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Sample records for adhd transdermal methylphenidate

  1. Transdermal methylphenidate, behavioral, and combined treatment for children with ADHD.

    Pelham, William E; Burrows-Maclean, Lisa; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Coles, Erika K; Tresco, Katy E; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T; Wienke, Amber L; Walker, Kathryn S; Hoffman, Martin T

    2005-05-01

    Stimulant medication and behavioral treatments are evidence-based for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but the combination of the 2 treatments has been understudied. In this investigation, methylphenidate (MPH) was crossed with 2 levels of behavior modification (BMOD) in a summer treatment program. Twenty-seven children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aged 6-12, participated. Children received placebo and 3 doses of transdermal MPH (12.5 cm(2), 25.0 cm(2), and 37.5 cm(2)). BMOD was implemented on alternating weeks. Both treatments produced large and significant effects. Combined treatment was superior to either treatment alone. The effects of transdermal MPH were comparable to those found in this setting in previous studies with multiple stimulant medications and formulations. Consistent with other research, low doses of MPH--even lower than in previous studies--yielded enhanced effects in combination with behavior modification. PMID:15943544

  2. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    Methylphenidate transdermal patches are used as part of a treatment program to control symptoms of attention deficit ... than other people who are the same age). Methylphenidate is in a class of medications called central ...

  3. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  4. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate Transdermal Delivery System Treatment of ADHD on Growth

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Giefer, Eldred E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term effects of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the growth of children being treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured in 127 children ages 6 to 12 at longitudinal assessments for up to 36 months of treatment with MTS. These…

  5. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  6. Efficacy of a Methylphenidate Transdermal System versus t.i.d. Methylphenidate in a Laboratory Setting

    Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Schentag, Jerome; Ballow, Charles H.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Meichenbaum, David L.; Forehand, Gregory L.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Tresco, Katy E.; Lopez-Williams, Andy; Coles, Erika K.; Gonzalez, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To test the efficacy and tolerability of the methylphenidate transdermal formulation (MTS) against immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and placebo in a 12-hr analog classroom setting. Method: A total of nine boys ages 6 to 9 years, medicated with MPH for ADHD, complete a within-subject, double-blind study. For the purpose of the…

  7. Methylphenidate Transdermal Patch

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... that was covered by the patch seizures motion tics or verbal tics believing things that are not ...

  8. Varying the Wear Time of the Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Boellner, Samuel W.; Lopez, Frank A.; Turnbow, John M.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Childress, Ann C.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Manos, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A study investigated the impact of variable wear times of the methylphenidate transdermal system in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It was concluded that duration of medication effect was directly related to the wear time of the methylphenidate transdermal system patch.

  9. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  10. Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Landgraf Jeanne M; Arnold L Eugene; Bukstein Oscar G; Hodgkins Paul

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) and medication satisfaction after switching from a stable dose of oral extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH) to methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) via a dose-transition schedule in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In a 4-week, multisite, open-label study, 171 children (164 in the intent-to-treat [ITT] population) aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD abruptly switched from a sta...

  11. The Effect of Methylphenidate on Neurological Soft Signs in ADHD

    Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Snircova, Eva; Kulhan, Tomas; Farsky, Ivan; Nosalova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurological soft signs are very common in children with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the first line medication of this disorder is methylphenidate. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of methylphenidate on the neurological soft signs in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD depending on the dose of methylphenidate. Methods Thirty five patients with ADHD were investigated by the ADHD RS-IV parent version questionnaire and the Revised Neur...

  12. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD

    2010-01-01

    Background Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory functioning of adults with ADHD. Methods Eighteen adults with ADHD who were clinical responders to methylphenidate participated in this randomized crossover trial. After 3 days of no treatment, patien...

  13. The Effect of Personality Disorder Symptoms on Response to Treatment With Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Olsen, John L.; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This trial was designed to prospectively explore the relationship among personality disorder (PD) symptoms, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and treatment response in a randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) and to confirm results of a prior exploratory study.

  14. Methylphenidate-Induced Seizure, ADHD and Abnormal EEG

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Investigators from Harvard Medical School, Boston, present the case of a 6-year-old girl with ADHD taking valproic acid for behavioral problems who had a generalized tonic-clonic convulsion shortly after a first dose of methylphenidate.

  15. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memo

  16. Pharmacogenetics of Methylphenidate Response in Preschoolers with ADHD

    McGough, James; McCracken, James; Swanson, James; Riddle, Mark; Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Wigal, Tim; Wigal, Sharon; Posner, Kelly; Skrobala, Anne; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Shigawa, Sharon; Moyzis, Robert; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored genetic moderators of symptom reduction and side effects in methylphenidate-treated preschool-age children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: DNA was isolated from 81 subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover methylphenidate titration. Parents and teachers…

  17. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory fu

  18. Comorbidities in ADHD children treated with methylphenidate: a database study

    Kraut Angela A; Langner Ingo; Lindemann Christina; Banaschewski Tobias; Petermann Ulrike; Petermann Franz; Mikolajczyk Rafael T; Garbe Edeltraut

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most common drug treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Treatment with MPH is contraindicated in the presence of certain psychiatric, cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions. We assessed MPH treatment prevalence and incidence and the frequency of comorbid conditions related to these contraindications in new MPH users compared to a control group without ADHD and ADHD medication. Methods We used health care dat...

  19. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  20. Methylphenidate in Treatment of ADHD and Comorbid Chronic Tic Disorder

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children (ages 6-12 years with Tourette's syndrome (96% or chronic motor tic disorder (4% were evaluated at State University of New York, Stony Brook.

  1. Methylphenidate-Induced Seizure, ADHD and Abnormal EEG

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Harvard Medical School, Boston, present the case of a 6-year-old girl with ADHD taking valproic acid for behavioral problems who had a generalized tonic-clonic convulsion shortly after a first dose of methylphenidate.

  2. Attributions and Perception of Methylphenidate Effects in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Pelham, William E; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Kipp, Heidi L; Smith, Bradley H; Evans, Steven W; Bukstein, Oscar

    2013-07-26

    Objective: Although a number of studies demonstrate that children with ADHD do not attribute their behavior to taking medication, it remains unstudied whether adolescents, who have a longer history of taking medication for ADHD, show performance attributions to medication. Method: A sample of 46 adolescents completed daily attributions for success or failure as a part of their participation in a summer treatment program with a double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment of methylphenidate. Results: Results demonstrated that adolescents with ADHD did not reliably discern active medication from placebo, rarely attributed their performance to the pill, and showed no differences in attributional style as a function of medication status. Conclusion: These data indicate that adolescents with ADHD may possess inaccurate beliefs about the effect of stimulant medication on their behavior. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23893533

  3. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    ... to improve ADHD symptoms along with the patient’s self-esteem, thinking ability, and social and family interactions. Do ... that stimulants prescribed to treat a child’s or adolescent’s ADHD could affect an individual’s vulnerability to developing ...

  4. A One Year Trial of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD

    Wender, Paul H.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Sanford, Mary Eve; Czajkowski, Laura A.; Tomb, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on symptom severity and social adjustment in adult ADHD. Method: Adults (n = 116) meeting operational diagnostic criteria for ADHD (the "Utah Criteria") entered a randomized double-blind crossover trial of methylphenidate and placebo. Participants who improved on…

  5. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  6. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed to...... treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2015 we...... methylphenidate to request published and unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing methylphenidate versus placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of ADHD. At least 75% of participants needed to have...

  7. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  8. Comparative Cardiac Risks of Methylphenidate and Amphetamines in Treatment of ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk for adverse cardiac events in subjects between 3 and 20 years of age treated with methylphenidate or amphetamine salts for ADHD was determined in a retrospective study at University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

  9. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica;

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  10. Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Schoevers, Robert A.; Booij, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) occupies brain striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) and is an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, patients with ADHD and comorbid cocaine dependence do not benefit significantly from treatment with MPH. To better understand the neu

  11. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  12. Methylphenidate significantly reduces lapses of attention during on-road highway driving in patients with ADHD

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lapses of attention are characteristic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as such may impair performance of daily activities. Data from an on-road driving study were reanalyzed to determine lapses in patients with ADHD after treatment with methylphenidate and placebo.A total of

  13. Is dopamine transporter gene effective on therapeutic response of methylphenidate in ADHD patients?

    Fatemeh Moharrari; Soheila Barabadian

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric illness, which affects about 5% of children worldwide. An 80% genetic background is responsible for ADHD due to its appearance in familial relationships. In addition, dopamine regulation in synaptic spaces, which have a central role in development of ADHD, is moderated by dopamine transporter neurotransmitter, which in turn is modulated by dopamine transporter gene named SLC6A3 or DAT1. Methylphenidate as the ...

