Anthony A; Citi, Sandra

    2016-05-20

    PLEKHA7 is a junctional protein implicated in stabilization of the cadherin protein complex, hypertension, cardiac contractility, glaucoma, microRNA processing, and susceptibility to bacterial toxins. To gain insight into the molecular basis for the functions of PLEKHA7, we looked for new PLEKHA7 interactors. Here, we report the identification of PDZ domain-containing protein 11 (PDZD11) as a new interactor of PLEKHA7 by yeast two-hybrid screening and by mass spectrometry analysis of PLEKHA7 immunoprecipitates. We show that PDZD11 (17 kDa) is expressed in epithelial and endothelial cells, where it forms a complex with PLEKHA7, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. The N-terminal Trp-Trp (WW) domain of PLEKHA7 interacts directly with the N-terminal 44 amino acids of PDZD11, as shown by GST-pulldown assays. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that PDZD11 is localized at adherens junctions in a PLEKHA7-dependent manner, because its junctional localization is abolished by knock-out of PLEKHA7, and is rescued by re-expression of exogenous PLEKHA7. The junctional recruitment of nectin-1 and nectin-3 and their protein levels are decreased via proteasome-mediated degradation in epithelial cells where either PDZD11 or PLEKHA7 have been knocked-out. PDZD11 forms a complex with nectin-1 and nectin-3, and its PDZ domain interacts directly with the PDZ-binding motif of nectin-1. PDZD11 is required for the efficient assembly of apical junctions of epithelial cells at early time points in the calcium-switch model. These results show that the PLEKHA7-PDZD11 complex stabilizes nectins to promote efficient early junction assembly and uncover a new molecular mechanism through which PLEKHA7 recruits PDZ-binding membrane proteins to epithelial adherens junctions. PMID:27044745

  5. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    Bajenova, Olga, E-mail: o.bazhenova@spbu.ru [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chaika, Nina [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Gapon, Svetlana [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thomas, Peter [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); O’Brien, Stephen [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  6. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein

  7. Mammary epithelial cell phagocytosis downstream of TGF-β3 is characterized by adherens junction reorganization.

    Fornetti, J; Flanders, K C; Henson, P M; Tan, A-C; Borges, V F; Schedin, P

    2016-02-01

    After weaning, during mammary gland involution, milk-producing mammary epithelial cells undergo apoptosis. Effective clearance of these dying cells is essential, as persistent apoptotic cells have a negative impact on gland homeostasis, future lactation and cancer susceptibility. In mice, apoptotic cells are cleared by the neighboring epithelium, yet little is known about how mammary epithelial cells become phagocytic or whether this function is conserved between species. Here we use a rat model of weaning-induced involution and involuting breast tissue from women, to demonstrate apoptotic cells within luminal epithelial cells and epithelial expression of the scavenger mannose receptor, suggesting conservation of phagocytosis by epithelial cells. In the rat, epithelial transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is increased during involution, a pathway known to promote phagocytic capability. To test whether TGF-β enhances the phagocytic ability of mammary epithelial cells, non-transformed murine mammary epithelial EpH4 cells were cultured to achieve tight junction impermeability, such as occurs during lactation. TGF-β3 treatment promoted loss of tight junction impermeability, reorganization and cleavage of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin (E-cad), and phagocytosis. Phagocytosis correlated with junction disruption, suggesting junction reorganization is necessary for phagocytosis by epithelial cells. Supporting this hypothesis, epithelial cell E-cad reorganization and cleavage were observed in rat and human involuting mammary glands. Further, in the rat, E-cad cleavage correlated with increased γ-secretase activity and β-catenin nuclear localization. In vitro, pharmacologic inhibitors of γ-secretase or β-catenin reduced the effect of TGF-β3 on phagocytosis to near baseline levels. However, β-catenin signaling through LiCl treatment did not enhance phagocytic capacity, suggesting a model in which both reorganization of cell junctions and

  8. HIV-associated disruption of tight and adherens junctions of oral epithelial cells facilitates HSV-1 infection and spread.

    Irna Sufiawati

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD. Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals.

  9. The asymmetric self-assembly mechanism of adherens junctions: a cellular push–pull unit

    To form adherens junctions (AJ), cells first establish contact by sending out lamellipodia onto neighboring cells. We investigated the role of contacting cells in AJ assembly by studying an asymmetric AJ motif: finger-like AJ extending across the cell–cell interface. Using a cytoskeleton replica and immunofluorescence, we observed that actin bundles embedded in the lamellipodia are co-localized with stress fibers in the neighboring cell at the AJ. This suggests that donor lamellipodia present actin fingers, which are stabilized by acceptor lamellae via acto-myosin contractility. Indeed, we show that changes in actin network geometry promoted by Rac overexpression lead to corresponding changes in AJ morphology. Moreover, contractility inhibition and enhancement (via drugs or local traction) lead respectively to the disappearance and further growth of AJ fingers. Thus, we propose that receiving lamellae exert a local pull on AJ, promoting further polymerization of the donor actin bundles. In spite of different compositions, AJ and focal contacts both act as cellular mechanosensors

  10. Adherens junction distribution mechanisms during cell-cell contact elongation in Drosophila.

    Gabrielle Goldenberg

    Full Text Available During Drosophila gastrulation, amnioserosa (AS cells flatten and spread as an epithelial sheet. We used AS morphogenesis as a model to investigate how adherens junctions (AJs distribute along elongating cell-cell contacts in vivo. As the contacts elongated, total AJ protein levels increased along their length. However, genetically blocking this AJ addition indicated that it was not essential for maintaining AJ continuity. Implicating other remodeling mechanisms, AJ photobleaching revealed non-directional lateral mobility of AJs along the elongating contacts, as well as local AJ removal from the membranes. Actin stabilization with jasplakinolide reduced AJ redistribution, and live imaging of myosin II along elongating contacts revealed fragmented, expanding and contracting actomyosin networks, suggesting a mechanism for lateral AJ mobility. Actin stabilization also increased total AJ levels, suggesting an inhibition of AJ removal. Implicating AJ removal by endocytosis, clathrin endocytic machinery accumulated at AJs. However, dynamin disruption had no apparent effect on AJs, suggesting the involvement of redundant or dynamin-independent mechanisms. Overall, we propose that new synthesis, lateral diffusion, and endocytosis play overlapping roles to populate elongating cell-cell contacts with evenly distributed AJs in this in vivo system.

  11. Curcumin prevents cisplatin-induced decrease in the tight and adherens junctions: relation to oxidative stress.

    Trujillo, Joyce; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Reyes, José Luis; Loredo, María L; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana; Pinzón, Enrique; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Saraí; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-01-20

    Curcumin is a polyphenol and cisplatin is an antineoplastic agent that induces nephrotoxicity associated with oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrosis and decrease in renal tight junction (TJ) proteins. The potential effect of curcumin against alterations in TJ structure and function has not been evaluated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The present study explored whether curcumin is able to prevent the cisplatin-induced fibrosis and decreased expression of the TJ and adherens junction (AJ) proteins occludin, claudin-2 and E-cadherin in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin (200 mg kg(-1)) was administered in three doses, and rats were sacrificed 72 h after cisplatin administration. Curcumin was able to scavenge, in a concentration-dependent way, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite anion, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Cisplatin-induced renal damage was associated with alterations in plasma creatinine, expression of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and of kidney injury molecule-1, histological damage, increase in apoptosis, fibrosis (evaluated by transforming growth factor β1, collagen I and IV and α-smooth muscle actin expressions), increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress (evaluated by Hsp70/72 expression, protein tyrosine nitration, superoxide anion production in isolated glomeruli and proximal tubules, and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox), protein kinase C β2, and Nrf2) as well as by decreased expression of occludin, claudin-2, β-catenin and E-cadherin. Curcumin treatment prevented all the above-described alterations. The protective effect of curcumin against cisplatin-induced fibrosis and decreased proteins of the TJ and AJ was associated with the prevention of glomerular and proximal tubular superoxide anion production induced by NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:26467482

  12. Negative pressure induces p120-catenin-dependent adherens junction disassembly in keratinocytes during wound healing.

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Chow, Shu-Er; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Shyu, Yu-Chiau; Lu, Mu-Jie

    2016-09-01

    A negative-pressure of 125mmHg (NP) has been widely used to treat chronic wounds in modern medicine. Keratinocytes under NP treatment have shown accelerated cell movement and decreased E-cadherin expression. However, the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin regulation under NP remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we investigated the E-cadherin regulation in keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) under NP. HaCaT cells were treated at ambient pressure (AP) and NP for 12h. Cell movement was measured by traditional and electric wound healing assays at the 2 different pressures. Mutants with overexpression of p120-catenin (p120(ctn)) were used to observe the effect of NP on p120(ctn) and E-cadherin expression during wound healing. Cell fractionation and immunoblotting data showed that NP increased Y228-phosphorylated p120(ctn) level and resulted in the translocation of p120(ctn) from the plasma membrane to cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence images revealed that NP decreased the co-localization of p120(ctn) and E-cadherin on the plasma membrane. Knockdown of p120(ctn) reduced E-cadherin expression and accelerated cell movement under AP. Overexpression of the Y228-phosphorylation-mimic p120(ctn) decreased E-cadherin membrane expression under both AP and NP. Phosphorylation-deficient mutants conferred restored adherens junctions (AJs) under NP. The Src inhibitor blocked the phosphorylation of p120(ctn) and impeded cell migration under NP. In conclusion, Src-dependent phosphorylation of p120(ctn) can respond rapidly to NP and contribute to E-cadherin downregulation. The NP-induced disassembly of the AJ further accelerates wound healing. PMID:27220534

  13. The F-BAR protein pacsin2 inhibits asymmetric VE-cadherin internalization from tensile adherens junctions.

    Dorland, Yvonne L; Malinova, Tsveta S; van Stalborch, Anne-Marieke D; Grieve, Adam G; van Geemen, Daphne; Jansen, Nicolette S; de Kreuk, Bart-Jan; Nawaz, Kalim; Kole, Jeroen; Geerts, Dirk; Musters, René J P; de Rooij, Johan; Hordijk, Peter L; Huveneers, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Vascular homoeostasis, development and disease critically depend on the regulation of endothelial cell-cell junctions. Here we uncover a new role for the F-BAR protein pacsin2 in the control of VE-cadherin-based endothelial adhesion. Pacsin2 concentrates at focal adherens junctions (FAJs) that are experiencing unbalanced actomyosin-based pulling. FAJs move in response to differences in local cytoskeletal geometry and pacsin2 is recruited consistently to the trailing end of fast-moving FAJs via a mechanism that requires an intact F-BAR domain. Photoconversion, photobleaching, immunofluorescence and super-resolution microscopy reveal polarized dynamics, and organization of junctional proteins between the front of FAJs and their trailing ends. Interestingly, pacsin2 recruitment inhibits internalization of the VE-cadherin complex from FAJ trailing ends and is important for endothelial monolayer integrity. Together, these findings reveal a novel junction protective mechanism during polarized trafficking of VE-cadherin, which supports barrier maintenance within dynamic endothelial tissue. PMID:27417273

  14. Downregulation of blood-brain barrier phenotype by proinflammatory cytokines involves NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation: consequences for interendothelial adherens and tight junctions.

    Keith D Rochfort

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB dysfunction is an integral feature of neurological disorders and involves the action of multiple proinflammatory cytokines on the microvascular endothelial cells lining cerebral capillaries. There is still however, considerable ambiguity throughout the scientific literature regarding the mechanistic role(s of cytokines in this context, thereby warranting a comprehensive in vitro investigation into how different cytokines may cause dysregulation of adherens and tight junctions leading to BBB permeabilization.The present study employs human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMvECs to compare/contrast the effects of TNF-α and IL-6 on BBB characteristics ranging from the expression of interendothelial junction proteins (VE-cadherin, occludin and claudin-5 to endothelial monolayer permeability. The contribution of cytokine-induced NADPH oxidase activation to altered barrier phenotype was also investigated.In response to treatment with either TNF-α or IL-6 (0-100 ng/ml, 0-24 hrs, our studies consistently demonstrated significant dose- and time-dependent decreases in the expression of all interendothelial junction proteins examined, in parallel with dose- and time-dependent increases in ROS generation and HBMvEC permeability. Increased expression and co-association of gp91 and p47, pivotal NADPH oxidase subunits, was also observed in response to either cytokine. Finally, cytokine-dependent effects on junctional protein expression, ROS generation and endothelial permeability could all be attenuated to a comparable extent using a range of antioxidant strategies, which included ROS depleting agents (superoxide dismutase, catalase, N-acetylcysteine, apocynin and targeted NADPH oxidase blockade (gp91 and p47 siRNA, NSC23766.A timely and wide-ranging investigation comparing the permeabilizing actions of TNF-α and IL-6 in HBMvECs is presented, in which we demonstrate how either cytokine can similarly downregulate the

  15. Microtubule plus-end and minus-end capture at adherens junctions is involved in the assembly of apico-basal arrays in polarised epithelial cells.

    Bellett, Gemma; Carter, Jane M; Keynton, Jennifer; Goldspink, Deborah; James, Colin; Moss, David K; Mogensen, Mette M

    2009-10-01

    Apico-basal polarisation of epithelial cells involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. The classic radial array of microtubules focused on a centrally located centrosome typical of many animal cells is lost or greatly reduced and a non-centrosomal apico-basal array develops. The molecules and mechanisms responsible for the assembly and positioning of these non-centrosomal microtubules have not been fully elucidated. Using a Nocodazole induced regrowth assay in invitro culture (MDCK) and in situ epithelial (cochlear Kolliker's) cell models we establish that the apico-basal array originates from the centrosome and that the non-centrosomal microtubule minus-end anchoring sites do not contribute significantly to their nucleation. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed that an extended radial array assembles with microtubule plus-ends targeting cadheren sites at adherens junctions and EB1 and CLIP-170 co-localising with beta-catenin and dynein clusters at the junction sites. The extended radial array is likely to be a vital intermediate step in the assembly process with cortical anchored dynein providing the mechanical force required for microtubule release, translocation and capture. Ultrastructural analyses of the apico-basal arrays in fully polarised MDCK and Kolliker's cells revealed microtubule minus-end association with the most apical adherens junction (Zonula adherens). We propose that a release and capture model involving both microtubule plus- and minus-end capture at adherens junctions is responsible for the generation of non-centrosomal apico-basal arrays in most centrosome containing polarised epithelial cells. PMID:19479825

  16. Striatins as plaque molecules of zonulae adhaerentes in simple epithelia, of tessellate junctions in stratified epithelia, of cardiac composite junctions and of various size classes of lateral adherens junctions in cultures of epithelia- and carcinoma-derived cells.

    Franke, Werner W; Rickelt, Steffen; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Dörflinger, Yvette; Kuhn, Caecilia; Frey, Norbert; Heid, Hans; Rosin-Arbesfeld, Rina

    2015-03-01

    Proteins of the striatin family (striatins 1-4; sizes ranging from 90 to 110 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) are highly homologous in their amino acid sequences but can differ in their cell-type-specific gene expression patterns and biological functions. In various cell types, we have found one, two or three polypeptides of this evolutionarily old and nearly ubiquitous family of proteins known to serve as scaffold proteins for diverse protein complexes. Light and electron microscopic immunolocalization methods have revealed striatins in mammalian cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs). In simple epithelia, we have localized striatins as constitutive components of the plaques of the subapical zonulae adhaerentes of cells, including intestinal, glandular, ductal and urothelial cells and hepatocytes. Striatins colocalize with E-cadherin or E-N-cadherin heterodimers and with the plaque proteins α- and β-catenin, p120 and p0071. In some epithelia and carcinomas and in cultured cells derived therefrom, striatins are also seen in lateral AJs. In stratified epithelia and in corresponding squamous cell carcinomas, striatins can be found in plaques of some forms of tessellate junctions. Moreover, striatins are major plaque proteins of composite junctions (CJs; areae compositae) in the intercalated disks connecting cardiomyocytes, colocalizing with other CJ molecules, including plectin and ankyrin-G. We discuss the "multimodulator" scaffold roles of striatins in the initiation and regulation of the formation of various complex particles and structures. We propose that striatins are included in the diagnostic candidate list of proteins that, in the CJs of human hearts, can occur in mutated forms in the pathogeneses of hereditary cardiomyopathies, as seen in some types of genetically determined heart damage in boxer dogs. PMID:25501894

  17. Protective role of p120-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adherens and tight junctions in ventilator-induced lung injury

    Gu, Changping; LIU, MENGJIE; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuelan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is one of the most common complications for patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although p120 is an important protein in the regulation of cell junctions, further mechanisms should be explored for prevention and treatment of VILI. Methods Mouse lung epithelial cells (MLE-12), which were transfected with p120 small interfering (si)RNA, p120 cDNA, wild-type E-cadherin juxtamembrane domain or a K83R...

  18. Syncope caused by congenital anomaly at the craniovertebral junction: a case report

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Anomalies in the craniovertebral junction may be a rare cause of syncope. The mechanisms of syncope related to craniovertebral junction anomaly remain unknown. We present an extremely rare case with anomaly in the craniovertebral junction and syncope, and discuss the mechanism of the syncope. Case presentation A 10-year-old Japanese boy with a congenital anomaly in the craniovertebral junction presented with recurrent syncope. A physical examination showed generalized hyperreflex...

  19. Radiation effects on adherens contacts in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells

    The cell contacts (junctions) are considered to be sensitive and important targets of ionizing radiation. In this work, the effect of X-irradiation was studied on the localization and relative quantity of two structural proteins of adherent junction, i.e. cadherins and b-catenin, in cultured Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by immunohistochemical and Western blotting procedures. Irradiation was found to induce the rapid redistribution and quantitative loss in these proteins resulting in their separation from the adherens junction sites. As a consequence, the structure and functionality of adherent junctions are also suggested to be affected by ionizing radiation in MDCK cells. Since morphological alteration of cell contact sites is also leading to temporary or permanent disturbances in adherens junction related functions (i.e. paracellular permeability), cell junctions might really be regarded as primary biomembrane target areas for radiation effects. The radiation-induced loss of b-catenin is probably related to the altered Wnt-signaling, too. (author)

  20. Glutamine supplementation attenuates ethanol-induced disruption of apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and ameliorates gut barrier dysfunction and fatty liver in mice.

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Shukla, Pradeep K; Mir, Hina; Manda, Bhargavi; Gangwar, Ruchika; Yadav, Nikki; McMullen, Megan; Nagy, Laura E; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies showed that glutamine (Gln) prevents acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers and human colonic mucosa. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Gln supplementation on ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction and liver injury in mice in vivo. Ethanol feeding caused a significant increase in inulin permeability in distal colon. Elevated permeability was associated with a redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins and depletion of detergent-insoluble fractions of these proteins, suggesting that ethanol disrupts apical junctional complexes in colonic epithelium and increases paracellular permeability. Ethanol-induced increase in colonic mucosal permeability and disruption of junctional complexes were most severe in mice fed Gln-free diet. Gln supplementation attenuated ethanol-induced mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions and adherens junctions in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the potential role of Gln in nutritional intervention to alcoholic tissue injury. Gln supplementation dose-dependently elevated reduced-protein thiols in colon without affecting the level of oxidized-protein thiols. Ethanol feeding depleted reduced protein thiols and elevated oxidized protein thiols. Ethanol-induced protein thiol oxidation was most severe in mice fed with Gln-free diet and absent in mice fed with Gln-supplemented diet, suggesting that antioxidant effect is one of the likely mechanisms involved in Gln-mediated amelioration of ethanol-induced gut barrier dysfunction. Ethanol feeding elevated plasma transaminase and liver triglyceride, which was accompanied by histopathologic lesions in the liver; ethanol-induced liver damage was attenuated by Gln supplementation. These results indicate that Gln supplementation ameliorates alcohol-induced gut and liver injury. PMID:26365579

  1. West Nile virus infection causes endocytosis of a specific subset of tight junction membrane proteins.

    Zaikun Xu

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a blood-borne pathogen that causes systemic infections and serious neurological disease in human and animals. The most common route of infection is mosquito bites and therefore, the virus must cross a number of polarized cell layers to gain access to organ tissue and the central nervous system. Resistance to trans-cellular movement of macromolecules between epithelial and endothelial cells is mediated by tight junction complexes. While a number of recent studies have documented that WNV infection negatively impacts the barrier function of tight junctions, the intracellular mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. In the present study, we report that endocytosis of a subset of tight junction membrane proteins including claudin-1 and JAM-1 occurs in WNV infected epithelial and endothelial cells. This process, which ultimately results in lysosomal degradation of the proteins, is dependent on the GTPase dynamin and microtubule-based transport. Finally, infection of polarized cells with the related flavivirus, Dengue virus-2, did not result in significant loss of tight junction membrane proteins. These results suggest that neurotropic flaviviruses such as WNV modulate the host cell environment differently than hemorrhagic flaviviruses and thus may have implications for understanding the molecular basis for neuroinvasion.

  2. Calcium-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-c-Src Signaling Cascade Mediates Disruption of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with the symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of Ask1 or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased Tyr-phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced Tyr-phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto phosphorylation of c-Src. This study demonstrates that Ca2+-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-cSrc signaling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  3. Shear-induced reorganization of renal proximal tubule cell actin cytoskeleton and apical junctional complexes.

    Duan, Yi; Gotoh, Nanami; Yan, Qingshang; Du, Zhaopeng; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2008-08-12

    In this study, we demonstrate that fluid shear stress (FSS)-induced actin cytoskeletal reorganization and junctional formation in renal epithelial cells are nearly completely opposite the corresponding changes in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) [Thi MM et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:16483-16488]. Mouse proximal tubule cells (PTCs) were subjected to 5 h of FSS (1 dyn/cm(2)) to investigate the dynamic responses of the cytoskeletal distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin), ZO-1, E-cadherin, vinculin, and paxillin to FSS. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that FSS caused basal stress fiber disruption, more densely distributed peripheral actin bands (DPABs), and the formation of both tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). A dramatic reinforcement of vinculin staining was found at the cell borders as well as the cell interior. These responses were abrogated by the actin-disrupting drug, cytochalasin D. To interpret these results, we propose a "junctional buttressing" model for PTCs in which FSS enables the DPABs, TJs, and AJs to become more tightly connected. In contrast, in the "bumper-car" model for ECs, all junctional connections were severely disrupted by FSS. This "junctional buttressing" model explains why a FSS of only 1/10 of that used in the EC study can cause a similarly dramatic, cytoskeletal response in these tall, cuboidal epithelial cells; and why junctional buttressing between adjacent cells may benefit renal epithelium in maximizing flow-activated, brush border-dependent, transcellular salt and water reabsorption. PMID:18685100

  4. Haploinsufficiency for Core Exon Junction Complex Components Disrupts Embryonic Neurogenesis and Causes p53-Mediated Microcephaly.

    Mao, Hanqian; McMahon, John J; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Zefeng; Silver, Debra L

    2016-09-01

    The exon junction complex (EJC) is an RNA binding complex comprised of the core components Magoh, Rbm8a, and Eif4a3. Human mutations in EJC components cause neurodevelopmental pathologies. Further, mice heterozygous for either Magoh or Rbm8a exhibit aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly. Yet despite the requirement of these genes for neurodevelopment, the pathogenic mechanisms linking EJC dysfunction to microcephaly remain poorly understood. Here we employ mouse genetics, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to demonstrate that haploinsufficiency for each of the 3 core EJC components causes microcephaly via converging regulation of p53 signaling. Using a new conditional allele, we first show that Eif4a3 haploinsufficiency phenocopies aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly of Magoh and Rbm8a mutant mice. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of embryonic brains at the onset of neurogenesis identifies common pathways altered in each of the 3 EJC mutants, including ribosome, proteasome, and p53 signaling components. We further demonstrate all 3 mutants exhibit defective splicing of RNA regulatory proteins, implying an EJC dependent RNA regulatory network that fine-tunes gene expression. Finally, we show that genetic ablation of one downstream pathway, p53, significantly rescues microcephaly of all 3 EJC mutants. This implicates p53 activation as a major node of neurodevelopmental pathogenesis following EJC impairment. Altogether our study reveals new mechanisms to help explain how EJC mutations influence neurogenesis and underlie neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:27618312

  5. A membrane fusion protein αSNAP is a novel regulator of epithelial apical junctions.

    Nayden G Naydenov

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs and adherens junctions (AJs are key determinants of the structure and permeability of epithelial barriers. Although exocytic delivery to the cell surface is crucial for junctional assembly, little is known about the mechanisms controlling TJ and AJ exocytosis. This study was aimed at investigating whether a key mediator of exocytosis, soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF attachment protein alpha (αSNAP, regulates epithelial junctions. αSNAP was enriched at apical junctions in SK-CO15 and T84 colonic epithelial cells and in normal human intestinal mucosa. siRNA-mediated knockdown of αSNAP inhibited AJ/TJ assembly and establishment of the paracellular barrier in SK-CO15 cells, which was accompanied by a significant down-regulation of p120-catenin and E-cadherin expression. A selective depletion of p120 catenin effectively disrupted AJ and TJ structure and compromised the epithelial barrier. However, overexpression of p120 catenin did not rescue the defects of junctional structure and permeability caused by αSNAP knockdown thereby suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms. Such mechanisms did not depend on NSF functions or induction of cell death, but were associated with disruption of the Golgi complex and down-regulation of a Golgi-associated guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, GBF1. These findings suggest novel roles for αSNAP in promoting the formation of epithelial AJs and TJs by controlling Golgi-dependent expression and trafficking of junctional proteins.

  6. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease.

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. PMID:24945433

  7. Molecular anatomy of interendothelial junctions in human blood-brain barrier microvessels.

    Andrzej W Vorbrodt

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunogold cytochemical procedure was used to study the localization at the ultrastructural level of interendothelial junction-associated protein molecules in the human brain blood microvessels, representing the anatomic site of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Ultrathin sections of Lowicryl K4M-embedded biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex obtained during surgical procedures were exposed to specific antibodies, followed by colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies. All tight junction-specific integral membrane (transmembrane proteins--occludin, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM-1, and claudin-5--as well as peripheral zonula occludens protein (ZO-1 were highly expressed. Immunoreactivity of the adherens junction-specific transmembrane protein VE-cadherin was of almost similar intensity. Immunolabeling of the adherens junction-associated peripheral proteins--alpha-catenin, beta-catenin, and p120 catenin--although positive, was evidently less intense. The expression of gamma-catenin (plakoglobin was considered questionable because solitary immunosignals (gold particles appeared in only a few microvascular profiles. Double labeling of some sections made possible to observe strict colocalization of the junctional molecules, such as occludin and ZO-1 or JAM-1 and VE-cadherin, in the interendothelial junctions. We found that in human brain microvessels, the interendothelial junctional complexes contain molecular components specific for both tight and adherens junctions. It is assumed that the data obtained can help us find the immunodetectable junctional molecules that can serve as sensitive markers of normal or abnormal function of the BBB.

  8. Urothelial Defects from Targeted Inactivation of Exocyst Sec10 in Mice Cause Ureteropelvic Junction Obstructions.

    Fogelgren, Ben; Polgar, Noemi; Lui, Vanessa H; Lee, Amanda J; Tamashiro, Kadee-Kalia A; Napoli, Josephine Andrea; Walton, Chad B; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of congenital obstructive nephropathy are the result of ureteropelvic junction obstructions, and despite their high prevalence, we have a poor understanding of their etiology and scarcity of genetic models. The eight-protein exocyst complex regulates polarized exocytosis of intracellular vesicles in a large variety of cell types. Here we report generation of a conditional knockout mouse for Sec10, a central component of the exocyst, which is the first conditional allele for any exocyst gene. Inactivation of Sec10 in ureteric bud-derived cells using Ksp1.3-Cre mice resulted in severe bilateral hydronephrosis and complete anuria in newborns, with death occurring 6-14 hours after birth. Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre embryos developed ureteropelvic junction obstructions between E17.5 and E18.5 as a result of degeneration of the urothelium and subsequent overgrowth by surrounding mesenchymal cells. The urothelial cell layer that lines the urinary tract must maintain a hydrophobic luminal barrier again urine while remaining highly stretchable. This barrier is largely established by production of uroplakin proteins that are transported to the apical surface to establish large plaques. By E16.5, Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre ureter and pelvic urothelium showed decreased uroplakin-3 protein at the luminal surface, and complete absence of uroplakin-3 by E17.5. Affected urothelium at the UPJ showed irregular barriers that exposed the smooth muscle layer to urine, suggesting this may trigger the surrounding mesenchymal cells to overgrow the lumen. Findings from this novel mouse model show Sec10 is critical for the development of the urothelium in ureters, and provides experimental evidence that failure of this urothelial barrier may contribute to human congenital urinary tract obstructions. PMID:26046524

  9. Urothelial Defects from Targeted Inactivation of Exocyst Sec10 in Mice Cause Ureteropelvic Junction Obstructions.

    Ben Fogelgren

    Full Text Available Most cases of congenital obstructive nephropathy are the result of ureteropelvic junction obstructions, and despite their high prevalence, we have a poor understanding of their etiology and scarcity of genetic models. The eight-protein exocyst complex regulates polarized exocytosis of intracellular vesicles in a large variety of cell types. Here we report generation of a conditional knockout mouse for Sec10, a central component of the exocyst, which is the first conditional allele for any exocyst gene. Inactivation of Sec10 in ureteric bud-derived cells using Ksp1.3-Cre mice resulted in severe bilateral hydronephrosis and complete anuria in newborns, with death occurring 6-14 hours after birth. Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre embryos developed ureteropelvic junction obstructions between E17.5 and E18.5 as a result of degeneration of the urothelium and subsequent overgrowth by surrounding mesenchymal cells. The urothelial cell layer that lines the urinary tract must maintain a hydrophobic luminal barrier again urine while remaining highly stretchable. This barrier is largely established by production of uroplakin proteins that are transported to the apical surface to establish large plaques. By E16.5, Sec10 FL/FL;Ksp-Cre ureter and pelvic urothelium showed decreased uroplakin-3 protein at the luminal surface, and complete absence of uroplakin-3 by E17.5. Affected urothelium at the UPJ showed irregular barriers that exposed the smooth muscle layer to urine, suggesting this may trigger the surrounding mesenchymal cells to overgrow the lumen. Findings from this novel mouse model show Sec10 is critical for the development of the urothelium in ureters, and provides experimental evidence that failure of this urothelial barrier may contribute to human congenital urinary tract obstructions.

  10. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm2/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10−12 per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (IC0) became less than 30 μA

  11. Tight junctions in Hailey-Hailey and Darier’s diseases

    Laura Raiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD and Darier’s disease (DD are caused by mutations in Ca2+-ATPases with the end result of desmosomal disruption and suprabasal acantholysis. Tight junctions (TJ are located in the granular cell layer in normal skin and contribute to the epidermal barrier. Aberrations in the epidermal differentiation, such as in psoriasis, have been shown to lead to changes in the expression of TJ components. Our aim was to elucidate the expression and dynamics of the TJ proteins during the disruption of desmosomes in HHD and DD lesions. Indirect immunofluorescence and avidin-biotin labeling for TJ, desmosomal and adherens junction proteins, and subsequent analyses with the confocal laser scanning microscope were carried out on 14 HHD and 14 DD skin samples. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL was measured in normal and lesional epidermis of nine HHD and eight DD patients to evaluate the function of the epidermal barrier in HHD and DD skin. The localization of TJ proteins claudin-1, claudin-4, ZO-1, and occludin in perilesional HHD and DD epidermis was similar to that previously described in normal skin. In HHD lesions the tissue distribution of ZO-1 expanded to the acantholytic spinous cells. In agreement with previous findings, desmoplakin was localized intracellularly. In contrast claudin-1 and ZO-1 persisted in the cell-cell contact sites of acantholytic cells. TEWL was increased in the lesional skin. The current results suggest that TJ components follow different dynamics in acantholysis of HHD and DD compared to desmosomal and adherens junction proteins.

  12. Japanese encephalitis virus disrupts cell-cell junctions and affects the epithelial permeability barrier functions.

    Tanvi Agrawal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV is a neurotropic flavivirus, which causes viral encephalitis leading to death in about 20-30% of severely-infected people. Although JEV is known to be a neurotropic virus its replication in non-neuronal cells in peripheral tissues is likely to play a key role in viral dissemination and pathogenesis. We have investigated the effect of JEV infection on cellular junctions in a number of non-neuronal cells. We show that JEV affects the permeability barrier functions in polarized epithelial cells at later stages of infection. The levels of some of the tight and adherens junction proteins were reduced in epithelial and endothelial cells and also in hepatocytes. Despite the induction of antiviral response, barrier disruption was not mediated by secreted factors from the infected cells. Localization of tight junction protein claudin-1 was severely perturbed in JEV-infected cells and claudin-1 partially colocalized with JEV in intracellular compartments and targeted for lysosomal degradation. Expression of JEV-capsid alone significantly affected the permeability barrier functions in these cells. Our results suggest that JEV infection modulates cellular junctions in non-neuronal cells and compromises the permeability barrier of epithelial and endothelial cells which may play a role in viral dissemination in peripheral tissues.

  13. Endothelial Cell Permeability and Adherens Junction Disruption Induced by Junín Virus Infection

    Lander, Heather M.; Grant, Ashley M.; Albrecht, Thomas; Hill, Terence; Peters, Clarence J.

    2014-01-01

    Junín virus (JUNV) is endemic to the fertile Pampas of Argentina, maintained in nature by the rodent host Calomys musculinus, and the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), which is characterized by vascular dysfunction and fluid distribution abnormalities. Clinical as well as experimental studies implicate involvement of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of AHF, although little is known of its role. JUNV has been shown to result in productive infection of endothelial cells (...

  14. Rotenone causing dysfunctional mitochondria and lysosomes in cerebral ganglions of Lumbricus terrestris degenerate giant fibers and neuromuscular junctions.

    Subaraja, Mamangam; Vanisree, Arambakkam Janardhanam

    2016-06-01

    Rotenone is well-documented to cause neurodegenerative condition such as Parkinson's, in the exposed systems. However, its detrimental effect on particular sites of neuronal pathway is still under investigation. We aimed at elucidating the impact of rotenone on cerebral ganglions (CG) of Lumbricus terrestris which control movement and behaviour of the worms. Worms were exposed to 0-0.4 ppm/mL of rotenone. Mitochondrial and lysosomal integrities were found to be affected beyond 0.2 ppm/mL of rotenone. Activities of cholinergic enzymes and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase showed an impaired neuronal transmission in CGs at the dose of 0.2 ppm/mL of rotenone. Histopathological and immunoflourescent analyses showed neuronal apoptosis, reduced nucleic acid content and inhibited of neurosecretion at 0.3 ppm/mL. Electron microscopy showed that the neurons and neuromuscular junctions were affected at 0.2 ppm/mL. Dose-dependent changes were also observed in the motor function such as burrowing behaviours and locomotion. Conduction velocity (CV) and locomotion assessment showed that the CV of lateral giant fiber (LGF) was reduced while that of MGF remains unaffected at 0.2 ppm, the dose at which the burrowing behaviour was also not affected. LGF, cholinergic enzymes and tyrosine hydroxylase are primarily targeted by rotenone affecting locomotion at 0.2 ppm/mL while MGF, neuropile and the burrowing behaviour were affected at 0.3 ppm/mL. We demonstrate, in addition to dose-dependent effects, that the bioaccumulation factors range 0.28-0.32 ppm/μg of rotenone cause degenerative impact on giant fibers affecting neuronal behaviors/locomotion of worms. We also propose worms for studying mechanisms of neuronal pathology caused by chemicals prevailing in earth's atmosphere. PMID:27003369

  15. Understanding causes and effects of non-uniform light distributions on multi-junction solar cells: Procedures for estimating efficiency losses

    Herrero, Rebeca; Victoria, Marta; Domínguez, César; Askins, Stephen; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the mechanisms of efficiency losses that have to do with the non-uniformity of the irradiance over the multi-junction solar cells and different measurement techniques used to investigate them. To show the capabilities of the presented techniques, three different concentrators (that consist of an acrylic Fresnel lens, different SOEs and a lattice matched multi-junction cell) are evaluated. By employing these techniques is possible to answer some critical questions when designing concentrators as for example which degree of non-uniformity the cell can withstand, how critical the influence of series resistance is, or what kind of non-uniformity (spatial or spectral) causes more losses.

  16. THE CELULAR JUNCTIONS AND THE EMERGENCE OF ANIMALS

    Urquiza-Bardone, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multicellularity and epithelia in relation to the appearance of cellular junctions, in order to illustrate the first steps of animal evolution, is discussed. We analyzed the structure and roles of adherens and occludins, considered to be the oldest. Also treated are some aspects of the main proteins that constitute them, the cadherins and claudins, as well as the related structures observed in sponges and choanoflagellates, the most ancient animals and the ancestors of these, respectively. It was concluded that the animal ancestor probably possessed some kind of adherens and possibly occludins, appearing as the first of major importance. These junctions increased in complexity through until the complexity observed in modern times.

  17. A missense mutation (G1506E) in the adhesion G domain of laminin-5 causes mild junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Scaturro, Maria; Posteraro, Patrizia; Mastrogiacomo, Alessandro; Zaccaria, Maria Letizia; De Luca, Naomi; Mazzanti, Cinzia; Zambruno, Giovanna; Castiglia, Daniele

    2003-09-12

    Laminin-5 is the major adhesion ligand for epithelial cells. Mutations in the genes encoding laminin-5 cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), a recessive inherited disease characterized by extensive epithelial-mesenchymal disadhesion. We describe a JEB patient compound heterozygote for two novel mutations in the gene (LAMA3) encoding the laminin alpha3 chain. The maternal mutation (1644delG) generates mRNA transcripts that undergo nonsense-mediated decay. The paternal mutation results in the Gly1506-->Glu substitution (G1506E) within the C-terminal globular region of the alpha3 chain (G domain). Mutation G1506E affects the proper folding of the fourth module of the G domain and results in the retention of most of the mutated polypeptide within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, scant amounts of the mutated laminin-5 are secreted, undergo physiologic extracellular maturation, and correctly localize within the cutaneous basement membrane zone in patient's skin. Our findings represent the first demonstration of an ER-retained mutant laminin-5 leading to a mild JEB phenotype. PMID:12943669

  18. A stop-gain in the laminin, alpha 3 gene causes recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Belgian Blue cattle.

    Sartelet, Arnaud; Harland, Chad; Tamma, Nico; Karim, Latifa; Bayrou, Calixte; Li, Wanbo; Ahariz, Naima; Coppieters, Wouter; Georges, Michel; Charlier, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Four newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves presenting a severe form of epidermolysis bullosa were recently referred to our heredo-surveillance platform. SNP array genotyping followed by autozygosity mapping located the causative gene in a 8.3-Mb interval on bovine chromosome 24. Combining information from (i) whole-genome sequencing of an affected calf, (ii) transcriptomic data from a panel of tissues and (iii) a list of functionally ranked positional candidates pinpointed a private G to A nucleotide substitution in the LAMA3 gene that creates a premature stop codon (p.Arg2609*) in exon 60, truncating 22% of the corresponding protein. The LAMA3 gene encodes the alpha 3 subunit of the heterotrimeric laminin-332, a key constituent of the lamina lucida that is part of the skin basement membrane connecting epidermis and dermis layers. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene are known to cause severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa in human, mice, horse, sheep and dog. Overall, our data strongly support the causality of the identified gene and mutation. PMID:26370913

  19. Analysis of trafficking, stability and function of human connexin 26 gap junction channels with deafness-causing mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix.

    Cinzia Ambrosi

    Full Text Available Human Connexin26 gene mutations cause hearing loss. These hereditary mutations are the leading cause of childhood deafness worldwide. Mutations in gap junction proteins (connexins can impair intercellular communication by eliminating protein synthesis, mis-trafficking, or inducing channels that fail to dock or have aberrant function. We previously identified a new class of mutants that form non-functional gap junction channels and hemichannels (connexons by disrupting packing and inter-helix interactions. Here we analyzed fourteen point mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix of connexin26 (Cx26 that cause non-syndromic hearing loss. Eight mutations caused mis-trafficking (K188R, F191L, V198M, S199F, G200R, I203K, L205P, T208P. Of the remaining six that formed gap junctions in mammalian cells, M195T and A197S formed stable hemichannels after isolation with a baculovirus/Sf9 protein purification system, while C202F, I203T, L205V and N206S formed hemichannels with varying degrees of instability. The function of all six gap junction-forming mutants was further assessed through measurement of dye coupling in mammalian cells and junctional conductance in paired Xenopus oocytes. Dye coupling between cell pairs was reduced by varying degrees for all six mutants. In homotypic oocyte pairings, only A197S induced measurable conductance. In heterotypic pairings with wild-type Cx26, five of the six mutants formed functional gap junction channels, albeit with reduced efficiency. None of the mutants displayed significant alterations in sensitivity to transjunctional voltage or induced conductive hemichannels in single oocytes. Intra-hemichannel interactions between mutant and wild-type proteins were assessed in rescue experiments using baculovirus expression in Sf9 insect cells. Of the four unstable mutations (C202F, I203T, L205V, N206S only C202F and N206S formed stable hemichannels when co-expressed with wild-type Cx26. Stable M195T hemichannels

  20. Cataract-Causing Mutation of Human Connexin 46 Impairs Gap Junction, but Increases Hemichannel Function and Cell Death

    Ren, Qian; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Xu, Ji; Yan, Xiang; Nicholson, Bruce J; Gu, Sumin; Jiang, Jean X.

    2013-01-01

    Connexin channels play a critical role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and transparency of the lens. Mutations in connexin genes are linked to congenital cataracts in humans. The G143R missense mutation on connexin (Cx) 46 was recently reported to be associated with congenital Coppock cataracts. Here, we showed that the G143R mutation decreased Cx46 gap junctional coupling in a dominant negative manner; however, it significantly increased gap junctional plaques. The G143R mutant also inc...