  14. Comorbidities in ADHD children treated with methylphenidate: a database study

    Kraut Angela A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPH is the most common drug treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. Treatment with MPH is contraindicated in the presence of certain psychiatric, cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions. We assessed MPH treatment prevalence and incidence and the frequency of comorbid conditions related to these contraindications in new MPH users compared to a control group without ADHD and ADHD medication. Methods We used health care data for the years 2004 to 2006 from the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD which includes about 18% of the German population. MPH treatment prevalence and incidence was assessed based on at least one MPH prescription in the given year. In MPH users, the prevalence of psychiatric and other comorbidities was assessed in the quarter of the first MPH prescription and the three preceding quarters, whereas in controls it was assessed in the earliest four quarters of continuous insurance time starting at 01.01.2004 or the start of insurance if this was later. Differences in the presence of comorbid diagnoses between MPH users and controls were tested by logistic regression. Results In 2005, 1.5% of all children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years (2.3% of males and 0.6% of females received MPH in Germany. The proportion of children with a record of a psychiatric comorbidity in any of the nine ICD categories of diagnoses was substantially higher in new MPH users (83% compared to controls (20%. Cerebro- and cardiovascular comorbidities were rare in general. Still, among new MPH users, 2% of males and females had a diagnosis of a pre-existing cardiovascular disorder but only 1.2% of controls. Conclusions Besides MPH treatment prevalence we first publish age-specific incidence rates for Germany. A high proportion of children who were started on MPH had a record of a psychiatric comorbidity preceding the first prescription. Cerebro- and cardiovascular

  15. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

    Suheil Artul; Faozi Artoul; George Habib; William Nseir; Bishara Bisharat; Yousif Nijim

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin) due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate) Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was...

  16. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin

    Suheil Artul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin.

  17. Assessment of Methylphenidate and Propranolol Combination Treatment in Comparison with Methylphenidate and Placebo Among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Ghafari M; Riahi F; Ghaderi H; Tashakori A.; Sepandi M

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Due to significance of this disorder in children and its complications, this study was done to determinate efficacy of propran- olol and methylphenidate combination in treatment of ADHD and in control of adverse effects of methylphenidate. Subjects and Methods: This study is a double blind–placebo control clinical trial which was conducted to c...

  18. Long-term functional outcome in adult prison inmates with ADHD receiving OROS-methylphenidate

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Grann, Martin; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-01-01

    In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we established a robust efficacy (Cohen’s d = 2.17) of osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) delivered 72 mg daily for 5 weeks versus placebo on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, global severity and global functioning in 30 adult male prison inmates with ADHD and coexisting disorders. Outcomes continued to improve during the subsequent 47-week open-label extension with OROS-met...

  19. Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a “reinforcer” and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal mo...

  20. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  1. Is dopamine transporter gene effective on therapeutic response of methylphenidate in ADHD patients?

    Fatemeh Moharrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric illness, which affects about 5% of children worldwide. An 80% genetic background is responsible for ADHD due to its appearance in familial relationships. In addition, dopamine regulation in synaptic spaces, which have a central role in development of ADHD, is moderated by dopamine transporter neurotransmitter, which in turn is modulated by dopamine transporter gene named SLC6A3 or DAT1. Methylphenidate as the first line and most important prescribed medication for ADHD blocks dopamine transporter and increases the dopamine concentration in synaptic clefts. In theory, methylphenidate relay to dopamine transporter to play a role, and dopamine transporter synthesis is dependent on DAT1. This gene have 40 base pair in its 3`-untranslated region end that repeat from 3 to 11 times, with most frequent 9 and 10 repeats in human, forming several alleles in carriers including 9R and 10R and genotypes including 9R/9R, 10R/10R, 9R/10R. These genotypes, as the first suspected candidates, may explain why methylphenidate therapy is not sufficient some patients and how the side effects appear in some cases and not in all patients. Many studies have performed to investigate the association between responses to methylphenidate and genotypes and yet no consistency has occurred. This article has a rapid review on concerned literature.

  2. Relationship between Response to Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD and Psychopathology in Their Families

    Grizenko, Natalie; Kovacina, Bojan; Amor, Leila Ben; Schwartz, George; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of familial aggregation of psychopathology in children who are good responders (GR) to methylphenidate (MPH) versus those who are poor responders (PR). Method: A total of 118 clinically referred children ages 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 2-week…

  3. Methylphenidate significantly reduces lapses of attention during on-road highway driving in patients with ADHD.

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Lapses of attention are characteristic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as such may impair performance of daily activities. Data from an on-road driving study were reanalyzed to determine lapses in patients with ADHD after treatment with methylphenidate and placebo.A total of 18 adult ADHD patients performed a 100-km on-road driving test and were instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. The SD of lateral position (SDLP), that is, the weaving of the car, lapses, and alertness, was assessed.Driving was significantly better (P = 0.006) with methylphenidate (SDLP, 18.8 cm) when compared with placebo (SDLP, 21.2 cm). Both the reduction in SDLP and the number of lapses (P = 0.003) confirm this significant improvement, which is further supported by subjective assessments of perceived driving performance. Although lapses were common in the placebo condition (11/18 patients), they were much less frequently observed (5/18 patients) after treatment with methylphenidate. Postdriving assessments suggest that lapses often go unnoticed by drivers.In conclusion, methylphenidate significantly improves driving of patients with ADHD by significantly reducing the number of lapses. PMID:24978156

  4. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  5. Reversible Dopamine Transporter Modifications in Response to Methylphenidate Treatment of ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to monitor the dopamine transporter activity in 5 males, ages 8 to 10, with ADHD, after cessation of methylphenidate (MPH treatment, in a study at the University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  6. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    Isabel Cubero-Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1 the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2 the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit.

  7. Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Landgraf Jeanne M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL and medication satisfaction after switching from a stable dose of oral extended-release methylphenidate (ER-MPH to methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS via a dose-transition schedule in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods In a 4-week, multisite, open-label study, 171 children (164 in the intent-to-treat [ITT] population aged 6-12 years diagnosed with ADHD abruptly switched from a stable dose of oral ER-MPH to MTS nominal dosages of 10, 15, 20, and 30 mg using a predefined dose-transition schedule. Subjects remained on the scheduled dose for the first week, after which the dose was then titrated to an optimal effect. The ADHD Impact Module-Children (AIM-C, a disease-specific validated HRQL survey instrument measuring child and family impact, was used to assess the impact of ADHD symptoms on the lives of children and their families at baseline and study endpoint. Satisfaction with MTS use was assessed via a Medication Satisfaction Survey (MSS at study endpoint. Both the AIM-C and MSS were completed by a caregiver (parent/legally authorized representative. Tolerability was monitored by spontaneous adverse event (AE reporting. Results AIM-C child and family HRQL mean scores were above the median possible score at baseline and were further improved at endpoint across all MTS doses. Similar improvements were noted for behavior, missed doses, worry, and economic impact AIM-C item scores. Overall, 93.8% of caregivers indicated a high level of satisfaction with their child's use of the study medication. The majority of treatment-emergent AEs (> 98% were mild to moderate in intensity, and the most commonly reported AEs included headache, decreased appetite, insomnia, and abdominal pain. Seven subjects discontinued the study due to intolerable AEs (n = 3 and application site reactions (n = 4. Conclusion This study demonstrates that MTS, when carefully

  8. Assessment of Methylphenidate and Propranolol Combination Treatment in Comparison with Methylphenidate and Placebo Among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Ghafari M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Due to significance of this disorder in children and its complications, this study was done to determinate efficacy of propran- olol and methylphenidate combination in treatment of ADHD and in control of adverse effects of methylphenidate. Subjects and Methods: This study is a double blind–placebo control clinical trial which was conducted to compare propranolol and methylphenidate combination with placebo and methylphenidate. Thirty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were assessed by Conner’s rating scale (parent version and psychiatric interview based on DSM-IV-TR and adverse effects check list of stimulant drugs and propranolol during 4 weeks in Ahvaz Golestan hospital child and adolescent psychiatric clinic.Results: Rate of response in combination treatment (methylphenidate and propranolol group was significantly greater than control group. Combination treatment was more effective in control of hyperactivity and impulsivity than inattention. The most common side effect was anorexia in both groups. Other adverse effects of methylphenidate such as increase of systolic blood pressure and pulse rate, abdominal pain, headache, insomnia and nausea were less common in combination treatment group than placebo group. Conclusion: The results were shown that combination of propranolol and methylphenidate is more effective in treatment of ADHD and decrease of adverse effects of methylphenidate than methylphenidate alone. This combination therapy was more effective in hyperactive- impulsive symptoms rather than inattention.Sci Med J 2011; 10(1:45-57

  9. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with Comorbid DCD and ADHD

    Bart, Orit; Podoly, Tamar; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two developmental disorders with considerable comorbidity. The impact of Methylphenidate (MPH) on ADHD symptoms is well documented. However, the effects of MPH on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of MPH on motor performance…

  11. Motor problems in children with ADHD and clinical effects of Methylphenidate as assessed with the MFNU

    Stray, Liv Larsen

    2009-01-01

    The Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU) has been developed over a 25 year period based on clinical observations and assessments of children referred for evaluation of possible Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). The sub-tests of the MFNU were constructed to demonstrate these motor problems to parents and teachers of these children, and to make changes in motor performance observable when the child was medicated with Methylphenidate (...

  12. Methylphenidate

    Methylphenidate is used as part of a treatment program to control symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ... are the same age) in adults and children. Methylphenidate (Methylin) is also used to treat narcolepsy (a ...