  1. Ultrastructural studies of the junctional complex in the musculature of the arrow-worm (Sagitta setosa) (Chaetognatha).

    Duvert, M; Gros, D; Salat, C

    1980-01-01

    In the A fibres of the primary musculature of Sagitta, the junctional complex is made up of three kinds of junctions. From the apex to the base they occur in the following order: an apical zonula adherens, a columnar zonula then columnar maculae intermingled with gap junction. Each columnar junction joins two intracellular filament networks in adjacent cells; this cytoskeleton is largely developed around the nucleus of the A fibres and in close relation with the contractile apparatus, especially at the I band level. The B fibres, which never reach the general cavity, lack zonula adherens and columnar zonula. The columnar junction constitutes a new type of junction which seems to belong to the adherens kind. At their level fibrous columns cross the extracellular space, joining the membranes. Each column faces two cytoplasmic densities localized against the cytoplasmic leaflets of the membranes. A cytoskeleton composed of bunldes of cytoplasmic filaments is in close contact with these cytoplasmic densities. The great number of columnar junctions and associated cytoskeleton assure the cohesion of the tissue and the distribution of contractile forces in the absence of connective tissue. The abundance of gap junctions can account for the metabolic and ionic coupling of the fibres. PMID:7189067

  2. Disruption of Nfic Causes Dissociation of Odontoblasts by Interfering With the Formation of Intercellular Junctions and Aberrant Odontoblast Differentiation

    Lee, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Seol; Kim, Hyun-Man; Ko, Jea Seung; Gronostajski, Richard M; Cho, Moon-Il; Son, Ho-Hyun; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    We reported previously that Nfic-deficient mice exhibit short and abnormal molar roots and severely deformed incisors. The objective of this study is to address the mechanisms responsible for these changes using morphological, IHC, and RT-PCR analysis. Nfic-deficient mice exhibited aberrant odontoblasts and abnormal dentin formation in molar roots and the labial crown analog of incisors. The most striking changes observed in these aberrant odontoblasts were the loss of intercellular junctions...

  3. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization and junctional remodeling by the atypical cadherin Fat

    Marcinkevicius, Emily; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The atypical cadherin Fat is a conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, but the mechanisms by which Fat controls cell shape and tissue structure are not well understood. Here, we show that Fat is required for the planar polarized organization of actin denticle precursors, adherens junction proteins and microtubules in the epidermis of the late Drosophila embryo. In wild-type embryos, spatially regulated cell-shape changes and rearrangements organize cells into highly aligned columns. Junc...

  4. A mutation in the LAMC2 gene causes the Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB in two French draft horse breeds

    Guérin Gérard

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases characterised by skin blistering and fragility. In humans, one of the most severe forms of EB known as Herlitz-junctional EB (H-JEB, is caused by mutations in the laminin 5 genes. EB has been described in several species, like cattle, sheep, dogs, cats and horses where the mutation, a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of the LAMC2 gene, was very recently identified in Belgian horses as the mutation responsible for JEB. In this study, the same mutation was found to be totally associated with the JEB phenotype in two French draft horse breeds, Trait Breton and Trait Comtois. This result provides breeders a molecular test to better manage their breeding strategies by genetic counselling.

  5. Gap Junctions

    Goodenough, Daniel A.; Paul, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hex...

  6. Gap Junctions

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of ...

  7. Tight Junction Disruption Induced by Type 3 Secretion System Effectors Injected by Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Gonzalez-Lugo, Octavio; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium consists of a single cell layer, which is a critical selectively permeable barrier to both absorb nutrients and avoid the entry of potentially harmful entities, including microorganisms. Epithelial cells are held together by the apical junctional complexes, consisting of adherens junctions, and tight junctions (TJs), and by underlying desmosomes. TJs lay in the apical domain of epithelial cells and are mainly composed by transmembrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, JAMs, and tricellulin, that are associated with the cytoplasmic plaque formed by proteins from the MAGUK family, such as ZO-1/2/3, connecting TJ to the actin cytoskeleton, and cingulin and paracingulin connecting TJ to the microtubule network. Extracellular bacteria such as EPEC and EHEC living in the intestinal lumen inject effectors proteins directly from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm, where they play a relevant role in the manipulation of the eukaryotic cell functions by modifying or blocking cell signaling pathways. TJ integrity depends on various cell functions such as actin cytoskeleton, microtubule network for vesicular trafficking, membrane integrity, inflammation, and cell survival. EPEC and EHEC effectors target most of these functions. Effectors encoded inside or outside of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) disrupt the TJ strands. EPEC and EHEC exploit the TJ dynamics to open this structure, for causing diarrhea. EPEC and EHEC secrete effectors that mimic host proteins to manipulate the signaling pathways, including those related to TJ dynamics. In this review, we focus on the known mechanisms exploited by EPEC and EHEC effectors for causing TJ disruption. PMID:27606286

  8. Rapid disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junction and barrier dysfunction by ionizing radiation in mouse colon in vivo: protection by N-acetyl-l-cysteine.

    Shukla, Pradeep K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Manda, Bhargavi; Meena, Avtar S; Yadav, Nikki; Szabo, Erzsebet; Balogh, Andrea; Lee, Sue Chin; Tigyi, Gabor; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-05-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of ionizing radiation on apical junctions in colonic epithelium and mucosal barrier function in mice in vivo. Adult mice were subjected to total body irradiation (4 Gy) with or without N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) feeding for 5 days before irradiation. At 2-24 h postirradiation, the integrity of colonic epithelial tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and the actin cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis of detergent-insoluble fractions for TJ and AJ proteins. The barrier function was evaluated by measuring vascular-to-luminal flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-inulin in vivo and luminal-to-mucosal flux in vitro. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring protein thiol oxidation. Confocal microscopy showed that radiation caused redistribution of occludin, zona occludens-1, claudin-3, E-cadherin, and β-catenin, as well as the actin cytoskeleton as early as 2 h postirradiation, and this effect was sustained for at least 24 h. Feeding NAC before irradiation blocked radiation-induced disruption of TJ, AJ, and the actin cytoskeleton. Radiation increased mucosal permeability to inulin in colon, which was blocked by NAC feeding. The level of reduced-protein thiols in colon was depleted by radiation with a concomitant increase in the level of oxidized-protein thiol. NAC feeding blocked the radiation-induced protein thiol oxidation. These data demonstrate that radiation rapidly disrupts TJ, AJ, and the actin cytoskeleton by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism that can be prevented by NAC feeding. PMID:26822914

  9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae induced disruption of cell junction complexes in epithelial cells of the human genital tract.

    Rodríguez-Tirado, Carolina; Maisey, Kevin; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Imarai, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, have developed mechanisms to alter epithelial barriers in order to reach subepithelial tissues for host colonization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gonococci on cell junction complexes of genital epithelial cells of women. Polarized Ishikawa cells, a cell line derived from endometrial epithelium, were used for experimental infection. Infected cells displayed a spindle-like shape with an irregular distribution, indicating potential alteration of cell-cell contacts. Accordingly, analysis by confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation revealed that gonococci induced redistribution of the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and its adapter protein β-catenin from the membrane to a cytoplasmic pool, with no significant differences in protein levels. In contrast, gonococcal infection did not induce modification of either expression or distribution of the tight junction proteins Occludin and ZO-1. Similar results were observed for Fallopian tube epithelia. Interestingly, infected Ishikawa cells also showed an altered pattern of actin cytoskeleton, observed in the form of stress fibers across the cytoplasm, which in turn matched a strong alteration on the expression of fibronectin, an adhesive glycoprotein component of extracellular matrix. Interestingly, using western blotting, activation of the ERK pathway was detected after gonococcal infection while p38 pathway was not activated. All effects were pili and Opa independent. Altogether, results indicated that gonococcus, as a mechanism of pathogenesis, induced disruption of junction complexes with early detaching of E-cadherin and β-catenin from the adherens junction complex, followed by a redistribution and reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and fibronectin within the extracellular matrix. PMID:22146107

  10. Injection of a soluble fragment of neural agrin (NT-1654 considerably improves the muscle pathology caused by the disassembly of the neuromuscular junction.

    Stefan Hettwer

    Full Text Available Treatment of neuromuscular diseases is still an unsolved problem. Evidence over the last years strongly indicates the involvement of malformation and dysfunction of neuromuscular junctions in the development of such medical conditions. Stabilization of NMJs thus seems to be a promising approach to attenuate the disease progression of muscle wasting diseases. An important pathway for the formation and maintenance of NMJs is the agrin/Lrp4/MuSK pathway. Here we demonstrate that the agrin biologic NT-1654 is capable of activating the agrin/Lrp4/MuSK system in vivo, leading to an almost full reversal of the sarcopenia-like phenotype in neurotrypsin-overexpressing (SARCO mice. We also show that injection of NT-1654 accelerates muscle re-innervation after nerve crush. This report demonstrates that a systemically administered agrin fragment has the potential to counteract the symptoms of neuromuscular disorders.

  11. A recurrent homozygous nonsense mutation within the LAMA3 gene as a cause of Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in patients of Pakistani ancestry: evidence for a founder effect.

    McGrath, J A; Kivirikko, S; Ciatti, S; Moss, C; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J

    1996-04-01

    The anchoring filament protein laminin 5 is abnormally expressed in the skin of patients with Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a H-JEB child of first-cousin Pakistani parents, and identified a homozygous C-to-T transition in the LAMA3 gene of laminin 5 resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA-TGA) on both alleles. This mutation, R650X, has been previously reported in two other seemingly unrelated H-JEB individuals of Pakistani ancestry. Although this mutation may represent a mutational hotspot within the LAMA3 gene, haplotype analysis based on a silent intragenic polymorphism (GCC/GCG, alanine 429; GenBank no. L34155), and on three flanking microsatellite polymorphism (D18S45, D18S478, and D18S480), suggests that a common ancestral allele may be present in all three cases. PMID:8618022

  12. Point correlation dimension can reveal functional changes caused by gap junction blockers in the 4-aminopyridine in vivo rat epilepsy model

    Jardanhazy, Anett [Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6, Szeged H-6725 (Hungary); Molnar, Mark [Department of Psychophysiology, Institute for Psychology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 398, Budapest H-1394 (Hungary)], E-mail: molnar@cogpsyphy.hu; Jardanhazy, Tamas [Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6, Szeged H-6725 (Hungary)], E-mail: jt@nepsy.szote.u-szeged.hu

    2009-04-15

    The contribution of gap junction (GJ) blockers to seizure initiation was reexamined by means of an analysis on nonlinear dynamics with point correlation dimension (PD2i) at as well as around the primary focus, and mirror focus in an already active 4-aminopyridine-induced in vivo epilepsy model. From the data base of the ECoGs of anesthetized adult rats treated with quinine, a selective blocker of Cx36, and in combination with an additional broad-spectrum GJ blocker, carbenoxolone, 14 cases of each condition were reexamined with a stationarity insensitive nonlinear PD2i method. The blockade of the Cx36 channels decreased the usual drop of the point correlation dimension at the beginning of the seizures, and this was enhanced by the additional use of the global blocker carbenoxolone. The so-called characteristic DC shift just prior to seizure onset denotes a low dimensional seizure event and the recognizable seizures display very variable, rapidly changing dynamics, as revealed by the PD2i analysis. This nonlinear PD2i analysis demonstrated that the different GJ blockers in the already active epileptic model helped seizure initiation, but exerted inhibitory effects on the seizure onset itself, acting differently on the local components of the network organization generating seizure discharges, possibly changing the coupling strengths and time delays in the GJ-s.

  13. Point correlation dimension can reveal functional changes caused by gap junction blockers in the 4-aminopyridine in vivo rat epilepsy model

    The contribution of gap junction (GJ) blockers to seizure initiation was reexamined by means of an analysis on nonlinear dynamics with point correlation dimension (PD2i) at as well as around the primary focus, and mirror focus in an already active 4-aminopyridine-induced in vivo epilepsy model. From the data base of the ECoGs of anesthetized adult rats treated with quinine, a selective blocker of Cx36, and in combination with an additional broad-spectrum GJ blocker, carbenoxolone, 14 cases of each condition were reexamined with a stationarity insensitive nonlinear PD2i method. The blockade of the Cx36 channels decreased the usual drop of the point correlation dimension at the beginning of the seizures, and this was enhanced by the additional use of the global blocker carbenoxolone. The so-called characteristic DC shift just prior to seizure onset denotes a low dimensional seizure event and the recognizable seizures display very variable, rapidly changing dynamics, as revealed by the PD2i analysis. This nonlinear PD2i analysis demonstrated that the different GJ blockers in the already active epileptic model helped seizure initiation, but exerted inhibitory effects on the seizure onset itself, acting differently on the local components of the network organization generating seizure discharges, possibly changing the coupling strengths and time delays in the GJ-s.

  14. Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet

    Wilkens, Mirja R.; Breves, Gerhard; Langeheine, Marion; Brehm, Ralph; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability. PMID:27120348

  15. Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet.

    Kristin Elfers

    Full Text Available Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ and adherens junction (AJ proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability.

  16. Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Cadherin 17 in the Small Intestine of Young Goats Offered a Reduced N and/or Ca Diet.

    Elfers, Kristin; Marr, Isabell; Wilkens, Mirja R; Breves, Gerhard; Langeheine, Marion; Brehm, Ralph; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Diets fed to ruminants should contain nitrogen (N) as low as possible to reduce feed costs and environmental pollution. Though possessing effective N-recycling mechanisms to maintain the N supply for rumen microbial protein synthesis and hence protein supply for the host, an N reduction caused substantial changes in calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis in young goats including decreased intestinal transepithelial Ca absorption as reported for monogastric species. In contrast to the transcellular component of transepithelial Ca transport, the paracellular route has not been investigated in young goats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterise the effects of dietary N and/or Ca reduction on paracellular transport mechanisms in young goats. Electrophysiological properties of intestinal epithelia were investigated by Ussing chamber experiments. The expression of tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) proteins in intestinal epithelia were examined on mRNA level by qPCR and on protein level by western blot analysis. Dietary N reduction led to a segment specific increase in tissue conductances in the proximal jejunum which might be linked to concomitantly decreased expression of cadherin 17 mRNA. Expression of occludin (OCLN) and zonula occludens protein 1 was increased in mid jejunal epithelia of N reduced fed goats on mRNA and partly on protein level. Reduced dietary Ca supply resulted in a segment specific increase in claudin 2 and claudin 12 expression and decreased the expression of OCLN which might have been mediated at least in part by calcitriol. These data show that dietary N as well as Ca reduction affected expression of TJ and AJ proteins in a segment specific manner in young goats and may thus be involved in modulation of paracellular Ca permeability. PMID:27120348

  17. Novel and recurrent mutations in the laminin-5 genes causing lethal junctional epidermolysis bullosa: molecular basis and clinical course of Herlitz disease.

    Mühle, Christiane; Jiang, Qiu-Jie; Charlesworth, Alexandra; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; Schneider, Holm

    2005-01-01

    Herlitz disease (H-JEB), the lethal form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa, is a rare genodermatosis presenting from birth with widespread erosions and blistering of skin and mucosae because of tissue cleavage within the epidermal basement membrane. Mutations in any of the three genes encoding the alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains of laminin-5 underlie this recessively inherited disorder. Here, we report the molecular basis and clinical course of H-JEB in 12 patients. Two novel nonsense mutations in the gene LAMA3 (E281X and K1299X) and a novel frame-shift mutation in the gene LAMB3 (1628insG) leading to a premature termination codon were identified by DNA sequencing and confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the four patients affected, neither the resulting truncated polypeptide chains nor assembled laminin-5 protein were detectable by immunofluorescence. Three patients were found to be heterozygous for the known hotspot mutation R635X and the recurrent mutations Q373X or 29insC in the gene LAMB3, whereas five others were homozygous for R635X. Significant variations in the disease progression and survival times between 1 and 30 months in this group of H-JEB patients emphasised the impact of modifying factors and the importance of immunostaining or mRNA assessment as parallel diagnostic methods. Interestingly, the only patients who survived for longer than 6 months were four females carrying the mutation R635X homozygously. In one of them, the clinical course may have been improved by treatment with artificial skin equivalents. These data may stimulate further investigation of genotype-phenotype correlations and facilitate mutation analysis and genetic counselling of affected families. PMID:15538630

  18. How useful is esophageal high resolution manometry in diagnosing gastroesophageal junction disruption: causes affecting this disruption and its relationship with manometric alterations and gastroesophageal reflux

    Constanza Ciriza-de-los-Ríos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-resolution manometry (HRM is a breakthrough in the morphological study of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ and its degrees of disruption. Objectives: a Assessment of risk factors involved in the disruption of the GEJ in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER symptoms; b the relationship between the type of GEJ and GER demonstrated by 24 hours pH-monitoring; and c identification of the alterations in the manometric parameters related to the morphology of the GEJ. Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms of GER studied with HRM and classified by the type of GEJ (type I: Normal; type II: Sliding; type III: Hiatal hernia. Twenty four hour pH-monitoring without proton pump inhibitors was performed in all of them. Epidemiological aspects, manometric parameters (Chicago 2012 classification and the pH-monitoring results were evaluated. Results: Age (OR 1.033 [1.006-1.060]; p = 0.16, BMI (OR 1.097 [1.022-1.176]; p = 0. 01 and abdominal perimeter (OR 1.034 [1.005-1.063]; p = 0.0215 were independent risk factors for the GEJ type III (area under the curve 0.70. Disruption of the GEJ was associated with a lower resting pressure (p = 0.006, greater length (p < 0.001 and greater esophageal shortening (p < 0.001. Abnormal acidic reflux was found in the total period (p = 0.015, standing (p = 0.022 and supine (p = 0.001 in patients with GEJ type II and III with respect to type I. Conclusions: Increased age, overweight and central obesity pose a higher risk of GEJ type III (hiatal hernia. The greater disruption of the GEJ is associated with lower resting pressure, esophageal shortening, and higher acid exposure in the pH-monitoring.

  19. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  20. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  1. Overexpression of galectin-7 in mouse epidermis leads to loss of cell junctions and defective skin repair.

    Gaëlle Gendronneau

    Full Text Available The proteins of the galectin family are implicated in many cellular processes, including cell interactions, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. In human and mouse, galectin-7 is almost exclusively expressed in stratified epithelia, notably in the epidermis. Galectin-7 expression is also altered in several human tumors of epithelial origin. This study aimed at dissecting the consequences of galectin-7 overexpression on epidermis structure and functions in vivo.We established transgenic mice specifically overexpressing galectin-7 in the basal epidermal keratinocytes and analyzed the consequences on untreated skin and after UVB irradiation or mechanical injury.The intercellular cohesion of the epidermis is impaired in transgenic animals, with gaps developing between adjacent keratinocytes, associated with loss of adherens junctions. The epidermal architecture is aberrant with perturbations in the multilayered cellular organisation of the tissue, and structural defects in the basement membrane. These transgenic animals displayed a reduced re-epithelialisation potential following superficial wound, due to a defective collective migration of keratinocytes. Finally, a single mild dose of UVB induced an abnormal apoptotic response in the transgenic epidermis.These results indicate that an excess of galectin-7 leads to a destabilisation of adherens junctions associated with defects in epidermal repair. As this phenotype shares similarities with that of galectin-7 null mutant mice, we conclude that a critical level of this protein is required for maintaining proper epidermal homeostasis. This study brings new insight into the mode of action of galectins in normal and pathological situations.

  2. Solitons in Josephson junctions

    Ustinov, A. V.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic flux quanta in Josephson junctions, often called fluxons, in many cases behave as solitons. A review of recent experiments and modelling of fluxon dynamics in Josephson circuits is presented. Classic quasi-one-dimensional junctions, stacked junctions (Josephson superlattices), and discrete Josephson transmission lines (JTLs) are discussed. Applications of fluxon devices as high-frequency oscillators and digital circuits are also addressed.

  3. Endothelial cell senescence is associated with disrupted cell-cell junctions and increased monolayer permeability

    Krouwer Vincent J D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular senescence is associated with cellular dysfunction and has been shown to occur in vivo in age-related cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Atherogenesis is accompanied by intimal accumulation of LDL and increased extravasation of monocytes towards accumulated and oxidized LDL, suggesting an affected barrier function of vascular endothelial cells. Our objective was to study the effect of cellular senescence on the barrier function of non-senescent endothelial cells. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured until senescence. Senescent cells were compared with non-senescent cells and with co-cultures of non-senescent and senescent cells. Adherens junctions and tight junctions were studied. To assess the barrier function of various monolayers, assays to measure permeability for Lucifer Yellow (LY and horseradish peroxidase (PO were performed. Results The barrier function of monolayers comprising of senescent cells was compromised and coincided with a change in the distribution of junction proteins and a down-regulation of occludin and claudin-5 expression. Furthermore, a decreased expression of occludin and claudin-5 was observed in co-cultures of non-senescent and senescent cells, not only between senescent cells but also along the entire periphery of non-senescent cells lining a senescent cell. Conclusions Our findings show that the presence of senescent endothelial cells in a non-senescent monolayer disrupts tight junction morphology of surrounding young cells and increases the permeability of the monolayer for LY and PO.

  4. Reinforcing endothelial junctions prevents microvessel permeability increase and tumor cell adhesion in microvessels in vivo

    Fu, Bingmei M.; Yang, Jinlin; Cai, Bin; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zeng, Min

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cell adhesion to the microvessel wall is a critical step during tumor metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a secretion of tumor cells, can increase microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion in the microvessel. To test the hypothesis that inhibiting permeability increase can reduce tumor cell adhesion, we used in vivo fluorescence microscopy to measure both microvessel permeability and adhesion rates of human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery under the treatment of VEGF and a cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, which can decrease microvessel permeability. By immunostaining adherens junction proteins between endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall, we further investigated the structural mechanism by which cAMP abolishes VEGF-induced increase in microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion. Our results demonstrate that 1) Pretreatment of microvessels with cAMP can abolish VEGF-enhanced microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion; 2) Tumor cells prefer to adhere to the endothelial cell junctions instead of cell bodies; 3) VEGF increases microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion by compromising endothelial junctions while cAMP abolishes these effects of VEGF by reinforcing the junctions. These results suggest that strengthening the microvessel wall integrity can be a potential approach to inhibiting hematogenous tumor metastasis.

  5. Unique cell type-specific junctional complexes in vascular endothelium of human and rat liver sinusoids.

    Cyrill Géraud

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelium is strategically positioned to control access of fluids, macromolecules and cells to the liver parenchyma and to serve clearance functions upstream of the hepatocytes. While clearance of macromolecular debris from the peripheral blood is performed by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs using a delicate endocytic receptor system featuring stabilin-1 and -2, the mannose receptor and CD32b, vascular permeability and cell trafficking are controlled by transcellular pores, i.e. the fenestrae, and by intercellular junctional complexes. In contrast to blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells in other organs, the junctional complexes of LSECs have not yet been consistently characterized in molecular terms. In a comprehensive analysis, we here show that LSECs express the typical proteins found in endothelial adherens junctions (AJ, i.e. VE-cadherin as well as α-, β-, p120-catenin and plakoglobin. Tight junction (TJ transmembrane proteins typical of endothelial cells, i.e. claudin-5 and occludin, were not expressed by rat LSECs while heterogenous immunreactivity for claudin-5 was detected in human LSECs. In contrast, junctional molecules preferentially associating with TJ such as JAM-A, B and C and zonula occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 were readily detected in LSECs. Remarkably, among the JAMs JAM-C was considerably over-expressed in LSECs as compared to lung microvascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we show here that LSECs form a special kind of mixed-type intercellular junctions characterized by co-occurrence of endothelial AJ proteins, and of ZO-1 and -2, and JAMs. The distinct molecular architecture of the intercellular junctional complexes of LSECs corroborates previous ultrastructural findings and provides the molecular basis for further analyses of the endothelial barrier function of liver sinusoids under pathologic conditions ranging from hepatic inflammation to formation of liver metastasis.

  6. Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Laimer, Martin; Lanschuetzer, Christoph M; Diem, Anja; Bauer, Johann W

    2010-01-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa type Herlitz (JEB-H) is the autosomal recessively inherited, more severe variant of "lucidolytic" JEB. Characterized by generalized, extensive mucocutaneous blistering at birth and early lethality, this devastating condition is most often caused by homozygous null mutations in the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2, each encoding for 1 of the 3 chains of the heterotrimer laminin-332. The JEB-H subtype usually presents as a severe and clinically diverse variant of the EB group of mechanobullous genodermatoses. This article outlines the epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of JEB-H. Morbidity and mortality are high, necessitating optimized protocols for early (including prenatal) diagnosis and palliative care. Gene therapy remains the most promising perspective. PMID:19945616

  7. Imaging of cervicothoracic junction trauma

    Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2013-01-01

    Sirote Wongwaisayawan,1 Ruedeekorn Suwannanon,2 Rathachai Kaewlai11Department of Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital and Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, ThailandAbstract: Cervicothoracic junction trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Imaging has played an important role in identifying injuries and guiding appropriate, timely therapy. Computed tomography is currently a...

  8. Molecular electronic junction transport

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative......, and focuses on mechanism, structure/function relations, regimes and mechanisms of transport, some molecular regularities, and some substantial challenges facing the field. Because there are many regimes and mechanisms in transport junctions, we will discuss time scales, geometries, and inelastic scattering...

  9. Alteration of cadherin isoform expression and inhibition of gap junctions in stomach carcinoma cells

    2001-01-01

    To explore cell malignant phenotype correlated changes of cell surface adhesion molecules and cell-cell communication in carcinogenesis, human stomach transformed and cancer cell lines were investigated. Expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, ?-catenin, ?-catenin as well as gap junction (GJ) protein Cx32 were studied by utilization of immunoblotting, immunocytochemical and fluorescent dye transfer methods. Mammalian normal stomach mucosal cells expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. E-cadherin immunofluorescence was detected at cell membranous adherens junctions (AJ) where colocalization with immunofluorescent staining of inner surface adhesion plaque proteins ?- and ?-catenins was observed. The existence of E-cadherin/ catenin (?-, ?-) protein complexes as AJ was suggested. In transformed and stomach cancer cells E-cadherin was inhibited, instead, N-cadherin was expressed and localized at membranous AJ where co-staining with ?- and ?-catenin fluorescence was observed. Formation of N-cadherin/catenin (?-, ?-) protein complex at AJs of transformed and cancer cells was suggested. The above observations were further supported by immunoblotting results. Normal stomach muscosal and transformed cells expressed Cx32 at membranous GJ and were competent of gap junction communication (GJIC). In stomach cancer cells, Cx32 was inhibited and GJIC was defective. The results suggested that changes of signal pathways mediated by both cell adhesion and cell communication systems are associated intracellular events of stomach carcinogenesis. The alteration of cadherin isoform from E- to N-cadherin in transformed and stomach cancer cells is the first report.

  10. Self-organizing actomyosin patterns on the cell cortex at epithelial cell-cell junctions.

    Moore, Thomas; Wu, Selwin K; Michael, Magdalene; Yap, Alpha S; Gomez, Guillermo A; Neufeld, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of actomyosin critically determines morphologically distinct patterns of contractility found at the interface between adherent cells. One such pattern is found at the apical region (zonula adherens) of cell-cell junctions in epithelia, where clusters of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin concentrate in a static pattern. Meanwhile, E-cadherin clusters throughout lateral cell-cell contacts display dynamic movements in the plane of the junctions. To gain insight into the principles that determine the nature and organization of these dynamic structures, we analyze this behavior by modeling the 2D actomyosin cell cortex as an active fluid medium. The numerical simulations show that the stability of the actin filaments influences the spatial structure and dynamics of the system. We find that in addition to static Turing-type patterns, persistent dynamic behavior occurs in a wide range of parameters. In the 2D model, mechanical stress-dependent actin breakdown is shown to produce a continuously changing network of actin bridges, whereas with a constant breakdown rate, more isolated clusters of actomyosin tend to form. The model qualitatively reproduces the dynamic and stable patterns experimentally observed at the junctions between epithelial cells. PMID:25468344

  11. Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs)

    2001-01-01

    We review the giant tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-ferromagnetic junctions discovered in recent years, which is the magnetoresistance (MR) associated with the spin-dependent tunneling between two ferromagnetic metal films separated by an insulating thin tunnel barrier. The theoretical and experimental results including junction conductance, magnetoresistance and their temperature and bias dependences are described.

  12. Stacked Josephson Junctions

    Madsen, Søren Find; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2010-01-01

    Long Josephson junctions have for some time been considered as a source of THz radiation. Solitons moving coherently in the junctions is a possible source for this radiation. Analytical computations of the bunched state and bunching-inducing methods are reviewed. Experiments showing THz radiation...

  13. Tight junction protein ZO-2 expression and relative function of ZO-1 and ZO-2 during mouse blastocyst formation

    Apicolateral tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells are multiprotein complexes regulating membrane polarity and paracellular transport and also contribute to signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation and gene expression. ZO-2 and other ZO family members form a sub-membranous scaffold for binding TJ constituents. We investigated ZO-2 contribution to TJ biogenesis and function during trophectoderm epithelium differentiation in mouse preimplantation embryos. Our data indicate that ZO-2 is expressed from maternal and embryonic genomes with maternal ZO-2 protein associated with nuclei in zygotes and particularly early cleavage stages. Embryonic ZO-2 assembled at outer blastomere apicolateral junctional sites from the late 16-cell stage. Junctional ZO-2 first co-localised with E-cadherin in a transient complex comprising adherens junction and TJ constituents before segregating to TJs after their separation from the blastocyst stage (32-cell onwards). ZO-2 siRNA microinjection into zygotes or 2-cell embryos resulted in specific knockdown of ZO-2 mRNA and protein within blastocysts. Embryos lacking ZO-2 protein at trophectoderm TJs exhibited delayed blastocoel cavity formation but underwent normal cell proliferation and outgrowth morphogenesis. Quantitative analysis of trophectoderm TJs in ZO-2-deficient embryos revealed increased assembly of ZO-1 but not occludin, indicating ZO protein redundancy as a compensatory mechanism contributing to the mild phenotype observed. In contrast, ZO-1 knockdown, or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 knockdown, generated a more severe inhibition of blastocoel formation indicating distinct roles for ZO proteins in blastocyst morphogenesis

  14. Neuromuscular junctional disorders.

    Girija, A S; Ashraf, V V

    2008-07-01

    Neuromuscular junctional disorders (NMJ) in children are distinct entity. They may be acquired or hereditary. They pose problem in diagnosis because of the higher occurrence of sero negative Myasthenia Gravis (MG) cases in children. The identity of MusK antibody positivity in a good percentage of sero negative cases further adds to problems in diagnosis. The Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome (CMS) which are rare disorders of hereditary neuromuscular transmission (NMT) has to be differentiated because immunotherapy has no benefit in this group. Molecular genetic studies of these diseases helps to identify specific type of CMS which is important as other drugs like Fluoxetine, Quinidine are found to be effective in some. In infancy, all can manifest as floppy infant syndrome. The important key to diagnosis is by detailed electrophysiological studies including repetitive nerve stimulation at slow and high rates and its response to anticholinesterases and estimation of Acetyl choline receptor antibodies. Other causes of neuromuscular transmission defects viz. snake venom poisoning and that due to drugs are discussed. PMID:18716738

  15. Potent In Vitro Protection Against PM[Formula: see text]-Caused ROS Generation and Vascular Permeability by Long-Term Pretreatment with Ganoderma tsugae.

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chung, Meng-Chi; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Chang, Jing-Fen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies show increased particulate matter (PM[Formula: see text]) particles in ambient air are correlated with increased myocardial infarctions. Given the close association of capillaries and alveoli, the dysfunction is caused when inhaled PM[Formula: see text] particles come in close proximity to capillary endothelial cells. We previously suggested that the inhalation of PM[Formula: see text] diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces oxidative stress and upregulates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inducing vascular permeability factor VEGFA secretion, which results in cell-cell adherens junction disruption and PM[Formula: see text] transmigratation into circulation. Here, we minimized the level that PM[Formula: see text] traveled in the bloodstream by pre-supplementing with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Ganoderma tsugae DMSO extract (GTDE) prior to PM[Formula: see text] exposure. Our results show that PM[Formula: see text] caused alterations in enzyme activities and cellular anti-oxidant balance. We found decreased glutathione levels, a reduced cellular redox ratio, increased ROS generation and cytotoxicity in the cellular fractions. The oxidative stress caused DNA damage and apoptosis, likely causing downstream molecular events that trigger vasculature permeabilization and, eventually, cardiovascular disorders. Our results show long-term GTDE treatment increased endogenous glutathione level, while PM[Formula: see text]-reduced glutathione levels and the cellular redox ratio. GTDE was protective against the genotoxic and apoptotic effects initiated by PM[Formula: see text] oxidative stress. Vascular permeability revealed that PM[Formula: see text] only accumulated on the surface of cells after GTDE treatment; no penetration was detected. After two weeks of GTDE treatment, VEGFA secretion was significantly reduced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and endothelial cell migration was blocked. Our results suggest GTDE prevents PM

  16. Significance of MR angiography in the diagnosis of aberrant renal arteries as the cause of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children; Stellenwert der MR-Angiografie in der Diagnostik aberrierender Nierenarterien als Ursache einer Ureterabgangsstenose bei Kindern

    Ritter, L.; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, F.W.; Vieweger, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Radiology; Goetz, G.; Lehnert, T.; Buehligen, U.; Geyer, C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Surgery

    2015-01-15

    To determine the importance of MRI with contrast-enhanced MRA for the detection or exclusion of aberrant or obstructing renal arteries in ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children. Key word-based search in RIS database (ureteropelvic junction obstruction/MRI) and retrospective comparison of arterial findings from preoperative contrast-enhanced MRA and intra-operative inspection. From 2007 to 2013, 19 children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction underwent contrast-enhanced MRA. Based on the results of the MRI scan and MAG3 scintigraphy, the children were referred to surgery (Anderson-Hynes-pyeloplasty). An aberrant renal artery was diagnosed with MRI in 14 of 19 children, and intra-operative inspection confirmed 13 of those 14. In the remaining 5 children, no aberrant vessel could be observed in MRI and this was confirmed intra-operatively in 3 of the 5 cases, while in the remaining 2, an aberrant vessel was found. Of the 14 children with aberrant vessels, 12 underwent surgery due to assumed ureteral obstruction, which was confirmed by surgery in 11 cases. In one case, an aberrant artery was found intra-operatively, but obstruction could not be confirmed. In one of the 14 children, the vessel was found in MRI, but its obstructing character was negated via MRA, which was confirmed intra-operatively. In the diagnosis of aberrant and obstructing renal arteries, contrast-enhanced MRA presents 85 % sensitivity and 80 % specificity, with a positive predictive value of 0.8. MRI with contrast-enhanced MRA is suitable to detect aberrant and obstructing renal arteries. An obstructive effect of the aberrant vessel is to be assumed if the vessel has a close relationship to the ureteropelvic junction and if it is linearly stretched.

  17. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Lactational exposure of phthalate causes long-term disruption in testicular architecture by altering tight junctional and apoptotic protein expression in Sertoli cells of first filial generation pubertal Wistar rats.

    Sekaran, S; Balaganapathy, P; Parsanathan, R; Elangovan, S; Gunashekar, J; Bhat, F A; Jagadeesan, A

    2015-06-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a well-known endocrine disruptor (ED) that interferes with the reproductive function in both humans and animals. This study aimed to find out the impact of lactational exposure of DEHP in testes of first filial generation (F1) progeny male rat postnatal day (PND)-60. Lactating dams were orally treated with DEHP (0, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively) from the PND-1 to PND-21. Rats were killed at PND 60. Testes were removed and used for histological analysis and for isolation of Sertoli cells (SCs). The histoarchitecture of DEHP-treated rats showed disturbed testicular structure. DEHP-treated rats also showed increased oxidative stress by decreasing antioxidant levels in the SCs; it disrupted SC tight junctional proteins occludin, claudin, junctional adhesion molecule, zona occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), zona occludens protein-2 (ZO-2), and afadin-6 (AF-6), increased apoptosis by altering the apoptotic genes Bax, cytochrome c, caspase-8, -9, -3 and antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. It is concluded that early postnatal exposure to DEHP disturbs histoarchitecture of testis and SC function in pubertal Wistar rats. PMID:25352649

  19. Oncostatin M induces upregulation of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes coinciding with changes in morphology and function of tight junctions

    In rodent livers, integral tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1, -2, -3, -5 and -14 are detected and play crucial roles in the barrier to keep bile in bile canaculi away from the blood circulation. Claudin-2 shows a lobular gradient increasing from periportal to pericentral hepatocytes, whereas claudin-1 and -3 are expressed in the whole liver lobule. Although claudin-2 expression induces cation-selective channels in tight junctions of epithelial cells, the physiological functions and regulation of claudin-2 in hepatocytes remain unclear. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in the differentiation of hepatocytes that induces formation of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions in fetal hepatocytes. In this study, we examined whether OSM could induce expression and function of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes, immortalized mouse and primary cultured proliferative rat hepatocytes. In the immortalized mouse and primary cultured proliferative rat hepatocytes, treatment with OSM markedly increased mRNA and protein of claudin-2 together with formation of developed networks of TJ strands. The increase of claudin-2 enhanced the paracellular barrier function which depended on molecular size. The increase of claudin-2 expression induced by OSM in rodent hepatocytes was regulated through distinct signaling pathways including PKC. These results suggest that expression of claudin-2 in rodent hepatocytes may play a specific role as controlling the size of paracellular permeability in the barrier to keep bile in bile canaculi

  20. Junction-FET dosimeter

    The performance of a new junction-FET dosimeter and its application to the beam profile measurement are presented. One of the two junction FET's making up an astable multivibrator is used as a small-size (approx.0.4x0.4 mm) high-level dose detector. The irradiated dose can be estimated by the amount of the decrease of the oscillator period of the multivibrator. The distinct advantages in its small size and superior resistive property to radiation effect enable us to measure the cross-sectional profile of the electron beam from a linac with high spatial resolution of about 0.4 mm

  1. Metal-free molecular junctions on ITO via amino-silane binding-towards optoelectronic molecular junctions.

    Sergani, S; Furmansky, Y; Visoly-Fisher, I

    2013-11-15

    Light control over currents in molecular junctions is desirable as a non-contact input with high spectral and spatial resolution provided by the photonic input and the molecular electronics element, respectively. Expanding the study of molecular junctions to non-metallic transparent substrates, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), is vital for the observation of molecular optoelectronic effects. Non-metallic electrodes are expected to decrease the probability of quenching of molecular photo-excited states, light-induced plasmonic effects, or significant electrode expansion under visible light. We have developed micron-sized, metal free, optically addressable ITO molecular junctions with a conductive polymer serving as the counter-electrode. The electrical transport was shown to be dominated by the nature of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The use of amino-silane (APTMS) as the chemical binding scheme to ITO was found to be significant in determining the transport properties of the junctions. APTMS allows high junction yields and the formation of dense molecular layers preventing electrical short. However, polar amino-silane binding to the ITO significantly decreased the conductance compared to thiol-bound SAMs, and caused tilted geometry and disorder in the molecular layer. As the effect of the molecular structure on transport properties is clearly observed in our junctions, such metal-free junctions are suitable for characterizing the optoelectronic properties of molecular junctions. PMID:24129428

  2. Metal-free molecular junctions on ITO via amino-silane binding—towards optoelectronic molecular junctions

    Sergani, S.; Furmansky, Y.; Visoly-Fisher, I.

    2013-11-01

    Light control over currents in molecular junctions is desirable as a non-contact input with high spectral and spatial resolution provided by the photonic input and the molecular electronics element, respectively. Expanding the study of molecular junctions to non-metallic transparent substrates, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), is vital for the observation of molecular optoelectronic effects. Non-metallic electrodes are expected to decrease the probability of quenching of molecular photo-excited states, light-induced plasmonic effects, or significant electrode expansion under visible light. We have developed micron-sized, metal free, optically addressable ITO molecular junctions with a conductive polymer serving as the counter-electrode. The electrical transport was shown to be dominated by the nature of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The use of amino-silane (APTMS) as the chemical binding scheme to ITO was found to be significant in determining the transport properties of the junctions. APTMS allows high junction yields and the formation of dense molecular layers preventing electrical short. However, polar amino-silane binding to the ITO significantly decreased the conductance compared to thiol-bound SAMs, and caused tilted geometry and disorder in the molecular layer. As the effect of the molecular structure on transport properties is clearly observed in our junctions, such metal-free junctions are suitable for characterizing the optoelectronic properties of molecular junctions.

  3. Metal-free molecular junctions on ITO via amino-silane binding—towards optoelectronic molecular junctions

    Light control over currents in molecular junctions is desirable as a non-contact input with high spectral and spatial resolution provided by the photonic input and the molecular electronics element, respectively. Expanding the study of molecular junctions to non-metallic transparent substrates, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), is vital for the observation of molecular optoelectronic effects. Non-metallic electrodes are expected to decrease the probability of quenching of molecular photo-excited states, light-induced plasmonic effects, or significant electrode expansion under visible light. We have developed micron-sized, metal free, optically addressable ITO molecular junctions with a conductive polymer serving as the counter-electrode. The electrical transport was shown to be dominated by the nature of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The use of amino-silane (APTMS) as the chemical binding scheme to ITO was found to be significant in determining the transport properties of the junctions. APTMS allows high junction yields and the formation of dense molecular layers preventing electrical short. However, polar amino-silane binding to the ITO significantly decreased the conductance compared to thiol-bound SAMs, and caused tilted geometry and disorder in the molecular layer. As the effect of the molecular structure on transport properties is clearly observed in our junctions, such metal-free junctions are suitable for characterizing the optoelectronic properties of molecular junctions. (paper)

  4. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

    Wang Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1 μm. Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2, in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  5. Disordered graphene Josephson junctions

    Munoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppressio...

  6. Gap Junction Protein Connexin43 Exacerbates Lung Vascular Permeability

    O’Donnell, James J.; Birukova, Anna A.; Beyer, Eric C.; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2014-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability causes pulmonary edema that impairs arterial oxygenation and thus contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and sepsis. Although components of intercellular adhesive and tight junctions are critical for maintaining the endothelial barrier, there has been limited study of the roles of gap junctions and their component proteins (connexins). Since connexins can modulate inflammatory signaling in other systems, we hy...

  7. Age-dependant expression of alpha-macula adherens protein in rat heart%α-黏着斑蛋白在大鼠心脏表达分布随增龄变化的特征

    张光谋; 吴俊琢; 张艳芬; 郭志坤

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Macula adherens protein is found closely associated with congenital cardiac malformation and myocardial differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression characteristics of α-macula adherens protein in rat heart, as well as the property of age-dependant expression during myocardial growth. DESIGN: Randomized controlled, observational comparative study. SETTING: Department of Cell Biology of Xinxiang Medical College; Department of Bioengineering and Agricultural Economics of Puyang Vocational Technical School. MATERIALS: This study was conducted at the Morphological Laboratory of Xinxiang Medical College between January and June 2003. Totally 28 Wistar rats of clean grade were divided into infant group, youth group,middle-age group, and old-age group with 7 rats in each group. METHODS: All rats were anaesthetized and then cardiac tissues were cut into consecutive coronal slices of 5 μm thick. The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of infant, youth, middle-age and oldage groups was detected using IHC method. The positive cells displayed brownish yellow granules on the surface, cytoplasm and intercalated disc. Routine HE staining was performed on all specimens for structural comparison. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The expression of α-macula adherens protein in rat myocardium of different groups. RESULTS: All the 28 rats entered the final results analysis. ① α-macula adherens protein was found to be expressed in myocardium in atrium, ventricle, papilla muscles and interventricular septum. ② In infant rats, the expression of α-macula adherens protein was mainly observed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium, with less expression on cell surface and in cytoplasm; in contrast, α-macula adherens protein in young, middleaged and old rats was found to be typically expressed in intercalated disc at the end of myocardium. CONCLUSION: The expression of α-macula adherens protein displays age-dependant manner during rat

  8. Dissipation and traversal time in Josephson junctions

    The various ways of evaluating dissipative effects in macroscopic quantum tunneling are re-examined. The results obtained by using functional integration, while confirming those of previously given treatments, enable a comparison with available experimental results relative to Josephson junctions. A criterion based on the shortening of the semiclassical traversal time τ of the barrier with regard to dissipation can be established, according to which Δτ/τ > or approx. N/Q, where Q is the quality factor of the junction and N is a numerical constant of order unity. The best agreement with the experiments is obtained for N=1.11, as it results from a semiempirical analysis based on an increase in the potential barrier caused by dissipative effects.

  9. Macroscopic quantum effects in capacitively- and inductively-coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Koyama, T.; Machida, M.

    2009-03-01

    A theory for macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks is formulated. Both capacitive and inductive couplings between junctions are taken into account. We calculate the escape rate in the switching to the first resistive branch in the quantum regime. It is shown that the enhancement of the escape rate is caused mainly by the capacitive coupling between junctions in IJJ's with small in-plane area of ~ 1μm2.

  10. Josephson junction simulation of neurons

    Crotty, Patrick; Schult, Daniel; Segall, Ken

    2010-01-01

    With the goal of understanding the intricate behavior and dynamics of collections of neurons, we present superconducting circuits containing Josephson junctions that model biologically realistic neurons. These "Josephson junction neurons" reproduce many characteristic behaviors of biological neurons such as action potentials, refractory periods, and firing thresholds. They can be coupled together in ways that mimic electrical and chemical synapses. Using existing fabrication technologies, lar...

  11. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  12. The human myotendinous junction

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail;

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... from all 14 patients. TEM images displayed similarities to observations in animals: Sarcolemmal evaginations observed as finger-like processes from the tendon and endomysium surrounding the muscle fibers, with myofilaments extending from the final Z-line of the muscle fiber merging with the tendon...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  13. Disordered graphene Josephson junctions

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-02-01

    A tight-binding approach based on the Chebyshev-Bogoliubov-de Gennes method is used to describe disordered single-layer graphene Josephson junctions. Scattering by vacancies, ripples, or charged impurities is included. We compute the Josephson current and investigate the nature of multiple Andreev reflections, which induce bound states appearing as peaks in the density of states for energies below the superconducting gap. In the presence of single-atom vacancies, we observe a strong suppression of the supercurrent, which is a consequence of strong intervalley scattering. Although lattice deformations should not induce intervalley scattering, we find that the supercurrent is still suppressed, which is due to the presence of pseudomagnetic barriers. For charged impurities, we consider two cases depending on whether the average doping is zero, i.e., existence of electron-hole puddles, or finite. In both cases, short-range impurities strongly affect the supercurrent, similar to the vacancies scenario.

  14. Black diamonds at brane junctions

    Chamblin, Andrew; Csáki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss the properties of black holes in brane-world scenarios where our Universe is viewed as a four-dimensional sub-manifold of some higher-dimensional spacetime. We consider in detail such a model where four-dimensional spacetime lies at the junction of several domain walls in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. In this model there may be any number p of infinitely large extra dimensions transverse to the brane-world. We present an exact solution describing a black p-brane which will induce on the brane-world the Schwarzschild solution. This exact solution is unstable to the Gregory-Laflamme instability, whereby long-wavelength perturbations cause the extended horizon to fragment. We therefore argue that at late times a non-rotating uncharged black hole in the brane-world is described by a deformed event horizon in p+4 dimensions which will induce, to good approximation, the Schwarzschild solution in the four-dimensional brane world. When p=2, this deformed horizon resembles a black diamond and more generally for p>2, a polyhedron.

  15. Black Diamonds at Brane Junctions

    Chamblin, A; Erlich, J; Hollowood, Timothy J; Chamblin, Andrew; Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the properties of black holes in brane-world scenarios where ouruniverse is viewed as a four-dimensional sub-manifold of somehigher-dimensional spacetime. We consider in detail such a model wherefour-dimensional spacetime lies at the junction of several domain walls in ahigher dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. In this model there may be anynumber p of infinitely large extra dimensions transverse to the brane-world. Wepresent an exact solution describing a black p-brane which will induce on thebrane-world the Schwarzschild solution. This exact solution is unstable to theGregory-Laflamme instability, whereby long-wavelength perturbations cause theextended horizon to fragment. We therefore argue that at late times anon-rotating uncharged black hole in the brane-world is described by a deformedevent horizon in p+4 dimensions which will induce, to good approximation, theSchwarzschild solution in the four-dimensional brane world. When p=2, thisdeformed horizon resembles a black diamond and more gener...

  16. Black diamonds at brane junctions

    We discuss the properties of black holes in brane-world scenarios where our Universe is viewed as a four-dimensional sub-manifold of some higher-dimensional spacetime. We consider in detail such a model where four-dimensional spacetime lies at the junction of several domain walls in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. In this model there may be any number p of infinitely large extra dimensions transverse to the brane-world. We present an exact solution describing a black p-brane which will induce on the brane-world the Schwarzschild solution. This exact solution is unstable to the Gregory-Laflamme instability, whereby long-wavelength perturbations cause the extended horizon to fragment. We therefore argue that at late times a non-rotating uncharged black hole in the brane-world is described by a deformed event horizon in p+4 dimensions which will induce, to good approximation, the Schwarzschild solution in the four-dimensional brane world. When p=2, this deformed horizon resembles a black diamond and more generally for p>2, a polyhedron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Double Trouble: A Rare Case of Bilateral Upper Pole Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Craig A. Peters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl presented with bilateral back pain caused by bilateral upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstructions; an extremely rare phenomenon. Bilateral robotically assisted upper pole pyeloplasties were preformed at the same setting with an excellent clinical response. Although rare, upper pole ureteropelvic junction obstruction is a defined entity that urologists should be aware of.

  18. Efficacy of landiolol for the treatment of junctional ectopic tachycardia resulting from sepsis.

    Oka, Hideharu; Sugimoto, Masaya; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia, after surgery for CHD, is a serious arrhythmia that can cause increased morbidity and mortality. We report a case of junctional ectopic tachycardia, preceded by sepsis, in a 4-year-old girl, 31 months after open-heart surgery. She was successfully treated using low-dose landiolol hydrochloride. PMID:25785611

  19. Electronic properties of nanotube junctions

    Lambin, Ph.; Meunier, V.

    1998-08-01

    The possibility of realizing junctions between two different nanotubes has recently attracted a great interest, even though much remains to be done for putting this idea in concrete form. Pentagon-heptagon pair defects in the otherwise perfect graphitic network make such connections possible, with virtually infinite varieties. In this paper, the literature devoted to nanotube junctions is briefly reviewed. A special emphasize is put on the electronic properties of C nanotube junctions, together with an indication on how their current-voltage characteristics may look like.

  20. TRANSITIONAL FLOW IN CHANNEL JUNCTIONS

    NI Han-gen; LIU Ya-kun

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of energy and continuity equations a simple one-dimensional formulation was proposed to predict the transitional flow at an open-channel junction. An empilical relation between the junction losses, the junction angle, and the discharge ratio was suggested which agrees well with the experimental results. The results calculated by the present formulation for the depth ratio were compared with the results of earlier one-dimensional formulations and experiments. It is found that the present results coincide better with experiments than those of others.

  1. Voltage dependence of the differential capacitance of a p+-n junction

    The dependences of the differential capacitance and current of a p+-n junction with a uniformly doped n region on the voltage in the junction region are calculated. The p+-n junction capacitance controls the charge change in the junction region taking into account a change in the electric field of the quasi-neutral n region and a change in its bipolar drift mobility with increasing excess charge-carrier concentration. It is shown that the change in the sign of the p+-n junction capacitance with increasing injection level is caused by a decrease in the bipolar drift mobility as the electron-hole pair concentration in the n region increases. It is shown that the p+-n junction capacitance decreases with increasing reverse voltage and tends to a constant positive value.

  2. SIS junction reactance complete compensation

    SIS junction geometrical capacitance together with out of phase current Ikk impedance component forms sufficient junction reactance XSIS = (ωC + BQ)-1. This paper suggests the way to resonate out both ωC and BQ by using additional identical SIS junction connected to the first through a long line impedance inverter and RF + DC biased symmetrically to the first. Pumped IV curves without quantum reactance and frequency impedance patterns of the system were calculated. Calculations demonstrated the presence of high and even negative induced dynamic resistance regions at high order quasiparticle steps for the case of SIS junction reactance complete compensation. The suggested method may be used in SIS mixers and detectors for a better RF matching

  3. Thermal conductance of superlattice junctions

    Lu, Simon; McGaughey, Alan J. H., E-mail: mcgaughey@cmu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We use molecular dynamics simulations and the lattice-based scattering boundary method to compute the thermal conductance of finite-length Lennard-Jones superlattice junctions confined by bulk crystalline leads. The superlattice junction thermal conductance depends on the properties of the leads. For junctions with a superlattice period of four atomic monolayers at temperatures between 5 and 20 K, those with mass-mismatched leads have a greater thermal conductance than those with mass-matched leads. We attribute this lead effect to interference between and the ballistic transport of emergent junction vibrational modes. The lead effect diminishes when the temperature is increased, when the superlattice period is increased, and when interfacial disorder is introduced, but is reversed in the harmonic limit.

  4. Thermal conductance of superlattice junctions

    Simon Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We use molecular dynamics simulations and the lattice-based scattering boundary method to compute the thermal conductance of finite-length Lennard-Jones superlattice junctions confined by bulk crystalline leads. The superlattice junction thermal conductance depends on the properties of the leads. For junctions with a superlattice period of four atomic monolayers at temperatures between 5 and 20 K, those with mass-mismatched leads have a greater thermal conductance than those with mass-matched leads. We attribute this lead effect to interference between and the ballistic transport of emergent junction vibrational modes. The lead effect diminishes when the temperature is increased, when the superlattice period is increased, and when interfacial disorder is introduced, but is reversed in the harmonic limit.

  5. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  6. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlOx/Pd0.82Ni0.18/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to π-coupling is observed for a thickness dF=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd0.82Ni0.18 interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd0.82Ni0.18 has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  7. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-03-04

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  8. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted

  9. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted.

  10. INFLUENCE OF SODIUM ARSENITE ON GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Influence of sodium arsenite on gap junction communication in rat-Iiver epitheiial cells. Arsenic is known to cause certain types of cancers, hepatitis, cirrhosis and neurological disorders as well as cardiovascular and reproductive effects and skin lesions. The mechanism...

  11. Preparation and properties of two types of submicron high-Tc Josephson junctions

    There is a variety of different types of high-Tc Josephson junctions corresponding to the short coherence length, high anisotropy and some interface problems of the oxide superconductors. Using submicron technologies nanobridges and bridges modified by ion beams in a hundred nanometer region can be fabricated. Depending on preparation parameters the ion beam influence causes implantation, sputtering or a modification of the lattice changing the superconducting properties. The case of modification is discussed in details. It is shown how parameters of the preparation process influence the physical properties of these junctions. The application of such junctions is shown for DC-SQUIDs and gradiometers including a comparison to other junction types like bicrystal or step-edge junctions. Submicron technology is useful for preparation of intrinsic stacked junctions out of thin films. In this case the single junction dimension is determined by the coupling of two copper oxide planes in an atomic scale. A mesa structure acts as a series connection of a number of single junctions corresponding to the stack height. Preparation and physical properties of these types of junction arrays are given in detail. The possible application of such new kind of devices as radiation sources or voltage standard will be discussed

  12. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels

  13. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Abdelaziz Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  14. Coherence effects in a normal-metal--insulator--superconductor junction

    Zhou, F.; Spivak, B. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Zyuzin, A. [Physics Department, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Coherence effects arising due to Andreev reflections in a superconductor--insulator--normal-metal junction are considered. It is shown that in the absence of electron-electron interaction in the metal at low temperatures, the electrical potential drop on the insulator {ital I}{sub 0}{ital R}{sub {ital I}}, caused by the current density {ital I}{sub 0} through the junction, vanishes, although the resistance of the device {ital R}{sub {infinity}} measured by the two-probe method can be large. The electron-electron interaction determines the zero-temperature value of {ital R}{sub {ital I}}. The implications of these effects for the theory of the superconductor--normal-metal--superconductor junction are discussed.

  15. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia Gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by auto-antibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Antibodie...

  16. Electron transport properties of single molecular junctions under mechanical modulations

    Electron transport behaviors of single molecular junctions are very sensitive to the atomic scale molecule-metal electrode contact interfaces, which have been difficult to control. We used a modified scanning probe microscope-break junction technique (SPM-BJT) to control the dynamics of the contacts and simultaneously monitor both the conductance and force. First, by fitting the measured data into a modified multiple tunneling barrier model, the static contact resistances, corresponding to the different contact conformations of single alkanedithiol and alkanediamine molecular junctions, were identified. Second, the changes of contact decay constant were measured under mechanical extensions of the molecular junctions, which helped to classify the different single molecular conductance sets into specific microscopic conformations of the molecule-electrode contacts. Third, by monitoring the changes of force and contact decay constant with the mechanical extensions, the changes of conductance were found to be caused by the changes of contact bond length and by the atomic reorganizations near the contact bond. This study provides a new insight into the understanding of the influences of contact conformations, especially the effect of changes of dynamic contact conformation on electron transport through single molecular junctions. (paper)

  17. Studying two-level systems in Josephson junctions with a Josephson junction defect spectrometer

    Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Khalil, M. S.; Gladchenko, Sergiy; Simmonds, R. W.; Lobb, C. J.; Osborn, K. D.

    2012-02-01

    We have fabricated and measured Josephson junction defect spectrometers (JJDSs), which are frequency-tunable, nearly-harmonic oscillators that probe two-level systems (TLSs) in the barrier of a Josephson junction (JJ). A JJDS consists of the JJ under study fabricated with a parallel capacitor and inductor such that it can accommodate a wide range of junction inductances, LJ0, while maintaining an operating frequency, f01, in the range of 4-8 GHz. In this device, the parallel inductance helps the JJ maintain linearity over a wide range of frequencies. This architecture allows for the testing of JJs with a wide range of areas and barrier materials, and in the first devices we have tested Al/AlOx/Al JJs. By applying a magnetic flux bias to tune f01, we detect TLSs in the JJ barrier as splittings in the device spectrum. We will present our results toward identifying and quantifying these TLSs, which are known to cause decoherence in quantum devices that rely on JJs.

  18. Transport properties of molecular junctions

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...

  19. Gap Junctions in C. elegans

    ChristianC.Naus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As in other multicellular organisms, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses gap junctions to provide direct cell-to-cell contact. The nematode gap junctions are formed by innexins (invertebrate analogs of the connexins; a family of proteins that surprisingly share no primary sequence homology, but do share structural and functional similarity with connexins. The model organism C. elegans contains 25 innexin genes and innexins are found in virtually all cell types and tissues. Additionally, many innexins have dynamic expression patterns during development, and several innexins are essential genes in the nematode. C. elegans is a popular invertebrate model due to several features including a simple anatomy, a complete cell lineage, sequenced genome and an array of genetic resources. Thus the worm has potential to offer valuable insights into the various functions of gap junction mediated intercellular communication.

  20. NbN tunnel junctions

    All-niobium nitride Josephon junctions have been prepared successfully using a new processing called SNOP: Selective Niobium (nitride) Overlap Process. Such a process involves the ''trilayer'' deposition on the whole wafer before selective patterning of the electrodes by optically controlled dry reactive ion etching. Only two photomask levels are need to define an ''overlap'' or a ''cross-type'' junction with a good accuracy. The properties of the niobium nitride films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering and the surface oxide growth are analysed. The most critical point to obtain high quality and high gap value junctions resides in the early stage of the NbN counterelectrode growth. Some possibilities to overcome such a handicap exist even if the fabrication needs substrate temperatures below 2500C

  1. Ochratoxim A alters cell adhesion and gap junction intercellular communication in MDCK cells

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most potent renal carcinogens studied to date, but the mechanism of tumor formation by ochratoxin A remains largely unknown. Cell adhesion and cell-cell communication participate in the regulation of signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and growth control and it is therefore not surprising that modulation of cell-cell signaling has been implicated in cancer development. Several nephrotoxicants and renal carcinogens have been shown to alter cell-cell signaling by interference with gap junction intercell communication (GJIC) and/or cell adhesion, and the aim of this study was to determine if disruption of cell-cell interactions occurs in kidney epithelial cells in response to OTA treatment. MDCK cells were treated with OTA (0-50 μM) for up to 24 h and gap junction function was analyzed using the scrape-load/dye transfer assay. In addition, expression and intracellular localization of Cx43, E-cadherin and β-catenin were determined by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis. A clear decrease in the distance of dye transfer was evident following treatment with OTA at concentrations/incubation times which did not affect cell viability. Consistent with the functional inhibition of GJIC, treatment with OTA resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in Cx43 expression. In contrast to Cx43, OTA did not alter total amount of the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. Moreover, Western blot analysis of Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble protein fractions did not indicate translocation of cell adhesion molecules from the membrane to the cytoplasm. However, a ∼78 kDa fragment of β-catenin was detected in the detergent soluble fraction, indicating proteolytic cleavage of β-catenin. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed changes in the pattern of both β-catenin and E-cadherin labeling, suggesting that OTA may alter cell-adhesion. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that disruption of cell

  2. Treatment with the gap junction modifier rotigaptide (ZP123) reduces infarct size in rats with chronic myocardial infarction

    Haugan, Ketil; Marcussen, Niels; Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Nielsen, Morten Schak; Hennan, James K; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with non-selective drugs (eg, long-chain alcohols, halothane) that reduce gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, it has been suggested that gap junction intercellular communication stimulating...... what was predicted, our data demonstrates that rotigaptide treatment was associated with a significant infarct size reduction. We conclude that whereas treatment with non-selective inhibitors of gap junction intercellular communication cause a reduction in infarct size, this information cannot be...

  3. Josephson junctions based on pnictide superconductors

    Josephson junctions are a powerful tool for understanding more about the physical behaviour of pnictide superconductors. We built different kinds of Josephson junctions based on pnictide thin films. Planar junctions, edge type junctions, and junctions on bicrystalline substrates were prepared. We present manufacturing techniques and also the electronical properties of the different junctions and compare them. The measurement of I-V-characteristics show a strong excess current. We have to mind this when calculating the IcRN product. The effective IcRN values are 6.5 μV for the grain boundary junction, 7.9 μV for the planar structure, and 7.5 μV for the edge junction.

  4. Nano-Molecular Junctions on STM Tips

    Chun Huang∗; Jianshu Yang

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique for building metal-organic-metal junctions, which contain ten or fewer conjugated molecules between each of such junction, and the investigations of the I-V response of these junctions. The junctions are made by self assembling thiolated molecules onto gold coated tips for use in scanning tunneling microscopy. We show that this easy technique probes the qualitative properties of the molecules. Current-voltage characteristics of a Tour wire and a new molecular rectifier are presented.

  5. Interfacial thermal transport in atomic junctions

    Zhang, Lifa; Keblinski, Pawel; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2011-01-01

    We study ballistic interfacial thermal transport across atomic junctions. Exact expressions for phonon transmission coefficients are derived for thermal transport in one-junction and two-junction chains, and verified by numerical calculation based on a nonequilibrium Green's function method. For a single-junction case, we find that the phonon transmission coefficient typically decreases monotonically with increasing freqency. However, in the range between equal frequency spectrum and equal ac...

  6. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current...... dependence on magnetic field are discussed. Experimental results for dc interferometers with 0 and pi high-T-c bi-crystal Josephson junctions are reported and discussed in comparison with numerical simulation....

  7. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.;

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...

  8. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.;

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current...

  9. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect the...

  10. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1982-01-01

    A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L / λJ ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively long (L / λJ=6) and intermediate (L / λJ=2) junctions. We find good...

  11. Soliton bunching in annular Josephson junctions

    Vernik, I.V; Lazarides, Nickos; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    1996-01-01

    By studying soliton (fluxon) motion in long annular Josephson junctions it is possible to avoid the influence of the boundaries and soliton-soliton collisions present in linear junctions. A new experimental design consisting of a niobium coil placed on top of an annular junction has been used to...

  12. Molecular transport junctions: vibrational effects

    Transport of electrons in a single molecule junction is the simplest problem in the general subject area of molecular electronics. In the past few years, this area has been extended to probe beyond the simple tunnelling associated with large energy gaps between electrode Fermi level and molecular levels, to deal with smaller gaps, with near-resonance tunnelling and, particularly, with effects due to interaction of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. This overview is devoted to the theoretical and computational approaches that have been taken to understanding transport in molecular junctions when these vibronic interactions are involved. After a short experimental overview, and discussion of different test beds and measurements, we define a particular microscopic model Hamiltonian. That overall Hamiltonian can be used to discuss all of the phenomena dealt with subsequently. These include transition from coherent to incoherent transport as electron/vibration interaction increases in strength, inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy and its interpretation and measurement, affects of interelectronic repulsion treated at the Hubbard level, noise in molecular transport junctions, non-linear conductance phenomena, heating and heat conduction in molecular transport junctions and current-induced chemical reactions. In each of these areas, we use the same simple model Hamiltonian to analyse energetics and dynamics. While this overview does not attempt survey the literature exhaustively, it does provide appropriate references to the current literature (both experimental and theoretical). We also attempt to point out directions in which further research is required to answer cardinal questions concerning the behaviour and understanding of vibrational effects in molecular transport junctions. (topical review)

  13. Fabrication of high quality ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    Weides, M. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany) and CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: m.weides@fz-juelich.de; Tillmann, K. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kohlstedt, H. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Material Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We present ferromagnetic Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40}/Nb Josephson junctions (SIFS) with an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier. The junction fabrication was optimized regarding junction insulation and homogeneity of current transport. Using ion-beam-etching and anodic oxidation we defined and insulated the junction mesas. The additional 2 nm thin Cu-layer below the ferromagnetic NiCu (SINFS) lowered interface roughness and ensured very homogeneous current transport. A high yield of junctional devices with j {sub c} spreads less than 2% was obtained.

  14. Fabrication of high quality ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    We present ferromagnetic Nb/Al2O3/Ni60Cu40/Nb Josephson junctions (SIFS) with an ultrathin Al2O3 tunnel barrier. The junction fabrication was optimized regarding junction insulation and homogeneity of current transport. Using ion-beam-etching and anodic oxidation we defined and insulated the junction mesas. The additional 2 nm thin Cu-layer below the ferromagnetic NiCu (SINFS) lowered interface roughness and ensured very homogeneous current transport. A high yield of junctional devices with j c spreads less than 2% was obtained

  15. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Abdelaziz Amine; Yamina Mir; Mimoun Zazoui

    2013-01-01

    Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The p...

  16. Bipolar junction transistor models for circuit simulation of cosmic-ray-induced soft errors

    Benumof, R.; Zoutendyk, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines bipolar junction transistor models suitable for calculating the effects of large excursions of some of the variables determining the operation of a transistor. Both the Ebers-Moll and Gummel-Poon models are studied, and the junction and diffusion capacitances are evaluated on the basis of the latter model. The most interesting result of this analysis is that a bipolar junction transistor when struck by a cosmic particle may cause a single event upset in an electronic circuit if the transistor is operated at a low forward base-emitter bias.

  17. Asymmetric Exclusion Process with Constrained Hopping and Parallel Dynamics at a Junction

    Liu, Mingzhe; Tuo, Xianguo; Li, Zhe; Yang, Jianbo

    In this article totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) with constrained hopping and parallel dynamics at a junction is investigated using a mean-field approximation and Monte Carlo simulations. The constrained particle hopping probability r (r ≤ 1) at a junction may correspond to a delay caused by a driver choosing the right direction or a delay waiting for green traffic light in the real world. There are six stationary phases in the system, which can reflect free flow and congested traffic situations. Correlations at the junction point are investigated via simulations. It is observed that small r leads to stronger correlations. The theoretical results are agreement with computer simulations well.

  18. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron–phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  19. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron–phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions. (topical review)

  20. How coherent are Josephson junctions?

    Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, Lev S; Kirchmair, G; Catelani, G; Sears, A P; Johnson, B R; Reagor, M J; Frunzio, L; Glazman, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2011-01-01

    Attaining sufficient coherence is a requirement for realizing a large-scale quantum computer. We present a new implementation of a superconducting transmon qubit that is strongly coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity. We observe a reproducible increase in the coherence times of qubit (both $T_1$ and $T_2$ > 10 microseconds) and cavity ($T_{cav}$ ~ 50 microseconds) by more than an order of magnitude compared to the current state-of-art superconducting qubits. This enables the study of the stability and quality of Josephson junctions at precisions exceeding one part per million. Surprisingly, we see no evidence for $1/f$ critical current noise. At elevated temperatures, we observe the dissipation due to a small density (< 1 - 10 ppm) of thermally-excited quasiparticles. The results suggest that the overall quality of Josephson junctions will allow error rates of a few $10^{-4}$, approaching the error correction threshold.

  1. Electron transport in molecular junctions

    Jin, Chengjun

    charge position are in quantitative agreement with the experiments, while pure DFT is not. This is the consequence of the accurate energy level alignment, where the DFT+∑ method corrects the self-interaction error in the standard DFT functional and uses a static image charge model to include the image......This thesis addresses the electron transport in molecular junctions, focusing on the energy level alignment and correlation effects. Various levels of theory have been applied to study the structural and electronic effects in different molecular junctions, starting from the single particle density...... the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) of the 44BP molecule hybridizes strongly with Ni 3d orbitals, the gating is auxiliary by the so-called spinterface. Finally, the correlation effect of the image charge beyond the energy level renormalization has been studied. It is shown that the finite response...

  2. Counting Statistics in Nanoscale Junctions

    Liu, Yu-Shen; Chen, Yu-Chang

    2010-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations for moments of the current up to the third order in atomic-scale junctions. The quantum correlations of the current are calculated using the current operator in terms of the wave functions obtained self-consistently within the static density-functional theory. We investigate the relationships of the conductance, the second, and the third moment of the current for carbon atom chains of various lengths bridging two metal electrodes in the linear and nonl...

  3. Thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions.

    Perroni, C A; Ninno, D; Cataudella, V

    2016-09-21

    Focus of the review is on experimental set-ups and theoretical proposals aimed to enhance thermoelectric performances of molecular junctions. In addition to charge conductance, the thermoelectric parameter commonly measured in these systems is the thermopower, which is typically rather low. We review recent experimental outcomes relative to several junction configurations used to optimize the thermopower. On the other hand, theoretical calculations provide estimations of all the thermoelectric parameters in the linear and non-linear regime, in particular of the thermoelectric figure of merit and efficiency, completing our knowledge of molecular thermoelectricity. For this reason, the review will mainly focus on theoretical studies analyzing the role of not only electronic, but also of the vibrational degrees of freedom. Theoretical results about thermoelectric phenomena in the coherent regime are reviewed focusing on interference effects which play a significant role in enhancing the figure of merit. Moreover, we review theoretical studies including the effects of molecular many-body interactions, such as electron-vibration couplings, which typically tend to reduce the efficiency. Since a fine tuning of many parameters and coupling strengths is required to optimize the thermoelectric conversion in molecular junctions, new theoretically proposed set-ups are discussed in the conclusions. PMID:27420149

  4. Experimental investigation of high cycle thermal fatigue in a T-junction piping system

    Selvam, P. Karthick; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE)

    2015-10-15

    High cycle thermal fatigue damage of structure in the vicinity of T-junction piping systems in nuclear power plants is of importance. Mixing of coolant streams at significant temperature differences causes thermal fluctuations near piping wall leading to gradual thermal degradation. Flow mixing in a T-junction is performed. The determined factors result in bending stresses being imposed on the piping system ('Banana effect').

  5. Algorithms for Junctions in Directed Acyclic Graphs

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Given a pair of distinct vertices u, v in a graph G, we say that s is a junction of u, v if there are in G internally vertex disjoint directed paths from s to u and from s to v. We show how to characterize junctions in directed acyclic graphs. We also consider the two problems in the following and derive efficient algorithms to solve them. Given a directed acyclic graph G and a vertex s in G, how can we find all pairs of vertices of G such that s is a junction of them? And given a directed acyclic graph G and k pairs of vertices of G, how can we preprocess G such that all junctions of k given pairs of vertices could be listed quickly? All junctions of k pairs problem arises in an application in Anthropology and we apply our algorithm to find such junctions on kinship networks of some brazilian indian ethnic groups.

  6. Quantum Dynamics of a d-wave Josephson Junction

    Bauch, Thilo

    2007-03-01

    Thilo Bauch ^1, Floriana Lombardi ^1, Tobias Lindstr"om ^2, Francesco Tafuri ^3, Giacomo Rotoli ^4, Per Delsing ^1, Tord Claeson ^1 1 Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 G"oteborg, Sweden. 2 National Physical Laboratory, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW, UK. 3 Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia-Dipartimento Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE), Italy. 4 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Energetica e Gestionale, Universita of L'Aquila, Localita Monteluco, L'Aquila, Italy. We present direct observation of macroscopic quantum properties in an all high critical temperature superconductor d-wave Josephson junction. Although dissipation caused by low energy excitations is expected to strongly suppress quantum effects we demonstrate macroscopic quantum tunneling [1] and energy level quantization [2] in our d-wave Josephson junction. The results clearly indicate that the role of dissipation mechanisms in high temperature superconductors has to be revised, and may also have consequences for a new class of solid state ``quiet'' quantum bit with superior coherence time. We show that the dynamics of the YBCO grain boundary Josephson junctions fabricated on a STO substrate are strongly affected by their environment. As a first approximation we model the environment by the stray capacitance and stray inductance of the junction electrodes. The total system consisting of the junction and stray elements has two degrees of freedom resulting in two characteristic resonance frequencies. Both frequencies have to be considered to describe the quantum mechanical behavior of the Josephson circuit. [1] T. Bauch et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 087003 (2005). [2] T. Bauch et al, Science 311, 57 (2006).

  7. Palladium Electrodes for Molecular Tunnel Junctions

    Chang, Shuai; Sen, Suman; Zhang, Peiming; Gyarfas, Brett; Ashcroft, Brian; Lefkowitz, Steven; Peng, Hongbo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Gold has been the metal of choice for research on molecular tunneling junctions, but it is incompatible with CMOS fabrication because it forms deep level traps in silicon. Palladium electrodes do not contaminate silicon, and also give higher tunnel current signals in the molecular tunnel junctions we have studied. The result is cleaner signals in a recognition-tunneling junction that recognizes the four natural DNA bases as well as 5-methyl cytosine, with no spurious background signals. More ...

  8. Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions

    Chen, Shaowen; Han, Zheng; Elahi, Mirza M.; Habib, K. M. Masum; Wang, Lei; Wen, Bo; Gao, Yuanda; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hone, James; Ghosh, Avik W.; Dean, Cory R.

    2016-01-01

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. M...

  9. Hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions

    The resistively and capacitive shunted junction model is used to investigate hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions. Two empirical formulas that relate the hysteresis width and the quasi-particle diffusion length in terms of the junctions electrical parameters, temperature and frequency are obtained. The obtained formulas provide a simple tool to investigate the full potentials of the hysteresis phenomena. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  10. The Fluxion in a Curved Josephson Junction

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The curved Josephson junction is described. In the framework of the Maxwell equations the equation that describes the influence of the curvature on the fluxion motion was obtained. The method of geometrical reduction of the sine-Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold was applied to the long Josephson junction. It was argued that the geometrical reduction describes the junctions with slowly varying curvatures.

  11. Gap Junctions Couple Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes

    Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L.; ABRAMS, CHARLES K.; Scherer, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    In vertebrates, a family of related proteins called connexins form gap junctions (GJs), which are intercellular channels. In the central nervous system (CNS), GJs couple oligodendrocytes and astrocytes (O/A junctions) and adjacent astrocytes (A/A junctions), but not adjacent oligodendrocytes, forming a “glial syncytium.” Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes each express different connexins. Mutations of these connexin genes demonstrate that the proper functioning of myelin and oligodendrocytes req...

  12. String junction as a baryonic constituent

    Kalashnikova, Yu S

    1995-01-01

    We extend the model for QCD string with quarks to consider the Mercedes Benz string configuration describing the three-quark baryon. Under the assumption of adiabatic separation of quark and string junction motion we formulate and solve the classical equation of motion for the junction.We dare to quantize the motion of the junction, and discuss the impact of these modes on the baryon spectra.

  13. Analysis of vertebrate gap junction protein.

    Finbow, M E; Shuttleworth, J.; Hamilton, A.E.; Pitts, J D

    1983-01-01

    A new method for the purification of gap junctions is described which depends on the extraction of cell monolayers or tissue homogenates with Triton X-100. The major band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of junctional preparations from a variety of vertebrate sources has an apparent mol. wt. of 16,000 (16 K). Further evidence for the junctional origin of the 16 K protein is provided by the results of four different experimental approaches. (i) The junctions form a sharp band i...

  14. Microwave photonics with Josephson junction arrays

    Zueco, David; Solano, Enrique; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an architecture for a photonic crystal in the microwave regime based on superconducting transmission lines interrupted by Josephson junctions. A study of the scattering properties of a single junction in the line shows that the junction behaves as a perfect mirror when the photon frequency matches the Josephson plasma frequency. We generalize our calculations to periodic arrangements of junctions, demonstrating that they can be used for tunable band engineering, forming what we call a quantum circuit crystal. As a relevant application, we discuss the creation of stationary entanglement between two superconducting qubits interacting through a disordered media.

  15. Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Josephson junctions

    We derive the effective free energy of a two-dimensional Josephson junction in the presence of an external current and predict that the junction has a phase transition at a temperature TJ below the bulk transition temperature Tc. In the range TJ c is reduced by thermal fluctuations; for a junction of size L, Ic ∝ Lb(T) where b(T) J c vanishes at L → ∞) while 0 J. Our results may account for the absence of an observable supercurrent at temperatures below Tc in YBa2Cu3Ox-and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-based junctions. (orig.)

  16. Black Diamonds at Brane Junctions

    Chamblin, Andrew; Csaki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Timothy J. Hollowood

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the properties of black holes in brane-world scenarios where our universe is viewed as a four-dimensional sub-manifold of some higher-dimensional spacetime. We consider in detail such a model where four-dimensional spacetime lies at the junction of several domain walls in a higher dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. In this model there may be any number p of infinitely large extra dimensions transverse to the brane-world. We present an exact solution describing a black p-brane wh...

  17. Effects of junction geometry in crossover temperature to macroscopic quantum tunneling regime of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    We investigated the phase dynamics of Bi-2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions with two types of junction geometry. We found that a crossover temperature to the macroscopic quantum tunneling regime was quite different between the two types of junction geometry. The observed behavior is discussed in terms of an edge effect in long Josephson junctions dependent on the junction geometry. We investigated the phase dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junctions, which were fabricated on a narrow bridge structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy (Bi-2212) single crystals by using a focused ion-beam etching. We measured the probability distribution of the switching events from the zero-voltage state for two types of junction geometry. One is a junction where the bridge width (L1) is larger than the Josephson penetration depth, λJ, and the distance between two slits (L2) is comparable to λJ, while the other is a junction where L1 is comparable to λJ and L2 is larger than λJ. We found that a crossover temperature from the thermally activated regime to the macroscopic quantum tunneling regime was quite different between the two types of junction geometry. We discuss the observed behavior in terms of an edge effect in long Josephson junctions dependent on the junction geometry.

  18. Nonlocal Cooper pair splitting in a pSn junction.

    Veldhorst, M; Brinkman, A

    2010-09-01

    Perfect Cooper pair splitting is proposed, based on crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) in a p-type semiconductor-superconductor-n-type semiconductor (pSn) junction. The ideal splitting is caused by the energy filtering that is enforced by the band structure of the electrodes. The pSn junction is modeled by the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and an extension of the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory beyond the Andreev approximation. Despite a large momentum mismatch, the CAR current is predicted to be large. The proposed straightforward experimental design and the 100% degree of pureness of the nonlocal current open the way to pSn structures as high quality sources of entanglement. PMID:20867540

  19. Complete gate control of supercurrent in graphene p-n junctions

    Choi, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Gil-Ho; Park, Sunghun; Jeong, Dongchan; Lee, Jeong-O.; Sim, H.-S.; Doh, Yong-Joo; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2013-09-01

    In a conventional Josephson junction of graphene, the supercurrent is not turned off even at the charge neutrality point, impeding further development of superconducting quantum information devices based on graphene. Here we fabricate bipolar Josephson junctions of graphene, in which a p-n potential barrier is formed in graphene with two closely spaced superconducting contacts, and realize supercurrent ON/OFF states using electrostatic gating only. The bipolar Josephson junctions of graphene also show fully gate-driven macroscopic quantum tunnelling behaviour of Josephson phase particles in a potential well, where the confinement energy is gate tuneable. We suggest that the supercurrent OFF state is mainly caused by a supercurrent dephasing mechanism due to a random pseudomagnetic field generated by ripples in graphene, in sharp contrast to other nanohybrid Josephson junctions. Our study may pave the way for the development of new gate-tuneable superconducting quantum information devices.

  20. Electron transport through molecular junctions

    At present, metal–molecular tunnel junctions are recognized as important active elements in molecular electronics. This gives a strong motivation to explore physical mechanisms controlling electron transport through molecules. In the last two decades, an unceasing progress in both experimental and theoretical studies of molecular conductance has been demonstrated. In the present work we give an overview of theoretical methods used to analyze the transport properties of metal–molecular junctions as well as some relevant experiments and applications. After a brief general description of the electron transport through molecules we introduce a Hamiltonian which can be used to analyze electron–electron, electron–phonon and spin–orbit interactions. Then we turn to description of the commonly used transport theory formalisms including the nonequilibrium Green’s functions based approach and the approach based on the “master” equations. We discuss the most important effects which could be manifested through molecules in electron transport phenomena such as Coulomb, spin and Frank–Condon blockades, Kondo peak in the molecular conductance, negative differential resistance and some others. Bearing in mind that first principles electronic structure calculations are recognized as the indispensable basis of the theory of electron transport through molecules, we briefly discuss the main equations and some relevant applications of the density functional theory which presently is often used to analyze important characteristics of molecules and molecular clusters. Finally, we discuss some kinds of nanoelectronic devices built using molecules and similar systems such as carbon nanotubes, various nanowires and quantum dots.

  1. Grand Junction Remedial Action Program

    The Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (hereinafter referred to as the Program) originated in 1972 due to a recognized need to reduce the levels of radiation found in some of the structures identified in Grand Junction, Colorado that were constructed in part with uranium mill tailings. Out of over 640 locations eventually identified as qualifying for corrective action, the Program performed remedial construction on 594 of them. The owners of over 45 unremediated structures either did not wish to participate in the voluntary Program, or the structures were torn down, burned down, or were abandoned before the Program could take action on them. Because this was the first remedial action program of its type, and because its task was to reduce the radiation levels as soon as practical, there was no time for lengthly research and development of remedial methods or techniques. Trial and error combined with basic engineering and health physics produced a Program that learned as it progressed. At a cost of $22.7 million over a 15-year period, a substantial portion of the community had radiation exposure reduced because many public buildings such as schools, churches, and businesses, as well as private residences were remediated. 21 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Linker-dependent Junction Formation Probability in Single-Molecule Junctions

    Yoo, Pil Sun; Kim, Taekyeong [HankukUniversity of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We compare the junction formation probabilities of single-molecule junctions with different linker molecules by using a scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction technique. We found that the junction formation probability varies as SH > SMe > NH2 for the benzene backbone molecule with different types of anchoring groups, through quantitative statistical analysis. These results are attributed to different bonding forces according to the linker groups formed with Au atoms in the electrodes, which is consistent with previous works. Our work allows a better understanding of the contact chemistry in the metal.molecule junction for future molecular electronic devices.