  13. Hyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate.

    Boonstra, A.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Oosterlaan, J; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Someren, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythm, as well as the effects of methylphenidate on these variables, in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: 1) Baseline group comparison; 2) Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over medication trial. SETTING: Data collection took place during daily lives of participants. PARTICIPANTS: 39 normal controls and 33 adults with ADHD for baseline comparisons; 31 adults with ADHD in medication trial. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment wit...

  14. Long-term functional outcome in adult prison inmates with ADHD receiving OROS-methylphenidate.

    Ginsberg, Ylva; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Grann, Martin; Lindefors, Nils

    2012-12-01

    In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we established a robust efficacy (Cohen's d = 2.17) of osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) delivered 72 mg daily for 5 weeks versus placebo on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, global severity and global functioning in 30 adult male prison inmates with ADHD and coexisting disorders. Outcomes continued to improve during the subsequent 47-week open-label extension with OROS-methylphenidate delivered at a flexible daily dosage of up to 1.3 mg/kg body weight. In the present study, we evaluated long-term effectiveness and maintenance of improvement over the cumulated 52-week trial on cognition, motor activity, institutional behaviour and quality of life. Post hoc, we explored the associations between investigators' and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms and between ratings of symptoms and functioning, respectively. Outcomes, calculated by repeated measures ANOVA, improved from baseline until week 16, with maintenance or further improvement until week 52. Both verbal and visuospatial working memory, and abstract verbal reasoning improved significantly over time, as well as several cognition-related measures and motor activity. No substance abuse was detected and a majority of participants took part in psychosocial treatment programmes. The quality of life domains of Learning, and Goals and values improved over time; the latter domain was at open-label endpoint significantly related to improvements in attention. Investigators' and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, as well as global symptom severity related most significantly to global functioning at week 52. Finally, investigators' and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms associated significantly at baseline with increasing convergence over time. PMID:22526730

  15. Associative learning in ADHD: improved expression under methylphenidate

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. As might be expected of a disorder in which inhibitory deficits form part of the diagnostic criteria, deficits in response inhibition in ADHD have been evidenced in a number of studies. To date, the tasks used in such studies have required participants to inhibit the learned stimulus-response associations that result in unwanted behavior. Howe...

  16. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Zohreh Sayyari; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH) with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms. Method Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day) plus folic (5mg/day), and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus place...

  17. A comparison of effectiveness of regulation of working memory function and methylphenidate on remediation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent and serious disorder affecting such key cognitive components as working memory. Working memory serves to facilitate and check attention in any individual and to focus on those affairs that need to be retained in mind. This study examines whether a combination of the two therapeutic methods of working memory training and Methylphenidate might be more effective in treating ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years of age than when methylphenidate is applied alone.Subjects of the study are 48 children suffering from ADHD. They were selected by random sampling. The experimental group included 23 children with ADHD who received a combination of working memory training and Methylphenidate, and the control group which included 25 children with ADHD received Methylphenidate only. To check the effects of the intervention, Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48 was applied before and after the intervention. After intervention, data were collected from the remaining samples in the two groups. Data were examined both through descriptive statistical methods and analytic statistical methods, including T-student test and Quantile-Quantile Plots diagram.The study demonstrated that a combination of the cognitive intervention of working memory training and methylphenidate is more effective in alleviating ADHD symptoms rather than when methylphenidate is applied in isolation. In the CPRS pre-test and post-test, the mean difference of the experimental and the control group was 8.39 and 1.88 respectively, indicating that the working memory group has improved more than the control group.The study reveals that the ADHD symptoms were more contained in the test group than the control group due to working memory training. The cognitive intervention through working memory training may be effective in alleviating the severity of disorder measured in the pre-test.

  18. First evidence of HERV-H transcriptional activity reduction after methylphenidate treatment in a young boy with ADHD.

    D'Agati, Elisa; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Balestrieri, Emanuela; Matteucci, Claudia; Sinibaldi Vallebona, Paola; Pasini, Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been associated with many complex diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In ADHD an over-expression of HERV-H family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been documented. It has been hypothesized that HERVs may represent the link between genetic and environmental risk factors, contributing to the clinical onset and/or to the progression of the neurodevelopmental disease. The effect of pharmacological treatment on HERV transcriptional activity in psychiatric disorders has been attracting attention. Using a real-time RT-PCR we investigated the influence of methylphenidate on HERV transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a young patient with ADHD. In this clinical case we describe for the first time the reduction of HERV-H expression and the significant improvement of ADHD symptoms after 6 months of methylphenidate treatment. PMID:27602426

  19. An observational study of once-daily modified-release methylphenidate in ADHD: effectiveness on symptoms and impairment, and safety

    Döpfner, Manfred; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Breuer, Dieter; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-01-01

    ADHD affects over 5% of children worldwide. It is typically treated with stimulant medications, and methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed. This study investigated the effectiveness, on symptoms and impairment, and safety of Equasym XL®, a combination of 30% immediate-release and 70% modified-release MPH, in the treatment of ADHD in daily clinical practice. This open-label, observational, post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in 169 centres in Germany. Eligible patien...

  20. A Comparison of Effectiveness of Regulation of Working Memory Function and Methylphenidate on Remediation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ali Akbar Soleimani; Zahra Farahmand; Samira Keshavarzi; Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and serious disorder affecting such key cognitive components as working memory. Working memory serves to facilitate and check attention in any individual and to focus on those affairs that need to be retained in mind. This study examines whether a combination of the two therapeutic methods of working memory training and Methylphenidate might be more effective in treating ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years of age than when methylp...

  1. Impact of long-term treatment of methylphenidate on height and weight of school age children with ADHD.

    Zhang, H; Du, M; Zhuang, S

    2010-08-01

    Stimulant-associated growth deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have long been a concern. We chose 146 school age children diagnosed with ADHD being treated with methylphenidate (MPH) and 29 drug-free ADHD children, and followed them up for 2-4 years. We recorded the changes in height and weight after long-term methylphenidate treatment and analyzed the influence of confounding factors to growth in height, weight, and height velocity. The change of the gap between patients' height and mean height in the methylphenidate group was -1.86+/-0.82 cm ( Pmethylphenidate group and controls were -0.14+/-0.23 SD ( Pmethylphenidate was -0.14+/-1.25 kg ( P>0.05). From this study, a small but significant deceleration of height velocity has been identified as a long-term side effect of methylphenidate, the magnitude of the height deficit is related to the duration of treatment. Methylphenidate had no significant influence on weight and BMI values. PMID:20799150

  2. Adolescent methylphenidate treatment differentially alters adult impulsivity and hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat model of ADHD.

    Somkuwar, S S; Kantak, K M; Bardo, M T; Dwoskin, L P

    2016-02-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity are two facets of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Impulsivity is expressed as reduced response inhibition capacity, an executive control mechanism that prevents premature execution of an intermittently reinforced behavior. During methylphenidate treatment, impulsivity and hyperactivity are decreased in adolescents with ADHD, but there is little information concerning levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment is discontinued. The current study evaluated impulsivity, hyperactivity as well as cocaine sensitization during adulthood after adolescent methylphenidate treatment was discontinued in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Treatments consisted of oral methylphenidate (1.5mg/kg) or water vehicle provided Monday-Friday from postnatal days 28-55. During adulthood, impulsivity was measured in SHR and control strains (Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats) using differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedules. Locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization were measured using the open-field assay. Adult SHR exhibited decreased efficiency of reinforcement under the DRL30 schedule and greater levels of locomotor activity and cocaine sensitization compared to control strains. Compared to vehicle, methylphenidate treatment during adolescence reduced hyperactivity in adult SHR, maintained the lower efficiency of reinforcement, and increased burst responding under DRL30. Cocaine sensitization was not altered following adolescent methylphenidate in adult SHR. In conclusion, adolescent treatment with methylphenidate followed by discontinuation in adulthood had a positive benefit by reducing hyperactivity in adult SHR rats; however, increased burst responding under DRL compared to SHR given vehicle, i.e., elevated impulsivity, constituted an adverse consequence associated with increased risk for cocaine abuse liability. PMID:26657171

  3. Buspirone Versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Shahin Akhondzadeh; Reza Hajiaghaee; Ali Galeiha; Poopak Hafezi; Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double ...

  4. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Bhat Venkataramana; Grizenko Natalie; Lee James; Sengupta Sarojini; Polotskaia Anna; Joober Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic) and undesired (side) effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years) were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose), each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' ...

  5. Methylphenidate

    ... for ADHD, which may include counseling and special education. Make sure to follow all of your doctor's ... or hearing voices that do not exist) motor tics or verbal tics depression abnormally excited mood mood ...

  6. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  7. Instrumental learning in ADHD in a context of reward: intact learning curves and performance improvement with methylphenidate.