  3. Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions

    Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2003-01-01

    We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise me...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    ... Junctional epidermolysis bullosa results from mutations in the LAMA3 , LAMB3 , LAMC2 , and COL17A1 genes. Mutations in each ... of all cases of junctional epidermolysis bullosa . The LAMA3 , LAMB3 , and LAMC2 genes each provide instructions for ...

  5. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied

  6. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Cherian, Ajith; Baheti, Neeraj N.; Iype, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability i...

  7. Hall effect in NS and SNS junctions

    Zhou, F.; Spivak, B.

    1997-01-01

    Hall effect in SN and SNS junctions is considered. It is shown that at small temperature the Hall voltage is significantly suppressed as compared to its normal metal value. The time dependence of the Hall voltage in SNS junctions has a form of narrow pulses with the Josephson frequency.

  8. Zipper and freeway shear zone junctions

    Passchier, Cees; Platt, John

    2016-04-01

    Ductile shear zones are usually presented as isolated planar high-strain domains in a less deformed wall rock, characterised by shear sense indicators such as characteristic deflected foliation traces. Many shear zones, however, form branched systems and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting geometry can be complicated and lead to unusual fabric geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone junctions with three simultaneously operating branches, and with slip directions at a high angle to the branch line, eight basic types of shear zone triple junctions are possible, divided into three groups. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense on all three branches. If shear sense is different on the three branches, this can lead to space problems. Some of these junctions have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch, named zipper junctions, or a single shear zone which splits to form two, known as wedge junctions. Closing zipper junctions are most unusual, since they form a non-active high-strain zone with opposite deflection of foliations. Shear zipper and shear wedge junctions have two shear zones with similar shear sense, and one with the opposite sense. All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic flow patterns in the shear zone and its wall rock. Shear zone junctions with slip directions normal to the branch line can easily be studied, since ideal sections of shear sense indicators lie in the plane normal to the shear zone branches and the branch line. Expanding the model to allow slip oblique and parallel to the branch line in a full 3D setting gives rise to a large number of geometries in three main groups. Slip directions can be parallel on all branches but oblique to the branch line: two slip directions can be parallel and a third oblique, or all three branches can have slip in different directions. Such more complex shear zone junctions cannot be studied to advantage in a

  9. Measuring quantum systems with tunnel junctions

    Full text: We present a formalism that allows to describe a quantum system modulating the transmission of a tunnel junction. The tunnel junction acts as an environment for the quantum system. Contrary to the conventional approach to open quantum systems we retain a degree of freedom of the environment, the charge passed through the junction, after averaging over the bath degrees of freedom, employing a projection operator technique. The resulting object characterizing the joint dynamics of the system and the charge is the charge specific density matrix. We derive a master equation describing the time evolution of the charge specific density matrix. We consider two examples of quantum systems coupled to the junction: a spin and a harmonic oscillator. In the spin case we are able to analyze a quantum measurement process in detail. For the oscillator we investigate the noise in the tunnel junction induced by the coupling. (author)

  10. Spin accumulation in triplet Josephson junction

    We employ a Hamiltonian method to study the equal-spin pairing triplet Josephson junction with different orbital symmetries of pair potentials. Both the spin/charge supercurrent and possible spin accumulation at the interface of the junction are analyzed by means of the Keldysh Green's function. It is found that a spontaneous angle-resolved spin accumulation can form at the junction's interface when the orbital symmetries of Cooper pairs in two triplet superconductors are different, the physical origin is the combined effect of the different orbital symmetries and different spin states of Cooper pairs due to the misalignment of two d vectors in triplet leads. An abrupt current reversal effect induced by misalignment of d vectors is observed and can survive in a strong interface barrier scattering because the zero-energy state appears at the interface of the junction. These properties of the p-wave Josephson junction may be helpful for identifying the order parameter symmetry.

  11. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement

  12. Scattering of MCF7 cells by heregulin ß-1 depends on the MEK and p38 MAP kinase pathway.

    Rintaro Okoshi

    Full Text Available Heregulin (HRG β1 signaling promotes scattering of MCF7 cells by inducing breakdown of adherens and tight junctions. Here, we show that stimulation with HRG-β1 causes the F-actin backbone of junctions to destabilize prior to the loss of adherent proteins and scattering of the cells. The adherent proteins dissociate and translocate from cell-cell junctions to the cytosol. Moreover, using inhibitors we show that the MEK1 pathway is required for the disappearance of F-actin from junctions and p38 MAP kinase activity is essential for scattering of the cells. Upon treatment with a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, adherens junction complexes immediately reassemble, most likely in the cytoplasm, and move to the plasma membrane in cells dissociated by HRG-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, tight junction complexes form, most likely in the cytoplasm, and move to the plasma membrane. Thus, the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor causes a re-aggregation of scattered cells, even in the presence of HRG-β1. These results suggest that p38 MAP kinase signaling to adherens junction proteins regulates cell aggregation, providing a novel understanding of the regulation of cell-cell adhesion.

  13. Chaos in junctions and devices

    The plan of the paper is as follows. Section 2 is an introduction into chaos in dissipative systems with an emphasis on period doubling and intermittency. The logistic map and the circle map are discussed and their significance as describing systems of continuous dynamics is emphasized. Section 3 is subdivided into two parts after the introduction of the RSJ equations. The first is on the ac driven Josephson junction without a dc bias and the second on the same with a dc current. Each of these subdivisions includes a discussion of experiments as well. There is also a section on investigations that do not fit into either of the above categories. Section 4 is devoted to the dc-SQUID, in the first part as a magnetic flux gauge and in the second as a four dimensional dynamical system, which can be simulated with great accuracy and compared with one dimensional models. (orig./BUD)

  14. Cylindrical Josephson junctions in magnetic fields

    The radial Josephson current I/sub J/ between co-axial cylinders was measured as a function of axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The junctions were of two types: 0.25 mm diameter Nb-oxide-Sn single junctions and 0.25 mm film diameter Nb-oxide-Sn film double junctions. The Sn film of the single junctions was 160 nm or 200 nm. The Sn films of the double junctions were both either 155 nm or 230 nm. For a pair of cylinders I/sub J/ is zero except when both members are in the same fluxoid quantum state. When I/sub J/not equal to O, the relative phase is independent of aximuthal angle theta. In all measurements the cylinders were in fluxoid state zero. There was a critical value of axial field B/sub s/ which destroyed the Josephson coupling for each junction. This critical field is smallest for the outer tin junction of the double junction. It depends upon geometry and film thickness but is independent of the value of I/sub J/. The calculated value of the Gibbs function per unit volume of the tin films is, however, nearly the same for all junctions at their respective critical fields. Th Josephson current for the 160 nm Sn film single cylindrical junction was measured as a function of axial field B/sub z/ and azimuthal field B/sub theta/. When the axial field was zero the Josephson current as a function of azimuthal field showed the Fraunhofer like pattern of a flat junction in a magnetic field. As the axial field was increased, the central lobe of the Fraunhofer pattern decreased and disappeared at the critical field leaving the side lobes broadened. It is well known that a Josephson junction may switch to the voltage state at any current less than the maximum Josephson current. For some cylindrical junctions the switching currents are not continuously distributed but discrete with certain values occurring repeatedly. This observation is not understood

  15. URETERO PELVIC JUNCTION OBSTRUCTION IN THE NEWBORN

    J. Kouranloo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uretero pelvic junction (UPJ obstruction is a common cause of hydronephrosis in infants. The frequent use of fetal ultrasound is allowing early (prenatal diagnosis of numerous uropathies previously delayed until the child either became symptomatic or had a palpable mass. Newborn with severe obstruction often has marked improvement following correction, therefore, early diagnosis and operation are important. From 1993 to 2002, 21 patients were operated on for severe UPJ obstruction who were diagnosed before 6 weeks of age. Only 10 patients (63% had antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, the remaining were diagnosed by postnatal ultrasound and IVP or radionuclide scan for palpable renal enlargement or for associated anomalies. Eighteen of them had unilateral and three had bilateral obstruction. Twenty-four pyeloplasties were done; all pyeloplasties were dismembered with tailoring of the dilatated renal pelvis. Postoperative renal function was followed with laboratory blood test, urine test or radionuclide scan or IVP. Postoperative complications included urinary tract infection in three patients and postoperative stenosis in one patient were seen. No mortality occurred on infants in unilateral but one occurred in bilateral obstruction. Also, there was one unrelated late death. We report documented functional improvement with minimal complications in unilateral or bilateral pyeloplasty in newborns with UPJ obstruction. We recommend that if the initial scan shows substantially reduced function in the obstructed kidney, a pyeloplasty (rather than nephrectomy generally should be performed, because the newborn kidney has tremendous capacity for improvement in renal function following decompression.

  16. A model for the CdTe/CdS junction

    Linam, David L; Singh, Vijay P; McClure, Jonh C; Lush, Gregory; Mathew, X [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The saturation current and junction quality factor of a series of commercial CdTe/CdS solar cells have been measured. A high saturation current (compared to, for example, Si cells) is the primary cause of lower than theoretical efficiency. Furthermore, this current and the junction quality factor are functions of both light intensity and voltage bias level. It was found that tunneling is the predominant junction transport mechanism at high light levels and at low voltages while diffusion and regeneration/combination dominate at high voltage and low light levels. A model is presented to account for these observations. [Spanish] Se midieron las corrientes de saturacion y el factor de calidad de la union de una serie de celdas solares CdTe/CdS. Una corriente de saturacion alta (comparada por ejemplo a celdas de Si) es la causa primordial de eficiencia inferior a la teorica. Mas aun esta corriente y el factor de la calidad de la junta son funciones tanto de la intensidad de la luz y del nivel del voltaje de polarizacion. Se encontro que el paso a traves de una barrera de potencial (Tunneling) es el mecanismo de transporte predominate en la junta a altos niveles de luz y bajos voltajes mientras que la difusion y la regeneracion-combinacion predominaba a alto voltaje y bajos niveles de luz. Se presenta un modelo para tomar en cuenta estas observaciones.

  17. Electric field breakdown in single molecule junctions.

    Li, Haixing; Su, Timothy A; Zhang, Vivian; Steigerwald, Michael L; Nuckolls, Colin; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-04-22

    Here we study the stability and rupture of molecular junctions under high voltage bias at the single molecule/single bond level using the scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction technique. We synthesize carbon-, silicon-, and germanium-based molecular wires terminated by aurophilic linker groups and study how the molecular backbone and linker group affect the probability of voltage-induced junction rupture. First, we find that junctions formed with covalent S-Au bonds are robust under high voltage and their rupture does not demonstrate bias dependence within our bias range. In contrast, junctions formed through donor-acceptor bonds rupture more frequently, and their rupture probability demonstrates a strong bias dependence. Moreover, we find that the junction rupture probability increases significantly above ∼1 V in junctions formed from methylthiol-terminated disilanes and digermanes, indicating a voltage-induced rupture of individual Si-Si and Ge-Ge bonds. Finally, we compare the rupture probabilities of the thiol-terminated silane derivatives containing Si-Si, Si-C, and Si-O bonds and find that Si-C backbones have higher probabilities of sustaining the highest voltage. These results establish a new method for studying electric field breakdown phenomena at the single molecule level. PMID:25675085

  18. Measurements of quantum noise in resistively shunted Josephson junctions

    Measurements have been made of the low-frequency spectral density of the voltage noise in current-biased resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions under conditions in which the noise mixed down from frequencies near the Josephson frequency (ν/sub J/) to the measurement frequency (k/sub B/T. In this limit, quantum corrections to the mixed-down noise are important. The spectral densities measured on junctions with current-voltage characteristics close to the Stewart-McCumber model were in excellent agreement with the predicted values, with no fitted parameters. The mixed-down noise for a wide range of bias voltages was used to infer the spectral density of the current noise in the shunt resistor at frequency ν. With no fitted parameters, this spectral density at frequencies up to 500 GHz was in excellent agreement with the prediction (2hν/R)coth(hν/2k/sub B/T). The presence of the zero-point term, 2hν/R, at frequencies hν>k/sub B/T was clearly demonstrated. The current-voltage characteristics of a junction with β/sub L/equivalent2πL/sub s/I0/Phi0approx.1 and β/sub C/equivalent2πI0R2C/Phi00 is the critical current, C is the junction capacitance, and L/sub s/ is the shunt inductance, showed structure at voltages where the Josephson frequency was near a subharmonic of the L/sub s/C resonant frequency. The additional nonlinearity of the I-V characteristic caused mixing down of noise near higher harmonics of the Josephson frequency, thereby greatly enhancing the voltage noise. The measured noise was in good agreement with that predicted by computer simulations

  19. Death of Neurons following Injury Requires Conductive Neuronal Gap Junction Channels but Not a Specific Connexin.

    Fontes, Joseph D; Ramsey, Jon; Polk, Jeremy M; Koop, Andre; Denisova, Janna V; Belousov, Andrei B

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade or genetic knockout of neuronal connexin 36 (Cx36)-containing gap junctions reduces neuronal death caused by ischemia, traumatic brain injury and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity. However, whether Cx36 gap junctions contribute to neuronal death via channel-dependent or channel-independent mechanism remains an open question. To address this, we manipulated connexin protein expression via lentiviral transduction of mouse neuronal cortical cultures and analyzed neuronal death twenty-four hours following administration of NMDA (a model of NMDAR excitotoxicity) or oxygen-glucose deprivation (a model of ischemic injury). In cultures prepared from wild-type mice, over-expression and knockdown of Cx36-containing gap junctions augmented and prevented, respectively, neuronal death from NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemia. In cultures obtained form from Cx36 knockout mice, re-expression of functional gap junction channels, containing either neuronal Cx36 or non-neuronal Cx43 or Cx31, resulted in increased neuronal death following insult. In contrast, the expression of communication-deficient gap junctions (containing mutated connexins) did not have this effect. Finally, the absence of ethidium bromide uptake in non-transduced wild-type neurons two hours following NMDAR excitotoxicity or ischemia suggested the absence of active endogenous hemichannels in those neurons. Taken together, these results suggest a role for neuronal gap junctions in cell death via a connexin type-independent mechanism that likely relies on channel activities of gap junctional complexes among neurons. A possible contribution of gap junction channel-permeable death signals in neuronal death is discussed. PMID:26017008

  20. Graded junction termination extensions for electronic devices

    Merrett, J. Neil (Inventor); Isaacs-Smith, Tamara (Inventor); Sheridan, David C. (Inventor); Williams, John R. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A graded junction termination extension in a silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device and method of its fabrication using ion implementation techniques is provided for high power devices. The properties of silicon carbide (SiC) make this wide band gap semiconductor a promising material for high power devices. This potential is demonstrated in various devices such as p-n diodes, Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors, thyristors, etc. These devices require adequate and affordable termination techniques to reduce leakage current and increase breakdown voltage in order to maximize power handling capabilities. The graded junction termination extension disclosed is effective, self-aligned, and simplifies the implementation process.

  1. Palladium electrodes for molecular tunnel junctions.

    Chang, Shuai; Sen, Suman; Zhang, Peiming; Gyarfas, Brett; Ashcroft, Brian; Lefkowitz, Steven; Peng, Hongbo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2012-10-26

    Gold has been the metal of choice for research on molecular tunneling junctions, but it is incompatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication because it forms deep level traps in silicon. Palladium electrodes do not contaminate silicon, and also give higher tunnel current signals in the molecular tunnel junctions that we have studied. The result is cleaner signals in a recognition-tunneling junction that recognizes the four natural DNA bases as well as 5-methyl cytosine, with no spurious background signals. More than 75% of all the recorded signal peaks indicate the base correctly. PMID:23037952

  2. Palladium electrodes for molecular tunnel junctions

    Gold has been the metal of choice for research on molecular tunneling junctions, but it is incompatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor fabrication because it forms deep level traps in silicon. Palladium electrodes do not contaminate silicon, and also give higher tunnel current signals in the molecular tunnel junctions that we have studied. The result is cleaner signals in a recognition-tunneling junction that recognizes the four natural DNA bases as well as 5-methyl cytosine, with no spurious background signals. More than 75% of all the recorded signal peaks indicate the base correctly. (paper)

  3. Supercurrent decay in extremely underdamped Josephson junctions

    We present an experimental study of the effective dissipation relevant in the thermally activated supercurrent decay of extremely underdamped Josephson junctions. Data referring to the supercurrent decay of Nb/AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions are compared with the Kramers theory. Our measurements allow us to obtain the open-quotes effectiveclose quotes resistance to be used in the resistively shunted junction model that results to be the subgap resistance due to the presence of thermally activated quasiparticles. The extremely low dissipation level obtained at low temperatures renders our result quite interesting in view of experiments in the quantum limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. δ-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements on a number of δ-biased samples having different electrical and geometrical parameters.

  5. Plasticity of single-atom Pb junctions

    Müller, M.; Salgado, C.; Néel, N.; Palacios, J. J.; Kröger, J.

    2016-06-01

    A low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope was used to fabricate atomic contacts on Pb(111). Conductance characteristics of the junctions were simultaneously recorded with forming and subsequent breaking of the contacts. A pronounced hysteresis effect in conductance traces was observed from junctions comprising the clean Pb(111) surface. The hysteretic behavior was less profound in contacts to single Pb atoms adsorbed to Pb(111). Density-functional calculations reproduced the experimental results by performing a full ab initio modeling of plastic junction deformations. A comprehensive description of the experimental findings was achieved by considering different atomic tip apex geometries.

  6. Preparation and magnetotransport properties of MgO-barrier-based magnetic double tunnel junctions including nonmagnetic nanoparticles

    MgO-barrier-based magnetic double tunnel junctions including Au or Cr nanoparticles were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy, and their magnetotransport properties were investigated. A double junction sample including Au nanoparticles showed the Coulomb blockade effect and clear magnetoresistive hysteresis loops. The observed bias voltage dependence of the resistance and magnetoresistance (MR) suggested that the MR effects of 1-2% at high bias voltages were caused by spin accumulation in the Au nanoparticles. In the case of Cr nanoparticles, a double junction with relatively low sample resistance was obtained, showing a clear Coulomb threshold

  7. Shallow trench isolation dimensions effects on leakage current and doping concentration of advanced p-n junction diodes

    Poyai, A. [TMEC, 51/4 Moo 1, Wang-Takien District, Amphur Muang, Chachoengsao 24000 (Thailand)]. E-mail: amporn.poyai@nectec.or.th; Rittaporn, I. [TMEC, 51/4 Moo 1, Wang-Takien District, Amphur Muang, Chachoengsao 24000 (Thailand); Simoen, E. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Claeys, C. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); E.E. Department, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rooyackers, R. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-12-15

    This paper describes the impact of active area and shallow trench isolation (STI) width on the junction leakage current and doping concentration. A higher junction leakage current is found for a narrower active area and STI width. This is mainly due to a higher compressive stress. This compressive stress also affects the doping concentration near the junction. A higher compressive stress when reduce active area width causes a higher doping concentration while a higher compressive stress when reduce STI width results in a lower doping concentration.

  8. Motorway junction design with emphasis on traffic performance and safety assesment - case study junction Ljubljana Rudnik

    Mlaker, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Thesis encompasses reconstruction predesign of the motorway junction Ljubljana Rudnik into motorway interchange. In this area is intended to be the junction of main arterial road with highway network, while today serves only as a minor junction of Rudnik and Ig area on the motorway. The purpose of reconstruction is to enable free traffic flow on most congested directions of the interchange, but also preserve the present function, in which Ig and Rudnik area are connected with the motorway. Bu...

  9. Molecular junctions: Single-molecule contacts exposed

    Nichols, Richard J.; Higgins, Simon J.

    2015-05-01

    Using a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based method it is now possible to get an atomistic-level description of the most probable binding and contact configuration for single-molecule electrical junctions.

  10. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  11. Josephson tunnel junctions in niobium films

    A method of fabricating stable Josephson tunnel junctions with reproducible characteristics is described. The junctions have a sandwich structure consisting of a vacuum evaporated niobium film, a niobium oxide layer produced by the glow discharge method and a lead film deposited by vacuum evaporation. Difficulties in producing thin-film Josephson junctions are discussed. Experimental results suggest that the lower critical field of the niobium film is the most essential parameter when evaluating the quality of these junctions. The dependence of the lower critical field on the film thickness and on the Ginzburg-Landau parameter of the film is studied analytically. Comparison with the properties of the evaporated films and with the previous calculations for bulk specimens shows that the presented model is applicable for most of the prepared samples. (author)

  12. Superconducting switch made of graphene nanoribbon junctions

    Liang, Qifeng; Dong, Jinming

    2008-09-01

    The transmission of superconductor-graphene nanoribbon-superconductor junctions (SGS) has been studied by the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the on-site potential U in the center zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) of the SGS junction plays an important role in the magnitude of the supercurrent Ic. As the effective Fermi energy μeff (μeff = μF-U) goes from negative to positive, the SGS junction would suddenly transform from an 'OFF' state to an 'ON' state. And, as μeff increases further, the Ic will continue to increase. This switching behavior of the SGS junction shares the same origin with the zigzag GNR valley-isospin valve (Rycerz et al 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 172). Besides the valley-isospin, the density of states will also have an effect on the suppression of Ic.

  13. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  14. Heat dissipation in atomic-scale junctions

    Lee, Woochul; Kim, Kyeongtae; Jeong, Wonho; Zotti, Linda Angela; Pauly, Fabian; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Reddy, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Atomic and single-molecule junctions represent the ultimate limit to the miniaturization of electrical circuits. They are also ideal platforms for testing quantum transport theories that are required to describe charge and energy transfer in novel functional nanometre-scale devices. Recent work has successfully probed electric and thermoelectric phenomena in atomic-scale junctions. However, heat dissipation and transport in atomic-scale devices remain poorly characterized owing to experimenta...

  15. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...

  16. Controllable spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions

    Yokoyama, Takehito

    2008-01-01

    We study spin transport in normal/ferromagnetic/normal graphene junctions where a gate electrode is attached to the ferromagnetic graphene. We find that due to the exchange field of the ferromagnetic graphene, spin current through the junctions has an oscillatory behavior with respect to the chemical potential in the ferromagnetic graphene, which can be tuned by the gate voltage. Especially, we obtain a controllable spin current reversal by the gate voltage. Our prediction of high controllabi...

  17. Degradation of connexins and gap junctions

    Falk, Matthias M.; Kells, Rachael M.; Berthoud, Viviana M.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin proteins are short-lived within the cell, whether present in the secretory pathway or in gap junction plaques. Their levels can be modulated by their rate of degradation. Connexins, at different stages of assembly, are degraded through the proteasomal, endo-/lysosomal, and phago-/lysosomal pathways. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about connexin and gap junction degradation including the signals and protein-protein interactions that participate in their targeting f...

  18. Supercurrent Switch in Graphene π Junctions

    Linder, Jacob; Yokoyama, Takehito; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Sudbø, Asle

    2008-05-01

    We study the supercurrent in a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor graphene junction. In contrast to its metallic counterpart, the oscillating critical current in our setup decays only weakly upon increasing the exchange field and junction width. We find an unusually large residual value of the supercurrent at the oscillatory cusps due to a strong deviation from a sinusoidal current-phase relationship. Our findings suggest a very efficient device for dissipationless supercurrent switching.

  19. Supercurrent switch in graphene pi junctions.

    Linder, Jacob; Yokoyama, Takehito; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Sudbø, Asle

    2008-05-01

    We study the supercurrent in a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor graphene junction. In contrast to its metallic counterpart, the oscillating critical current in our setup decays only weakly upon increasing the exchange field and junction width. We find an unusually large residual value of the supercurrent at the oscillatory cusps due to a strong deviation from a sinusoidal current-phase relationship. Our findings suggest a very efficient device for dissipationless supercurrent switching. PMID:18518411

  20. Exotic hadron and string junction model

    Hadron structure is investigated adopting string junction model as a realization of confinement. Besides exotic hadrons (M4, B5 etc.), unconventional hadrons appear. A mass formula for these hadrons is proposed. New selection rule is introduced which requires the covalence of constituent line at hadron vertex. New duality appears due to the freedom of junction, especially in anti BB→anti BB reaction. A possible assignment of exotic and unconventional hadrons to recently observed narrow meson states is presented. (auth.)

  1. Gap junction- and hemichannel-independent actions of connexins

    Jiang, Jean X.; Gu, Sumin

    2004-01-01

    Connexins have been known to be the protein building blocks of gap junctions and mediate cell–cell communication. In contrast to the conventional dogma, recent evidence suggests that in addition to forming gap junction channels, connexins possess gap junction-independent functions. One important gap junction-independent function for connexins is to serve as the major functional component for hemichannels, the un-apposed halves of gap junctions. Hemichannels, as independent functional units, p...

  2. Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa : diagnostic features, mutational profile, incidence and population carrier frequency in the Netherlands

    Yuen, W. Y.; Lemmink, H. H.; van Dijk-Bos, K. K.; Sinke, R. J.; Jonkman, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Junctional epidermolysis bullosa, type Herlitz (JEB-H) is a lethal, autosomal recessive blistering disease caused by null mutations in the genes coding for the lamina lucida/densa adhesion protein laminin-332 (LAMB3, LAMA3 and LAMC2). Objectives To present the diagnostic features and mole

  3. Noise properties in an rf-biased Josephson junction noise thermometer

    Frequency fluctuation in an rf-biased R-SQUID noise thermometer operating in an nonhysteretic mode is examined. The noise sources caused by the shunt resistor and by the dissipative elements in the tank circuit are included in the model. The results demonstrate that the noise in the tank circuit has a significant influence on the accuracy of the Josephson junction noise thermometer

  4. Triple junction motion - A new recovery mechanism in metals deformed to large strains

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    nanometers. Triple junction motion leads to removal of thin lamellae and to a consequent increase of the thickness of neighboring lamellae. This recovery mechanism therefore increases the average lamellar boundary spacing and causes a gradual transition from a lamellar structure to a more equiaxed structure...

  5. The junctional complex in the intestine of Sagitta setosa (Chaetognatha): the paired septate junction.

    Duvert, M; Gros, D; Salat, C

    1980-04-01

    The junctional complex of the intestine of Sagitta setosa has been studied in tissues stained with uranyl acetate or after lanthanum impregnation, and by freeze-cleavage. All types of junctions have been characterized in both perpendicular and tangential planes. From the apex to the base of the cell the following junctions occur in this order: a zonula adhaerens; a septate junction where the septa occur in pairs; a pleated sheet septate junction; and numerous gap junctions of the A-type. From the upper part of the cells inwards to the septate junction, the membranes follow a relatively straight path. In the lower part of the cells the membranes are deeply interdigitating. At the intersection between 3 cells a very different junction is to be observed where small units, periodically disposed, bind the membranes of the 3 adjoining cells. Each unit is composed of 3 short segments which bind the cell membranes to a central ring 16.6 +/- 2.3 nm in outer diameter. The paired septate junction constitutes a new type. Its main features are that the septa are paired and occur in 2 formations, one the 'loose formation', with elements between the septa of each pair, and the other, a 'tight formation'. After lanthanum impregnation, the thickness of each septum is seen to be about 3 nm and the undulation period 12.6 +/- 1.6 nm. On freeze-fractures 10-nm particles are found on crests on the PF face and in furrows on the EF face. The possible significance of this type of junction is discussed. The junctional complex described is analogous to those found in various invertebrate epithelia. PMID:6105159

  6. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    many particle excitations, new surface states in semiconductor electrodes, various mechanisms for single molecule rectification of the current, inelastic electron spectra and SERS spectroscopy. Three terminal architectures allowing (electrochemical) gating and transistor effects. Electrochemical nanojunctions and gating: intermolecular electron transfer in multi-redox metalloproteins, contact force modulation, characteristic current-noise patterns due to conformational fluctuations, resonance effects and electrocatalysis. Novel architectures: linear coupled quantum-dot-bridged junctions, electrochemical redox mediated transfer in two center systems leading to double maxima current-voltage plots and negative differential resistance, molecular-nanoparticle hybrid junctions and unexpected mesoscopic effects in polymeric wires. Device integration: techniques for creating stable metal/molecule/metal junctions using 'nano-alligator clips' and integration with 'traditional' silicon-based technology. The Guest Editors would like to thank all of the authors and referees of this special issue for their meticulous work in making each paper a valuable contribution to this research area, the early-bird authors for their patience, and Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter editorial staff in Bristol for their continuous support. PMID:21694407

  7. Spin-polarized Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Molecular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    In this study, we fabricate molecular magnetic tunnel junctions and demonstrate that inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy technique can be utilized to inspect such junctions to investigate the existence of desired molecular species in the device area. Tunneling magnetoresistance measurements have been carried out and spin-dependent tunneling transport has been observed. Bias-dependence of the tunneling resistance has also been detected. IETS measurements at different magnetic field suggested that the TMR bias-dependence was likely caused by the inelastic scattering due to the molecular vibrations

  8. Thermal spin transfer in Fe-MgO-Fe tunnel junctions

    Jia X; Xia K.; Bauer. G.E.W.

    2011-01-01

    We compute thermal spin transfer torques (TST) in Fe-MgO-Fe tunnel junctions using a first principles wave function-matching method. At room temperature, the TST in a junction with 3 MgO monolayers amounts to 10^-7J/m^2/K, which is estimated to cause magnetization reversal for temperature differences over the barrier of the order of 10 K. The large TST can be explained by multiple scattering between interface states through ultrathin barriers. The angular dependence of the TST can be very ske...

  9. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ0. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  10. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  11. Improved electrical properties of n-n and p-n Si/SiC junctions with thermal annealing treatment

    Liang, J.; Nishida, S.; Arai, M.; Shigekawa, N.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of annealing process on the electrical properties of n+-Si/n-SiC and p+-Si/n-SiC junctions fabricated by using surface-activated bonding are investigated. It is found by measuring the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n+-Si/n-SiC junctions that the reverse-bias current and the ideality factor decreased to 2.0 × 10-5 mA/cm2 and 1.10, respectively, after the junctions annealing at 700 °C. The flat band voltages of n+-Si/n-SiC and p+-Si/n-SiC junctions obtained from capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Furthermore, their flat band voltages are very close to each other irrespective of the annealing temperature change, which suggests that the Fermi level is still pinned at the bonding interface even for the junctions annealing at high temperature and the interface state density causing Fermi level pinning varies with the junctions annealing. The reverse characteristics of n+-Si/n-SiC junctions are in good agreement with the calculations based on thermionic field emission. In addition, the calculated donor concentration of 4H-SiC epi-layers and flat band voltage is consistent with the values obtained from C-V measurements.

  12. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin;

    2007-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes....... In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...

  13. Etch-stop technique for patterning of tunnel junctions for a magnetic field sensor

    Spin-dependent tunnelling devices, e.g. magnetic random access memories and highly sensitive tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors, often consist of a large number of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) of uniform quality over the whole device. The uniformity and yield of the fabrication of such a device are therefore very important. A major source of yield loss is the short-circuiting of junctions by redeposition of etch residues. This can be prevented by terminating of the etch in the typically 1 nm thick tunnelling barrier. Here, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis for monitoring the etching semi-continuously is proposed. The fabrication scheme employs Ar ion milling for etching the MTJs, and photoelectron spectroscopy for analysing the composition of the etched surface in situ. Junctions etched either to or through the barrier were used for this. The quality of the etch stop was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and it was confirmed that the etch could be stopped in the MgO barrier. The TEM imaging also showed clear signs of redeposition. Such redeposition was attributed to being partly caused by the reduction of the TMR ratio of the junctions etched through the barrier, which was only 15% as compared with 150% for junctions etched to the barrier. Also, the latter junctions exhibited 2.7 times less noise in the low-frequency regime, resulting in a 27 times improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio with the etch stop. The barrier also proved effective in protecting the bottom contact from oxidation during the capping and contacting of the junctions.

  14. Analysis of the junction temperature and thermal characteristics of photovoltaic modules under various operation conditions

    The accumulation of thermal energy in the interior of photovoltaic (PV) modules as a consequence of continuous solar irradiation causes a difference between the junction temperature of the PV modules and the ambient temperature, which leads to a serious deterioration in the performance of the PV modules. We investigate this problem in depth, proposing a novel method to directly determine the junction temperature of the PV modules based on the p–n junction semiconductor theory. The proposed method is a new and simple approach with a low calculation burden. Its performance is evaluated by examining the characteristics of the junction temperature of the PV modules given variation in both temperature and irradiation intensity. After obtaining the junction temperature of the PV modules, we can track a more accurate maximum power point (MPP) for the PV modules, which is inherently affected by the ambient temperature, so that the maximum utilization efficiency of PV modules can be further achieved. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is a significant improvement in terms of the precision of the MPP control model, and helps PV modules produce their maximum power under various operation conditions. -- Highlights: ► A novel method to directly determine the junction temperature of PV modules from irradiated I–V curves is proposed. ► The junction temperature of the PV modules under various operation conditions can be simply estimated. ► A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the method. ► The proposed method improves the precision of the MPP control model and helps PV modules provide the maximum power output.

  15. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin

  16. Theory for collective macroscopic tunneling in high- Tc intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Machida, M.; Koyama, T.

    2007-10-01

    On the basis of the theory for the capacitive coupling in intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ's), we theoretically study the macroscopic quantum tunneling in the switching dynamics into the voltage states in IJJ. The effective action obtained by using the path integral formalism reveals that the capacitive coupling splits each of the lowest and higher quantum levels, which are given inside Josephson potential barrier of the single junction derived by dropping off the coupling, into levels composed of the number of junction (N). This level splitting can cause multiple low-frequency Rabi-oscillations and enhance the switching probability compared to the conventional Caldeira-Leggett theory. Furthermore, a possibility as a naturally built-in multi-qubit is discussed.

  17. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  18. Direct observation of large quantum interference effect in anthraquinone solid-state junctions.

    Rabache, Vincent; Chaste, Julien; Petit, Philippe; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Martin, Pascal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe; McCreery, Richard L; Lafarge, Philippe

    2013-07-17

    Quantum interference in cross-conjugated molecules embedded in solid-state devices was investigated by direct current-voltage and differential conductance transport measurements of anthraquinone (AQ)-based large area planar junctions. A thin film of AQ was grafted covalently on the junction base electrode by diazonium electroreduction, while the counter electrode was directly evaporated on top of the molecular layer. Our technique provides direct evidence of a large quantum interference effect in multiple CMOS compatible planar junctions. The quantum interference is manifested by a pronounced dip in the differential conductance close to zero voltage bias. The experimental signature is well developed at low temperature (4 K), showing a large amplitude dip with a minimum >2 orders of magnitude lower than the conductance at higher bias and is still clearly evident at room temperature. A temperature analysis of the conductance curves revealed that electron-phonon coupling is the principal decoherence mechanism causing large conductance oscillations at low temperature. PMID:23805821

  19. Vibrationally dependent electron-electron interactions in resonant electron transport through single-molecule junctions

    Erpenbeck, A.; Härtle, R.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of electronic-vibrational coupling in resonant electron transport through single-molecule junctions, taking into account that the corresponding coupling strengths may depend on the charge and excitation state of the molecular bridge. Within an effective-model Hamiltonian approach for a molecule with multiple electronic states, this requires to extend the commonly used model and include vibrationally dependent electron-electron interaction. We use Born-Markov master equation methods and consider selected models to exemplify the effect of the additional interaction on the transport characteristics of a single-molecule junction. In particular, we show that it has a significant influence on local cooling and heating mechanisms, it may result in negative differential resistance, and it may cause pronounced asymmetries in the conductance map of a single-molecule junction.

  20. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic barrier layer

    We have fabricated Nb/Al2O3/Ni0.6Cu0.4/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions. Depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic Ni0.6Cu0.4 layer and on the ambient temperature, the junctions were in the 0 or π coupled ground state. The Al2O3 tunnel barrier allows to achieve rather low damping. The critical current density in the π state was up to 5 A/cm2 at T=2.1 K, resulting in a Josephson penetration depth λJ as low as 160 μm. Experimentally determined junction parameters are well described by theory taking into account spin-flip scattering in the Ni0.6Cu0.4 layer and different interface transparencies. Using a ferromagnetic layer with a step-like thickness we obtain a 0-π junction with equal lengths and critical currents of 0 and π parts. The Ic(H) pattern shows a clear minimum in the vicinity of zero field. The ground state of our 330 μm (1.3λJ) long junction corresponds to a spontaneous vortex of supercurrent pinned at the 0-π phase boundary, carrying ∝ 6.7% of the magnetic flux quantum Φ0. (orig.)

  1. Auger voltage imaging for junction delineation

    A new method for the two-dimensional characterization of dopant profiles in semiconductors, called 'Auger Voltage Contrast' (AVC), is introduced, which investigates the effect of the dopant on the electronic properties of the device, e.g. the change of the Fermi level across a semiconductor surface. This change can be detected by extracting the shift of the Si-LVV Auger peak with respect to a reference spectrum. AVC linescans across pn-junctions have been modeled using the MINIMOS-NT device simulator, finding the energy shift across a pn-junction is not directly representative for the dopant distribution itself, but that the turning point of the AVC energy shift coincides with the position of the junction, making AVC an applicable tool for junction delineation. Furthermore, contamination experiments showed that small amounts of oxide on the semiconductor surface do not influence the contrast in an AVC image. For processing such an energy shift map, a software tool has been developed, which is able to obtain a map that assigns four regions to the semiconductor: regions that are p-type, regions that are n-type, regions that cannot be assigned to either type due to contamination and regions that act as the 'error bar' between p and n. Experimental data obtained from two-dimensional test structures have been processed with this tool. The resulting images clearly show the n- and p-type regions, and the width of the region corresponding to the junction are clearly below 50 nm. (author)

  2. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L/lambda/sub J/ ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively (L/lambda/sub J/ = 6) and intermediate (L/lambda/sub J/ = 2) junctions. We find good agreement for the current-voltage characteristics, power output, and for the shape and height of the zero-field steps (ZFS). Two distinct modes of solition oscillations are observed: (i) a bunched or congealed mode giving rise to the fundamental frequency ∫1 on all ZFS's and (ii) a ''symmetric'' mode which on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency N∫1. Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L/lambda/sub J/ = 6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via the boundary conditions of our numerical model. This gives a junction response to variations in the applied bias current close to that observed experimentally

  3. Inhomogeneous parallel arrays of Josephson junctions

    Highlights: → New long wave model of an inhomogeneous parallel array of Josephson junctions. → Adapted spectral problem giving resonances in the current-voltage characteristic. → At resonances solution is described by two ordinary differential equations. → Good agreement with the characteristic curve of a real five junction array. - Abstract: We model new inhomogeneous parallel arrays of small Josephson junctions by taking into account the time and space variations of the field in the cavity and the capacity miss-match at the junctions. The model consists in a wave equation with Dirac delta function sine nonlinearities. We introduce an adapted spectral problem whose spectrum gives the resonances in the current-voltage characteristic curve of any array. It is shown that at the resonances the solution is described by two simple ordinary differential equations. The resonances obtained by this approach are in good agreement with the characteristic curve of a real five junction array. This flexible approach is a first step towards building a device tailored for given purposes.

  4. Regulation of gap junctions by protein phosphorylation

    Sáez J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are constituted by intercellular channels and provide a pathway for transfer of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells of most tissues. The degree of intercellular coupling mediated by gap junctions depends on the number of gap junction channels and their activity may be a function of the state of phosphorylation of connexins, the structural subunit of gap junction channels. Protein phosphorylation has been proposed to control intercellular gap junctional communication at several steps from gene expression to protein degradation, including translational and post-translational modification of connexins (i.e., phosphorylation of the assembled channel acting as a gating mechanism and assembly into and removal from the plasma membrane. Several connexins contain sites for phosphorylation for more than one protein kinase. These consensus sites vary between connexins and have been preferentially identified in the C-terminus. Changes in intercellular communication mediated by protein phosphorylation are believed to control various physiological tissue and cell functions as well as to be altered under pathological conditions.

  5. Particle detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    At the Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe we started to produce superconducting tunnel junctions and to investigate them for their suitability as particle detectors. The required facilities for the production of tunnel junctions and the experimental equipments to carry out experiments with them were erected. Experiments are presented in which radiations of different kinds of particles could successfully be measured with the tunnel junctions produced. At first we succeeded in detectioning light pulses of a laser. In experiments with alpha-particles of an energy of 4,6 MeV the alpha-particles were detected with an energy resolution of 1,1%, and it was shown in specific experiments that the phonons originating from the deposition of energy by an alpha-particle in the substrate can be detected with superconducting tunnel junctions at the surface. On that occasion it turned out that the signals could be separated with respect to their point of origin (tunnel junction, contact leads, substrate). Finally X-rays with an energy of 6 keV were detected with an energy resolution of 8% in a test arrangement that makes use of the so-called trapping effect to read out a larger absorber volume. (orig.)