    Luman, Marjolein; Goos, Vanessa; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that instrumental learning is impaired in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tested whether this deficiency can be ameliorated by the use of three different doses of methylphenidate (MPH): a low, a medium, and a high dose. Fifty children (23 with ADHD, 27 typically developing) performed an instrumental learning task in which they had to map four stimuli to two responses using feedback that differed in information value and that was coupled to monetary gain (0.2). Feedback was either contingent, thus fully informative on performance, or probabilistic, and informative in only 88 % of the trials. Dependent variables were response accuracy and latency. Contrary to predictions, children with ADHD and typically developing controls did not differ in their ability to acquire the stimulus-response mappings, in either condition. This indicates that with a simple instrumental learning task, children with ADHD are able to learn from rewarded feedback, as controls do, suggesting that children with ADHD are capable of learning both at home and in class when the environment is adequate. Possibly, learning problems are more evident in children with comorbid ODD, as exploratory analyses indicated that accuracy scores were significantly reduced when children with ADHD exhibited high levels of parent-rated ODD symptoms. Medication analysis showed that children with ADHD completed the task more accurately and faster when taking MPH compared to placebo, particularly when the dose was high. PMID:25212229

  8. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available bjective: This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms .Method:Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day plus folic (5mg/day, and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus placebo. Parent-reported ADHD symptoms and Overt Aggression Scale score were the outcome measures. Quality of life was assessed as well. Assessments were performed at pre-intervention, and at one month and two months after starting the interventions using repeated measure analysis Results:The mean age of children was 9.6(2.7 years. Age and gender were not associated with the groups. ADHD symptoms significantly decreased in both groups during the trial. However, no difference was observed between the groups. Moreover, aggression non-significantly decreased in both groups. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the two groups in efficacy for treating different types of aggressive behaviors including: verbal aggression, physical aggression against people, physical aggression against properties or objects, and aggression against self (self-injurious behavior. While methylphenidate improved quality of life of children with ADHD, folic acid did not improve it more than placebo. Both medications were well tolerated.Conclusion:considering the marked limitations of this trial, this primarily report suggests that methylphenidate may improve ADHD symptoms and the quality of life of children with ADHD. Current evidence does not support that folic acid as an adjuvant is effective for treating ADHD symptoms or aggression, or the improving quality of life of children with ADHD.

  9. The influence of methylphenidate on the power spectrum of ADHD children – an MEG study

    Bauer Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was dedicated to investigate the influence of Methylphenidate (MPH on cortical processing of children who were diagnosed with different subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. As all of the previous studies investigating power differences in different frequency bands have been using EEG, mostly with a relatively small number of electrodes our aim was to obtain new aspects using high density magnetoencephalography (MEG. Methods 35 children (6 female, 29 male participated in this study. Mean age was 11.7 years (± 1.92 years. 17 children were diagnosed of having an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of the combined type (ADHDcom, DSM IV code 314.01; the other 18 were diagnosed for ADHD of the predominantly inattentive type (ADHDin, DSM IV code 314.0. We measured the MEG during a 5 minute resting period with a 148-channel magnetometer system (MAGNES™ 2500 WH, 4D Neuroimaging, San Diego, USA. Power values were averaged for 5 bands: Delta (D, 1.5–3.5 Hz, Theta (T, 3.5–7.5 Hz, Alpha (A, 7.5–12.5 Hz, Beta (B, 12.5–25 Hz and Global (GL, 1.5–25 Hz.. Additionally, attention was measured behaviourally using the D2 test of attention with and without medication. Results The global power of the frequency band from 1.5 to 25 Hz increased with MPH. Relative Theta was found to be higher in the left hemisphere after administration of MPH than before. A positive correlation was found between D2 test improvement and MPH-induced power changes in the Theta band over the left frontal region. A linear regression was computed and confirmed that the larger the improvement in D2 test performance, the larger the increase in Theta after MPH application. Conclusion Main effects induced by medication were found in frontal regions. Theta band activity increased over the left hemisphere after MPH application. This finding contradicts EEG results of several groups who found lower levels of Theta power

  10. Effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug and is available to most patients. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate (MPH in ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies was conducted with time limit February, 2012, in English and Spanish. The following databases were consulted: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles were independently evaluated by two investigators and were assessed for methodological quality. Results: Of the 377 studies found initially, 14 were included, including two systematic reviews, 7 primary articles on therapeutic interventions and 5 clinical guidelines. Most of the studies have shortcoming with regards to search strategies, critical analysis, small samples and low Jadad scale. Conclusions: MPH is superior to placebo for moderate to severe cases of ADHD in the of 6-19 year-old population.

  11. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (peffects in ADHD patients with higher EF severity (RTV: β=.670, t=2.097, p=.042; omission errors (OE): β=-.098, t=-4.759, pSide effects rates were substantially but non-significantly greater for OROS-mph compared to placebo (77% vs. 46%, p=.063). OROS-mph effects indicated RTV as the most sensitive parameter for measuring both neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in adults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration. PMID:24508533

  12. Reinforcement enhances vigilance among children with ADHD: comparisons to typically developing children and to the effects of methylphenidate.

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n = 25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n = 19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  13. An observational study of once-daily modified-release methylphenidate in ADHD: effectiveness on symptoms and impairment, and safety.

    Döpfner, Manfred; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Breuer, Dieter; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-10-01

    ADHD affects over 5% of children worldwide. It is typically treated with stimulant medications, and methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed. This study investigated the effectiveness, on symptoms and impairment, and safety of Equasym XL(®), a combination of 30% immediate-release and 70% modified-release MPH, in the treatment of ADHD in daily clinical practice. This open-label, observational, post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in 169 centres in Germany. Eligible patients, aged 6-17 years, were diagnosed with ADHD and about to begin treatment with Equasym XL(®). Effectiveness was assessed by physicians using the clinical global impression (CGI) severity and improvement scales; teachers and parents completed questionnaires evaluating ADHD symptoms and behavioural problems (DAYAS, FBB-ADHD and SDQ-P). Assessments were carried out at baseline, after 1-3 and 6-12 weeks of treatment. Of 852 enrolled patients, 822 were evaluable; 25.30% were treatment naïve, 69.84% had previously received different MPH formulations, and 4.87% had received other medications. ADHD symptoms improved from baseline to last visit for the majority of patients for all outcome measures. According to physician ratings of core ADHD symptoms, 75.73% of patients showed improvements on the CGI-Improvement scale, 17.77% had no change, and 6.50% worsened. In teacher and parent ratings, the effectiveness of Equasym XL(®) was rated better than prior therapy at all measured time points across the day, particularly late morning (teachers) and early afternoon (parents). Equasym XL(®) was generally well tolerated; only 3.16% of patients permanently discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Equasym XL(®) is effective and well tolerated in daily clinical practice. PMID:21901417

  14. High sibling correlation on methylphenidate response but no association with DAT1-10R homozygosity in Dutch sibpairs with ADHD

    van der Meulen, Emma M; Bakker, Steven C; Pauls, David L; Oteman, Nicole; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; Pearson, Peter L; Sinke, Richard J; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A minority of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not respond favorably to methylphenidate. This has been partially associated with homozygosity for the Dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10-repeat allele and the presence of one or two Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) 7-

  15. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate on Neural Networks Associated with Executive Attention in Children with ADHD: Results from a Longitudinal Functional MRI Study

    Konrad, Kerstin; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal functional MRI study examines the effects of stimulants on neural activity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that one year of methylphenidate treatment might be beneficial though insufficient to show normalization of neural correlates of attention.

  16. Sex Differences in the Response of Children with ADHD to Once-Daily Formulations of Methylphenidate

    Sonuga-Barke, J. S.; Coghill, David; Markowitz, John S.; Swanson, James M.; Vandenberghe, Mieke; Hatch, Simon J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of sex differences in methylphenidate response by children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have lacked methodological rigor and statistical power. This paper reports an examination of sex differences based on further analysis of data from a comparison of two once-daily methylphenidate formulations (the COMACS…

  17. A non-interventional study of extended-release methylphenidate in the routine treatment of adolescents with ADHD: effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment.

    Sobanski, Esther; Döpfner, Manfred; Ose, Claudia; Fischer, Roland

    2013-12-01

    This multi-centre, open-label, non-interventional study evaluates effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment of a specific extended-release methylphenidate with a 50 % immediate and a 50 % extended-release component (Medikinet(®) retard) in the clinical routine treatment of 381 adolescents with ADHD and a mean age of 14.0 ± 1.9 years. ADHD and associated psychiatric symptoms, medication status and dosage frequency, treatment adherence and adverse events were assessed at baseline and after a median treatment length with Medikinet(®) retard of 70 days. Primary outcome criterion was the change of ADHD symptom severity from baseline to endpoint according to the ADHD-KGE (German: ADHS-Klinische Gesamteinschätzung) change score. At baseline, 4.2 % of the patients were treatment naïve, 92.7 % had previously received different methylphenidate formulations and 3.1 % had received atomoxetine or amphetamine. During the study, patients received a mean daily dose of 35.7 ± 15.1 mg Medikinet(®) retard. At endpoint, in 78 % of patients, the total ADHD symptom severity was reduced, in 20.4 %, it remained unchanged and in 1.6 %, it was worsened. The mean ADHD-KGE total ADHD symptom score was reduced from 1.8 ± 0.7 (moderate) at baseline to 0.8 ± 0.5 (mild; p methylphenidate formulation to Medikinet(®) retard, multiple dosing with ≥3 daily medication intakes was reduced from 12.9 % at baseline to 3.1 % at endpoint (p problems. The findings suggest that pharmacologically treated adolescents with ADHD and insufficient symptom reduction and/or treatment adherence benefit from switching to Medikinet(®) retard and that it is well tolerated when given in clinical routine care. PMID:23794192

  18. Genetic evidence for the association of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with ADHD and methylphenidate treatment response.

    Fortier, Marie-Ève; Sengupta, Sarojini M; Grizenko, Natalie; Choudhry, Zia; Thakur, Geeta; Joober, Ridha

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to stressors results in a spectrum of autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses. A key pathway in this response to stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in a transient increase in circulating cortisol, which exerts its effects through the two related ligand-activated transcription factors: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Genetic polymorphisms in these receptors have been shown to influence HPA axis reactivity, and chronic dysregulation of the HPA axis has been associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders. The objective of the study was to test the association between four functional polymorphisms in NR3C1 (encoding GR: ER22/23EK-rs6189, N363S-rs6195, BclI-rs41423247, A3669G-rs6198) and two in NR3C2 (encoding MR: 215G/C-rs2070951, I180 V-rs5522) with childhood ADHD. Family-based association tests (FBAT) were conducted with the categorical diagnosis of ADHD, behavioral and cognitive phenotypes related to ADHD, as well as with treatment response assessed in a 2-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with methylphenidate. A specific haplotype (G:A:G:G; ER22/23EK- N363S- BclI- A3669G) of NR3C1 showed a significant association with behaviors related to ADHD (particularly thought and attention problems, aggressive behavior), comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder, and executive function domains. An association was also observed with treatment response (assessed by the Conners'-Teachers and Restricted Academic Situation Scale). In contrast, MR gene polymorphisms were not associated with any of the variables tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing an association between functional polymorphisms in NR3C1 and ADHD, providing genetic evidence for involvement of the HPA axis in the disorder and treatment response. PMID:23055001

  19. Effectiveness and safety of long-acting versus short acting methylphenidate in ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with short-acting methylphenidate, but recently a long-acting presentation has been introduced, hence the interest of the study to evaluate the two formulations. Purpse: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of long-acting methylphenidate versus short-acting treatment for ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies comparing the two presentations of methylphenidate was conducted. Effectiveness was measured in terms of educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. Databases were searched until February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, Lilacs, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The studies were evaluated by two investigators independently. Results: Of the 18 studies found initially, six were included, among which a systematic review, a primary article on therapeutic interventions and four clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Long-acting methylphenidate is not superior to short-acting methylphenidate in terms of educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life. Few adverse effects were found in the treatment of patients between 6 and 19 years old with attention deficit disorder.

  20. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  1. Reboxetine for ADHD in children non-responders or with poor tolerance to methylphenidate: a prospective long-term open-label study.

    Quintero, Javier; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Loro, Mercedes; García-Campos, Natalia

    2010-11-01

    Up to 30% of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with psychostimulants discontinue the treatment because of intolerance or lack of therapeutic response. Therapeutic alternatives are needed for such patients. In the present case series, we study the effectiveness of reboxetine over a period of 6 months in a sample of 14 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, who had responded only partially or had presented poor tolerance to conventional treatment with methylphenidate. Clinical efficacy was evaluated through the application of the 18-item Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Percentages of responders (ADHD-RS ≥ 25%) and improvers (CGI-I absolute value side-effects were observed during treatment, the most frequent effects being headaches and insomnia. The initial findings of our study show that reboxetine may constitute an effective tool for long-term treatment of children with ADHD who present poor response or poor tolerance to initial treatment with methylphenidate. PMID:21432596

  2. Methylphenidate and Amphetamine Do Not Induce Cytogenetic Damage in Lymphocytes of Children with ADHD

    Witt, Kristine L.; Shelby, Michael D.; Itchon-Ramos, Nilda; Faircloth, Melissa; Kissling, Grace E.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Ravi, Hima; Murli, Hemalatha; Mattison, Donald R.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2008-01-01

    The inducement of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving treatment with methylphenidate- or amphetamine-based drugs is investigated. Findings did not reveal significant increases in cytogenetic damage related to the treatment. The risk for cytogenetic damage posed by such products…

  3. Methylphenidate and Play Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability and ADHD

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Sagady, Amie E.; McAuliffe-Bellin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 9-12% of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Although psychostimulant medication is often the primary treatment modality, little is known regarding the effects of such agents on social interactions and play in this population. Additionally, the role of ADHD symptoms in social and…

  4. Phenotypic psychiatric characterization of children with Williams syndrome and response of those with ADHD to methylphenidate treatment.

    Green, Tamar; Avda, Sarit; Dotan, Inbar; Zarchi, Omer; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Zalsman, Gil; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with cognitive deficits, special behavioral phenotype, and high rates of psychiatric disorders. The aims of the present study were: (1) To compare the rates of psychiatric disorders and repetitive behaviors in children with WS to children with idiopathic developmental disability (DDs); (2) To longitudinally assess the change in psychiatric disorders during adolescence in WS; (3) To assess retrospectively the effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in WS children with ADHD. The study consisted of a cohort of 38 children and adolescents (age 13.1 ± 5.2 years) with WS and a sample of age-matched DDs (age 15.0 ± 3.1 years). A current follow-up evaluation was conducted after 5.6 ± 1.6 years for 25 subjects (65.8%) of the WS cohort. The rate of most psychiatric disorders was found similar in children with WS and DD controls. Specific phobia, especially from noises, obsessive-compulsive symptoms (e.g., aggressive obsessions and repetitive questions), and stereotypic behaviors (e.g., glancing), were more common in WS than DDs. In a longitudinal follow-up of the WS children, we found a decrease in the rate of anxiety disorders. In addition, a clinically significant improvement was reported in 72.2% of WS children with ADHD following MPH treatment. Sadness/unhappiness was the most common side effect associated with MPH treatment in WS, occurring in 2/3 of treated individuals. The present study further elucidates the neuropsychiatric phenotype of WS. Our results also suggest that MPH treatment for ADHD in WS warrants future prospective controlled trials. PMID:22052570

  5. Meta-analysis of Effectiveness of Methylphenidate on the Rate of ADHD Symptoms

    Somaye Jamali-Paghale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, psychologists and psychiatrists in the field of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD have been research doing for measurement of validity and efficiency of available treatment and. In this regard, meta-analysis integrates the results of different studies then determines the effect size of drug treatment.This study seeks to investigate the effective rate of methylphenidateon on reducing ADHD symptoms by following the meta-analysis model.Materials and Methods: 21 Studies which were methodologically accepted were selected and meta-analysis was done on them. The research tool was meta-analysis check list.Results: the result indicated that rate of effect size drug treatment on reducing ADHD symptoms was 0.71 (p≤ 0.001. This rate of effective size according to Cohen table was higher than average and considered.Conclusion: Therefore, it seems that methylphenidateon can be applied as proper treatments for individuals suffering from ADHD symptoms.

  6. Meta-analysis of Effectiveness of Methylphenidate on the Rate of ADHD Symptoms

    Somaye Jamali-Paghale; Ahmad Abedi; Elham Aghaei; Salar Faramarzi; Arezou Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, psychologists and psychiatrists in the field of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) have been research doing for measurement of validity and efficiency of available treatment and. In this regard, meta-analysis integrates the results of different studies then determines the effect size of drug treatment.This study seeks to investigate the effective rate of methylphenidateon on reducing ADHD symptoms by following the meta-analysis model.Materials and Met...

  7. Aspects of ADHD in adults : neurocognitive functioning, actigraphy, effects of methylphenidate, and association with genetic polymorphisms

    Boonstra, Aukje Marije

    2006-01-01

    The current thesis encompasses a number of empirical, clinical studies into various aspects of ADHD in adults. The common theme of the studies and thereby the overall aim of the thesis is to further substantiate the external validity (especially the concurrent and predictive validity) of the diagnos

  8. Treatment Effects of Methylphenidate on Cognitive Functioning in Children with Mental Retardation and ADHD

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Casat, Charles D.; Lane, David M.; Jerger, Susan W.; Roache, John D.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Lachar, David; Faria, Laura P.; Payne, Christa D.; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive effects of stimulant medication were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Performance on tasks tapping sustained attention, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and immediate memory was assessed for 24 children (mean age 10.9 years)…

  9. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  10. Methylphenidate-induced mania-like symptoms

    Kaustav Chakraborty; Sandeep Grover

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic dose of methylphenidate is known to cause adverse effects (psychosis or mania), albeit in a small number of cases. Signs and symptoms of adverse effects usually disappear on stopping the medicine. Data regarding the safety of methylphenidate in comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and mental retardation are nonexistent. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with ADHD and mental retardation treated with methylphenidate, who developed mania like symptoms requ...