  6. An ultra-small capacitance Josephson junction

    We consider a voltage biased ultra-small capacitance Josephson junction, with the coupling to the external source containing both resistive and inductive elements. In addition we include a phenomenological coupling to an external heat bath. Our goal is to extend and generalize previous studies of current biased ultra-small junctions. Charging effects, due to the presence of discrete charge carriers in the junction, play a crucial role. In particular we find an infinite resistance branch in the I-V characteristic for a d.c. bias, and resistive steps in the I-V curve when the external bias contains an additional a.c. component. These effects are reminiscent of the 'Coulomb blockade' and the inverse Shapiro steps, respectively, predicted earlier in the context of current biased circuits. As a response to an a.c. voltage bias we also predict spikes of the voltage across the junction and a noisy background, when this voltage is plotted as a function of either the external d.c. biasing voltage or the external frequency. Our analysis shows that various circuitry components may qualitatively affect the response of the junction to an external bias. (authors)

  7. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    Yu, Xuechao

    2015-07-08

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  8. Scale resolved simulations of the OECD/NEA–Vattenfall T-junction benchmark

    Mixing of fluids in T-junction geometries is of significant interest for nuclear safety research. The most prominent example is the thermal striping phenomena in piping T-junctions, where hot and cold streams join and turbulently mix, however not completely or not immediately at the T-junction. This result in significant temperature fluctuations near the piping wall, either at the side of the secondary pipe branch or at the opposite side of the main branch pipe. The wall temperature fluctuation can cause cyclical thermal stresses and subsequently fatigue cracking of the wall. Thermal mixing in a T-junction has been studied for validation of CFD-calculations. A T-junction thermal mixing test was carried out at the Älvkarleby Laboratory of Vattenfall Research and Development (VRD) in Sweden. Data from this test have been reserved specifically for a OECD CFD benchmark exercise. The computational results show that RANS fail to predict a realistic mixing between the fluids. The results were significantly better with scale-resolving methods such as LES, showing fairly good predictions of the velocity field and mean temperatures. The calculation predicts also similar fluctuations and frequencies observed in the model test

  9. Pancreaticobiliary reflux in patients with a normal pancreaticobiliary junction:Pathologic implications

    Marcelo A Beltrán

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge on pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction and its pathologic implications has experienced tremendous progress during the last few years.This editorial reviews the current knowledge on this condition and its pathological implications on gallbladder diseases.The following aspects were defined appropriate for discussion:(1) Evidence of carcinogenesis associated with pancreaticobiliary reflux; (2) Evidence of pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction; and (3) Evidence of sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysfunction as a cause of pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction.The articles reviewed were selected and classified according to five levels of evidence:LevelⅠ,meta-analysis double-blind randomized clinical trials,Level Ⅱ,cohort non-blinded studies and non-randomized clinical trials,Level Ⅲ, good quality case-control studies and non-randomized cohort studies,Level Ⅳ,case series and poor quality case-control studies,and Level Ⅴ,case report articles and experts' opinion.Evidence levels Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and Ⅴ were found to support biliary carcinogenesis associated with pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal and abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction.The same levels of evidence were found to support the common occurrence of pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction, and SO dysfunction as the most plausible cause of this condition.Although an important body of research has been published regarding pancreaticobiliary reflux in normal pancreaticobiliary junction and its clinical significance, the current evidence does not fully support what has been suggested.Studies with evidence level I have not been undertaken.This is a fascinating subject of study,and if finally supported by evidence level I, the importance of this condition will constitute a major breakthrough in biliary pathology.

  10. TH-C-BRD-12: Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plan Can Eliminate Junction Shifts for Craniospinal Irradiation

    Liao, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Jiang, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Instit, Houston, TX (United States); Li, Y [Varian Medical Systems, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, X [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, H; Zhu, X; Sahoo, N; Gillin, M; Mahajan, A; Grosshans, D; Zhang, X [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Lim, G [University of Houston, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT) technique is the commonly used radiotherapy technique for craniospinal irradiation (CSI). However, PSPT involves many numbers of junction shifts applied over the course of treatment to reduce the cold and hot regions caused by field mismatching. In this work, we introduced a robust planning approach to develop an optimal and clinical efficient techniques for CSI using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) so that junction shifts can essentially be eliminated. Methods: The intra-fractional uncertainty, in which two overlapping fields shift in the opposite directions along the craniospinal axis, are incorporated into the robust optimization algorithm. Treatment plans with junction sizes 3,5,10,15,20,25 cm were designed and compared with the plan designed using the non-robust optimization. Robustness of the plans were evaluated based on dose profiles along the craniospinal axis for the plans applying 3 mm intra-fractional shift. The dose intra-fraction variations (DIV) at the junction are used to evaluate the robustness of the plans. Results: The DIVs are 7.9%, 6.3%, 5.0%, 3.8%, 2.8% and 2.2%, for the robustly optimized plans with junction sizes 3,5,10,15,20,25 cm. The DIV are 10% for the non-robustly optimized plans with junction size 25 cm. The dose profiles along the craniospinal axis exhibit gradual and tapered dose distribution. Using DIVs less than 5% as maximum acceptable intrafractional variation, the overlapping region can be reduced to 10 cm, leading to potential reduced number of the fields. The DIVs are less than 5% for 5 mm intra-fractional shifts with junction size 25 cm, leading to potential no-junction-shift for CSI using IMPT. Conclusion: This work is the first report of the robust optimization on CSI based on IMPT. We demonstrate that robust optimization can lead to much efficient carniospinal irradiation by eliminating the junction shifts.

  11. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer;

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...... square tunnel junction pads with varying sizes and analyze the measured data using both the original and the modified CIPT model. Thus, we determine in which sample size range the modified CIPT model is needed to ensure validity of the extracted sample parameters, RA and TMR. In addition, measurements as...... a function of position on a square tunnel junction pad are used to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement results to probe misalignment....

  12. Holographic Josephson junction from massive gravity

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Li, Huai-Fan; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2016-05-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction in de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity. If the boundary theory is independent of spatial directions, i.e., if the chemical potential is homogeneous in spatial directions, we find that the graviton mass parameter will make it more difficult for the normal metal-superconductor phase transition to take place. In the holographic model of the Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass parameter. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass parameter. If one interprets the graviton mass parameter as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, this indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.

  13. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlOx vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni60Cu40 vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially a variation of jc

  14. Holographic Josephson Junction from Massive Gravity

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephon junction in the massive gravity. In the homogeneous case of the chemical potential, we find that the graviton mass will make the normal metal-superconductor phase transition harder to take place. In the holographic model of Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass. If one interprets the graviton mass as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, it indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Josephson Junction Structures

    Multilayered long Josephson Junction Structures form an interesting physical system where both nonlinearity and interaction between subsystems play an important role. Such systems allow to study physical effects that do not occur in single Josephson junction.The Sakai-Bodin-Pedersen model--a system of perturbed sine-Gordon equations--is used to study the dynamic states of stacks of inductively coupled long Josephson Junctions (LJJs). The corresponding static problem is numerically investigated as well. In order to study the stability of possible static solutions a Sturm-Liouville problem is generated and solved.The transitions from static to dynamic state and the scenario of these transitions are analyzed depending on the model parameters. Different physical characteristics--current-voltage characteristics, individual instant voltages and internal magnetic fields, are calculated and interpreted.

  16. Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions

    Li, Qian

    transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π   stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific......Molecular electronics provide the possibility to investigate electron and phonon transport at the smallest imaginable scale, where quantum effects can be investigated and exploited directly in the design. In this thesis, we study both electron transport and phonon transport in molecular junctions...... DFT method. It is found that the thermal conductance of π-stacked systems can be reduced by 95%, compared with that in a single-molecule junction. Phonon transmission of π-stacked systems is reduced dramatically in the whole frequency range and the left transmission mainly remains below 5 THz....

  17. Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions

    Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given

  18. Spin currents in TFT-Josephson junction

    The spin of the Cooper pair in a triplet superconductor provides a new degree of freedom in Josephson junction physics. This can be accessed by using a magnetically-active tunneling barrier, leading to a rich variety of unconventional Josephson effects. Because of the triplet state of the pairing wavefunction, triplet superconductor junctions in general also display a Josephson spin current, which can flow even when the equilibrium charge current is vanishing. Using the quasiclassical Green's function theory, we have examined the more general situation of a magnetically-active barrier which does not conserve the spin of a tunneling Cooper-pair. We demonstrate that the Josephson spin currents on either side of the barrier need not be identical, with the magnitude, sign and orientation all allowed to differ. Not only do our calculations enhance the physical understanding of transport through triplet superconductor junctions, but they also open the possibility of novel spintronic Josephson devices.

  19. Josephson junction microcalorimeter with a superconductor loop

    Yoshihara, F; Shinada, K

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new microcalorimeter in which the critical current of a Josephson junction can be varied by an electron temperature in the normal metal barrier of the superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) or superconductor-normal metal-insulator-superconductor (SNIS) junctions. In this detector, a Josephson junction with a radiation absorber is included in a superconductor loop and the change of its critical current is converted into a change of magnetic flux in the loop. We estimated the energy resolution of this detector by calculating a noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detector. The estimated energy resolution and dynamic range are 4.2 eV/5.8 eV and 3.1 keV/6.2 keV, respectively with an Ag absorber of 500 x 500 x 2 mu m sup 3 at 100 mK.

  20. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-07-23

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO{sub x} vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially

  1. Electronic Veselago lensing in graphene PN junctions

    Dean, Cory

    Ballistic electrons in a uniform 2D electron gas (2DEG) behave in close analogy to light propagating through an optical medium. In the absence of impurity scattering, electrons follow straight-line trajectories, while the associated de Broglie wavelength can give rise to interference and diffraction. Here we present measurements of ballistic graphene devices in which a graphite gate is used to realize an atomically-smooth junction. We demonstrate unambiguous signatures of negative refraction across a PN junction, paving the way for electron optics inspired by Veselago lensing. Comparison with theoretical simulations reveals the importance of the junction profile towards this effort. Opportunities for future device designs that may take advantage of these effects will be discussed.

  2. Magnesium gating of cardiac gap junction channels.

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Yasutaka; Oka, Chiaki; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Noma, Akinori

    2010-09-01

    We aimed to study kinetics of modulation by intracellular Mg(2+) of cardiac gap junction (Mg(2+) gate). Paired myocytes of guinea-pig ventricle were superfused with solutions containing various concentrations of Mg(2+). In order to rapidly apply Mg(2+) to one aspect of the gap junction, the non-junctional membrane of one of the pair was perforated at nearly the connecting site by pulses of nitrogen laser beam. The gap junction conductance (G(j)) was measured by clamping the membrane potential of the other cell using two-electrode voltage clamp method. The laser perforation immediately increased G(j), followed by slow G(j) change with time constant of 3.5 s at 10 mM Mg(2+). Mg(2+) more than 1.0 mM attenuated dose-dependently the gap junction conductance and lower Mg(2+) (0.6 mM) increased G(j) with a Hill coefficient of 3.4 and a half-maximum effective concentration of 0.6 mM. The time course of G(j) changes was fitted by single exponential function, and the relationship between the reciprocal of time constant and Mg(2+) concentration was almost linear. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model of Mg(2+) gate with one open state and three closed states well reproduced experimental results. One-dimensional cable model of thirty ventricular myocytes connected to the Mg(2+) gate model suggested a pivotal role of the Mg(2+) gate of gap junction under pathological conditions. PMID:20553744

  3. Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions

    We describe a generalization of Landauer-Buettiker theory for networks of interacting metallic carbon nanotubes. We start with symmetric starlike junctions and then extend our approach to asymmetric systems. While the symmetric case is solved in closed form, the asymmetric situation is treated by a mixture of perturbative and non-perturbative methods. For N > 2 repulsively interacting nanotubes, the only stable fixed point of the symmetric system corresponds to an isolated node. Detailed results for both symmetric and asymmetric systems are shown for N = 3, corresponding to carbon nanotube Y junctions

  4. Tunnel magnetoresistance of an organic molecule junction

    Coherent spin-dependent electronic transport is investigated in a molecular junction based on oligophenylene attached to two the semi-infinite ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes with finite cross sections. The work is based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and within the framework of a non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) technique. It is shown that tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of molecular junction can be large (over 60 %) by adjusting the related parameters, and depends on: (i) the applied voltages and (ii) the length of oligophenylele molecule.

  5. Gap junctions-guards of excitability

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...... of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane....

  6. Supercurrent in long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions

    Borzenets, I. V.; Amet, F.; Ke, C. T.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.; Finkelstein, G

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the critical current $I_C$ in Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures. $I_C$ is found to scale with temperature $T$ as $\\propto exp(-k_bT/\\delta E)$, which is consistent with the conventional model for ballistic Josephson junctions that are long compared to the thermal length. The extracted energy $\\delta E$ is independent of the carrier density and consistent with the level spacing of the ballistic cavity, as determined from Fabry-Perot...

  7. Bursting behaviour in coupled Josephson junctions.

    Hongray, Thotreithem; Balakrishnan, J; Dana, Syamal K

    2015-12-01

    We report an interesting bow-tie shaped bursting behaviour in a certain parameter regime of two resistive-capacitative shunted Josephson junctions, one in the oscillatory and the other in the excitable mode and coupled together resistively. The burst emerges in both the junctions and they show near-complete synchronization for strong enough couplings. We discuss a possible bifurcation scenario to explain the origin of the burst. An exhaustive study on the parameter space of the system is performed, demarcating the regions of bursting from other solutions. PMID:26723143

  8. Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction

    CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)

    2003-01-01

    Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.

  9. High quality Nb-based junctions for superconductive detectors

    Nb-based superconducting tunnel junctions have been proposed as detectors in nuclear physics. A discussion in terms of the achieved junction quality concerning the energy resolution and the limit performances will be presented. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of thermal stress by measured data of wall temperature at a T-junction pipe

    Thermal fatigue cracking may initiate at a T-junction pipe where high and low temperature fluids flow in from different directions and mix. Thermal stress is caused by a temperature gradient in a structure and by its variation. It is possible to obtain stress distributions if the enough temperature distributions on the pipe inner surface are obtained by experiments. The wall temperature distributions at a T-junction pipe were measured by the thermocouples installed in inner surface of a stainless steel pipe. The thermal stress distributions were calculated using the temperature in the pipe inner surface. The large stress fluctuations were caused by the swaying of the compressive stress region in the circumferential direction. The distribution of the stress fluctuation range was similar to that of the temperature fluctuation range. The large temperature fluctuation with the period of about 10s caused the large stress fluctuation. (author)

  11. Spin and valley transports in junctions of Dirac fermions

    Yokoyama, Takehito

    2014-01-01

    We study spin and valley transports in junctions composed of silicene and topological crystalline insulators. We consider normal/magnetic/normal Dirac metal junctions where a gate electrode is attached to the magnetic region. In normal/antiferromagnetic/normal silicene junction, we show that the current through this junction is valley and spin polarized due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom, and the valley and spin polarizations can be tuned by local application of a ...

  12. Low-Tc, ramp-type Josephson junctions for SQUIDS

    Podt, M.; Rolink, B.G.A.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Josephson tunnel junction is the basic element of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Amongst other parameters, the junction capacitance determines the characteristics of a (digital) SQUID. In a conventional dc SQUID, reducing the junction capacitance decreases the flux noise of the sensor, whereas in digital SQUIDs, the operating frequency can be increased when reducing the junction capacitance. For digital SQUIDs, this means that not only the flux noise decreases, but...

  13. Fluid and particulate suspension flows at fracture junctions

    Lo, Tak S.; Koplik, Joel

    2015-03-01

    Suspended particles can be a serious problem in geological contexts such as fluid recovery from reservoirs because they alter the rheology of the flowing liquids and may obstruct transport by narrowing flow channels due to deposition or gravitational sedimentation. In particular, the irregular geometry of the fracture walls can trap particles, induce jamming and cause unwanted channeling effects. We have investigated particle suspension flows in tight geological fractures using lattice Boltzmann method in the past. In this work we extend these studies to flows at a junction where two fractures intersect, an essential step towards a complete understanding of flows in fracture networks. The fracture walls are modeled as realistic self-affine fractal surfaces, and we focus on the case of tight fractures, where the wall roughness, the aperture and the particle size are all comparable. The simulations provide complete detail on the particle configurations and the fluid flow field, from which the stresses in the fluid and the forces acting on the bounding walls can be computed. With these information, phenomena such as particle mixing and dispersion, mechanical responses of the solid walls, possible jamming and release at junctions, and other situations of interest can be investigated. Work supported by NERSC and DOE.

  14. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of tunnel junctions driven by alternating voltages

    Grabert, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    The theory of the dynamical Coulomb blockade is extended to tunneling elements driven by a time-dependent voltage. It is shown that, for standard setups where an external voltage is applied to a tunnel junction via an impedance, time-dependent driving entails an excitation of the modes of the electromagnetic environment by the applied voltage. Previous approaches for ac driven circuits need to be extended to account for the driven bath modes. A unitary transformation involving also the variables of the electromagnetic environment is introduced which allows us to split off the time dependence from the Hamiltonian in the absence of tunneling. This greatly simplifies perturbation-theoretical calculations based on treating the tunneling Hamiltonian as a perturbation. In particular, the average current flowing in the leads of the tunnel junction is studied. Explicit results are given for the case of an applied voltage with a constant dc part and a sinusoidal ac part. The connection with standard dynamical Coulomb blockade theory for constant applied voltage is established. It is shown that an alternating voltage source reveals significant additional effects caused by the electromagnetic environment. The hallmark of the dynamical Coulomb blockade in ac driven devices is a suppression of higher harmonics of the current by the electromagnetic environment. The theory presented basically applies to all tunneling devices driven by alternating voltages.

  15. Gap junction protein connexin43 exacerbates lung vascular permeability.

    James J O'Donnell

    Full Text Available Increased vascular permeability causes pulmonary edema that impairs arterial oxygenation and thus contributes to morbidity and mortality associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and sepsis. Although components of intercellular adhesive and tight junctions are critical for maintaining the endothelial barrier, there has been limited study of the roles of gap junctions and their component proteins (connexins. Since connexins can modulate inflammatory signaling in other systems, we hypothesized that connexins may also regulate pulmonary endothelial permeability. The relationships between connexins and the permeability response to inflammatory stimuli were studied in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. Prolonged treatment with thrombin, lipopolysaccharide, or pathological cyclic stretch increased levels of mRNA and protein for the major connexin, connexin43 (Cx43. Thrombin and lipopolysaccharide both increased intercellular communication assayed by transfer of microinjected Lucifer yellow. Although thrombin decreased transendothelial resistance in these cells, the response was attenuated by pretreatment with the connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone. Additionally, the decreases of transendothelial resistance produced by either thrombin or lipopolysaccharide were attenuated by reducing Cx43 expression by siRNA knockdown. Both carbenoxolone and Cx43 knockdown also abrogated thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Taken together, these data suggest that increased lung vascular permeability induced by inflammatory conditions may be amplified via increased expression of Cx43 and intercellular communication among pulmonary endothelial cells.

  16. Gap junction proteins and their role in spinal cord injury

    Yilin Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are specialized intercellular communication channels that are formed by two hexameric connexin hemichannels, one provided by each of the two adjacent cells. Gap junctions and hemichannels play an important role in regulating cellular metabolism, signaling and functions in both normal and pathological conditions. Following spinal cord injury (SCI, there is damage and disturbance to the neuronal elements of the spinal cord including severing of axon tracts and rapid cell death. The initial mechanical disruption is followed by multiple secondary cascades that cause further tissue loss and dysfunction. Recent studies have implicated connexin proteins as playing a critical role in the secondary phase of SCI by propagating death signals through extensive glial networks. In this Mini-Review, we bring together past and current studies to outline the distribution, changes and roles of various connexins found in neurons and glial cells, before and in response to SCI. We discuss the contribution of pathologically activated connexin proteins, in particular connexin 43, to functional recovery and neuropathic pain, as well as providing an update on potential connexin specific pharmacological agents to treat SCI.

  17. Ballistic Josephson junctions in edge-contacted graphene

    Calado, V. E.; Goswami, S.; Nanda, G.; Diez, M.; Akhmerov, A. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid graphene-superconductor devices have attracted much attention since the early days of graphene research. So far, these studies have been limited to the case of diffusive transport through graphene with poorly defined and modest-quality graphene/superconductor interfaces, usually combined with small critical magnetic fields of the superconducting electrodes. Here, we report graphene-based Josephson junctions with one-dimensional edge contacts of molybdenum rhenium. The contacts exhibit a well-defined, transparent interface to the graphene, have a critical magnetic field of 8 T at 4 K, and the graphene has a high quality due to its encapsulation in hexagonal boron nitride. This allows us to study and exploit graphene Josephson junctions in a new regime, characterized by ballistic transport. We find that the critical current oscillates with the carrier density due to phase-coherent interference of the electrons and holes that carry the supercurrent caused by the formation of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Furthermore, relatively large supercurrents are observed over unprecedented long distances of up to 1.5 μm. Finally, in the quantum Hall regime we observe broken symmetry states while the contacts remain superconducting. These achievements open up new avenues to exploit the Dirac nature of graphene in interaction with the superconducting state.

  18. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction.

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by autoantibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) are detected in a variable proportion of the remainder. Treatment is symptomatic and immunomodulatory. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by antibodies to presynaptic calcium channels, and approximately 50% of cases are paraneoplastic, most often related to small cell carcinoma of the lung. Botulism is an acquired disorder caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, impairing acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft. In addition, several rare congenital myasthenic syndromes have been identified, caused by inherited defects in presynaptic, synaptic basal lamina and postsynaptic proteins necessary for neuromuscular transmission. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:20547629

  19. [Genetic defects and disorders at the neuromuscular junction].

    Ohno, Kinji

    2011-07-01

    Genetic defects in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) cause congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs), which are characterized by muscle weakness, abnormal fatigability, amyotrophy, and minor facial anomalies. Muscle weakness mostly develops under 2 years but is also sometimes seen in adults. Mutations identified to date include (i) muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, (ii) rapsyn that anchors and clusters AChRs at the neuromuscular junction, (iii) agrin that is released from the nerve terminal and induces AChR clustering by stimulating the downstream LRP4/MuSK/Dok-7/rapsyn/AChR pathway, (iv) muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4 to rapsyn/AChR, (v) Dok-7 that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4/MuSK to rapsyn/AChR, (vi) skeletal muscle sodium channel type 1.4 (Nav1.4) that spreads the depolarization potential from the endplate throughout muscle fibers, (vii) collagen Q that anchors acetylcholinesterase to the synaptic basal lamina, and (viii) choline acetyltransferase that resynthesizes acetylcholine from recycled choline at the nerve terminal. In addition, mutations in the heparin sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, which binds to many molecules including collagen Q and dystroglycan, causes Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Interestingly, mutations in LRP4 cause Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome but not CMS. AChR, MuSK, and LRP4 are also targets of auto-antibodies in myasthenia gravis. In addition, molecules at the NMJ are targets of many other disease states AChRs are blocked by the snake toxin alpha-bungarotoxin and the plant poison curare. The presynaptic SNARE complex is attacked by botulinum toxin. Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by the nerve gas sarin and by organophosphate pesticides. This review focuses on the molecular bases underlying defects of AChR, rapsyn, Nav1.4, collagen Q, and choline acetyltransferase. PMID:21747136

  20. On the relevance of low side flows for thermal loads in T-junctions

    Highlights: → Turbulent mixing of fluid in a T-junction is investigated being relevant for thermal fatigue. → Special case of extremely low side flows (leakage flows) are studied. → High spatial and time resolution results are obtained using wire mesh sensors. → Entrainment into side branch occurs at very low side flows, which disappears above a critical side flow rate. → Entrainment causes significant low-frequency oscillations in the side branch potentially dangerous to induce thermal fatigue. - Abstract: The mixing of coolant streams of different temperatures in pipe junctions leads to temperature fluctuations that may cause thermal fatigue in the pipe wall. Numerous T-junction experiments are known from literature, which were performed to study the nature of thermal loads in the pipe walls occurring during the mixing of hot and cold liquid. It is common to all known experiments that the experimental boundary conditions are set to reflect cases, in which the flow velocities in both main and side branches of the T-junctions are of the same order of magnitude. In the present experiments, carried out using wire-mesh sensors, it was observed that very low flow velocities in the side branch compared to the main pipe may lead to conditions potentially severe for thermal fatigue due to the low frequency of the temperature fluctuations occurring. The T-junction presented here consists of a perpendicular connection of two pipes of 50 mm inner diameter. The straight and the side branches are supplied with water of different electrical conductivities, to enable performing generic, isothermal tests on turbulent mixing with the idea to model the temperature fluctuations in thermal mixing processes. A pair of wire-mesh sensors, each with a grid of 16 x 16 measuring points, are used to record conductivity distributions in the downstream of the T-junction as well as directly at the junction in both branches. At very low flow rates in the side branch, a characteristic

  1. Gap junctions and hemichannels composed of connexins: potential therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases

    Hideyuki Takeuchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are macrophage-like resident immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS. Abnormal activation of microglia can cause damage in the CNS, and accumulation of activated microglia is a characteristic pathological observation in neurologic conditions such as trauma, stroke, inflammation, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. Activated microglia secrete high levels of glutamate, which damages CNS cells and has been implicated as a major cause of neurodegeneration in these conditions. Glutamate-receptor blockers and microglia inhibitors (e.g. minocycline have been examined as therapeutic candidates for several neurodegenerative diseases; however, these compounds exerted little therapeutic benefit because they either perturbed physiological glutamate signals or suppressed the actions of protective microglia. The ideal therapeutic approach would hamper the deleterious roles of activated microglia without diminishing their protective effects. We recently found that abnormally activated microglia secrete glutamate via gap-junction hemichannels on the cell surface. Moreover, administration of gap-junction inhibitors significantly suppressed excessive microglial glutamate release and improved disease symptoms in animal models of neurologic conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent evidence also suggests that neuronal and glial communication via gap junctions amplifies neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Elucidation of the precise pathologic roles of gap junctions and hemichannels may lead to a novel therapeutic strategies that can slow and halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the...

  3. Axial p–n-junctions in nanowires

    The charge distribution and potential profile of p–n-junctions in thin semiconductor nanowires (NWs) were analyzed. The characteristics of screening in one-dimensional systems result in a specific profile with large electric field at the boundary between the n- and p- regions, and long tails with a logarithmic drop in the potential and charge density. As a result of these tails, the junction properties depend sensitively on the geometry of external contacts and its capacity has an anomalously large value and frequency dispersion. In the presence of an external voltage, electrons and holes in the NWs can not be described by constant quasi-Fermi levels, due to small values of the average electric field, mobility, and lifetime of carriers. Thus, instead of the classical Sah–Noice–Shockley theory, the junction current–voltage characteristic was described by an alternative theory suitable for fast generation–recombination and slow diffusion–drift processes. For the non-uniform electric field in the junction, this theory predicts the forward branch of the characteristic to have a non-ideality factor η several times larger than the values 1<η<2 from classical theory. Such values of η have been experimentally observed by a number of researchers, as well as in the present work. (paper)

  4. Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions

    Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....

  5. Graphene-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    Cobas, Enrique

    2013-03-01

    Graphene's in-plane transport has been widely researched and has yielded extraordinary carrier mobilities of 105 cm2/Vs and spin diffusion lengths of exceeding 100 μm. These properties bode well for graphene in future electronics and spintronics technologies. Its out-of-plane transport has been far less studied, although its parent material, graphite, shows a large conductance anisotropy. Recent calculations show graphene's interaction with close-packed ferromagnetic metal surfaces should produce highly spin-polarized transport out-of-plane, an enabling breakthrough for spintronics technology. In this work, we fabricate and measure FM/graphene/FM magnetic tunnel junctions using CVD-grown single-layer graphene. The resulting juctions show non-linear current-voltage characteristics and a very weak temperature dependence consistent with charge tunneling transport. Furthermore, we study spin transport across the junction as a function of bias voltage and temperature. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) peaks at two percent for single-layer graphene junctions and exhibits the expected bias asymmetry and a temperature dependence that fits well with established spin-polarized tunneling models. Results of mutli-layer graphene tunnel junctions will also be discussed.

  6. Multisoliton excitations in long Josephson junctions

    Dueholm, B.; Levring, O. A.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Cirillo, M.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave emission from long Josephson tunnel junctions dc-current biased on zero-field and Fiske steps has been measured. The frequency and power variation on all steps of the narrow-linewidth radiation near the fundamental cavity-mode frequency and the observed transitions between different...

  7. Miniaturized symmetrization optics for junction laser

    Hammer, Jacob M. (Inventor); Kaiser, Charlie J. (Inventor); Neil, Clyde C. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Miniaturized optics comprising transverse and lateral cylindrical lenses composed of millimeter-sized rods with diameters, indices-of-refraction and spacing such that substantially all the light emitted as an asymmetrical beam from the emitting junction of the laser is collected and translated to a symmetrical beam.

  8. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    any of the transistors. The implication is that the electron and hole ionization rates did not change as a result of the addition of extra scattering centers. This result is in direct contradiction to observations of Lee et al. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy is erroneous determination...... of junction field by Lee et al....

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intrinsic Josephson junctions: recent developments

    Yurgens, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Some recent developments in the fabrication of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) and their application for studying high-temperature superconductors are discussed. The major advantages of IJJ and unsolved problems are outlined. The feasibility of three-terminal devices based on the stacked IJJ is briefly evaluated.

  10. Electric Field Effect in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions

    Koyama, T.

    The electric field effect in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJ's) is investigated on the basis of the capacitively-coupled IJJ model. We clarify the current-voltage characteristics of the IJJ's in the presence of an external electric field. It is predicted that the IJJ's show a dynamical transition to the voltage state as the external electric field is increased.

  11. Radiation comb generation with extended Josephson junctions

    We propose the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on an extended Josephson junction subject to a time dependent magnetic field. The junction critical current shows known diffraction patterns and determines the position of the critical nodes when it vanishes. When the magnetic flux passes through one of such critical nodes, the superconducting phase must undergo a π-jump to minimize the Josephson energy. Correspondingly, a voltage pulse is generated at the extremes of the junction. Under periodic driving, this allows us to produce a comb-like voltage pulses sequence. In the frequency domain, it is possible to generate up to hundreds of harmonics of the fundamental driving frequency, thus mimicking the frequency comb used in optics and metrology. We discuss several implementations through a rectangular, cylindrical, and annular junction geometries, allowing us to generate different radiation spectra and to produce an output power up to 10 pW at 50 GHz for a driving frequency of 100 MHz

  12. Defect formation in long Josephson junctions

    Gordeeva, Anna; Pankratov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according...

  13. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    Zolper, John C.; Shul, Randy J.

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  14. Intercellular junctions in nerve-free hydra

    McDowall, A W; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    particles in an "enplaque conformation appearing as a raised plateau on the E-face or as a depression on the P-face; (ii) structures morphologically similar to gap junctions in rat liver, containing particles on the P-face and corresponding pits on the E-face, both having hexagonal packing with a lattice...

  15. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  16. Incomplete Andreev reflection in a clean SFS junction

    We study the stationary Josephson effect in a ballistic superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction for arbitrarily large spin polarizations. Due to the exchange interaction in the ferromagnet, the Andreev reflection is incomplete. We describe how this effect modifies the Josephson current in the crossover from a superconductor/normal metal/superconductor junction to a superconductor/half metal/superconductor junction

  17. Thermal Crossover between Ultrasmall Double and Single Junction

    M{ü}ller, Heinz-Olaf

    1997-01-01

    The crossover from double-junction behavior to single-junction behavior of ultrasmall tunnel junctions is studied theoretically in a scanning-tunneling microscope setup. The independently variable tip temperature of the microscope is used to monitor the transition between both regimes.

  18. Curvature Effects in 1-D and 2-D Josephson Junctions

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The gauge invariant phase difference between superconducting electrodes is a dominating dynamical degree of freedom in the Josephson junction. This rapport concerns the influence of the curvature of the junction on the dynamic of this field variable. The effects of curvature are discussed in the long and large area junctions. In particular the dynamics of the fluxion and the kink front are studied.

  19. Dependence of proximity-induced supercurrent on junction length in multilayer-graphene Josephson junctions

    Kanda, A.; Sato, T.; Goto, H.; Tomori, H.; Takana, S.; Ootuka, Y.; Tsukagoshi, K.

    2010-11-01

    We report experimental observation of the proximity-induced supercurrent in superconductor-multilayer graphene-superconductor junctions. We find that the supercurrent is a linearly decreasing function of the junction length (separation of the superconducting electrodes), which is quite different from the usual behavior of exponential dependence. We suggest that this behavior originates from the intrinsic large contact resistance between the multilayer and the superconducting electrodes.

  20. Dependence of proximity-induced supercurrent on junction length in multilayer-graphene Josephson junctions

    We report experimental observation of the proximity-induced supercurrent in superconductor-multilayer graphene-superconductor junctions. We find that the supercurrent is a linearly decreasing function of the junction length (separation of the superconducting electrodes), which is quite different from the usual behavior of exponential dependence. We suggest that this behavior originates from the intrinsic large contact resistance between the multilayer and the superconducting electrodes.

  1. Model building to facilitate understanding of holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and holliday junction resolution.

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-07-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and computer-animated video, we included a model building activity using pipe cleaners. Biotechnology undergraduates (n = 108) used the model to simulate Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. Based on student perception, an average of 12.85 and 78.35% students claimed that they completely and partially understood the two concepts, respectively. A test conducted to ascertain their understanding about the two concepts showed that 66.1% of the students provided the correct response to the three multiple choice questions. A majority of the 108 students attributed the inclusion of model building to their better understanding of Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. This underlines the importance of incorporating model building, particularly in concepts that require spatial visualization. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):381-390, 2016. PMID:26899144

  2. Preparation of large-area molecular junctions with metallic conducting Langmuir–Blodgett films

    Metallic conducting Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films were used as soft electrodes to fabricate molecular junctions with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols (CH3(CH2)n−1SH) on an Au surface. Alkanethiols can form highly ordered, stable dielectric SAMs on metal surfaces over large areas. However, it is difficult to establish electrical contacts on such SAMs, which has limited their application. In this work, we used metallic conducting LB films composed of bis(ethylenedioxy)tetrathiafulvalene and stearic acid as a soft electrode onto alkanethiol SAMs (Cn-SAM, n = 12, 14, 16, 18) to prepare Au/SAM/metal junctions of relatively large size (∼ 15.6 × 103 μm2). The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics across the junctions exhibited rectifying behavior with a ratio R of ∼ 5 (R = |J(V)|/|J(− V)| at ± 1 V). The lower transfer rate corresponding to the electron transport from Au to the LB films exhibited nonlinear J–V characteristics, while the higher transfer rate of electrons from the LB film to Au showed linear J–V characteristics. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the work function of the metallic LB films was smaller than that of Au. The observed rectification behavior is probably caused by different electron transport mechanisms between the two current directions. - Highlights: • Metallic Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films were used as soft electrodes. • Molecular junctions of metal–alkanethiol–LB films were fabricated. • The current–voltage curve across the junctions exhibited rectifying behavior. • This is the first observation for alkanethiol monolayer junctions. • The work function difference between the electrodes induces the rectification

  3. Spectrum of Lesions Affecting the Renal Pelvis and Pelviureteric Junction: A 13-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Kini, Hema; Suresh, Pooja Kundapur; Guni, Laxman Prabhu Gurupur; Bhat, Shaila; Kini, Jyoti Ramanath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Both, the renal pelvis and the ureter, are affected by developmental, reactive and neoplastic disorders, though rare in incidence. Aim This series of cases were analysed to study the clinicopathological characteristics of the common and comparatively rare lesions involving the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction. Materials and Methods A retrospective collection of 476 nephrectomies and pelviureteric junction resections, received over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was done. The patients’ clinical details were obtained and the histopathological findings reviewed. The lesions were classified into non-neoplastic and neoplastic categories. Results Primary involvement of the renal pelvis and pelviureteric junction was seen in 105 of 476 specimens. The mean age was 54.5 years with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The non-neoplastic lesions accounted for 76.2% of cases with a majority being pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy (68.6%) causing hydronephrosis. Urothelial carcinomas were encountered in 20% of the cases. A majority of the urothelial carcinomas were infiltrative (81%) and high grade (71%) tumours. Conclusion Renal pelvis, a conduit to propel urine, can be the site for numerous disorders. Non-neoplastic lesions were more common than neoplasms. Pelviureteric junction obstruction due to inflammation induced fibromuscular hypertrophy was the commonest lesion in our study. In the neoplastic category, urothelial carcinoma was most common. However, rare lesions such as hamartomatous fibroepithelial polyp, Von Brunn’s nests, flat urothelial hyperplasia and intramuscular haemangioma of upper ureter at the pelviureteric junction were encountered along with occasional cases of tuberculosis and squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27042468

  4. Preparation of large-area molecular junctions with metallic conducting Langmuir–Blodgett films

    Mochizuki, Kengo [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Ohnuki, Hitoshi, E-mail: ohnuki@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Shimizu, Daisuke [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Imakubo, Tatsuro [Department of Materials and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Tsuya, Daiju [National Institute for Materials Science,1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Izumi, Mitsuru [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Metallic conducting Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films were used as soft electrodes to fabricate molecular junctions with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n−1}SH) on an Au surface. Alkanethiols can form highly ordered, stable dielectric SAMs on metal surfaces over large areas. However, it is difficult to establish electrical contacts on such SAMs, which has limited their application. In this work, we used metallic conducting LB films composed of bis(ethylenedioxy)tetrathiafulvalene and stearic acid as a soft electrode onto alkanethiol SAMs (C{sub n}-SAM, n = 12, 14, 16, 18) to prepare Au/SAM/metal junctions of relatively large size (∼ 15.6 × 10{sup 3} μm{sup 2}). The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics across the junctions exhibited rectifying behavior with a ratio R of ∼ 5 (R = |J(V)|/|J(− V)| at ± 1 V). The lower transfer rate corresponding to the electron transport from Au to the LB films exhibited nonlinear J–V characteristics, while the higher transfer rate of electrons from the LB film to Au showed linear J–V characteristics. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the work function of the metallic LB films was smaller than that of Au. The observed rectification behavior is probably caused by different electron transport mechanisms between the two current directions. - Highlights: • Metallic Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films were used as soft electrodes. • Molecular junctions of metal–alkanethiol–LB films were fabricated. • The current–voltage curve across the junctions exhibited rectifying behavior. • This is the first observation for alkanethiol monolayer junctions. • The work function difference between the electrodes induces the rectification.

  5. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine for the control of junctional ectopic tachycardia after repair of tetralogy of Fallot

    Randhir S Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurs frequently after congenital cardiac surgery and can be a cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Dexmedetomidine (DEX is an a2 adrenoreceptor agonist, has properties of controlling tachyarrhythmia by regulating the sympatho-adrenal system. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of DEX for control of junctional ectopic tachycardia after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty pediatric cardiac patients with TOFs were enrolled in a prospective randomized control study. Patients underwent correction surgery. They were divided into two groups, i.e., Group 1 (DEX and Group 2 (control. Heart rate, rhythm, mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded after the anesthetic induction (T1, after termination of bypass (T2, after 04 hours (T3, and 08 hours after transferring the patient to intensive care unit (ICU; T4. Results: Heart rate was comparable between two groups before starting the drug but statistically significant after bypass until 08 hours after transferring the patient to ICU. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurred more in Group-2 (20% as compared to Group-1 (9.09%; P = 0.022. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurs early in Group-2 (0.14 ± 0.527 hours as compared to Group 1 (0.31 ± 1.29 hours; P = 0.042. The duration of junctional ectopic tachycardia was more prolonged in Group-2 (1.63 ± 3.64 hours as compared to Group-1 (0.382 ± 1.60 hours; P = 0.012. The time to withdraw from mechanical ventilation and ICU stay of Group 1 patient was less than of Group 2 patients (P = <0.001. Conclusion: DEX had a therapeutic role in the prevention of junctional ectopic tachycardia in patients undergoing repair for TOF.

  6. Lipoxin A4 prevents tight junction disruption and delays the colonization of cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Higgins, Gerard; Fustero Torre, Coral; Tyrrell, Jean; McNally, Paul; Harvey, Brian J; Urbach, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The specialized proresolution lipid mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is abnormally produced in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. LXA4 increases the CF airway surface liquid height and stimulates airway epithelial repair and tight junction formation. We report here a protective effect of LXA4 (1 nM) against tight junction disruption caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial challenge together with a delaying action against bacterial invasion in CF airway epithelial cells from patients with CF and immortalized cell lines. Bacterial invasion and tight junction integrity were measured by gentamicin exclusion assays and confocal fluorescence microscopy in non-CF (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) bronchial epithelial cell lines and in primary CF cultures, grown under an air/liquid interface, exposed to either a clinical or laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa LXA4 delayed P. aeruginosa invasion and transepithelial migration in CF and normal bronchial epithelial cell cultures. These protective effects of LXA4 were inhibited by the ALX/FPR2 lipoxin receptor antagonist BOC-2. LXA4 prevented the reduction in mRNA biosynthesis and protein abundance of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and reduced tight junction disruption induced by P. aeruginsosa inoculation. In conclusion, LXA4 plays a protective role in bronchial epithelium by stimulating tight junction repair and by delaying and reducing the invasion of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginsosa. PMID:27084849

  7. Current distributions of thermal switching in extremely underdamped Josephson junctions

    The first measurements of the switching current distribution of an extremely underdamped Josephson junction are presented at various temperatures. Careful fitting of the data provides an experimental verification of the thermal activation theory in the very low damping limit. Moreover, the fitting allows us to obtain the ''effective'' resistance of a Josephson tunnel junction, thus providing an important indication as to the proper junction resistance to be used in the resistively shunted junction model. These values of junction resistance show the temperature dependence of a subgap resistance, i.e., exp(Δ/k/sub B/T), due to activation of quasiparticles over the superconductor energy gap Δ

  8. Indentation Tests Reveal Geometry-Regulated Stiffening of Nanotube Junctions.

    Ozden, Sehmus; Yang, Yang; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Asif, Syed; Penev, Evgeni S; Yakobson, Boris I; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-01-13

    Here we report a unique method to locally determine the mechanical response of individual covalent junctions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in various configurations such as "X", "Y", and "Λ"-like. The setup is based on in situ indentation using a picoindenter integrated within a scanning electron microscope. This allows for precise mapping between junction geometry and mechanical behavior and uncovers geometry-regulated junction stiffening. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the dominant contribution to the nanoindentation response is due to the CNT walls stretching at the junction. Targeted synthesis of desired junction geometries can therefore provide a "structural alphabet" for construction of macroscopic CNT networks with tunable mechanical response. PMID:26618517

  9. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...... magnetic field rather than an in-plane field. The conditions under which this occurs are discussed....