  11. MR imaging of the effects of methylphenidate on brain structure and function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Durston, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the first-choice pharmacological intervention for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The pharmacological and behavioral effects of methylphenidate are well described, but less is known about neurochemical brain changes induced by methylphenidate. Thi

  12. Actigraphic Recording of Manic Symptoms Induced by Methylphenidate

    Timo Partonen; Pekka Tani; Sami Leppämäki; Tuuli Lahti

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by a long-standing pattern of impulsive behavior, hyperkinesia, and inattention. Psychostimulants, for example, methylphenidate, are the treatment of choice for ADHD both in children, adolescents, and adults. Method. The effect of methylphenidate on sleep structure is not well known. We studied the effect of long-acting methylphenidate on sleep in adult ADHD patients, in a naturalistic treatme...

  13. ADHD

    ... be overly active. What are some of the signs of ADHD? Many children have trouble focusing and behaving at ... it is very important to get help for ADHD as early as possible. Additional Information: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ ...

  14. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  15. The Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate and Dexmethylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Michael A. Sopko Jr; Harjeet Caberwal; Benjamin Chavez

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate, OROS-methylphenidate, methylphenidate ER, and dexmethylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To analyze the effects of different doses of methylphenidate, it’s various formulations, and methylphenidate on efficacy and safety in this population. Data sources Literature retrieval was performed through Pubmed/MEDLINE (Up to May 2010) using the terms methylphenidate, dexmethylphen...

  16. Buspirone versus methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention- deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: randomized double-blind study.

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Hafezi, Poopak; Galeiha, Ali; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were study population of this trial. Subjects were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent clinic for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using tablet of buspirone at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg) (group 1) or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 2) for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale IV. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 21 and 42 days after the medication started. Significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -8.95±8.73 (mean±SD) and -15.60±7.81 (mean±SD) for buspirone and methyphenidate, for Parent ADHD Rating Scale. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -9.80 ±7.06 (mean±SD) and -22.40±9.90 (mean±SD) for buspirone and methyphenidate, respectively for Teacher ADHD Rating Scale. The difference between the buspirone and methylphenidate groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant except for decreased appetite, headache and insomnia that were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. The results of this study suggest that administration of buspirone was

  17. Buspirone Versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were study population of this trial. Subjects were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent clinic for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using tablet of buspirone at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 1 or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 2 for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale IV. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 21 and 42 days after the medication started. Significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -8.95±8.73 (mean±SD and -15.60±7.81 (mean±SD for buspirone and methyphenidate, for Parent ADHD Rating Scale. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -9.80 ±7.06 (mean±SD and -22.40±9.90 (mean±SD for buspirone and methyphenidate, respectively for Teacher ADHD Rating Scale. The difference between the buspirone and methylphenidate groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant except for decreased appetite, headache and insomnia that were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. The results of this study suggest that administration of

  18. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% femal...

  19. Methylphenidate improves response inhibition but not reflection–impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DeVito, Elise E.; Blackwell, Andrew D.; Clark, Luke; Kent, Lindsey; Dezsery, Anna Maria; Turner, Danielle C; Aitken, Michael R.F.; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity is a cardinal feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is thought to underlie many of the cognitive and behavioural symptoms associated with the disorder. Impairments on some measures of impulsivity have been shown to be responsive to pharmacotherapy. However, impulsivity is a multi-factorial construct and the degree to which different forms of impulsivity contribute to impairments in ADHD or respond to pharmacological treatments remains unclear....

  20. Should we continue methylphenidate treatment despite orofacial or extremity dyskinesias?

    selcen yaroglu kazanci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric disease affecting 5.3% of school-aged children. Methylphenidate is the primary stimulant, which has been used widely more than 60 years to treat ADHD. In this paper 3 cases with orofacial and/or limb dyskinesia after methylphenidate administration are reported. In 2 of our patients, continuation of the methylphenidate treatment did not cause recurrent dyskinesia. We thought that despite dyskinetic side effects, in cases with normal IQ level, continuation of methylphenidate treatment may be safe and do not cause any recurrent dyskinetic movements. Despite dyskinesia, one more chance may be given to methylphenidate treatment.

  1. Methylphenidate off-label use and safety

    Trenque, Thierry; Herlem, Emmanuelle; Abou Taam, Malak; Drame, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is a piperidine derivative structurally and pharmacologically similar to amphetamine. Methylphenidate is indicated for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 6 years of age and over when remedial measures alone prove insufficient. In adults, its indication, except in narcolepsy, is not defined. Methylphenidate received regulatory approval almost sixty years ago with a first registration in Switzerland in October 1954. Objective To evaluat...

  2. Preventative treatment in an animal model of ADHD: Behavioral and biochemical effects of methylphenidate and its interactions with ovarian hormones in female rats.

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Freund, Nadja; Thompson, Britta S; Meda, Shirisha; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-09-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that juvenile males that are exposed to methylphenidate (MPH) show reduced risk for substance use later in life. In contrast, little is known about whether females have the same enduring treatment response to stimulants and how gonadal hormones influence their behavior later in life. Females received either a sham or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) microinjection in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at postnatal day (P)10. Subjects were then treated with Vehicle or MPH (2mg/kg, p.o.) between P20-35 and tested during late adolescence/young adulthood (P60); half of these subjects underwent ovariectomy at P55 to determine hormonal influences. Females with 6-OHDA were depleted of PFC dopamine by 61% and demonstrated increased impulsive choice (delayed discounting) and preferences for cocaine-associated environments relative to control females. Both MPH and ovariectomy reduced impulsive choice and cocaine preferences in 6-OHDA females, but had no enduring effect in Sham females. Ovariectomy itself did not significantly affect impulsivity. Juvenile MPH interacted strongly with 6-OHDA to increase D4, D5, Alpha-1A, Alpha-2A, and 5-HT-1A mRNA receptor expression in the PFC. MPH alone effected D1 mRNA, while 6-OHDA increased BDNF; all markers were decreased by ovariectomy. Together, these data suggest that 6-OHDA changes in dopamine are not only relevant for ADHD-like behaviors, but their long-term modulation by treatment and the influence of cyclical differences in menstrual cycle. PMID:27397110

  3. Should we continue methylphenidate treatment despite orofacial or extremity dyskinesias?

    selcen yaroglu kazanci; mahmut cem tarakcioglu; lida bulbul; neslihan ozkul saglam; sami hatipoglu

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disease affecting 5.3% of school-aged children. Methylphenidate is the primary stimulant, which has been used widely more than 60 years to treat ADHD. In this paper 3 cases with orofacial and/or limb dyskinesia after methylphenidate administration are reported. In 2 of our patients, continuation of the methylphenidate treatment did not cause recurrent dyskinesia. We thought that despite dyskinetic side effects...

  4. ADHD

    ... been a problem. Schools can also play a part in helping students with ADHD. Most schools will develop a plan ... they head off to college or start a job. When the time comes for you to do this, you may ...

  5. Task-Related Default Mode Network Modulation and Inhibitory Control in ADHD: Effects of Motivation and Methylphenidate

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Hollis, Chris; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Totman, John J.; Liotti, Mario; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including poor attention and inhibitory control, are at least partially alleviated by factors that increase engagement of attention, suggesting a hypodopaminergic reward deficit. Lapses of attention are associated with attenuated deactivation of the default…

  6. Methylphenidate-induced mania-like symptoms

    Kaustav Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dose of methylphenidate is known to cause adverse effects (psychosis or mania, albeit in a small number of cases. Signs and symptoms of adverse effects usually disappear on stopping the medicine. Data regarding the safety of methylphenidate in comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and mental retardation are nonexistent. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with ADHD and mental retardation treated with methylphenidate, who developed mania like symptoms requiring inpatient treatment. The index case required psychopharmacological intervention with sodium valproate and olanzapine as the symptoms did not subside even after 3 days. This case highlights the fact that one has to exercise caution while prescribing methylphenidate in patients with comorbid ADHD and mental retardation.

  7. ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD

    Gehricke, Jean-G.; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L; Chan, Vivien; Doan, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate, atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the st...

  8. Objective versus Subjective Assessment of Methylphenidate Response

    Manor, Iris; Meidad, Sheera; Zalsman, Gil; Zemishlany, Zvi; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Subjective improvement-assessment in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), following a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) was compared to performance on the Test-of-Variables-of-Attention (TOVA). Self-perception was assessed with the clinical-global-impression-of-change (CGI-C). Participants included 165 ADHD subjects (M:F ratio…

  9. Methylphenidate significantly improves driving performance of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized crossover trial.

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Roos, M.; Minova, A.; Eijken, E.J.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Kenemans, J.L.; Verbaten, M.N.; Olivier, B.; Volkerts, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Although patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported improved driving performance on methylphenidate, limited evidence exists to support an effect of treatment on driving performance and some regions prohibit driving on methylphenidate. A randomized, crossover trial e

  10. Assessment of cardiovascular risks due to methylphenidate in six months of treatment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    mehmet emre ari; ibrahim ilker cetin; filiz ekici; abdullah kocabas; sancar eminoglu; esra guney; onder ozturk; gulser senses dinc; zeynep goker

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cardiovascular adverse effects can be seen rarely in patients receiving methylphenidate for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we planned to investigate the effects of methylphenidate on the cardiovascular system in ADHD patients. Methods: One hundred and forty-one patients, who were diagnosed with ADHD and started on methylphenidate treatment between May 2011 and May 2012, were investigated. A cardiologic evaluation was performed on all of the ...

  11. Methylphenidate Modifies the Motion of the Circadian Clock

    Antle, Michael C.; van Diepen, Hester C; Deboer, Tom; Pedram, Pardis; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Meijer, Johanna H.

    2012-01-01

    People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience sleep problems, and these are frequently exacerbated by the methylphenidate they take to manage their ADHD symptoms. Many of the changes to sleep are consistent with a change in the underlying circadian clock. The present study was designed to determine if methylphenidate alone could alter properties of the circadian clock. Young male mice were examined in light–dark cycles and in constant darkness and recordings wer...

  12. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...... to the very low quality of the evidence, the magnitude of the associated improvement is uncertain. Methylphenidate was associated with an increased risk of nonserious adverse events. There are too few data to assess the association with serious adverse events....

  13. Bioequivalence of Sandoz methylphenidate osmotic-controlled release tablet with Concerta® (Janssen-Cilag)

    Schapperer, Elisabeth; Daumann, Heike; Lamouche, Stéphane; Thyroff-Friesinger, Ursula; Viel, François; Weitschies, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the bioequivalence of Sandoz methylphenidate osmotic-controlled release (OCR) tablets (Sandoz [Methylphenidate[ MPH OCR) with Concerta®, a methylphenidate formulation indicated for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Four open-label, randomized, single-dose, two-way crossover bioequivalence studies were conducted in healthy subjects: three fasting studies with 54-, 36- and 18-mg doses of methylphenidate, and one fed study with the 54-mg dose...

  14. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects. PMID:27409720

  15. Commentary: RCT of Optimal Dose Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Severe ADHD and ID--A Reply to Arnold (2013)

    Simonoff, Emily; Taylor, Eric; Baird, Gillian; Bernard, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The commentary by Arnold (2013) raises a number of interesting issues and speculations about the action of methylphenidate in children with intellectual disability (ID) and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders. In our article (Simonoff et al., 2013), we were careful to stick closely to the statistical analysis…

  16. Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Garg, Jasmin; Arun, Priti; Chavan, BS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with substantial functional impairments. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well-established drugs for the management of ADHD. Some studies from Western countries have reported these drugs to be effective in the management of ODD comorbid with ADHD. This study aimed to assess if methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in treating Indian childre...

  17. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  18. Buspirone versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind and Randomized Trial

    Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita; Shahrbabaki, Mahin Eslami; Razjouyan, Katayoon; Amini, Homayoun; Mazhabdar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of buspirone compared with methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 34 children with ADHD as defined by DSM-IV-TR were randomized to buspirone or methylphenidate dosed on weight-adjusted basis at buspirone (0.5 mg/kg/day) and methylphenidate…

  19. Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Findling, Robert L.; Short, Elizabeth J.; McNamara, Nora K.; Demeter, Christine A.; Stansbrey, Robert J.; Gracious, Barbara L.; Whipkey, Resaca; Manos, Michael J.; Calabrese, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    The short-term efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of youths aged 5 to 17 years with bipolar disorder (BD) and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was investigated. The trial observation showed that euthymic youths with BD and ADHD might benefit from short-term concomitant treatment with methylphenidate.

  20. Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience

    Huurne, N.; Fallon, S.J.; Schouwenburg, M. van; Schaaf, M.; Buitelaar, J.; Jensen, O.; Cools, R.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salien

  1. Questões atuais no tratamento farmacológico do TDAH em adultos com metilfenidato Actual issues in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD in adults with methylphenidate

    Mario R. Louzã

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento farmacológico do transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade (TDAH em adultos inclui o uso de psicoestimulantes, antidepressivos e atomoxetina, sendo o primeiro considerado a indicação de primeira escolha. A eficácia do metilfenidato foi demonstrada em adultos quando se empregavam doses maiores, proporcionalmente similares àquelas usadas em estudos em crianças. O perfil de eventos adversos do metilfenidato, incluindo aqueles relativos ao sistema cardiovascular, parece bastante seguro.Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood includes psychostimulants, antidepressants and atomoxetine, the first of them being considered the first choice. Methylphenidate efficacy has been demonstrated in adults when higher doses were used, in a proportionate similar way to what has been described in children. Methylphenidate profile of adverse events, including cardiovascular ones, seems to be safe.

  2. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  3. ADHD & Tourette Syndrome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH and clonidine (CLON, alone and in combination, in 136 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and chronic tic disorder, was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, and reported by the Tourette Syndrome Study Group from the University of Rochester, NY.

  4. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  5. Transdermal delivery: product and patent update.

    Gupta, Himanshu; Babu, R J

    2013-12-01

    Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive alternative to the oral and parenteral drug delivery. Drugs which are prone to first-pass metabolism can be delivered easily in small doses with sustained blood levels through this method. An update to available products along with a review of clinical trials and patents are discussed in this study. In this review, we have compiled 16 drugs, i.e. Buprenorphine, Clonidine, Estradiol, Fentanyl, Granisetron, Lidocaine, Methylphenidate, Nicotine, Nitroglycerin, Oxybutynin, Rivastigmine, Rotigotine, Scopolamine, Selegiline, Testosterone, Influenza virus vaccine (Microneedle) and covering about 22 marketed products on the transdermal system. We present instrumental information on them along with the compilation of current clinical trials on transdermal systems. We summarize the contents of patents granted in last 5 years under different pharmacological categories. This article serves, accordingly as a source of available information focused on transdermal drug delivery research. PMID:24025130

  6. Delta Plots in the Study of Individual Differences : New Tools Reveal Response Inhibition Deficits in AD-HD That Are Eliminated by Methylphenidate Treatment

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  7. Delta Plots in the study of individual differences: New tools reveal response inhibition deficits in AD/HD That are eliminated by methylphenidate treatment

    K.R. Ridderinkhof; A. Scheres; J. Oosterlaan; J.A. Sergeant

    2005-01-01

    The authors highlight the utility of distribution-analytical techniques in the study of individual differences and clinical disorders. Cognitive deficits associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) were examined by using delta-plot analyses of performance data (reaction time and

  8. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  9. Persistent Behavioral Impairment Caused by Embryonic Methylphenidate Exposure in Zebrafish

    Levin, Edward D.; Sledge, Damiyon; Roach, Stephanie; Petro, Ann; Donerly, Susan; Linney, Elwood

    2011-01-01

    As more adults take the stimulant medication methylphenidate to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) residual type, the risk arises with regard to the potential risks of early developmental exposure if people taking the medication become pregnant. We studied the neurobehavioral effects of methylphenidate in zebrafish. Zebrafish offer cellular reporter systems, continuous visual access and molecular interventions such as morpholinos to help determine critical mechanisms underl...

  10. Methylphenidate Disrupts Social Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Vanderschuren, Louk JMJ; Trezza, Viviana; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Schiepers, Olga JG; Van Leeuwen, Natascha; de Vries, Taco J.; Schoffelmeer, Anton NM

    2008-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the first-choice treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. The cognitive effects of methylphenidate have been extensively studied, but little is known about its effects on spontaneous social behavior. During adolescence, rats display a characteristic, highly vigorous form of social behavior, termed social play behavior, which is of critical importance for social and cognitive development. We invest...

  11. Methylphenidate-induced dendritic spine formation and ΔFosB expression in nucleus accumbens

    Kim, Yong; Teylan, Merilee A.; Baron, Matthew; Sands, Adam; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the psychostimulant medication most commonly prescribed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent trends in the high usage of methylphenidate for both therapeutic and nontherapeutic purposes prompted us to investigate the long-term effects of exposure to the drug on neuronal adaptation. We compared the effects of chronic methylphenidate or cocaine (15 mg/kg, 14 days for both) exposure in mice on dendritic spine morphology and ΔFosB expression in mediu...

  12. Methylphenidate produces selective enhancement of declarative memory consolidation in healthy volunteers

    Linssen, A. M. W.; Vuurman, E.F.P.M.; Sambeth, A; Riedel, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline and is used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Besides reducing behavioral symptoms, it improves their cognitive function. There are also observations of methylphenidate-induced cognition enhancement in healthy adults, although studies in this area are relatively sparse. We assessed the possible memory-enhancing properties of methylphenidate. Objective In the current study, the p...

  13. Efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in 45 adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial.

    Kooij, J.J.; Burger, H.; Boonstra, A.M.; Linden, P.D. van der; Kalma, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking in Europe. This study was undertaken to report on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in an adult out-patient population with ADHD, and to compare results

  14. Aggressive, Prosocial, and Nonsocial Behavior in Hyperactive Boys: Dose Effects of Methylphenidate in Naturalistic Settings.