  10. INCIDENCE OF JUNCTIONAL EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA AMONG ROMANIAN DRAFT HORSES

    S.E. GEORGESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB is an inherited disease which causes skin lesions in newborn foals and results in large areas of skin loss. The mutation responsible for the disease is a cytosine insertion in the LAMC2 gene, which results in absent expression of the laminin γ2 polypeptide chain of laminin 5. JEB is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait (Spirito et al. 2002, Milenkovic et al. 2003. Our objective was to analyze Romanian Draft Horses using a set of primers which amplify a fragment from the LAMC2 gene possibly containing the insertion for correctly identifying the normal homozygous and heterozygous carrier horses for the JEB trait. The number of allele peaks depends on whether the horse tested is a heterozygote (carrier or homozygote (normal or JEB affected. Results suggest that the genetic test will be useful in identifying horses which are heterozygous for the JEB trait and foals with JEB.

  11. Ballistic transport of graphene pnp junctions with embedded local gates

    We fabricated graphene pnp devices, by embedding pre-defined local gates in an oxidized surface layer of a silicon substrate. With neither deposition of dielectric material on the graphene nor electron-beam irradiation, we obtained high-quality graphene pnp devices without degradation of the carrier mobility even in the local-gate region. The corresponding increased mean free path leads to the observation of ballistic and phase-coherent transport across a local gate 130 nm wide, which is about an order of magnitude wider than reported previously. Furthermore, in our scheme, we demonstrated independent control of the carrier density in the local-gate region, with a conductance map very much distinct from those of top-gated devices. This was caused by the electric field arising from the global back gate being strongly screened by the embedded local gate. Our scheme allows the realization of ideal multipolar graphene junctions with ballistic carrier transport.

  12. Cranio-vertebral junction anomaly: atlanto-occipital assimilation.

    Pooja Jain, -; Khursheed Raza, -; Chiman Kumari, -; Manisha Hansda, -; Sb Ray, -

    2016-01-01

    Cranio-vertebral junction is a pivot which holds the globe of the head. Bony anomalies at this point are particularly significant because they lodge the spinal cord and lower part of the brain stem. Clinically fusion of the atlas with the lower part of the occiput is known as Atlanto-occipital assimilation or atlas occipitalization, which can be either partial or complete depending upon the extent of fusion. It can present as totally asymptomatic accidental finding or can be a cause behind major neuro-vascular compression. The present case study is an endeavor to explain occipitalization of atlas bone on the basis of embryology and explain its clinical relevance. PMID:27424507

  13. Vibrational Heat Transport in Molecular Junctions

    Segal, Dvira; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We review studies of vibrational energy transfer in a molecular junction geometry, consisting of a molecule bridging two heat reservoirs, solids or large chemical compounds. This setup is of interest for applications in molecular electronics, thermoelectrics, and nanophononics, and for addressing basic questions in the theory of classical and quantum transport. Calculations show that system size, disorder, structure, dimensionality, internal anharmonicities, contact interaction, and quantum coherent effects are factors that combine to determine the predominant mechanism (ballistic/diffusive), effectiveness (poor/good), and functionality (linear/nonlinear) of thermal conduction at the nanoscale. We review recent experiments and relevant calculations of quantum heat transfer in molecular junctions. We recount the Landauer approach, appropriate for the study of elastic (harmonic) phononic transport, and outline techniques that incorporate molecular anharmonicities. Theoretical methods are described along with examples illustrating the challenge of reaching control over vibrational heat conduction in molecules.

  14. Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nano electronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.

  15. String networks with junctions in competition models

    Avelino, P P; Losano, L; Menezes, J; de Oliveira, B F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we give specific examples of competition models, with six and eight species, whose three-dimensional dynamics naturally leads to the formation of string networks with junctions, associated with regions that have a high concentration of enemy species. We study the two- and three-dimensional evolution of such networks, both using stochastic network and mean field theory simulations. If the predation, reproduction and mobility probabilities do not vary in space and time, we find that the networks attain scaling regimes with a characteristic length roughly proportional to $t^{1/2}$, where $t$ is the physical time, thus showing that the presence of junctions, on its own, does not have a significant impact on their scaling properties.

  16. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results

  17. Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. A case report

    Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 68 years old patient, smoking since adolescence, with urban origins, obesity history and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms is presented. The patient was diagnosed with gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma type III in the Gastroenterology Department of the Provincial University Hospital of Cienfuegos where he arrived with weight loss of about 20 pounds in four months along with dyspeptic manifestations such as stomach acidity, slow digestion, bloating and epigastric pain unrelated to food consumption. No dysphagia was observed as presentation form of the disease. The patient underwent surgery and chemotherapy and has had a favourable outcome up until today. It was decided to publish this article because of the few cases of gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and especially type III that are commonly presented and also because the diagnosis is, unlike this case, usually made at an advanced stage of the disease

  18. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, α3, β3 and γ2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical symptoms, skin fragility and mechanically induced blistering. The disorder is designated as junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB). This article delineates the signs and symptoms of the different forms of JEB, the mutational spectrum, genotype-phenotype correlations as well as perspectives for future molecular therapies. PMID:23076207

  19. Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions

    Alessandra Luchini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nanoelectronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.

  20. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: dombriz@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  1. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D TN SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed WN Toda theories.

  2. Vibrational Heat Transport in Molecular Junctions.

    Segal, Dvira; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar

    2016-05-27

    We review studies of vibrational energy transfer in a molecular junction geometry, consisting of a molecule bridging two heat reservoirs, solids or large chemical compounds. This setup is of interest for applications in molecular electronics, thermoelectrics, and nanophononics, and for addressing basic questions in the theory of classical and quantum transport. Calculations show that system size, disorder, structure, dimensionality, internal anharmonicities, contact interaction, and quantum coherent effects are factors that combine to determine the predominant mechanism (ballistic/diffusive), effectiveness (poor/good), and functionality (linear/nonlinear) of thermal conduction at the nanoscale. We review recent experiments and relevant calculations of quantum heat transfer in molecular junctions. We recount the Landauer approach, appropriate for the study of elastic (harmonic) phononic transport, and outline techniques that incorporate molecular anharmonicities. Theoretical methods are described along with examples illustrating the challenge of reaching control over vibrational heat conduction in molecules. PMID:27215814

  3. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.

  4. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D TN SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed WN Toda theories

  5. Properties of molecules in tunnel junctions

    Yeriskin, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Molecular tunnel junctions involve studying the behaviour of a single molecule sandwiched between metal leads. When a molecule makes contact with electrodes, it becomes open to the environment which can heavily influence its properties, such as electronegativity and electron transport. While the most common computational approaches remain to be single particle approximations, in this thesis it is shown that a more explicit treatment of electron interactions can be required. By studying an ope...

  6. Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. A case report

    Marcos Félix Osorio Pagola; Jesús Iván Gonzalez Batista; Nelia Maria Quintana Garcia

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 68 years old patient, smoking since adolescence, with urban origins, obesity history and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms is presented. The patient was diagnosed with gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma type III in the Gastroenterology Department of the Provincial University Hospital of Cienfuegos where he arrived with weight loss of about 20 pounds in four months along with dyspeptic manifestations such as stomach acidity, slow digestion, bloating and epigastric pain unrel...

  7. Laminin 332 in junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Laminin 332 is an essential component of the dermal-epidermal junction, a highly specialized basement membrane zone that attaches the epidermis to the dermis and thereby provides skin integrity and resistance to external mechanical forces. Mutations in the LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 genes that encode the three constituent polypeptide chains, α3, β3 and γ2, abrogate or perturb the functions of laminin 332. The phenotypic consequences are diminished dermal-epidermal adhesion and, as clinical sympto...

  8. Quiet SDS Josephson Junctions for Quantum Computing

    Ioffe, L. B.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Feigelman, M. V.; Fauchere, A. L.; Blatter, G.

    1998-01-01

    Unconventional superconductors exhibit an order parameter symmetry lower than the symmetry of the underlying crystal lattice. Recent phase sensitive experiments on YBCO single crystals have established the d-wave nature of the cuprate materials, thus identifying unambiguously the first unconventional superconductor. The sign change in the order parameter can be exploited to construct a new type of s-wave - d-wave - s-wave Josephson junction exhibiting a degenerate ground state and a double-pe...

  9. The emerging diversity of neuromuscular junction disorders

    Newsom-Davis, J

    2007-01-01

    Research advances over the last 30 years have shown that key transmembrane proteins at the neuromuscular junction are vulnerable to antibody-mediated autoimmune attack These targets are acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in myasthenia gravis, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) in neuromyotonia. In parallel with these immunological advances, mutations identified in g...

  10. Generalized junction conditions for collapsing models

    We have constructed the general junction conditions on the surface of a dissipating relativistic star. The stellar exterior is a spacetime described by the generalised Vaidya metric and a two-fluid energy-momentum tensor, and therefore, defines the local atmosphere, which must be a super-position of standard null radiation and a general null fluid. We have highlighted briefly that our result will effect the physics of the dissipation at the stellar boundary

  11. Nonlinearity in superconductivity and Josephson junctions

    Within the framework of the Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffers (BCS) theory, the influence of anisotropy on superconducting states are investigated. Crystal anisotropy exists in un-conventional low temperature superconductors as e.g. U1-xThxBe13 and in high temperature superconductors. Starting from a phenomenological pairing interaction of the electrons or holes, the BCS approach is used to derive a set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations for the momentum dependent gap parameter. The emphasis is put on bifurcation phenomena between s-, d-wave and mixed s- and d-wave symmetry and the influence on measurable quantities as the electron specific heat, spin susceptibility and Josephson tunnelling. Pitch-fork and perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations have been found separating s- and d-wave superconducting states from mixed s- and d-wave states. The additional superconducting states give rise to jumps in the electron specific heat below the transition temperature. These jumps are rounded in the case of perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations. An experiment to measure the sign of the interlayer interaction using dc SQUIDS is suggested. The Ambegaokar-Baratoff formalism has been used for calculating the quasiparticle current and the two phase coherent tunnelling currents in a Josephson junction made of anisotropic superconductors. It is shown that anisotropy can lead to a reduction in the product of the normal resistance and the critical current. For low voltages across the junction the usual resistively shunted Josephson model can be used. Finally, bunching in long circular Josephson junctions and suppression of chaos in point junctions have been investigated. (au) 113 refs

  12. Splice Junction Map of Simian Parvovirus Transcripts

    Vashisht, Kapil; Faaberg, Kay S.; Aber, Amanda L.; Brown, Kevin E.; O’Sullivan, M. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The transcription map of simian parvovirus (SPV), an Erythrovirus similar to Parvovirus B19, was investigated. RNA was extracted from tissues of experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques and subjected to reverse transcription-PCR with SPV-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced to identify splice junctions. A total of 14 distinct sequences were identified as putative partial transcripts. Of these, 13 were spliced; a single unspliced transcript putatively encoded NS1. Se...

  13. Canted magnetization texture in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions

    Kuzmenko, Igor; Falko, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    We study the formation of inhomogeneous magnetization texture in the vicinity of a tunnel junction between two ferromagnetic wires nominally in the antiparallel configuration and its influence on the magnetoresistance of such a device. The texture, dependent on magnetization rigidity and crystalline anisotropy energy in the ferromagnet, appears upon an increase of ferromagnetic inter-wire coupling above a critical value and it varies with an external magnetic field.

  14. Strongly Correlated Fractional Quantum Hall Line Junctions

    Zuelicke, U.; Shimshoni, E.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied a clean finite-length line junction between interacting counterpropagating single-branch fractional-quantum-Hall edge channels. Exact solutions for low-lying excitations and transport properties are obtained when the two edges belong to quantum Hall systems with different filling factors and interact via the long-range Coulomb interaction. Charging effects due to the coupling to external edge-channel leads are fully taken into account. Conductances and power laws in the curren...

  15. Resonant inelastic tunneling in molecular junctions

    Galperin, Michael; Nitzan, Abraham; Ratner, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    Within a phonon-assisted resonance level model we develop a self-consistent procedure for calculating electron transport currents in molecular junctions with intermediate to strong electron-phonon interaction. The scheme takes into account the mutual influence of the electron and phonon subsystems. It is based on the 2nd order cumulant expansion, used to express the correlation function of the phonon shift generator in terms of the phonon momentum Green function. Equation of motion (EOM) meth...

  16. Numerical study for electromagnetic wave emission from intrinsic Josephson junction stacks with a dielectric cover

    Koyama, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Ota, Y.; Machida, M.

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJ’s) covered with a thin dielectric medium is numerically investigated, using the multi-scale simulation method developed in our previous paper. It is shown that the power of emitted EM waves is considerably increased in the IJJ’s with a dielectric cover. The emission from the n = 2 resonance mode is greatly enhanced. The enhancement is caused by the excitation of a solitonic mode.

  17. Tight junctions in Hailey-Hailey and Darier’s diseases

    Laura Raiko; Pekka Leinonen; Päivi Hägg; Juha Peltonen; Aarne Oikarinen; Sirkku Peltonen

    2009-01-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) and Darier's disease (DD) are caused by mutations in Ca2+-ATPases with the end result of desmosomal disruption and suprabasal acantholysis. Tight junctions (TJ) are located in the granular cell layer in normal skin and contribute to the epidermal barrier. Aberrations in the epidermal differentiation, such as in psoriasis, have been shown to lead to changes in the expression of TJ components. Our aim was to elucidate the expression and dynamics of the TJ proteins du...

  18. Experimental analysis of the strength of silver-alumina junction elaborated at solid state bonding

    Highlights: → The adhesion strength is closely related to the plastic deformation of the metal joint. → It is possible to transform a system with weak energy of adhesion into a system with strong energy. → The adhesion strength depends on Silver diffusion in the ceramic grains boundaries. -- Abstract: The mechanisms of ceramics-metal assemblies, particularly silver and alumina, can be better understood by studying the strength of their adhesion. These two materials are a priori non-reactive, their thermodynamic work of adhesion is low and the difference between their thermal coefficients of expansion in very considerable. In this study, the strength of silver-alumina junctions elaborated at solid state by thermo-compression is tested by an indirect tensile test and shearing one. The effects of several parameters such as: the pressure of bonding, the time of bonding, the temperature, and the oxygen dissolve in metal solid solution on the strength of the junction are analyzed. The obtained results show that the resistance of the junction is affected by all this parameters and it is essential to optimize these different parameters in order to increase the durability of the junction. It was also shown that the diffusion of the silver in alumina could be the cause of the damage of alumina near the interface.

  19. A functional assay for gap junctional examination; electroporation of adherent cells on indium-tin oxide.

    Geletu, Mulu; Guy, Stephanie; Firth, Kevin; Raptis, Leda

    2014-01-01

    In this technique, cells are cultured on a glass slide that is partly coated with indium-tin oxide (ITO), a transparent, electrically conductive material. A variety of molecules, such as peptides or oligonucleotides can be introduced into essentially 100% of the cells in a non-traumatic manner. Here, we describe how it can be used to study intercellular, gap junctional communication. Lucifer yellow penetrates into the cells when an electric pulse, applied to the conductive surface on which they are growing, causes pores to form through the cell membrane. This is electroporation. Cells growing on the nonconductive glass surface immediately adjacent to the electroporated region do not take up Lucifer yellow by electroporation but do acquire the fluorescent dye as it is passed to them via gap junctions that link them to the electroporated cells. The results of the transfer of dye from cell to cell can be observed microscopically under fluorescence illumination. This technique allows for precise quantitation of gap junctional communication. In addition, it can be used for the introduction of peptides or other non-permeant molecules, and the transfer of small electroporated peptides via gap junctions to inhibit the signal in the adjacent, non-electroporated cells is a powerful demonstration of signal inhibition. PMID:25350637

  20. CPV module design optimization for advanced multi-junction solar cell concepts

    Steiner, Marc; Kiefel, Peter; Siefer, Gerald; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Dimroth, Frank; Krause, Rainer; Gombert, Andreas; Bett, Andreas W.

    2015-09-01

    A network model for multi-junction solar cells has been combined with ray tracing and finite element simulations of a Fresnel lens in order to interpret experimentally derived measurement results. This combined model reveals a good agreement between simulation and measurement for advanced four-junction solar cells under a Fresnel lens when the cell-to-lens distance was varied. Thus, the effect of fill factor drop caused by distributed series resistance losses due to chromatic aberration is well described by this model. Eventually, this model is used to calculate I-V characteristics of a four-junction cell, as well as of a upright metamorphic and lattice-matched triple-junction solar cell under the illumination profile of a Fresnel lens. A significant fill factor drop at distinct cell-to-lens distances was found for all three investigated solar cell types. In this work we discuss how this fill factor drop can be avoided. It is shown that already a halving of the sheet resistance within one of the lateral conduction layer in the solar cell increases the module efficiency significantly.

  1. Fluctuations of the peak current of tunnel diodes in multi-junction solar cells

    Interband tunnel diodes are widely used to electrically interconnect the individual subcells in multi-junction solar cells. Tunnel diodes have to operate at high current densities and low voltages, especially when used in concentrator solar cells. They represent one of the most critical elements of multi-junction solar cells and the fluctuations of the peak current in the diodes have an essential impact on the performance and reliability of the devices. Recently we have found that GaAs tunnel diodes exhibit extremely high peak currents that can be explained by resonant tunnelling through defects homogeneously distributed in the junction. Experiments evidence rather large fluctuations of the peak current in the diodes fabricated from the same wafer. It is a challenging task to clarify the reason for such large fluctuations in order to improve the performance of the multi-junction solar cells. In this work we show that the large fluctuations of the peak current in tunnel diodes can be caused by relatively small fluctuations of the dopant concentration. We also show that the fluctuations of the peak current become smaller for deeper energy levels of the defects responsible for the resonant tunnelling.

  2. Josephson junction in a thin film

    The phase difference φ(y) for a vortex at a line Josephson junction in a thin film attenuates at large distances as a power law, unlike the case of a bulk junction where it approaches exponentially the constant values at infinities. The field of a Josephson vortex is a superposition of fields of standard Pearl vortices distributed along the junction with the line density φ'(y)/2π. We study the integral equation for φ(y) and show that the phase is sensitive to the ratio l/Λ, where l=λJ2/λL, Λ=2λL2/d, λL, and λJ are the London and Josephson penetration depths, and d is the film thickness. For l2=λJ2λL/d/y2; i.e., it diverges as T→Tc. For l>>Λ, both the core and the tail have nearly the same characteristic length lΛ

  3. Current noise in disordered Josephson junctions

    Dallaire-Demers, Pierre-Luc; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Ansari, Mohammad [Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Josephson junctions are one of the fundamental building blocks of mesoscopic superconducting circuits. Despite being dissipationless, spurious low-energy Andreev bound states inside those junctions could provide an intrinsic microscopic mechanism for fluctuations of the current, therefore limiting the coherent operation time of superconducting quantum circuits. Models of bound states arising from pinholes in different models of disorder were investigated and their current noise signatures were characterized with respect to temperature, phase difference and sample-to-sample fluctuations of the conductance. In this theoretical work, it is shown that the low-frequency noise signature of Josephson junctions is a property specific to each individual sample independent of the fabrication process. Furthermore, the comparison of sample-specific noise spectra and characteristic current-voltage relations reveals under which conditions the presence of those disorder-induced bound states may elude detection in a 4-probe measurement but still reveal themselves as dephasing of coherent observables in circuits dominated by inductive energy.

  4. Gap Junctions: The Claymore for Cancerous Cells

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gap junctions play an important role in the cell proliferation in mammalian cells as well as carcinogenesis. However, there are controversial issues about their role in cancer pathogenesis. This study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Carbenoxolone (CBX as a prototype of inter-cellular gap junction blocker in MCF7 and BT20 human breast cancer cells. Methods: The MCF7and BT20 human breast cancer cell lines were cultivated, and treated at designated confluency with different doses of CBX. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay associated with cell viability tests. Gene expression evaluation was carried out using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: MCF7 and BT20 cells were significantly affected by CBX in a dose dependent manner in cell viability assays. Despite varying expression of genes, down regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was observed in these cells. Conclusion: Based upon this investigation, it can be concluded that CBX could affect both low and high proliferative types of breast cancer cell lines and disproportionate down regulation of both pre- and anti-apoptotic genes may be related to interacting biomolecules, perhaps via gap junctions.

  5. ALS as a distal axonopathy : molecular mechanisms affecting neuromuscular junction stability in the presymptomatic stages of the disease

    Moloney, Elizabeth B; de Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is being redefined as a distal axonopathy, in that many molecular changes influencing motor neuron degeneration occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) at very early stages of the disease prior to symptom onset. A huge variety of genetic and environmental causes

  6. Oral bacterial adhesion forces to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction in orthodontic treatment

    Mei, Li; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Chen, Yangxi; de Vries, Joop; Ren, Yijin

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction represents a growing problem in orthodontics, because bacteria can adversely affect treatment by causing demineralization of the enamel surface around the brackets. It is important to know the forces with wh

  7. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    Li, Zhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Jin, Zhu-Qiu, E-mail: zhu-qiu.jin@sdstate.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  8. RhoA and ROCK mediate histamine-induced vascular leakage and anaphylactic shock

    Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Simaan, May; Ando, Koji; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Sakurai, Atsuko; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Adams, Ralf; Offermanns, Stefan; Mochizuki, Naoki; Zheng, Yi; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Histamine-induced vascular leakage is an integral component of many highly prevalent human diseases, including allergies, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Yet, how histamine induces the disruption of the endothelial barrier is not well defined. By using genetically modified animal models, pharmacologic inhibitors, and a synthetic biology approach, here we show that the small GTPase RhoA mediates histamine-induced vascular leakage. Histamine causes the rapid formation of focal adherens junctions, disr...

  9. Gap distance and interactions in a molecular tunnel junction.

    Chang, Shuai; He, Jin; Zhang, Peiming; Gyarfas, Brett; Lindsay, Stuart

    2011-09-14

    The distance between electrodes in a tunnel junction cannot be determined from the external movement applied to the electrodes because of interfacial forces that distort the electrode geometry at the nanoscale. These distortions become particularly complex when molecules are present in the junction, as demonstrated here by measurements of the AC response of a molecular junction over a range of conductivities from microsiemens to picosiemens. Specific chemical interactions within the junction lead to distinct features in break-junction data, and these have been used to determine the electrode separation in a junction functionalized with 4(5)-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide, a reagent developed for reading DNA sequences. PMID:21838292

  10. Scanning SQUID microscopy of SFS π-Josephson junction arrays

    Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Oboznov, V. A.

    2005-03-01

    We use a Scanning SQUID Microscope to image the magnetic flux distribution in arrays of SFS (superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor) Josephson junctions. The junctions are fabricated with barrier thickness such that they undergo a transition to a π-junction state at a temperature Tπ 2-4 K. In arrays with cells that have an odd number of π-junctions, we observe spontaneously generated magnetic flux in zero applied magnetic field. We image both fully-frustrated arrays and arrays with non-uniform frustration created by varying the number of π-junctions in the cells. By monitoring the onset of spontaneous flux as a function of temperature near Tπ,^ we estimate the uniformity of the junction critical currents.

  11. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  12. Design and Implementation of a Josephson Junction Spectrometer

    Girit, Caglar; Goffman, Marcelo; Pothier, Hugues; Urbina, Cristián; Esteve, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    A Josephson tunnel junction can be used as an on-chip absorption spectrometer at frequencies up to several hundred gigahertz. As a result of the AC Josephson effect, a voltage biased junction acts as a microwave source. When emitted photons are absorbed in the junction's electromagnetic environment, a dc Cooper pair current flows (inelastic Cooper pair tunneling). By measuring this dc current as a function of applied voltage--the junction's current-voltage characteristic--one obtains a spectrum of the electromagnetic environment. We describe the design of a Josephson junction spectrometer which seeks to optimize bandwidth, sensitivity, coupling and linewidth. We present measurements of the spectra of miniature on-chip LC circuits with resonant frequencies in the 25-100 GHz range. Our Josephson junction spectrometer will be used to study level transitions in mesoscopic systems. Supported by Grant ANR-10-IDEX-0001-02 PSL.

  13. Josephson junctions as detectors for non-Gaussian noise

    Non-Gaussian fluctuations of the electrical current can be detected with a Josephson junction placed on-chip with the noise source. We present preliminary measurements with an NIS junction as a noise source, and a Josephson junction in the thermal escape regime as a noise detector. It is shown that the Josephson junction detects not only the average noise, which manifests itself as an increased effective temperature, but also the noise asymmetry. A theoretical description of the thermal escape of a Josephson junction in presence of noise with a non-zero third cumulant is presented, together with numerical simulations when the noise source is a tunnel junction with Poisson noise. Comparison between experiment and theory is discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Coulomb blockade in turnstile with multiple tunnel junctions

    Lee, S C; Kang, D S; Kim, D C; Choi, C K; Ryu, J Y

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the analytic solutions to the electrostatic problem of the multi-grated-small-junction systems, the stable domain for the Coulomb blockade of turnstile with multiple tunnel junctions at zero temperature has been analyzed as a function of the number of tunnel junction, the ratio of the gate capacitance to the junction capacitance, and the asymmetric factor. Our results show that domains form various shaped regions according to the asymmetric factor and their size depends on the number of junction and the ratio of the gate capacitance to the junction capacitance. In particular, it is shown that electrons can be transferred in positive and/or negative bias voltage depending on the asymmetric factor when an appropriate gate cycle is applied. Thus, the asymmetric factor plays an important role in determining the turnstile operation.

  15. LRP4 is critical for neuromuscular junction maintenance.

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei; Xiong, Wen-cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-10-15

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critical for NMJ maintenance because null mutation of any of the three genes is perinatal lethal. In this study, we generated imKO mice, a mutant strain whose LRP4 gene can be deleted in muscles by doxycycline (Dox) treatment. Ablation of the LRP4 gene in adult muscle enabled studies of its role in NMJ maintenance. We demonstrate that Dox treatment of P30 mice reduced muscle strength and compound muscle action potentials. AChR clusters became fragmented with diminished junctional folds and synaptic vesicles. The amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials were reduced, indicating impaired neuromuscular transmission and providing cellular mechanisms of adult LRP4 deficiency. We showed that LRP4 ablation led to the loss of synaptic agrin and the 90 kDa fragments, which occurred ahead of other prejunctional and postjunctional components, suggesting that LRP4 may regulate the stability of synaptic agrin. These observations demonstrate that LRP4 is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the NMJ and that loss of muscle LRP4 in adulthood alone is sufficient to cause myasthenic symptoms. PMID:25319686

  16. Gap distance and Interactions in a Molecular Tunnel Junction

    Chang, Shuai; He, Jin; Zhang, Peiming; Gyarfas, Brett; Lindsay, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The distance between electrodes in a tunnel junction cannot be determined from the external movement applied to the electrodes because of interfacial forces that distort the electrode geometry at the nanoscale. These distortions become particularly complex when molecules are present in the junction, as demonstrated here by measurements of the AC response of a molecular junction over a range of conductivities from micro Siemens to pico Siemens. Specific chemical interactions within the junctio...

  17. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of molecular transport junctions

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) has become a premier analytical tool in the investigation of nano scale and molecular junctions. The IETS spectrum provides invaluable information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of component molecules in the junctions. One of the major advantages of IETS is its sensitivity and resolution at the level of single molecules. This review discusses how IETS is used to study molecular transport junctions and presents an overview of recent experimental studies.

  18. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. I. The autonomous case

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model: the parallel combination of a capacitance, a phase-dependent conductance, and an ideal junction element biased by a constant current, is discussed for arbitrary values of the junction parameters. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding of...... current-voltage curves are presented. The case with a time-dependent monochromatic bias current is treated in a similar fashion in the companion paper....

  19. Josephson tunnel junctions as fast nuclear particle position detectors

    We present here some problems and solutions in using Josephson junctions as fast nuclear particle position detectors. The process of induced switching is modelled in terms of a reduction of the critical current due to a disturbed volume: the hot spot. The spurious thermal induced switching process is also taken into account. Calculations in order to choose the junction parameters are presented. The all refractory junction fabrication technology developed is capable of satisfying design prescriptions. (orig.)

  20. The SNS Josephson junction with a third terminal

    Prans, G. P.; Meissner, H.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the operating characteristics of a three-terminal thin-film SNS Josephson junction whose diameter is much greater than the electron pair coherence length in the N metal. It is shown that a junction of this type is essentially a two-terminal device even though the third terminal of the junction supplies the control current. The mechanism underlying this finding is discussed.

  1. Mixing of connexins in gap junction membrane channels.

    Sosinsky, G

    1995-01-01

    Gap junctions are plaque-like clusters of intercellular channels that mediate intercellular communication. Each of two adjoining cells contains a connexon unit which makes up half of the whole channel. Gap junction channels are formed from a multigene family of proteins called connexins, and different connexins may be coexpressed by a single cell type and found within the same plaque. Rodent gap junctions contain two proteins, connexins 32 and 26. Use of a scanning transmission electron micro...

  2. Gap junction modulation and its implications for heart function

    StefanKurtenbach

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction communication (GJC) mediated by connexins is critical for heart function. To gain insight into the causal relationship of molecular mechanisms of disease pathology, it is important to understand which mechanisms contribute to impairment of gap junctional communication. Here, we present an update on the known modulators of connexins, including various interaction partners, kinases, and signaling cascades. This gap junction network (GJN) can serve as a blueprint for data mining app...

  3. Macroscopic quantum effects in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    Koyama, T.; Machida, M.

    2008-09-01

    A macroscopic quantum theory for the capacitively-coupled intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ’s) is constructed. We clarify the multi-junction effect for the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) to the first resistive branch. It is shown that the escape rate is greatly enhanced by the capacitive coupling between junctions. We also discuss the origin of the N2-enhancement in the escape rate observed in the uniformly switching in Bi-2212 IJJ’s.

  4. Mesoscopic superconducting tunnel junction devices : experimental studies of performance limitations

    Kivioja, Jani

    2005-01-01

    In this work four different mesoscopic superconducting devices have been experimentally studied: an ammeter based on a hysteretic Josephson junction switching from the superconducting state to the normal state, a conventional Cooper pair pump (CPP) based on two superconducting islands separated by tunnel junctions, a novel flux assisted Cooper pair pump and a thermometer based on a tunnel junction between a superconductor and a normal metal. These devices make use of phenomena related to supe...

  5. Time domain analysis of dynamical switching in a Josephson junction

    Sjostrand, Joachim; Walter, Jochen; Haviland, David; Hansson, Hans; Karlhede, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the switching behaviour of a small capacitance Josephson junction both in experiment, and by numerical simulation of a model circuit. The switching is a comples process involving the transition between two dynamical states of the non-linear circuit, arising from a frequency dependent damping of the Josephson junction. We show how a specific type of bias pulse-and-hold, can result in a fast detection of switching, even when the measurement bandwidth of the junction voltage is s...

  6. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  7. F-Theory Description of 3-String Junction

    YANG Fu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in IIB into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides a unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over their M-theory picture.

  8. F-Theory Description of 3-String Junction

    YANGFu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in lib into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides a unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over their M-theory picture.

  9. Assemble four-arm DNA junctions into nanoweb

    2001-01-01

    DNA is of structural polymorphism, which is useful in nanoarchitecture; especially, four-arm DNA junc tions can be used to assemble nanowebs. The static four-arm DNA junctions were designed and synthesized. One-arm DNA and two-arm DNA came out simultaneously with the four-arm DNA junction's formation. A new method, termed the two-step method, was proposed and the productivity of four-arm DNA junctions was increased. A nanoweb was assembled successfully, but it showed irregularity itself. It was not the same as we expected. We consider that it is aresult from the flexibility of four-arm DNA junction.

  10. F-theory Description of 3-String Junction

    Yang, Fu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in IIB into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides an unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over the M-theory picture of them.

  11. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-10-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1% under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination.

  12. Differences between liver gap junction protein and lens MIP 26 from rat: implications for tissue specificity of gap junctions.

    Nicholson, B J; Takemoto, L J; Hunkapiller, M W; Hood, L E; Revel, J P

    1983-03-01

    Liver gap junctions and gap-junction-like structures from eye lenses are each comprised of a single major protein (Mr 28,000 and 26,000, respectively). These proteins display different two-dimensional peptide fingerprints, distinct amino acid compositions, nonhomologous N-terminal amino acid sequences and different sensitivities to proteases when part of the intact junction. However, the junctional protein of each tissue is well conserved between species, as demonstrated previously for lens and now for liver in several mammalian species. The possiblity of tissue-specific gap junction proteins is discussed in the light of data suggesting that rat heart gap junctions are comprised of yet a third protein. PMID:6299583

  13. Comparative Investigation of Postoperative Complications in Patients With Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer Treated With Preoperative Chemotherapy or Surgery Alone

    Achiam, M P; Jensen, L B; Larsson, H;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gastroesophageal junction cancer is one of the leading causes to cancer-related death and the prognosis is poor. However, progress has been made over the last couple of decades with the introduction of multimodality treatment and optimized surgery. Three-year survival rates have...... complications of patients with cancer at the gastroesophageal junction treated with either neoadjuvant chemotherapy or surgery alone in patients from "The Danish Clinical Registry of Carcinomas of the Esophagus, the Gastro-Esophageal Junction and the Stomach." MATERIALS AND METHODS: A historical follow-up study......, comparing postoperative complications between two cohorts before and after implementation of chemotherapy wascompleted. RESULTS: In all, 180 consecutive patients treated with perioperative chemotherapy and a comparative surgery-only group of patients were identified from The Danish Clinical Registry of...

  14. Creating Spin Switches and Junctions on Surfaces

    Mills, Eric; Stamp, Philip

    2010-03-01

    Inspired by the work of Hirjibehedin et al, (Science 317 1199) creating Heisenberg spin chains on an insulating surface, we examine geometries in which excitations down a spin chain are either blocked or transmitted depending on the state of a central junction, made from a spin dimer. The dimer state can be controlled by excitations down an additional chain, creating a spin switch. In addition to the technological applications of such a switch, the theoretical language developed has application to certain quantum computation schemes.

  15. Atrioventricular Junction Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Patel, Dilesh; Daoud, Emile G

    2016-04-01

    Atrioventricular junction (AVJ) ablation is an effective therapy in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation who are intolerant to or unsuccessfully managed with rhythm control or medical rate control strategies. A drawback is that the procedure mandates a pacing system. Overall, the safety and efficacy of AVJ ablation is high with a majority of the patients reporting significant improvement in symptoms and quality-of-life measures. Risk of sudden cardiac death after device implantation is low, especially with an appropriate postprocedure pacing rate. Mortality benefit with AVJ ablation has been shown in patients with heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices. PMID:26968669

  16. Photoresponse in arrays of thermoelectric nanowire junctions

    Huber, T. E.; Scott, R.; Johnson, S.; Brower, T.; Belk, J. H.; Hunt, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of optical detection by thermoelectric nanowire junctions. We employed devices composed of bismuth nanowire arrays which are capped with a transparent indium tin oxide electrode. The incident surface features very low optical reflectivity and enhanced light trapping. The unique attributes of the thermoelectric arrays are the combination of strong temporal and optical wavelength dependences of the photocurrent. Under infrared illumination, the signal can be completely described by thermoelectric effects considering cooling rates given by heat diffusion through the array. In addition, under visible illumination, we observe a photovoltaic response.

  17. Powered supports for T-junctions

    von Klinggraeff, G.; Bohnes, K.

    1981-04-23

    The hydraulic self advancing support system first introduced at Niederberg colliery for a T-junction between a thin seam and a roadway with porch set supports included nearly all components for underpinning the roadway support closest to the face and for supporting the face end close to the roadway, including the rib-side. It ensures a fixed cycle of operations without the need for improvisation while providing continuous strata control during displacement of units. This support combination has proved itself in underground use. As a result, accident incidence was reduced, the number of breakdowns reduced, made the work easier and reduced the number of shifts needed.

  18. Phonon interference effects in molecular junctions

    We study coherent phonon transport through organic, π-conjugated molecules. Using first principles calculations and Green's function methods, we find that the phonon transmission function in cross-conjugated molecules, like meta-connected benzene, exhibits destructive quantum interference features very analogous to those observed theoretically and experimentally for electron transport in similar molecules. The destructive interference features observed in four different cross-conjugated molecules significantly reduce the thermal conductance with respect to linear conjugated analogues. Such control of the thermal conductance by chemical modifications could be important for thermoelectric applications of molecular junctions

  19. Phonon interference effects in molecular junctions

    Markussen, Troels, E-mail: troels.markussen@gmail.com [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-12-28

    We study coherent phonon transport through organic, π-conjugated molecules. Using first principles calculations and Green's function methods, we find that the phonon transmission function in cross-conjugated molecules, like meta-connected benzene, exhibits destructive quantum interference features very analogous to those observed theoretically and experimentally for electron transport in similar molecules. The destructive interference features observed in four different cross-conjugated molecules significantly reduce the thermal conductance with respect to linear conjugated analogues. Such control of the thermal conductance by chemical modifications could be important for thermoelectric applications of molecular junctions.

  20. Full potential of radial junction Si thin film solar cells with advanced junction materials and design

    Qian, Shengyi; Misra, Soumyadeep; Lu, Jiawen; Yu, Zhongwei; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Junzhuan; Xu, Ling; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-07-01

    Combining advanced materials and junction design in nanowire-based thin film solar cells requires a different thinking of the optimization strategy, which is critical to fulfill the potential of nano-structured photovoltaics. Based on a comprehensive knowledge of the junction materials involved in the multilayer stack, we demonstrate here, in both experimental and theoretical manners, the potential of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells in a radial junction (RJ) configuration. Resting upon a solid experimental basis, we also assess a more advanced tandem RJ structure with radially stacking a-Si:H/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) PIN junctions, and show that a balanced photo-current generation with a short circuit current density of Jsc = 14.2 mA/cm2 can be achieved in a tandem RJ cell, while reducing the expensive nc-Si:H absorber thickness from 1-3 μ m (in planar tandem cells) to only 120 nm. These results provide a clearly charted route towards a high performance Si thin film photovoltaics.

  1. A βPIX-PAK2 complex confers protection against Scrib-dependent and cadherin-mediated apoptosis

    Frank, Scott R; Bell, Jennifer H; Frödin, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    . Scrib is also targeted to adherens junctions by E-cadherin, where Scrib strengthens cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Although a role for the Scrib-βPIX-PAK signaling complex in promoting membrane protrusion at wound edges has been elucidated, a function for this complex at adherens junctions...

  2. Fabrication-process-induced variations of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions in superconductor integrated circuits

    Currently, superconductor digital integrated circuits fabricated at HYPRES, Inc. can operate at clock frequencies approaching 40 GHz. The circuits present multilayered structures containing tens of thousands of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions (JJs) of various sizes interconnected by four Nb wiring layers, resistors, and other circuit elements. In order to be fully operational, the integrated circuits should be fabricated such that the critical currents of the JJs are within the tight design margins and the proper relationships between the critical currents of JJs of different sizes are preserved. We present experimental data and discuss mechanisms of process-induced variations of the critical current and energy gap of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb JJs in integrated circuits. We demonstrate that the Josephson critical current may depend on the type and area of circuit elements connected to the junction, on the circuit pattern, and on the step in the fabrication process at which the connection is made. In particular, we discuss the influence of (a) the junction base electrode connection to the ground plane, (b) the junction counter electrode connection to the ground plane, and (c) the counter electrode connection to the Ti/Au or Ti/Pd/Au contact pads by Nb wiring. We show that the process-induced changes of the properties of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb junctions are caused by migration of impurity atoms (hydrogen) between the different layers comprising the integrated circuits.

  3. Tight junction between endothelial cells: the interaction between nanoparticles and blood vessels.

    Zhang, Yue; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Since nanoparticles are now widely applied as food additives, in cosmetics and other industries, especially in medical therapy and diagnosis, we ask here whether nanoparticles can cause several adverse effects to human health. In this review, based on research on nanotoxicity, we mainly discuss the negative influence of nanoparticles on blood vessels in several aspects and the potential mechanism for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers of blood vessels, which are the sites of phosphorylation of tight junction proteins (claudins, occludins, and ZO (Zonula occludens)) proteins, oxidative stress and shear stress. We propose a connection between the presence of nanoparticles and the regulation of the tight junction, which might be the key approach for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers and then have an impact on other tissues and organs. PMID:27335757

  4. Electrical characterization of commercial NPN bipolar junction transistors under neutron and gamma irradiation

    OO Myo Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronics components such as bipolar junction transistors, diodes, etc. which are used in deep space mission are required to be tolerant to extensive exposure to energetic neutrons and ionizing radiation. This paper examines neutron radiation with pneumatic transfer system of TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The effects of the gamma radiation from Co-60 on silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors is also be examined. Analyses on irradiated transistors were performed in terms of the electrical characteristics such as current gain, collector current and base current. Experimental results showed that the current gain on the devices degraded significantly after neutron and gamma radiations. Neutron radiation can cause displacement damage in the bulk layer of the transistor structure and gamma radiation can induce ionizing damage in the oxide layer of emitter-base depletion layer. The current gain degradation is believed to be governed by the increasing recombination current in the base-emitter depletion region.

  5. Tight junction between endothelial cells: the interaction between nanoparticles and blood vessels

    Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Summary Since nanoparticles are now widely applied as food additives, in cosmetics and other industries, especially in medical therapy and diagnosis, we ask here whether nanoparticles can cause several adverse effects to human health. In this review, based on research on nanotoxicity, we mainly discuss the negative influence of nanoparticles on blood vessels in several aspects and the potential mechanism for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers of blood vessels, which are the sites of phosphorylation of tight junction proteins (claudins, occludins, and ZO (Zonula occludens)) proteins, oxidative stress and shear stress. We propose a connection between the presence of nanoparticles and the regulation of the tight junction, which might be the key approach for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers and then have an impact on other tissues and organs. PMID:27335757

  6. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions.

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numerically by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, we identify a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons which resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q that is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The calculated current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q = ϕ0/2π is the lowest energy state starting from zero ϕ0 - until ϕ0 > π - then the alternative group of solitons with Q = ϕ0/2π - 1 takes place and switches the polarity of CPR. PMID:26511770

  7. Josephson current in parallel SFS junctions

    Ioselevich, Pavel; Ostrovsky, Pavel; Fominov, Yakov; Feigelman, Mikhail

    We study a Josephson junction between superconductors connected by two parallel ferromagnetic arms. If the ferromagnets are fully polarised, supercurrent can only flow via Cooper pair splitting between the differently polarised arms. The disorder-average current is suppressed, but mesoscopic fluctuations lead to a significant typical current. We extract the typical current from a current-current correlator. The current is proportional to sin2 α / 2 , where α is the angle between the polarisations of the two arms, revealing the spin dependence of crossed Andreev reflection. Compared to an SNS device of the same geometry, the typical SFS current is small by a factor determined by the properties of the superconducting leads alone. The current is insensitive to the flux threading the area between the ferromagnetic arms of the junction. However, if the ferromagnetic arms are replaced by metal with magnetic impurities, or partially polarised ferromagnets, the Josephson current starts depending on the flux with a period of h / e , i.e. twice the superconducting flux quantum.

  8. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numerically by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, we identify a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons which resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q that is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The calculated current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q = ϕ0/2π is the lowest energy state starting from zero ϕ0 - until ϕ0 > π - then the alternative group of solitons with Q = ϕ0/2π - 1 takes place and switches the polarity of CPR.

  9. Fabrication of Niobium Nanobridge Josephson Junctions

    Tachiki, T.; Horiguchi, K.; Uchida, T.

    2014-05-01

    To realize antenna-coupled Josephson detectors for microwave and millimeter-wave radiation, planar-type Nb nanobridge Josephson junctions were fabricated. Nb thin films whose thickness, the root mean square roughness and the critical temperature were 20.0 nm, 0.109 nm and 8.4 K, respectively were deposited using a DC magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 700°C. Nanobridges were obtained from the film using 80-kV electron beam lithography and reactive ion-beam etching in CF4 (90%) + O2 (10%) gases. The minimum bridge area was 65 nm wide and 60 nm long. For the nanobridge whose width and length were less than 110 nm, an I-V characteristic showed resistively-shunted-junction behaviour near the critical temperature. Moreover, Shapiro steps were observed in the nanobridge with microwave irradiation at a frequency of 6 - 30 GHz. The Nb nanobridges can be used as detectors in the antenna-coupled devices.

  10. Conductance spectroscopy of topological superconductor wire junctions

    Setiawan, F.; Brydon, Philip; Sau, Jay

    We study the zero-temperature transport properties of one-dimensional normal metal-superconductor (NS) junctions with topological superconductors across their topological transitions. Working within the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) formalism generalized for topological NS junctions, we analytically calculate the differential conductance for tunneling into two models of a topological superconductor: a spinless intrinsic p-wave superconductor and a spin-orbit-coupled s-wave superconductor in a Zeeman field. The zero-bias conductance takes nonuniversal values in the nontopological phase while it is robustly quantized at 2e2 / h in the topological regime. Despite this quantization at zero voltage, the zero-bias conductance only develops a peak (or a local maximum) as a function of voltage for sufficiently large interfacial barrier strength, or certain parameter regimes of spin-orbit coupling strength. Our calculated BTK conductance also shows that the conductance is finite inside the superconducting gap region because of the finite barrier transparency, providing a possible mechanism for the observed ``soft gap'' feature in the experimental studies. Work is done in collaboration with Sankar Das Sarma and supported by Microsoft Q, LPS-CMTC, and JQI-NSF-PFC.

  11. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders.

    Cherian, Ajith; Baheti, Neeraj N; Iype, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation. PMID:23661960

  12. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. PMID:27273333

  13. Intrinsic Josephson Junctions with Intermediate Damping

    Warburton, Paul A.; Saleem, Sajid; Fenton, Jon C.; Speller, Susie; Grovenor, Chris R. M.

    2011-03-01

    In cuprate superconductors, adjacent cuprate double-planes are intrinsically Josephson-coupled. For bias currents perpendicular to the planes, the current-voltage characteristics correspond to those of an array of underdamped Josephson junctions. We will discuss our experiments on sub-micron Tl-2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs). The dynamics of the IJJs at the plasma frequency are moderately damped (Q ~ 8). This results in a number of counter-intuitive observations, including both a suppression of the effect of thermal fluctuations and a shift of the skewness of the switching current distributions from negative to positive as the temperature is increased. Simulations confirm that these phenomena result from repeated phase slips as the IJJ switches from the zero-voltage to the running state. We further show that increased dissipation counter-intuitively increases the maximum supercurrent in the intermediate damping regime (PRL vol. 103, art. no. 217002). We discuss the role of environmental dissipation on the dynamics and describe experiments with on-chip lumped-element passive components in order control the environment seen by the IJJs. Work supported by EPSRC.

  14. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  15. CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

  16. Josephson junctions in thin and narrow rectangular superconducting strips

    Clem, John R.

    2010-01-01

    I consider a Josephson junction crossing the middle of a thin rectangular superconducting strip of length L and width W subjected to a perpendicular magnetic induction B. I calculate the spatial dependence of the gauge-invariant phase difference across the junction and the resulting B dependence of the critical current Ic(B).

  17. Molecular Transport Junctions Created By Self-Contacting Gapped Nanowires.

    Lim, Jong Kuk; Lee, One-Sun; Jang, Jae-Won; Petrosko, Sarah Hurst; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-08-01

    Molecular transport junctions (MTJs) are important components in molecular electronic devices. However, the synthesis of MTJs remains a significant challenge, as the dimensions of the junction must be tailored for each experiment, based on the molecular lengths. A novel methodology is reported for forming MTJs, taking advantage of capillary and van der Waals forces. PMID:27364594

  18. Externally pumped millimeter-wave Josephson-junction parametric amplifier

    Levinsen, M.T; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, Ole;

    1980-01-01

    A unified theory of the singly and doubly degenerate Josephson-junction parametric amplifier is presented. Experiments with single junctions on both amplifier modes at frequencies 10, 35, and 70 GHz are discussed. Low-noise temperature (∼100 K, single sideband (SSB)) and reasonable gain (∼8 dB) w...

  19. Mapping the Transmission Functions of Single-Molecule Junctions.

    Capozzi, Brian; Low, Jonathan Z; Xia, Jianlong; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Campos, Luis M; Venkataraman, Latha

    2016-06-01

    Charge transport phenomena in single-molecule junctions are often dominated by tunneling, with a transmission function dictating the probability that electrons or holes tunnel through the junction. Here, we present a new and simple technique for measuring the transmission functions of molecular junctions in the coherent tunneling limit, over an energy range of 1.5 eV around the Fermi energy. We create molecular junctions in an ionic environment with electrodes having different exposed areas, which results in the formation of electric double layers of dissimilar density on the two electrodes. This allows us to electrostatically shift the molecular resonance relative to the junction Fermi levels in a manner that depends on the sign of the applied bias, enabling us to map out the junction's transmission function and determine the dominant orbital for charge transport in the molecular junction. We demonstrate this technique using two groups of molecules: one group having molecular resonance energies relatively far from EF and one group having molecular resonance energies within the accessible bias window. Our results compare well with previous electrochemical gating data and with transmission functions computed from first principles. Furthermore, with the second group of molecules, we are able to examine the behavior of a molecular junction as a resonance shifts into the bias window. This work provides a new, experimentally simple route for exploring the fundamentals of charge transport at the nanoscale. PMID:27186894

  20. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson tunnel junction

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig;

    1975-01-01

    Experimental evidence for subharmonic parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions is presented. The experiments described are performed by measuring the microwave power necessary to switch a Josephson−tunnel junction biased in the zero−voltage state to a finite......−voltage state. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  1. Internal resonances in periodically modulated long Josephson junctions

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    1995-01-01

    Fiske modes in the sub-junctions formed between the inhomogeneities. The voltage positions of the resonant steps oscillate as function of the applied magnetic field with a period corresponding to the inclusion of one magnetic flux quantum, Φ0=h/2e, per sub-junction. A qualitative explanation that takes...

  2. Fiske steps in Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density

    We have developed a simple model, in the framework of the Kulik theory of Fiske steps in Josephson junctions, for the electromagnetic resonances observed in the current voltage characteristics of certain high temperature superconductor grain boundary junctions. Some preliminary results are illustrated

  3. Analysis of junction-barrier-controlled Schottky (JBS) rectifier characteristics

    Baliga, B. Jayant

    1985-11-01

    This paper provides analytical solutions for the forward conduction and reverse leakage characteristics of junction-barrier-controlled Schottky (JBS) rectifiers. Good agreement between the calculated output characteristics using these solutions and experimental measurements on devices fabricated with different junction depths and Schottky barrier heights is observed. These equations are valuable for the analysis and design of JBS power rectifiers.

  4. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei;

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...

  5. Spin and valley transports in junctions of Dirac fermions

    We study spin and valley transports in junctions composed of silicene and topological crystalline insulators. We consider normal/magnetic/normal Dirac metal junctions where a gate electrode is attached to the magnetic region. In a normal/antiferromagnetic/normal silicene junction, we show that the current through this junction is valley and spin polarized due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom, and the valley and spin polarizations can be tuned by local application of a gate voltage. In particular, we find a fully valley and spin polarized current by applying the electric field. In a normal/ferromagnetic/normal topological crystalline insulator junction with a strain induced in the ferromagnetic segment, we investigate valley-resolved conductances and clarify how the valley polarization stemming from the strain and exchange field appears in this junction. It is found that by changing the direction of the magnetization and the potential in the ferromagnetic region, one can control the dominant valley contribution out of four valley degrees of freedom. We also review spin transport in normal/ferromagnetic/normal graphene junctions, and spin and valley transports in normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junctions for comparison. (paper)

  6. Josephson junctions in thin and narrow rectangular superconducting strips

    I consider a Josephson junction crossing the middle of a thin rectangular superconducting strip of length L and width W subjected to a perpendicular magnetic induction B. I calculate the spatial dependence of the gauge-invariant phase difference across the junction and the resulting B dependence of the critical current Ic(B).

  7. Activated Microglia do not form Functional Gap Junctions in vivo

    Wasseff, Sameh K.; Scherer, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether microglia form gap junctions with themselves, or with astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons in vivo in normal mouse brains, and in pathological conditions that induce microglial activation - brain injury, a model of Alzheimer’s disease. Although microglia are in close physical proximity to glia and neurons, they do not form functional gap junctions under these pathological conditions.

  8. Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions

    Gaafar, Ma. A.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Foda, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.

  9. Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.

  10. Duodeno-jejunal junction dyssynergia: Description of a novel syndrome

    Ahmed Shafik; Ismail A Shafik; Olfat El Sibai; Ali A Shafik

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hypothesis that duodeno-jejunal dyssynergia existed at the duodeno-jejunal junction.METHODS: Of 112 patients who complained of epigastric distension and discomfort after meals, we encountered nine patients in whom the duodeno-jejunal junction did not open on duodenal contraction. Seven healthy volunteers were included in the study. A condom which was inserted into the 1st duodenum was filled up to 10 mL with saline in increments of 2 mL and pressure response to duodenal distension was recorded from the duodenum, duodeno-jejunal junction and the jejunum.RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, duodenal distension with 2 and 4 mL did not produce pressure changes,while 6 and up to 10 mL distension effected significant duodenal pressure increase, duodeno-jejunal junction pressure decrease but no jejunal pressure change. In patients, resting pressure and duodeno-jejunal junction and jejunal pressure response to 2 and 4 mL duodenal distension were similar to those of healthy volunteers.Six and up to 10 mL 1st duodenal distension produced significant duodenal and duodeno-jejunal junction pressure increase and no jejunal pressure change.CONCLUSION: Duodeno-jejunal junction failed to open on duodenal contraction, a condition we call 'duodeno-jejunal junction dyssynergia syndrome' which probably leads to stagnation of chyme in the duodenum and explains patients' manifestations.

  11. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    2010-12-08

    ... Junction, in overcoming objections raised by the FAA to the activation of this allotment. See 75 FR 30756... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal...

  12. Short chain molecular junctions: Charge transport versus dipole moment

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The role of dipole moment of organic molecules on molecular junctions has been studied. • Molecular junctions constituted using propargyl molecules of different dipole moments. • The electronic properties of the molecules were calculated using Gaussian software. • Junctions show varying rectification due to their varying dipole moment and orientation. - Abstract: The investigation of the influence of dipole moment of short chain organic molecules having three carbon atoms varying in end group on silicon surface was carried on. Here, we use three different molecules of propargyl series varying in dipole moment and its orientation to constitute molecular junctions. The charge transport mechanism in metal–molecules–semiconductor (MMS) junction obtained from current–voltage (I–V) characteristics shows the rectification behavior for two junctions whereas the other junction shows a weak rectification. The electronic properties of the molecules were calculated using Gaussian software package. The observed rectification behavior of these junctions is examined and found to be accounted to the orientation of dipole moment and electron cloud density distribution inside the molecules

  13. Characterization of gap junctions by electrophysiological and electronmicroscopical methods

    Hülser, Dieter F.; Paschke, Dietmar; Franz BRÜMMER; Eckert, Reiner

    1990-01-01

    Gap junctions are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom from mesozoa to vertebrates. They must be discriminated from desmosomes which anchor cells together to form structural or functional units as well as from tight junctions which seal membranes of epithelial cells to each other so that the paracellular path becomes impermeable to molecules and a polarity of apical and basolateral surface is maintained.

  14. Conditions for synchronization in Josephson-junction arrays

    Chernikov, A.A.; Schmidt, G. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An effective perturbation theoretical method has been developed to study the dynamics of Josephson Junction series arrays. It is shown that the inclusion of Junction capacitances, often ignored, has a significant impact on synchronization. Comparison of analytic with computational results over a wide range of parameters shows excellent agreement.

  15. Josephson SFS π-junctions. Potential Applications in Computing

    Ryazanov, Valeriy; Oboznov, Vladimir; Bolginov, Vitalii; Feofanov, Alexey

    2006-09-01

    Novel superconducting weak links, `π-junctions', were realized recently. An origin of the π-state in a Superconductor - Ferromagnet - Superconductor (SFS) junction is an oscillating and sign-reversing superconducting order parameter induced in the ferromagnet close to the SF-interface. The π-behavior in SFS sandwiches was first observed by our group in 2000. Our recent result was a detection of transitions into π-state and back into 0-state, i.e. a nonmonotonic (with two nodes) behavior of the junction critical current vs. F-layer thickness, π-junctions with critical current density up to 2000 A/cm2 were achieved that are suitable for applications in future superconducting digital and quantum electronics. Our junctions are based on a niobium thin film technology so they can be incorporated directly into existing architectures of the superconducting electronics.

  16. Evolution of perpendicular magnetized tunnel junctions upon annealing

    Devolder, Thibaut; Couet, S.; Swerts, J.; Furnemont, A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the evolution of perpendicularly magnetized tunnel junctions under 300 to 400 °C annealing. The hysteresis loops do not evolve much during annealing and they are not informative of the underlying structural evolutions. These evolutions are better revealed by the frequencies of the ferromagnetic resonance eigenmodes of the tunnel junction. Their modeling provides the exchange couplings and the layers' anisotropies within the stack which can serve as a diagnosis of the tunnel junction state after each annealing step. The anisotropies of the two CoFeB-based parts and the two Co/Pt-based parts of the tunnel junction decay at different rates during annealing. The ferromagnet exchange coupling through the texture-breaking Ta layer fails above 375 °C. The Ru spacer meant to promote a synthetic antiferromagnet behavior is also insufficiently robust to annealing. Based on these evolutions we propose optimization routes for the next generation tunnel junctions.

  17. Two coupled Josephson junctions: dc voltage controlled by biharmonic current

    We study transport properties of two Josephson junctions coupled by an external shunt resistance. One of the junctions (say, the first) is driven by an unbiased ac current consisting of two harmonics. The device can rectify the ac current yielding a dc voltage across the first junction. For some values of coupling strength, controlled by an external shunt resistance, a dc voltage across the second junction can be generated. By variation of system parameters such as the relative phase or frequency of two harmonics, one can conveniently manipulate both voltages with high efficiency, e.g. changing the dc voltages across the first and second junctions from positive to negative values and vice versa. (paper)

  18. Temperature dependence of charge transport in conjugated single molecule junctions

    Huisman, Eek; Kamenetska, Masha; Venkataraman, Latha

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, the break junction technique using a scanning tunneling microscope geometry has proven to be an important tool to understand electron transport through single molecule junctions. Here, we use this technique to probe transport through junctions at temperatures ranging from 5K to 300K. We study three amine-terminated (-NH2) conjugated molecules: a benzene, a biphenyl and a terphenyl derivative. We find that amine groups bind selectively to undercoordinate gold atoms gold all the way down to 5K, yielding single molecule junctions with well-defined conductances. Furthermore, we find that the conductance of a single molecule junction increases with temperature and we present a mechanism for this temperature dependent transport result. Funded by a Rubicon Grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the NSEC program of NSF under grant # CHE-0641523.

  19. Fiske resonances in mesoscopic '0-π' grain boundary junctions

    A theory describing Fiske resonance steps in high-temperature 'd-wave' superconductive Josephson junctions has been developed. The model is an extension of the theory proposed by Kulik in 1965, which applies in the case of conventional low-temperature junctions ('s-wave' superconductors). The theory allows to derive the magnetic field dependences of the n-th order Fiske step, also in the presence of '0-π' singularities in the junction phase difference. An analysis of Fiske steps in asymmetric 0-45o [0 0 1] 'd-wave' Josephson junctions has been presented. Finally, in order to describe the phenomenology encountered in real grain boundary junctions, the presence of facets of different orientations and lengths has also been considered

  20. Role of autophagy in the regulation of epithelial cell junctions.

    Nighot, Prashant; Ma, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism by which bulk cytoplasmic material, including soluble macromolecules and organelles, is targeted for lysosomal degradation. The role of autophagy in diverse cellular processes such as metabolic stress, neurodegeneration, cancer, aging, immunity, and inflammatory diseases is being increasingly recognized. Epithelial cell junctions play an integral role in the cell homeostasis via physical binding, regulating paracellular pathways, integrating extracellular cues into intracellular signaling, and cell-cell communication. Recent data indicates that cell junction composition is very dynamic. The junctional protein complexes are actively regulated in response to various intra- and extra-cellular clues by intracellular trafficking and degradation pathways. This review discusses the recent and emerging information on how autophagy regulates various epithelial cell junctions. The knowledge of autophagy regulation of epithelial junctions will provide further rationale for targeting autophagy in a wide variety of human disease conditions. PMID:27583189

  1. Quantum Tunneling Current in Nanoscale Plasmonic Junctions

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Recently, electron tunneling between plasmonic resonators is found to support quantum plasmon resonances, which may introduce new regimes in nano-optoelectronics and nonlinear optics. This revelation is of substantial interest to the fundamental problem of electron transport in nano-scale, for example, in a metal-insulator-metal junction (MIM), which has been continuously studied for decades. Here, we present a self-consistent model of electron transport in a nano-scale MIM, by solving the coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations. The effects of space charge, exchange-correlation, anode emission, and material properties of the electrodes and insulator are examined in detail. The self-consistent calculations are compared with the widely used Simmons formula. Transition from the direct tunneling regime to the space-charge-limited regime is demonstrated. This work was supported by AFOSR.

  2. Work fluctuations in bosonic Josephson junctions

    Lena, R. G.; Palma, G. M.; De Chiara, G.

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the first two moments and full probability distribution of the work performed on a system of bosonic particles in a two-mode Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian when the self-interaction term is varied instantaneously or with a finite-time ramp. In the instantaneous case, we show how the irreversible work scales differently depending on whether the system is driven to the Josephson or Fock regime of the bosonic Josephson junction. In the finite-time case, we use optimal control techniques to substantially decrease the irreversible work to negligible values. Our analysis can be implemented in present-day experiments with ultracold atoms and we show how to relate the work statistics to that of the population imbalance of the two modes.

  3. Tantalum oxide barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Guanghua Yu; Tingting Ren; Wei Ji; Jiao Teng; Fengwu Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum as an insulating barrier can take the place of Al in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Ta barriers in MTJs were fabricated by natural oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the oxidation states of Ta barrier.The experimental results show that the chemical state of tantalum is pure Ta5+ and the thickness of the oxide is 1.3 nm. The unoxidized Ta in the barrier may chemically reacted with NiFe layer which is usually used in MTJs to form an intermetallic compound,NiTa2. A magnetic "dead layer" could be produced in the NiFe/Ta interface. The "dead layer" is likely to influence the spinning electron transport and the magnetoresistance effect.

  4. Controlling local currents in molecular junctions

    Yadalam, Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of non-equilibrium constraints and dephasing on the circulating currents in molecular junctions are analyzed. Circulating currents are manifestations of quantum effects and can be induced either by externally applied bias or an external magnetic field through the molecular system. In symmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring, bond currents have two contributions, bias driven and magnetic field driven. We analyze the competition between these two contributions and show that, as a consequence, current through one of the branches can be completely suppressed. We then study the effect of asymmetry (as a result of chemical substitution) on the current pathways inside the molecule and study asymmetry induced circulating currents (without magnetic field) by tuning the coupling strength of the substituent (at finite bias).

  5. Exotic Brane Junctions from F-theory

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Applying string dualities to F-theory, we obtain various $[p,q]$-branes whose constituents are standard branes of codimension two and exotic branes. We construct junctions of the exotic five-branes and their Hanany-Witten transitions associated with those in F-theory. In this procedure, we understand the monodromy of the single $5^2_2$-brane. We also find the objects which are sensitive to the branch cut of the $5^2_2$-brane. Considering the web of branes in the presence of multiple exotic five-branes analogous to the web of five-branes with multiple seven-branes, we obtain novel brane constructions for $SU(2)$ gauge theories with $n$ flavors and their superconformal limit with enhanced $E_{n+1}$ symmetry in five, four, and three dimensions. Hence, adapting the techniques of the seven-branes to the exotic branes, we will be able to construct F-theories in diverse dimensions.

  6. Shot Noise in Ferromagnetic Superconductor Tunnel Junctions

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting order parameter and the energy spectrum of the Bogoliubov excitations are obtained from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equation for a ferromagnetic superconductor (FS). Taking into account the rough interface scattering effect, we calculate the shot noise and the differential conductance of the normal- metal insulator ferromagnetic superconductor junction. It is shown that the exchange energy Eh in FS can lead to splitting of the differential shot noise peaks and the conductance peaks. The energy difference between the two splitting peaks is equal to 2Eh. The rough interface scattering strength results in descent of conductance peaks and the shot noise-to-current ratio but increases the shot noise.

  7. Vortex motion in high temperature superconducting junctions

    Coherent vortex motion in bridge structures (BS) of high temperature superconducting junctions under transport current transfer and external microwave radiation is detected. The investigated samples were 6x2.5x0.5mm rectangular bars of Y-Ba-Cu-O ceramics with BS cut in the centre, which dimensions were: length L=150-200μm, width W=150-200μm, thickness d < or approx. 100μm. Ceramics grain size was a ∼ 1μm. The voltampere characteristics of the samples were measured using a four-contact method both under off-line conditions and under different frequency microwave external radiations in the wide temperature range from 300 to 4.2 K

  8. Josephson junction array protected from local noises.

    Gladchenko, Sergey; Olaya, David; Dupont-Ferrier, Eva; Doucot, Benoit; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We have developed small arrays of Josephson junctions (JJs) that can be viewed as prototypes of superconducting qubits protected from local noises [1]. The array consists of twelve superconducting loops interrupted by four sub-micron JJs. The protected state is realized when each loop is threaded by half of the magnetic flux quantum. It has been observed that the array with the optimized amplitude of quantum fluctuations is protected against magnetic flux variations well beyond linear order, in agreement with theoretical predictions [2]. 1. S. Gladchenko et al., ``Superconducting Nanocircuits for Topologically Protected Qubits'', arXiv:cond-mat/0802.2295, to be published in Nature Physics. 2. L.B. Ioffe and M.V. Feigelman, Phys. Rev. B 66, 224503 (2002); B. Doucot et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 024505 (2005); B. Doucot and L.B. Ioffe, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214507 (2007).

  9. Exotic brane junctions from F-theory

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2016-05-01

    Applying string dualities to F-theory, we obtain various [ p, q]-branes whose constituents are standard branes of codimension two and exotic branes. We construct junctions of the exotic five-branes and their Hanany-Witten transitions associated with those in F-theory. In this procedure, we understand the monodromy of the single 5 2 2 -brane. We also find the objects which are sensitive to the branch cut of the 5 2 2 -brane. Considering the web of branes in the presence of multiple exotic five-branes analogous to the web of five-branes with multiple seven-branes, we obtain novel brane constructions for SU(2) gauge theories with n flavors and their superconformal limit with enhanced E n+1 symmetry in five, four, and three dimensions. Hence, adapting the techniques of the seven-branes to the exotic branes, we will be able to construct F-theories in diverse dimensions.

  10. The Hall effect in ballistic junctions

    Ford, C. J. B.; Washburn, S.; Büttiker, M.; Knoedler, C. M.; Hong, J. M.

    1990-04-01

    In narrow high-mobility conductors the predominant source of scattering is reflection of carriers off the confining potential. We demonstrate that by changing the geometry of the intersection of the Hall probes with the conductor, the Hall resistance can be quenched, negative or enhanced. More complex junction geometries can lead to one of these phenomena for one field polarity and to another for the other field polarity. At liquid helium temperatures these results can be explained by following trajectories. In the milli-Kelvin range fluctuations are superimposed. At high fields strong resonant depressions of the Hall resistance are found which may be associated with bound states in the region of the cross.

  11. Sandwich-type gated mechanical break junctions

    We introduce a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport. In contrast to previous gated mechanical break junctions with suspended source-drain electrodes, the devices presented here prevent an electromechanical tuning of the electrode gap by the gate. This significant improvement originates from a direct deposition of the source and the drain electrodes on the gate dielectric. The plasma-enhanced native oxide on the aluminum gate electrode enables measurements at gate voltages up to 1.8 V at cryogenic temperatures. Throughout the bending-controlled tuning of the source-drain distance, the electrical continuity of the gate electrode is maintained. A nanoscale island in the Coulomb blockade regime serves as a first experimental test system for the devices, in which the mechanical and electrical control of charge transport is demonstrated.

  12. High Tc Josephson Junctions, SQUIDs and magnetometers

    There has recently been considerable progress in the state-of-the-art of high-Tc magnetometers based on dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). This progress is due partly to the development of more manufacturable Josephson junctions, making SQUIDs easier to fabricate, and partly to the development of multiturn flux transformers that convert the high sensitivity of SQUIDs to magnetic flux to a correspondingly high sensitivity to magnetic field. Needless to say, today's high-Tc SQUIDs are still considerably less sensitive than their low-Tc counterparts, particularly at low frequencies (f) where their level of 1/f noise remains high. Nonetheless, the performance of the high-Tc devices has now reached the point where they are adequate for a number of the less demanding applications; furthermore, as we shall see, at least modest improvements in performance are expected in the near future. In this article, the author outlines these various developments. This is far from a comprehensive review of the field, however, and, apart from Sec. 2, he describes largely his own work. He begins in Sec. 2 with an overview of the various types of Josephson junctions that have been investigated, and in Sec. 3, he describes some of the SQUIDs that have been tested, and assess their performance. Section 4 discuss the development of the multilayer structures essential for an interconnect technology, and, in particular, for crossovers and vias. Section 5 shows how this technology enables one to fabricate multiturn flux transformers which, in turn, can be coupled to SQUIDs to make magnetometers. The performance and possible future improvements in these magnetometers are assessed, and some applications mentioned

  13. Strained graphene Josephson junction with anisotropic d-wave superconductivity

    Goudarzi, H.; Khezerlou, M.; Kamalipour, H.

    2015-07-01

    Effect of proximity-induced superconductivity in the new two-dimensional structures, as graphene and topological insulator on the Andreev bound states (ABSs) and Josephson supercurrent has attracted much efforts. Motivated by this subject, we study, in particular, the influence of anisotropic Fermi velocity and unconventional d-wave pairing in a strained graphene-based superconductor/normal/ superconductor junction. Strain is applied in the zigzag direction of graphene sheet. In this process, effect of zero energy states and Fermi wavevector mismatch are investigated. It is shown, that strain up to 22% in graphene lattice differently affects Josephson currents in parallel and perpendicular directions of strain. Strain causes to exponentially decrease the supercurrent in the strain direction, whereas increase for other direction. We find that, in one hand, the ABSs strongly depend on strain and, on the other hand, a gap opens in the states with respect to non-zero incidence angle of quasiparticles, where a period of 2 π is obtained for Andreev states. Moreover, we observe no gap for θs ≠ 0 , when the zero energy states (ZESs) occur in α = π / 4 due to anisotropic superconducting gap. In this case, ABSs have a period of 4 π .S

  14. Atomistic simulations of highly conductive molecular transport junctions under realistic conditions

    French, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We report state-of-the-art atomistic simulations combined with high-fidelity conductance calculations to probe structure-conductance relationships in Au-benzenedithiolate (BDT)-Au junctions under elongation. Our results demonstrate that large increases in conductance are associated with the formation of monatomic chains (MACs) of Au atoms directly connected to BDT. An analysis of the electronic structure of the simulated junctions reveals that enhancement in the s-like states in Au MACs causes the increases in conductance. Other structures also result in increased conductance but are too short-lived to be detected in experiment, while MACs remain stable for long simulation times. Examinations of thermally evolved junctions with and without MACs show negligible overlap between conductance histograms, indicating that the increase in conductance is related to this unique structural change and not thermal fluctuation. These results, which provide an excellent explanation for a recently observed anomalous experimental result [Bruot et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 35-40], should aid in the development of mechanically responsive molecular electronic devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Ballistic conductivity of graphene channel with p-n junction at ferroelectric domain wall

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Strikha, Maksym V.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of a ferroelectric domain wall on the ballistic conductance of a single-layer graphene channel in the graphene/physical gap/ferroelectric film heterostructure has been studied in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The self-consistent numerical simulation of the electric field and the space charge dynamics in the heterostructure, as well as the approximate analytical theory, show that the contact between the domain wall and the surface creates a p-n junction in the graphene channel. We calculated that the carrier concentration induced in graphene by uncompensated ferroelectric dipoles originated from the abrupt spontaneous polarization change near the surface can reach values of about 1019 m-2, which are two orders of magnitude higher than those obtained for the graphene on non-ferroelectric substrates. Therefore, we predict that the graphene channel with the p-n junction caused by the ferroelectric domain wall would be characterized by rather a high ballistic conductivity. Moreover, the graphene p-n junction at the ferroelectric domain wall can be an excellent rectifier with a conductivity ratio of about 10 between the direct and reverse polarities of the applied voltage.

  16. Severe Spinal Cord Injury Causes Immediate Multi-cellular Dysfunction at the Chondro-Osseous Junction

    Morse, Leslie R; XU, Yan(Department of Music,Guangxi Normal University); Solomon, Bethlehem; Boyle, Lara; Yoganathan, Subbiah; Stashenko, Philip; Battaglino, Ricardo A.

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is associated with rapid bone loss and arrested long bone growth due to mechanisms that are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of severe T10 contusion spinal cord injury on the sublesional bone microenvironment in adolescent rats. A severe lower thoracic (vertebral T10) spinal cord injury was generated by weight drop (10 g×50 mm). Severely injured and body weight-matched uninjured male Sprague–Dawley rats were studied. At 3 and 5 days post-...

  17. Gold plasmonic effects on charge transport through single molecule junctions

    Adak, Olgun; Venkataraman, Latha

    2014-03-01

    We study the impact of surface plasmon polaritons, the coupling of electromagnetic waves to collective electron oscillations on metal surfaces, on the conductance of single-molecule junctions. We use a scanning-tunneling microscope based break junction setup that is built into an optical microscope to form molecular junctions. Coherent 685nm light is used to illuminate the molecular junctions formed with 4,4'-bipyridine with diffraction limited focusing performance. We employ a lock-in type technique to measure currents induced by light. Furthermore, the thermal expansion due to laser heating is mimicked by mechanically modulating inter-electrode separation. For each junction studied, we measure current, and use AC techniques to determine molecular junction resonance levels and coupling strengths. We use a cross correlations analysis technique to analyze and compare the effect of light to that of the mechanical modulation. Our results show that junction transmission characteristics are not altered under illumination, within the resolution of our instrument. We argue that photo-currents measured with lock-in techniques in these kinds of structures are due to thermal effects. This work was funded by the Center for Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency through Molecule Scale Control, an EFRC funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DESC0001085.

  18. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  19. Resistance oscillations in junctions of superconductor-magnetic system

    Resistance oscillations as a function of magnetic field were observed in superconductor-magnetic tunnel junctions of Nb-Fe-FeOx-SiO2-Au-Nb. Junctions involving superconductor-magnetic layer superconductor system are exciting because for certain regime of ferromagnetic layer thickness, a Josephson coupling with an intrinsic phase difference of π might be stabilized. For fabrication of the tunnel junctions the thin films were deposited by RF/DC magnetron sputtering. Using photolithography and reactive ion etching, square junctions of size varying from 50 μm to 250 μm were defined. I-V characteristics and R vs. H characteristics were studied at 4.2 K. When the magnetic field is applied parallel to the junction plane, measurements of the junction resistance as a function of magnetic field at a fixed temperature show resistance peaks whenever the total magnetic flux through the junction equals an integral multiple of flux quantum. The penetration depth of the superconducting electrodes was estimated from the positions of the resistance peaks.

  20. Josephson radiation from InSb-nanowire junction

    van Woerkom, David; Proutski, Alexander; Krivachy, Tamas; Bouman, Daniel; van Gulik, Ruben; Gul, Onder; Cassidy, Maja; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo; Geresdi, Attila

    Semiconducting nanowire Josephson junctions has recently gained interest as building blocks for Majorana circuits and gate-tuneable superconducting qubits . Here we investigate the rich physics of the Andreev bound state spectrum of InSb nanowire junctions utilizing the AC Josephson relation 2eV_bias =hf . We designed and characterized an on-chip microwave circuit coupling the nanowire junction to an Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junction. The DC response of the tunnel junction is affected by photon-assisted quasiparticle current, which gives us the possibility to measure the radiation spectrum of the nanowire junction up to several tens of GHz in frequency. Our circuit design allows for voltage or phase biasing of the Josephson junction enabling direct mapping of Andreev bound states. We discuss our fabrication methods and choice of materials to achieve radiation detection up to a magnetic field of few hundred milliTesla, compatible with Majorana states in spin-orbit coupled nanowires. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Foundations FOM, Abstract NWO and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.

  1. High electronic couplings of single mesitylene molecular junctions

    Yuki Komoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport properties of single mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene molecular junctions. The electronic conductance and the current–voltage characteristics of mesitylene molecules wired into Au electrodes were measured by a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based break-junction method at room temperature in a liquid environment. We found the molecular junctions exhibited two distinct conductance states with high conductance values of ca. 10−1G0 and of more than 10−3G0 (G0 = 2e2/h in the electronic conductance measurements. We further performed a statistical analysis of the current–voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions in the two states. Within a single channel resonant tunnelling model, we obtained electronic couplings in the molecular junctions by fitting the current–voltage characteristics to the single channel model. The origin of the high conductance was attributed to experimentally obtained large electronic couplings of the direct π-bonded molecular junctions (ca. 0.15 eV. Based on analysis of the stretch length of the molecular junctions and the large electronic couplings obtained from the I–V analysis, we proposed two structural models, in which (i mesitylene binds to the Au electrode perpendicular to the charge transport direction and (ii mesitylene has tilted from the perpendicular orientation.

  2. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Thin-film Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density

    Moshe, Maayan; Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the field dependence of the maximum current Im(H) in narrow edge-type thin-film Josephson junctions with alternating critical current density. Im(H) is evaluated within nonlocal Josephson electrodynamics taking into account the stray fields that affect the difference of the order-parameter phases across the junction and therefore the tunneling currents. We find that the phase difference along the junction is proportional to the applied field, depends on the junction geometry, but is independent of the Josephson critical current density gc , i.e., it is universal. An explicit form for this universal function is derived for small currents through junctions of the width W≪Λ , the Pearl length. The result is used to calculate Im(H) . It is shown that the maxima of Im(H)∝1/H and the zeros of Im(H) are equidistant but only in high fields. We find that the spacing between zeros is proportional to 1/W2 . The general approach is applied to calculate Im(H) for a superconducting quantum interference device with two narrow edge-type junctions. If gc changes sign periodically or randomly, as it does in grain boundaries of high- Tc materials and superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructures, Im(H) not only acquires the major side peaks, but due to nonlocality the following peaks decay much slower than in bulk junctions.

  4. Flicker (1/f) noise in tunnel junction DC SQUIDS

    We have measured the spectral density of the 1/f voltage noise in current-biased resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions and dc SQUIDs. A theory in which fluctuations in the temperature give rise to fluctuations in the critical current and hence in the voltage predicts the magnitude of the noise quite accurately for junctions with areas of about 2 x 104 μm2, but significantly overestimates the noise for junctions with areas of about 6 μm2. DC SQUIDs fabricated from these two types of junctions exhibit substantially more 1/f voltage noise than would be predicted from a model in which the noise arises from critical current fluctuations in the junctions. This result was confirmed by an experiment involving two different bias current and flux modulation schemes, which demonstrated that the predominant 1/f voltage noise arises not from critical current fluctuations, but from some unknown source that can be regarded as an apparent 1/f flux noise. Measurements on five different configurations of dc SQUIDs fabricated with thin-film tunnel junctions and with widely varying areas, inductances, and junction capacitances show that the spectral density of the 1/f equivalent flux noise is roughtly constant, within a factor of three of (10-10/f)phi20Hz-1. It is emphasized that 1/f flux noise may not be the predominant source of 1/f noise in SQUIDS fabricated with other technologies

  5. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Cambridge Univ.); (Moscow Institute of Nuclar Energy Safety)

    2011-08-23

    When streams of rapidly moving flow merge in a T-junction, the potential arises for large oscillations at the scale of the diameter, D, with a period scaling as O(D/U), where U is the characteristic flow velocity. If the streams are of different temperatures, the oscillations result in experimental fluctuations (thermal striping) at the pipe wall in the outlet branch that can accelerate thermal-mechanical fatigue and ultimately cause pipe failure. The importance of this phenomenon has prompted the nuclear energy modeling and simulation community to establish a benchmark to test the ability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to predict thermal striping. The benchmark is based on thermal and velocity data measured in an experiment designed specifically for this purpose. Thermal striping is intrinsically unsteady and hence not accessible to steady state simulation approaches such as steady state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models.1 Consequently, one must consider either unsteady RANS or large eddy simulation (LES). This report compares the results for three LES codes: Nek5000, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (USA), and Cabaret and Conv3D, developed at the Moscow Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety at (IBRAE) in Russia. Nek5000 is based on the spectral element method (SEM), which is a high-order weighted residual technique that combines the geometric flexibility of the finite element method (FEM) with the tensor-product efficiencies of spectral methods. Cabaret is a 'compact accurately boundary-adjusting high-resolution technique' for fluid dynamics simulation. The method is second-order accurate on nonuniform grids in space and time, and has a small dispersion error and computational stencil defined within one space-time cell. The scheme is equipped with a conservative nonlinear correction procedure based on the maximum principle. CONV3D is based on the immersed boundary method and is validated on a wide set of the experimental

  6. Effects of formaldehyde inhalation on the junctional proteins of nasal respiratory mucosa of rats.

    Arican, R Yavuz; Sahin, Zeliha; Ustunel, Ismail; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Ozdem, Sadi; Oguz, Nurettin

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to formaldehyde, which is an organic compound, disturbs the integrity of nasal mucosa. In this study, we aimed to clarify the protein changes in the junctional complex of nasal mucosa of Wistar rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation. The study was performed in 20 female Wistar rats. Rats were divided into two groups randomly. Control rats were allowed free access to standard rat chaw and tap water (n:10). Experimental group was exposed to formaldehyde vapor at 15ppm, 6h/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks (n:10). Histological evaluation of the experimental model was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stainings of paraffin-embedded nasal mucosa tissues and by electron microscopy. The effects of formaldehyde inhalation on the distribution of occludin, E-cadherin, and gamma-catenin were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The nasal mucosa of the experimental group was correlated with hypertrophy in goblet cell, degeneration in basal lamina, stratification of epithelium, and proliferation. Thickness of basal lamina and also local degenerative regions, vacuole increase in cytoplasmic areas, irregular forms of kinocilium and loss of sharpness in the kinocilium membrane were the findings at the ultrastructural level. The expressions of E-cadherin, occludin, gamma-catenin proteins in intercellular junctional complexes of rat nasal mucosa were also decreased in experimental group compared to control group. The findings of the present study indicated that formaldehyde vapor inhalation in the concentrations and duration of exposure used in the present experiment significantly decreased the density of structural proteins of the junctional complex in the nasoepithelium. It was suggested that, the formaldehyde inhalation could cause complete impairment of intercellular junctional complexes and disturb the tissue integrity in nasal mucosa at higher concentrations. PMID:18996001

  7. Josephson effect in multiterminal superconductor-ferromagnet junctions coupled via triplet components

    Moor, Andreas; Volkov, Anatoly F.; Efetov, Konstantin B.

    2016-03-01

    On the basis of the Usadel equation we study a multiterminal Josephson junction. This junction is composed by "magnetic" superconductors Sm, which have singlet pairing and are separated from the normal n wire by spin filters so that the Josephson coupling is caused only by fully polarized triplet components. We show that there is no interaction between triplet Cooper pairs with antiparallel total spin orientations. The presence of an additional singlet superconductor S attached to the n wire leads to a finite Josephson current IQ with an unusual current-phase relation. The density of states in the n wire for different orientations of spins of Cooper pairs is calculated. We derive a general formula for the current IQ in a multiterminal Josephson contact and apply this formula for analysis of two four-terminal Josephson junctions of different structures. It is shown in particular that both the "nematic" and the "magnetic" cases can be realized in these junctions. In a two-terminal structure with parallel filter orientations and in a three-terminal structure with antiparallel filter orientations of the "magnetic" superconductors with attached additional singlet superconductor, we find a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the critical current. Also, in these structures, the critical current shows a Riedel peak like dependence on the exchange field in the "magnetic" superconductors. Although there is no current through the S/n interface due to orthogonality of the singlet and triplet components, the phase of the order parameter in the superconuctor S is shown to affect the Josephson current in a multiterminal structure.

  8. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Vincken, Koen L.; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Castelein, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. Methods A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98–1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. Results The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on “true” anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; Plumbar lordosis (+7.8%; Plumbar curves). Conclusions Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is confined to the primary as well as the compensatory curves, the junctional zones do not exhibit this growth discrepancy, however, they are straight. PMID:27467745

  9. Ischemic preconditioning protects against gap junctional uncoupling in cardiac myofibroblasts.

    Sundset, Rune; Cooper, Marie; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Ytrehus, Kirsti

    2004-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning increases the heart's tolerance to a subsequent longer ischemic period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of gap junction communication in simulated preconditioning in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myofibroblasts. Gap junctional intercellular communication was assessed by Lucifer yellow dye transfer. Preconditioning preserved intercellular coupling after prolonged ischemia. An initial reduction in coupling in response to the preconditioning stimulus was also observed. This may protect neighboring cells from damaging substances produced during subsequent regional ischemia in vivo, and may preserve gap junctional communication required for enhanced functional recovery during subsequent reperfusion. PMID:16247851

  10. Vortex dynamics in Josephson ladders with II-junctions

    Kornev, Victor K.; Klenov, N. V.; Oboznov, V.A.; Feofanov, A.K.; Bol’ginov, V.V.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2004-01-01

    Both experimental and numerical studies of a self-frustrated triangular array of pi-junctions are reported. The array of SFS Josephson junctions shows a transition to the pi-state and self-frustration with a decrease in temperature. This manifests itself in a half-period shift of the bias critical...... current versus applied magnetic field. At temperatures close to the 0-pi transition this dependence shows a doubling of its periodicity frequency that can be explained by 0-pi bistability of the SFS junctions. The change in the array behaviour with number of unit cells has been studied by means of...

  11. Vortex dynamics in Josephson ladders with π-junctions

    Both experimental and numerical studies of a self-frustrated triangular array of π-junctions are reported. The array of SFS Josephson junctions shows a transition to the π-state and self-frustration with a decrease in temperature. This manifests itself in a half-period shift of the bias critical current versus applied magnetic field. At temperatures close to the 0-π transition this dependence shows a doubling of its periodicity frequency that can be explained by 0-π bistability of the SFS junctions. The change in the array behaviour with number of unit cells has been studied by means of numerical simulation

  12. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. II. The nonautonomous case

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    . The mathematical discussion makes use of the phase-space representation of the solutions to the differential equation. The behavior of the trajectories in phase space is described for different characteristic regions in parameter space and the associated features of the junction IV curve to be...... expected are pointed out. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding of the junction behavior, to clarify which kinds of properties may be derived from the shunted-junction model, and to specify the relative arrangement of the important domains in the parameter-space decomposition....

  13. Proximity effects in all refractory Josephson tunnel junctions

    The theoretical approach to proximity effect based on the thermodynamic Green's functions is considered to investigate the behaviour of all refractory Josephson tunnel junctions. The experimental dependence of the maximum dc Josephson current on temperature is analysed. Two junction configurations are studied: Nb-Al/AlOx/Nb structures with a rather thick Al film and high quality Nb/Nb junctions with either a semimetallic or a metallic back-layer (Nb/AlOx/Nb-Bi, Nb/AlOx/Nb-Al). A satisfying agreement between theoretical calculations and experimental data is found. (orig.)

  14. Bloch Inductance in Small-Capacitance Josephson Junctions

    We show that the electrical impedance of a small-capacitance Josephson junction also includes, in addition to the capacitive term -i/ωCB, an inductive term iωLB. Similar to the known Bloch capacitance CB(q), the Bloch inductance LB(q) also depends periodically on the quasicharge, q, and its maximum value achieved at q=e(mod 2e) always exceeds the value of the Josephson inductance of this junction LJ(φ) at fixed φ=0. The effect of the Bloch inductance on the dynamics of a single junction and a one-dimensional array is described

  15. Gap junction modulation and its implications for heart function

    StefanKurtenbach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gap junction communication mediated by connexins is critical for heart function. To gain insight into the causal relationship of molecular mechanisms of disease pathology, it is important to understand which mechanisms contribute to impairment of gap junctional communication. Here, we present an update on the known modulators of connexins, including various interaction partners, kinases and signaling cascades. This gap junction network can serve as a blueprint for data mining approaches exploring the growing number of publicly available data sets from experimental and clinical studies.

  16. Bilayer graphene Hall bar with a pn-junction

    Milovanovic, S. P.; Masir, M. Ramezani; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic field dependence of the Hall and the bend resistances for a ballistic Hall bar structure containing a pn-junction sculptured from a bilayer of graphene. The electric response is obtained using the billiard model and we investigate the cases of bilayer graphene with and without a band gap. Two different conduction regimes are possible: $i$) both sides of the junction have the same carrier type, and $ii$) one side of the junction is n-type while the other one is p-ty...

  17. Submicron NbN Josephson tunnel junctions for digital applications

    Submicron NbN/MgO/NbN Josephson tunnel junctions have been investigated to make Josephson integrated circuits. The junctions have been fabricated successfully by the cross-line-patterning (CLIP) method with an electron-beam (EB) direct-writing technique. All refractory fabrication process for logic circuits using the CLIP method is presented. This process is applied to fabrication of a logic gate of 4JL containing 0.8 μm-square junctions as an example of digital applications. The logic gate has been fabricated by this process. The authors also discuss the characteristics of the gate

  18. Photovoltaic structures based on polymer/semiconductor junctions

    Gamboa, S.A.; Sebastian, P.J.; Calixto, M.E.; Rivera, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Energia Coordinacion de Solar-H2-Celdas de Combustible, CIE-UNAM 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Nguyen-Cong, H.; Chartier, P. [Laboratoire d` Electrochimie et de Chimie Physique du Corps Solide, Faculte de Chimie, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1998-07-23

    CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) thin films were electrodeposited and characterized for photovoltaic applications. Schottky barrier-type photovoltaic junctions were obtained using a heavily doped PMeT (poly-3-methylthiophene), prepared by electropolymerization, displaying nearly metallic behavior, and semiconductors such as CdTe and CIS obtained by electrodeposition. The photovoltaic structures formed and studied are Mo/CIS/PMeT/grid and Mo/CdTe/PMeT/grid Schottky barrier junctions. Solar to electrical conversion efficiency of the order of 1% was obtained in the case of PMeT/CIS and PMeT/CdTe junctions

  19. What Causes Angina?

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Angina? Underlying Causes Angina usually is a symptom of coronary heart ... and cause angina or a heart attack . Immediate Causes Many factors can trigger angina pain, depending on ...

  20. What Causes Lymphocytopenia?

    ... low lymphocyte counts with no underlying cause. Acquired Causes Many acquired diseases, conditions, and factors can cause ... anemia . Radiation and chemotherapy (treatments for cancer). Inherited Causes Certain inherited diseases and conditions can lead to ...

  1. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can' ... reason why emergency treatment is so important. Underlying Causes The underlying causes of cardiogenic shock are conditions ...

  2. S and Te inter-diffusion in CdTe/CdS hetero junction

    Enriquez, J. Pantoja [Cuerpo Academico-Energia y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, Eduardo J. Selvas S/N, Col. Magisterial, Tuxtla Gutierrez 29010, Chiapas (Mexico); Gomez Barojas, E. [CIDS-ICUAP, Apdo. Postal 1651, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Silva Gonzalez, R.; Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2007-09-22

    Effects of post formation thermal annealing of the CdTe-CdS device on the inter-diffusion of S and Te at the junction in a substrate configuration device have been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. While the migration of S and Te atoms increases with annealing temperature, the extent of S diffusion is always higher than the diffusion of Te atoms. Inter-diffusion of S and Te causes the formation of CdTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} ternary compound at the CdTe-CdS interface. (author)

  3. Decoherence in Josephson-junction qubits due to critical current fluctuations

    Van Harlingen, D. J.; Robertson, T. L.; Plourde, B. L. T.; Reichardt, P. A.; Crane, T.A.; Clarke, John

    2004-01-01

    We compute the decoherence caused by $1/f$ fluctuations at low frequency $f$ in the critical current $I_0$ of Josephson junctions incorporated into flux, phase, charge and hybrid flux-charge superconducting quantum bits (qubits). The dephasing time $\\tau_{\\phi}$ scales as $I_0/ \\Omega \\Lambda S_{I_0}^{1/2}(1$ Hz$)$, where $\\Omega / 2\\pi$ is the energy level splitting frequency, $S_{I_0}(1$ Hz$)$ is the spectral density of the critical current noise at 1 Hz, and $\\Lambda \\equiv |I_0 d \\Omega /...

  4. Resonance effect in the voltage state of intrinsic Josephson junction stacks with multiple tunneling channels

    Koyama, Tomio; Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the resonance effect caused by the Josephson-Leggett (JL) mode in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJs) formed by a stack of multigap superconducting layers. Such an IJJ system is expected to be realized in a single crystal of highly anisotropic iron-based superconductors with thick blocking layers. It is shown that the JL mode is resonantly excited by the Josephson oscillations in the voltage state with inhomogeneous electric-field distribution along the c axis. The resonance creates a steplike structure with a negative resistance region in the I-V characteristics.

  5. Neutron Radiation Effect On 2N2222 And NTE 123 NPN Silicon Bipolar Junction Transistors

    This paper examines neutron radiation with PTS (Pneumatic Transfer System) effect on silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors (2N2222 and NTE 123) and analysis of the transistors in terms of electrical characterization such as current gain after neutron radiation. The key parameters are measured with Keithley 4200SCS. Experiment results show that the current gain degradation of the transistors is very sensitive to neutron radiation. The neutron radiation can cause displacement damage in the bulk layer of the transistor structure. The current degradation is believed to be governed by increasing recombination current between the base and emitter depletion region

  6. RWGSCAT - RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE JUNCTION SCATTERING PROGRAM

    Hoppe, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to optimize frequency response and determine the tolerances required to meet RF specifications, accurate computer modeling of passive rectangular waveguide components is often required. Many rectangular waveguide components may be represented either exactly or approximately as a number of different size rectangular waveguides which are connected in series. RWGSCAT, Rectangular WaveGuide junction SCATtering program, solves for the scattering properties of a waveguide device. This device must consist of a number of rectangular waveguide sections of different cross sectional area which are connected in series. Devices which fall into this category include step transformers, filters, and smooth or corrugated rectangular horns. RWGSCAT will model such devices and accurately predict the reflection and transmission characteristics, taking into account higher order (other than dominant TE 10) mode excitation if it occurs, as well as multiple reflections and stored energy at each discontinuity. For devices which are large with respect to the wavelength of operation, the characteristics of the device may be required for computing a higher order mode or a number of higher order modes exciting the device. Such interactions can be represented by defining a scattering matrix for each discontinuity in the device, and then cascading the individual scattering matrices in order to determine the scattering matrix for the overall device. The individual matrices are obtained using the mode matching method. RWGSCAT is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. It has been successfully compiled and implemented using Lahey FORTRAN 77 under MS-DOS. A sample MS-DOS executable is provided on the distribution medium. It requires 377K of RAM for execution. Sample input data is also provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum MB452 enhances the function of the intestinal barrier by increasing the expression levels of genes involved in tight junction formation

    McCann Mark J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal barrier function is important for preserving health, as a compromised barrier allows antigen entry and can induce inflammatory diseases. Probiotic bacteria can play a role in enhancing intestinal barrier function; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Existing studies have focused on the ability of probiotics to prevent alterations to tight junctions in disease models, and have been restricted to a few tight junction bridging proteins. No studies have previously investigated the effect of probiotic bacteria on healthy intestinal epithelial cell genes involved in the whole tight junction signalling pathway, including those encoding for bridging, plaque and dual location tight junction proteins. Alteration of tight junction signalling in healthy humans is a potential mechanism that could lead to the strengthening of the intestinal barrier, resulting in limiting the ability of antigens to enter the body and potentially triggering undesirable immune responses. Results The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum MB452 on tight junction integrity was determined by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER across Caco-2 cell layers. L. plantarum MB452 caused a dose-dependent TEER increase across Caco-2 cell monolayers compared to control medium. Gene expression was compared in Caco-2 cells untreated or treated with L. plantarum MB452 for 10 hours. Caco-2 cell RNA was hybridised to human oligonucleotide arrays. Data was analysed using linear models and differently expressed genes were examined using pathway analysis tools. Nineteen tight junction-related genes had altered expression levels in response to L. plantarum MB452 (modified-P 1.2, including those encoding occludin and its associated plaque proteins that anchor it to the cytoskeleton. L. plantarum MB452 also caused changes in tubulin and proteasome gene expression levels which may be linked to intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 tight junctions

  8. Efficiency limits for single-junction and tandem solar cells

    Meillaud, F.; Shah, A.; Droz, C.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Miazza, C. [Institute of Microtechnology (IMT), University of Neuchatel, A.-L Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-11-23

    Basic limitations of single-junction and tandem p-n and p-i-n diodes are established from thermodynamical considerations on radiative recombination and semi-empirical considerations on the classical diode equations. These limits are compared to actual values of short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and efficiency for amorphous (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline ({mu}c-Si:H) silicon solar cells. For single-junction cells, major efficiency gains should be achievable by increasing the short-circuit current density by better light trapping. The limitations of p-i-n junctions are estimated from recombination effects in the intrinsic layer. The efficiency of double-junction cells is presented as a function of the energy gap of top and bottom cells, confirming the 'micromorph' tandem (a-Si:H/{mu}c-Si:H) as an optimum combination of tandem solar cells. (author)

  9. Synchronisation of Josephson vortices in multi-junction systems

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.

    2006-01-01

    A largely adopted model for the description of high-temperature superconductors such as BSCCO results in several long Josephson junctions one on the top of the other ("stacked"). The dynamics of the basic nonlinear excitation of the isolated long Josephson junction, the Josephson vortex, is......, that is mainly to retrieve the above described synchronous motion. We discuss the physics behind synchronization of nonlinear elements and we review applications to Josephson arrays. We discuss in the framework of a general model for synchronization, the Kuramoto model, a mechanism that can possibly...... modified by the coupling among the junctions, so the motion of the flux quanta in the various layers is affected by the flux dynamics in all other layers. Two basic states are possible: a synchronous motion, where all junctions are reflected at the edge at the same instant, and an out-of-phase motion...

  10. Coherent Magnetic Switching in a Permalloy Submicron Junction

    Wang, Junlin; Lu, Xianyang; Zhang, Jason; Ling, Hua; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yongbing

    2016-01-01

    This work provides a numerical micromagnetic study of the magnetic switching of a submicron magnetic junction in a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) cross structure. The simulation results demonstrate that the magnetic domain at the junction can be controlled to switch coherently by the applied magnetic field. This coherent magnetic switching in the cross structure has been found to be reversible and the 2-bit information can be written in the magnetic junction. For information storage, this kind of device can also realize the function of a quaternary arithmetic unit. By varying the direction of the applied magnetic field, we have demonstrated that this magnetic junction could be the building block for a magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) or a quaternary magnetic arithmetic unit.

  11. Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    Polarization engineered interband tunnel junctions (TJs) are integrated in nanowire ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs). A ∼6 V reduction in turn-on voltage is achieved by the integration of tunnel junction at the base of polarization doped nanowire UV LEDs. Moreover, efficient hole injection into the nanowire LEDs leads to suppressed efficiency droop in TJ integrated nanowire LEDs. The combination of both reduced bias voltage and increased hole injection increases the wall plug efficiency in these devices. More than 100 μW of UV emission at ∼310 nm is measured with external quantum efficiency in the range of 4–6 m%. The realization of tunnel junction within the nanowire LEDs opens a pathway towards the monolithic integration of cascaded multi-junction nanowire LEDs on silicon

  12. Splenic torsion and ureteropelvic junction obstruction - a case report

    We report a case of a 13-year-old boy with a pedicle splenic torsion associated with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The symptoms, clinical outcome and the imaging findings are presented. (author)

  13. Quantitatively accurate calculations of conductance and thermopower of molecular junctions

    Markussen, Troels; Jin, Chengjun; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Thermopower measurements of molecular junctions have recently gained interest as a characterization technique that supplements the more traditional conductance measurements. Here we investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of benzenediamine (BDA) and benzenedicarbonitrile (BDCN) con...

  14. Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with frozen junctions

    Gao, Jun; Li, Yongfang; Yu, Gang; Heeger, Alan J.

    1999-10-01

    We report on polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with frozen p-i-n junctions. The dynamic p-i-n junction in polymer LECs is stabilized by lowering the temperature below the glass transition temperature of the ion-transport polymer. Detailed studies have shown that the frozen p-i-n junction in LECs based on the luminescent polymer poly[5-(2'ethylhexyloxy)-2-methoxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] and polyethylene oxide containing lithium triflate (PEO:LiCF3SO3) is stable at temperatures up to 200 K. Frozen-junction LECs offer a number of advantages; they exhibit unipolar light emission, balanced injection, fast response, high brightness, low operating voltage, and insensitivity to electrode materials and film thickness.

  15. Magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection in ferromagnet-superconductor junctions.

    Högl, Petra; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Žutić, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2015-09-11

    Andreev reflection spectroscopy of ferromagnet-superconductor (FS) junctions [corrected] is an important probe of spin polarization. We theoretically investigate spin-polarized transport in FS junctions in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus interfacial spin-orbit fields and show that Andreev reflection can be controlled by changing the magnetization orientation. We predict a giant in- and out-of-plane magnetoanisotropy of the junction conductance. If the ferromagnet is highly spin polarized-in the half-metal limit-the magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection depends universally on the spin-orbit fields only. Our results show that Andreev reflection spectroscopy can be used for sensitive probing of interfacial spin-orbit fields in a FS junction. PMID:26406844

  16. Tight-binding study of bilayer graphene Josephson junctions

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-11-01

    Using highly efficient simulations of the tight-binding Bogoliubov-de-Gennes model, we solved self-consistently for the pair correlation and the Josephson current in a superconducting-bilayer graphene-superconducting Josephson junction. Different doping levels for the non-superconducting link are considered in the short- and long-junction regimes. Self-consistent results for the pair correlation and superconducting current resemble those reported previously for single-layer graphene except at the Dirac point, where remarkable differences in the proximity effect are found, as well as a suppression of the superconducting current in the long-junction regime. Inversion symmetry is broken by considering a potential difference between the layers and we found that the supercurrent can be switched if the junction length is larger than the Fermi length.

  17. Superconducting switch made of graphene-nanoribbon junctions.

    Liang, Qifeng; Dong, Jinming

    2008-09-01

    The transmission of superconductor-graphene nanoribbon-superconductor junctions (SGS) has been studied by the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the on-site potential U in the center zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) of the SGS junction plays an important role in the magnitude of the supercurrent I(c). As the effective Fermi energy μ(eff) (μ(eff) = μ(F)-U) goes from negative to positive, the SGS junction would suddenly transform from an 'OFF' state to an 'ON' state. And, as μ(eff) increases further, the I(c) will continue to increase. This switching behavior of the SGS junction shares the same origin with the zigzag GNR valley-isospin valve (Rycerz et al 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 172). Besides the valley-isospin, the density of states will also have an effect on the suppression of I(c). PMID:21828860

  18. Superconducting switch made of graphene-nanoribbon junctions

    The transmission of superconductor-graphene nanoribbon-superconductor junctions (SGS) has been studied by the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the on-site potential U in the center zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) of the SGS junction plays an important role in the magnitude of the supercurrent Ic. As the effective Fermi energy μeff (μeff = μF-U) goes from negative to positive, the SGS junction would suddenly transform from an 'OFF' state to an 'ON' state. And, as μeff increases further, the Ic will continue to increase. This switching behavior of the SGS junction shares the same origin with the zigzag GNR valley-isospin valve (Rycerz et al 2007 Nat. Phys. 3 172). Besides the valley-isospin, the density of states will also have an effect on the suppression of Ic

  19. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    Diffusion gradients of morphogens have been inferred as a basis for the control of morphogenesis in hydra, and morphogenetic substances have been found which, on the basis of their molecular weight (MW), should be able to pass gap junctions. There have been several reports of the presence of gap...... junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  20. Evidence for Nonlocal Electrodynamics in Planar Josephson Junctions

    Boris, A. A.; Rydh, A.; Golod, T.; Motzkau, H.; Klushin, A. M.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2013-09-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the critical current modulation Ic(H) for two types of planar Josephson junctions: a low-Tc Nb/CuNi/Nb and a high-Tc YBa2Cu3O7-δ bicrystal grain-boundary junction. At low T both junctions exhibit a conventional behavior, described by the local sine-Gordon equation. However, at elevated T the behavior becomes qualitatively different: the Ic(H) modulation field ΔH becomes almost T independent and neither ΔH nor the critical field for the penetration of Josephson vortices vanish at Tc. Such an unusual behavior is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for junctions with nonlocal electrodynamics. We extract absolute values of the London penetration depth λ from our data and show that a crossover from local to nonlocal electrodynamics occurs with increasing T when λ(T) becomes larger than the electrode thickness.

  1. Current–voltage characteristics of triple-barrier Josephson junctions

    De Luca, R., E-mail: rdeluca@unisa.it; Giordano, A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • I–V characteristics of triple-barrier Josephson junctions (TBJJs) are studied. • The I–V characteristics are identical to those of an ordinary single-barrier Josephson junction. • In the presence of r. f. radiation integer and fractional Shapiro steps appear. - Abstract: Current–voltage characteristics of triple-barrier Josephson junctions are analytically and numerically studied. In the presence of a constant current bias and for homogeneous Josephson coupling of all layers, these systems behave exactly as ordinary Josephson junctions, despite their non-canonical current-phase relation. Deviation from this behaviour is found for inhomogeneous Josephson coupling between different layers in the device. Appearance of integer and fractional Shapiro steps are predicted in the presence of r. f. frequency radiation. In particular, the amplitudes of these steps are calculated in the homogeneous case as clear footprints of the non-canonical current-phase relation in these systems.

  2. Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process...

  3. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    Liu, Huan

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Phase diffusion and charging effects in Josephson junctions

    Grabert, Hermann; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig; Paul, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    The supercurrent of a Josephson junction is reduced by phase diffusion. For ultrasmall capacitance junctions the current may be further decreased by Coulomb blockade effects. We calculate the Cooper pair current by means of time-dependent perturbation theory to all orders in the Josephson coupling energy and obtain the current-voltage characteristic in closed form in a range of parameters of experimental interest. The results comprehend phase diffusion of the coherent Josephson current in the...

  5. Quantum statistical theory of semiconductor junctions in thermal equilibrium

    Von Roos, O.

    1977-01-01

    Free carrier and electric field distributions of one-dimensional semiconductor junctions are evaluated using a quantum mechanical phase-space distribution and its corresponding Boltzmann equation. Attention is given to quantum and exchange corrections in cases of high doping concentrations when carrier densities become degenerate. Quantitative differences between degenerate and classical junction characteristics, e.g., maximum electric field and built-in voltage and carrier concentration within the transition region, are evaluated numerically.

  6. Shot noise in magnetic double-barrier tunnel junctions

    Szczepański, T; Dugaev, V. K.; Barnaå, J.; Cascales, J. P.; Aliev, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate shot noise and the corresponding Fano factors in magnetic double-barrier tunnel junctions. Two situations are analyzed: (i) the central metallic layer is nonmagnetic while the external ones are ferromagnetic, and (ii) all of the metallic layers are ferromagnetic. In the latter case, the number of various magnetic configurations of the junctions is larger, which improves the functionality of such devices. The corresponding shot noise and Fano factor are shown to depend on the magn...

  7. Shot Noise in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions: Evidence for Sequential Tunneling

    Guerrero, R.; Aliev, F. G.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Santos, T. S.; Moodera, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of sub-Poissonian shot noise in single magnetic tunnel junctions, indicating the importance of tunneling via impurity levels inside the tunnel barrier. For junctions with weak zero-bias anomaly in conductance, the Fano factor (normalized shot noise) depends on the magnetic configuration being enhanced for antiparallel alignment of the ferromagnetic electrodes. We propose a model of sequential tunneling through nonmagnetic and paramagnetic impurity levels...

  8. Spin nutation effects in molecular nanomagnet$-$superconductor tunnel junctions

    Abouie, J.; Abdollahipour, B.; A. A. Rostami

    2013-01-01

    We study the spin nutation effects of the molecular nanomagnet on the Josephson current through a superconductor$|$molecular nanomagnet$|$superconductor tunnel junction. We explicitly demonstrate that due to the spin nutation of the molecular nanomagnet two oscillatory terms emerge in the $ac$ Josephson current in addition to the conventional $ac$ Josephson current. Some resonances occur in the junction due to the interactions of the transported quasiparticles with the bias voltage and molecu...

  9. Prism-coupled light emission from tunnel junctions

    Ushioda, S.; Rutledge, J. E.; Pierce, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Completely p-polarized light emission has been observed from smooth Al-AlO(x)-Au tunnel junctions placed on a prism coupler. The angle and polarization dependence demonstrate unambiguously that the emitted light is radiated by the fast-mode surface plasmon polariton. The emission spectra suggest that the dominant process for the excitation of the fast mode is through conversion of the slow mode to the fast mode mediated by residual roughness on the junction surface.

  10. Superpoissonian shot noise in organic magnetic tunnel junctions

    Cascales, Juan Pedro; Hong, Jhen-Yong; Martinez, Isidoro; Lin, Minn-Tsong; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Dugaev, Vitalii K.; Barnas, Jozef; Aliev, Farkad G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic molecules have recently revolutionized ways to create new spintronic devices. Despite intense studies, the statistics of tunneling electrons through organic barriers remains unclear. Here we investigate conductance and shot noise in magnetic tunnel junctions with PTCDA barriers a few nm thick. For junctions in the electron tunneling regime, with magnetoresistance ratios between 10 and 40\\%, we observe superpoissonian shot noise. The Fano factor exceeds in 1.5-2 times the maximum value...

  11. Nonsinusoidal Current-Phase Relation in SFS Josephson Junctions

    Golubov, A. A.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Fominov, Ya. V.

    2002-06-01

    Various types of the current-phase relation I(phi) in superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (SFS) point contacts and planar double-barrier junctions are studied within the quasiclassical theory in the limit of thin diffusive ferromagnetic interlayers. The physical mechanisms leading to highly nontrivial I(phi) dependence are identified by studying the spectral supercurrent density. These mechanisms are also responsible for the 0-pi transition in SFS Josephson junctions.

  12. Nonsinusoidal current-phase relation in SFS Josephson junctions

    Various types of the current-phase relation I(ψ) in superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (SFS) point contacts and planar double-barrier junctions are studied within the quasiclassical theory in the limit of thin diffusive ferromagnetic interlayers. The physical mechanisms, leading to highly nontrivial I(ψ) dependence, are identified by studying the spectral supercurrent density. These mechanisms are also responsible for the 0-π transition in SFS Josephson junctions

  13. Using ion irradiation to make high-Tc Josephson junctions

    In this article we describe the effect of ion irradiation on high-Tc superconductor thin film and its interest for the fabrication of Josephson junctions. In particular, we show that these alternative techniques allow to go beyond most of the limitations encountered in standard junction fabrication methods, both in the case of fundamental and technological purposes. Two different geometries are presented: a planar one using a single high-Tc film and a mesa one defined in a trilayer structure

  14. Development of Junction Elements from Study of the Bionics

    Wilson Kindlein Junior; Luis Henrique Alves C(a)ndido; André Canal Marques; Sandra Souza dos Santos; Maurício da Silva Viegas

    2007-01-01

    The applications of bionic methodology developed by the Laboratory of Design and Material Selection as basis in the creation of junction elements were demonstrated.These elements favor the application of Ecodesign in reference to the effectiveness of product dismount aiming the reduction of ambient impact in all its phases of use.The creation,the development and the confection of new junction elements were described,and case studies of new products developed specificallv with this purpose were presented.

  15. Magnetothermopower and magnon-assisted transport in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions

    McCann, Edward; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model of the thermopower in a mesoscopic tunnel junction between two ferromagnetic metals based upon magnon-assisted tunneling processes. In our model, the thermopower is generated in the course of thermal equilibration between two baths of magnons, mediated by electrons. We predict a particularly large thermopower effect in the case of a junction between two half-metallic ferromagnets with antiparallel polarizations, $S_{AP} \\sim - (k_B/e)$, in contrast to $S_{P} \\approx 0$ for ...

  16. Transports Regulators of Networks with Junctions Detected by Durations Functions

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study advocates a mathematical framework of ''transport relations'' on a network. They single out a subset of ''traffic states'' described by time, duration, position and other traffic attributes (called ''monads'' for short). Duration evolutions are non-negative, decreasing toward zero for incoming durations, increasing from zero for outgoing durations, allowing the detection of ''junction states'' defined as traffic states with ''zero duration''. A ''junction relation'' (crossroads, sy...

  17. Low Noise Current Amplifier Based on Mesoscopic Josephson Junction

    Delahaye, Julien; Hassel, J.; Lindell, Rene; Sillanpää, Mika; Paalanen, Mikko; Seppä, Heikki; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2003-01-01

    We utilize the band structure of a mesoscopic Josephson junction to construct low noise amplifiers. By taking advantage of the quantum dynamics of a Josephson junction, i.e. the interplay of interlevel transitions and the Coulomb blockade of Cooper pairs, we create transistor-like devices, Bloch oscillating transistors, with considerable current gain and high input impedance. In these transistors, correlated supercurrent of Cooper pairs is controlled by a small base current made of single ele...

  18. Variability study of Si nanowire FETs with different junction gradients

    Jun-Sik Yoon; Kihyun Kim; Taiuk Rim; Chang-Ki Baek

    2016-01-01

    Random dopant fluctuation effects of gate-all-around Si nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated in terms of different diameters and junction gradients. The nanowire FETs with smaller diameters or shorter junction gradients increase relative variations of the drain currents and the mismatch of the drain currents between source-drain and drain-source bias change in the saturation regime. Smaller diameters decreased current drivability critically compared to standard deviations...

  19. Josephson φ_0-junction in nanowire quantum dots

    Szombati, D. B.; Nadj-Perge, S.; Car, D.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect describes supercurrent flowing through a junction connecting two superconducting leads by a thin barrier. This current is driven by a superconducting phase difference ϕ between the leads. Due to the chiral and time reversal symmetry of the Cooper pair tunneling process the current is strictly zero when ϕ vanishes. Only if these underlying symmetries are broken the supercurrent for ϕ = 0 may be finite. This corresponds to a ground state of the junction being offset by a ph...

  20. Negative conductances of Josephson junctions: Voltage fluctuations and energetics

    Machura, L.; Kostur, M.; Talkner, P.; Hanggi, P.; Luczka, J.

    2009-01-01

    We study a resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction, which is driven by a combination of time-periodic and constant currents. Our investigations concern three main problems: (A) The voltage fluctuations across the junction; (B) The quality of transport expressed in terms of the P\\'eclet number; (C) The efficiency of energy transduction from external currents. These issues are discussed in different parameter regimes that lead to: (i) absolute negative conductance; (ii) negative...

  1. Interference effects in isolated Josephson junction arrays with geometric symmetries

    Ivanov, D. A.; Ioffe, L. B.; Geshkenbein, V. B.; Blatter, G.

    2001-01-01

    As the size of a Josephson junction is reduced, charging effects become important and the superconducting phase across the link turns into a periodic quantum variable. Isolated Josephson junction arrays are described in terms of such periodic quantum variables and thus exhibit pronounced quantum interference effects arising from paths with different winding numbers (Aharonov-Casher effects). These interference effects have strong implications for the excitation spectrum of the array which are...

  2. Resistance of Josephson Junction Arrays at Low Temperatures

    Ioffe, L. B.; Narozhny, B. N.

    1997-01-01

    We study motion of vortices in arrays of Josephson junctions at zero temperature where it is controlled by quantum tunneling from one plaquette to another. The tunneling process is characterized by a finite time and can be slow compared to the superconducting gap (so that $\\tau \\Delta >> 1$). The dissipation which accompanies this process arises from rare processes when a vortex excites a quasiparticle above the gap while tunneling through a single junction. We find that the dissipation is si...

  3. Observation of nuclear gamma resonance with superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    M. G. Kozin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nb-based superconducting tunnel junction detectors have been used for the registration of electrons following a nuclear gamma resonance (Mössbauer effect. Electrons were produced by a RhFe scatterer under irradiation by the 57Co(Rh Mössbauer source. This observation demonstrates the role which can be played by superconducting tunnel junction detectors in the field of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and other types of electron spectroscopy.

  4. Asymmetric patterns of gap junctional communication in developing chicken skin

    Serras, Florenci; Fraser, Scott; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    1993-01-01

    To study the pattern of gap junctional communication in chicken skin and feather development, we injected Lucifer Yellow into single cells and monitored the transfer of the fluorescent dye through gap junctions. Dye coupling is present between cells of the epithelium as well as between cells of the mesoderm. However, dye transfer did not occur equally in all directions and showed several consistent patterns and asymmetries, including: (1) no dye coupling between mesoderm and epithelium, (2) p...

  5. Gap junctional communication compartments in the Drosophila wing disk.

    Weir, M P; Lo, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the gap junctional communication properties of cells in the wing imaginal disk of Drosophila, using intracellular injection of the fluorescent dye tracer Lucifer Yellow. The cell-to-cell passage of Lucifer Yellow is restricted at a boundary line that divides the wing disk into halves. We refer to each half as a "communication compartment" because there is a high level of gap junctional exchange within a compartment and much lower exchange between compartments. Comparison of t...

  6. Strain-tunable Josephson current in graphene-superconductor junction

    Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, B.

    2013-10-01

    Strain effects on Josephson current in a graphene-superconductor junction are explored theoretically. It is demonstrated that the supercurrent is an oscillatory function of zigzag direction strain with a strain-dependent oscillating frequency. Interestingly, it is found that the Josephson current under armchair direction strain can be turned on/off with a cutoff strain. In view of the on/off properties of the Josephson current, we propose the strained graphene Josephson junction to be utilized as a supercurrent switch.

  7. Supercurrent reversal in Josephson junctions based on bilayer graphene flakes

    Rameshti, Babak Zare; Zareyan, Malek; Moghaddam, Ali G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Josephson effect in a bilayer graphene flake contacted by two monolayer sheet deposited by superconducting electrodes. It is found that when the electrodes are attached to the different layers of the bilayer, the Josephson current is in a $\\pi$ state when the bilayer region is undoped and in the absence of vertical bias. Applying doping or bias to the junction reveals $\\pi-0$ transitions which can be controlled by varying the temperature and the junction length. The supercu...

  8. Tight-binding study of bilayer graphene Josephson junctions

    Muñoz, W. A.; Covaci, L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Using highly efficient simulations of the tight-binding Bogoliubov-de Gennes model we solved self-consistently for the pair correlation and the Josephson current in a Superconducting-Bilayer graphene-Superconducting Josephson junction. Different doping levels for the non-superconducting link are considered in the short and long junction regime. Self-consistent results for the pair correlation and superconducting current resemble those reported previously for single layer graphene except in th...

  9. Current-phase relation of graphene Josephson junctions

    Chialvo, C.; Moraru, I. C.; Van Harlingen, D. J.; Mason, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current-phase relation (CPR) of a Josephson junction reveals valuable information about the microscopic processes and symmetries that influence the supercurrent. In this Letter, we present direct measurements of the CPR for Josephson junctions with a graphene barrier, obtained by a phase-sensitive SQUID interferometry technique. We find that the CPR is skewed with respect to the commonly observed sinusoidal behavior. The amount of skewness varies linearly with critical current (Ic) regard...

  10. A supercurrent switch in graphene $\\pi$-junctions

    Linder, Jacob; Yokoyama, Takehito; Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Sudbø, Asle

    2008-01-01

    We study the supercurrent in a superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor graphene junction. In contrast to its metallic counterpart, the oscillating critical current in our setup decays only weakly upon increasing exchange field and junction width. We find an unusually large residual value of the supercurrent at the oscillatory cusps due to a strong deviation from a sinusoidal current-phase relationship. Our findings suggest a very efficient device for dissipationless supercurrent switching.

  11. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    Rüdiger eRudolf; Muzamil Majid Khan; Siegfried eLabeit; Deschenes, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and postsynaptic origin. Consequently, neuromuscular junctions are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarco...

  12. Junction Temperature Aware Energy Efficient Router Design on FPGA

    Thind, Vandana; Sharma, Shivani; Minwer, M H; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    Energy, Power and efficiency are very much related to each other. To make any system efficient, Power consumed by it must be minimized or we can say that power dissipation should be less. In our research we tried to make a energy efficient router design on FPGA by varying junction temperature. By...... observed and reduction the power is calculated accordingly. So this project gives an overview to make the router efficient by varying junction temperature....

  13. Topological insulator in junction with ferromagnets: quantum Hall effects

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Kagalovsky, V.

    2014-01-01

    The ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet (FM-TI-FM) junction exhibits thermal and electrical quantum Hall effects. The generated Hall voltage and transverse temperature gradient can be controlled by the directions of magnetizations in the FM leads, which inspires the use of FM-TI-FM junctions as electrical and as heat switches in spintronic devices. Thermal and electrical Hall coefficients are calculated as functions of the magnetization directions in ferromagnets and the spin-relaxa...

  14. Gap Junctions and Biophysical Regulation of Bone Cells

    Lloyd, Shane A. J.; Donahue, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Communication between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes is integral to their ability to build and maintain the skeletal system and respond to physical signals. Various physiological mechanisms, including nerve communication, hormones, and cytokines, play an important role in this process. More recently, the important role of direct, cell–cell communication via gap junctions has been established. In this review, we demonstrate the integral role of gap junctional intercellular communicat...

  15. Resonator coupled Josephson junctions; parametric excitations and mutual locking

    Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Larsen, A.; Mygind, Jesper

    Self-pumped parametric excitations and mutual locking in systems of Josephson tunnel junctions coupled to multimode resonators are reported. For the very large values of the coupling parameter, obtained with small Nb-Al2O3-Nb junctions integrated in superconducting microstrip resonators, the DC I......-V characteristic shows an equidistant series of current steps generated by subharmonic pumping of the fundamental resonator mode. This is confirmed by measurement of frequency and linewidth of the emitted Josephson radiation...

  16. Craniovertebral junction stenosis in Lenz-Majewski syndrome

    Mizuguchi, Koichi; Ishigro, Akira [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of General Pediatrics and Interdisciplinary Medicine, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    We report a girl with Lenz-Majewski syndrome associated with craniovertebral junction stenosis that led to communicating hydrocephalus and cervical myelopathy. The life-threatening complication was related to progressive craniovertebral hyperostosis that rapidly exacerbated during early childhood. Despite initial success of surgical intervention at 2 years of age, she developed apneic spells and died suddenly at age 5 years. Close monitoring for craniovertebral junction stenosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality in children with Lenz-Majewski syndrome. (orig.)

  17. Observation of negative differential resistance in DNA molecular junctions

    Kang, Ning; Erbe, Artur; Scheer, Elke

    2010-01-01

    The mechanically controllable break junction technique is used to study charge transport through suspended DNA molecules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in an aqueous solution display series of negative differential resistance (NDR) and hysteresis behavior. Under high-vacuum conditions, the peak positions of NDR shift to lower voltage, and the amplitude is reduced dramatically. The observed NDR behavior is consistent with the polarization mechanism in DNA molecular junctions, which...

  18. Charge transport through DNA four-way junctions

    Duncan T Odom; Dill, Erik A.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2001-01-01

    Long range oxidative damage as a result of charge transport is shown to occur through single crossover junctions assembled from four semi-complementary strands of DNA. When a rhodium complex is tethered to one of the arms of the four-way junction assembly, thereby restricting its intercalation into the π-stack, photo-induced oxidative damage occurs to varying degrees at all guanine doublets in the assembly, though direct strand scission only occurs at the predicted...

  19. Effect of Diffused Hydrogen on the Conductance of Fe/Mgo/Fe Magnetic Tunnel Junctions: Atomistic Simulation

    verma, Ankit kumar; Ghosh, Bahniman

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have analysed the deterimental effect on conductance caused by diffusion of hydrogen atoms in interstitial voids during fabrication process of magnesium oxide barrier of an Fe MgO Fe magnetic tunnel junction, using first principle calculations. This diffusion of hydrogen atoms in interstitial voids in barrier disturbs a certain kind of symmetry possessed by magnesium oxide often termed as delta 1 state symmetry. Distortion in delta 1 state symmetry tempers the condutance throu...

  20. Agreement between static magnetic resonance urography and diuretic renal scintigraphy in patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction after pyeloplasty

    Mazdak, Hamid; Karam, Mehdi; Ghassami, Fatemeh; Malekpour, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the most common cause of hydronephrosis within childhood that usually treat by surgery. According to anatomical variations in different individuals, scheduling similar procedures for all patients is not suitable, and thus the best decision for an appropriate surgical technique should be considered separately for each patient. Regardless of the type of applied technique, creating a funnel-shape UPJ with a suitable size is a successful tr...