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated impact of methylphenidate on social behavior in 25 boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared children given placebo, low, and moderate dosages of methylphenidate and 15 boys without problems in attention and behavior during naturalistic summer research program. Medication decreased noncompliance and physical and…

  15. Brief Report: Response to Methylphenidate in Two Children with William Syndrome.

    Power, Thomas J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the use of methylphenidate with two boys (ages 7 and 8 years) with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder frequently accompanied by symptoms associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both boys performed optimally on 10 mg of methylphenidate administered twice daily, although one displayed increased…

  16. LETTER TO THE EDITOR - COMMENTS ON CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS IN CHILDREN TREATED WITH METHYLPHENIDATE

    The recent report by El-Zein et al. suggests that chromosome alterations may be a consequence of short-term methylphenidate use for the treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The report concludes that 3 months of treatment with methylphenidate...

  17. Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Nikzad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated i...

  18. Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance study

    Vaidya, Chandan J.; Austin, Glenn; Kirkorian, Gary; Ridlehuber, Hugh W.; Desmond, John E.; Glover, Gary H.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Functional MRI revealed differences between children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls in their frontal–striatal function and its modulation by methylphenidate during response inhibition. Children performed two go/no-go tasks with and without drug. ADHD children had impaired inhibitory control on both tasks. Off-drug frontal–striatal activation during response inhibition differed between ADHD and healthy children: ADHD children had greater frontal activ...

  19. Methylphenidate induction of complex visual hallucinations.

    Halevy, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2009-08-01

    A 15-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) presented with complex visual hallucinations of rats running around and touching and smelling him soon after receiving a first low dose of methylphenidate. The hallucinations resolved upon discontinuation of the drug. Reintroduction of the drug 7 years later at an even lower dose had the same effect. Other cases of vivid complex hallucinations of living creatures associated with methylphenidate have been reported in the literature. The pathogenetic mechanism is still unknown. In our case, the occurrence of hallucinations after a very low dose of the drug on 2 occasions may suggest an idiosyncratic reaction. The phenomenon might also be explained by a drug-induced dysfunction of the monoamine transmitters. Given the wide use of methylphenidate, clinicians should be aware of this possible side effect. PMID:19502578

  20. [Efficacy and safety of stimulants and non-stimulants in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)].

    Golubchik, Pavel; Sever, Jonatan; Weizman, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood. Stimulants, including methylphenidate, as well as non-stimulants, have shown efficacy in treating adult ADHD. Comparative, double blind, placebo controlled studies, in adults with ADHD, demonstrate good efficacy and safety profile. Methylphenidate was found to be tolerable and safe in short term treatment when given in its immediate release and long-acting preparations to adults with ADHD. Methylphenidate treatment is recommended in cases when ADHD diagnosis was confirmed. Follow-up is required with special attention to possible cardiovascular, psychiatric and abusive side effects. PMID:22111124

  1. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica;

    2015-01-01

    with placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents with ADHD. Meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) were conducted. Quality was assessed using GRADE. Teachers, parents, and observers rated ADHD symptoms and general behaviour. STUDY ANSWER AND LIMITATIONS: The analyses included 38......STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... considered high risk of bias trials according to the Cochrane guidelines. All outcomes were assessed very low quality according to GRADE. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The results suggest that among children and adolescents with a diagnosis of ADHD, methylphenidate may improve teacher reported symptoms of ADHD and...

  2. ADHD Meds May Pose Heart Risks for Some Kids

    ... ADHD Meds May Pose Heart Risks for Some Kids Study found slightly higher chance of irregular heartbeat ... when putting a child on methylphenidate, Pratt added. Kids with existing congenital heart disease are most affected ...

  3. Nucleus accumbens lesions modulate the effects of Methylphenidate

    Podet, Adam; Lee, Min J.; Swann, Alan C.; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD, Ritalin) is the prescribed drug of choice for treatment of ADHD. In recent years, the diagnosis rate of ADHD has increased dramatically, as have the number of MPD prescriptions. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants produces behavioral sensitization in rats, an experimental indicator of a drug’s potential liability. In studies on cocaine and amphetamine, this effect has been reported to involve the nucleus accumbens (NAc), one of the nuclei belonging ...

  4. Does Methylphenidate Affect Cystometric Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats?

    Kim, Khae Hawn; Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Park, Geun Ho; Cho, Sung Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is limited research on its effects on lower urinary tract function. This study investigated changes in cystometric parameters after intragastric administration of MPH in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Fourteen- to 16-week-old male SHRs (n=10), weighing between 280 and 315 g, were used. Th...

  5. ADHD in Substance Use Disorders : Prevalence and Pharmacotherapy

    Konstenius, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) and Attention deficit /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are persistent and prevailing disorders that conjointly are associated with negative lifeevents and mental distress. The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the rate of ADHD in substance using populations and to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of methylphenidate pharmacotherapy for treatment of co-existing ADHD and SUD. The prevalence of ADHD was investigated in Studies I and II...

  6. Adolescence methylphenidate treatment in a rodent model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Dopamine transporter function and cellular distribution in adulthood

    Somkuwar, Sucharita S.; Darna, Mahesh; Kantak, Kathleen M.; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is attributed to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. Methylphenidate, an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT and NET, respectively), is a standard treatment for ADHD. The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) is a well-established animal model of ADHD. Our previous results showed that methylphenidate treatment in adolescent SHR enhanced cocaine self-administration during adulthood, and alterations in DAT function in prefr...

  7. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...... parallel group trials (n=5111, median treatment duration 49 days) and 147 crossover trials (n=7134, 14 days). The average age across all studies was 9.7 years. The analysis suggested a beneficial effect of methylphenidate on teacher rated symptoms in 19 parallel group trials (standardised mean difference...... (SMD) -0.77, n=1698), corresponding to a mean difference of -9.6 points on the ADHD rating scale. There was no evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in serious adverse events (risk ratio 0.98, nine trials, n=1532; TSA adjusted intervention effect RR 0.91). Methylphenidate was...

  8. Assessment of daily profiles of ADHD and ODD symptoms, and symptomatology related to ADHD medication, by parent and teacher ratings

    Breuer, Dieter; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    DAYAS is a new two-part rating scale that assesses: (1) ADHD and ODD symptoms (externalising symptom ratings) and (2) symptomatology potentially related to ADHD medication (potentially medication-related symptoms) in real-world settings at different time periods throughout a normal school day. Data from a proof-of-concept study and two observational trials (Medikinet® retard [methylphenidate] and the Equasym XL® [methylphenidate] OBSEER study) evaluated: (1) validity of weekly externalising s...

  9. Methylphenidate modifies the motion of the circadian clock.

    Antle, Michael C; van Diepen, Hester C; Deboer, Tom; Pedram, Pardis; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; Meijer, Johanna H

    2012-10-01

    People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience sleep problems, and these are frequently exacerbated by the methylphenidate they take to manage their ADHD symptoms. Many of the changes to sleep are consistent with a change in the underlying circadian clock. The present study was designed to determine if methylphenidate alone could alter properties of the circadian clock. Young male mice were examined in light-dark cycles and in constant darkness and recordings were performed on behavioral activity, sleep, and electrical activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of freely moving mice. Methylphenidate in the drinking water (0.08%) significantly increased activity in the mid-to-late night, and led to a delay in the onset of activity and sleep relative to the light-dark cycle. While locomotor levels returned to baseline after treatment ended, the phase angle of entrainment required at least a week to return to baseline levels. In constant darkness, the free-running period of both wheel-running and general locomotor rhythms was lengthened by methylphenidate. When the treatment ended, the free-running period either remained stable or only partially reverted to baseline levels. Methylphenidate also altered the electrical firing rate rhythms in the SCN. It induced a delay in the trough of the rhythm, an increment in rhythm amplitude, and a reduction in rhythm variability. These observations suggest that methylphenidate alters the underlying circadian clock. The observed changes are consistent with clock alterations that would promote sleep-onset insomnia. PMID:22763623

  10. A Parent Guide To Understanding the Effects of Ritalin (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride).

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This guide provides information to help parents decide whether their child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should take methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin). Information is provided in a question-and-answer format on various concerns, including: the meaning of ADHD, whether Ritalin is overprescribed, when this medication is…

  11. A Candidate Gene Analysis of Methylphenidate Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Loo, Sandra K.; Manganiello, Marc; Leung, Michael C.; Tietjens, Jeremy R.; Trinh, Thao; Baweja, Shilpa; Suddath, Robert; Smalley, Susan L.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the potential role of candidate genes in moderating treatment effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Eighty-two subjects with ADHD aged 6 to 17 years participated in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, crossover titration trial of…

  12. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  13. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective?

    GrossTsur, [No Value; vanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  14. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Is methylphenidate safe and effective? (vol 130, pg 40, 1997)

    GrossTsur, [No Value; Manor, O; VanderMeere, J; Joseph, A; Shalev, RS

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate in children with the dual diagnosis of epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study design: Thirty children, aged 6.4 to 16.4 years, with epilepsy and ADHD were studied during a 4-month period. During the initial 2

  15. Adverse reactions of Methylphenidate in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Report from a referral center

    Khajehpiri, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Faghihi, Toktam; Karimzadeh, Iman; Khalili, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine various aspects of methylphenidate adverse reactions in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Iran. Methods: During the 6 months period, all children under methylphenidate treatment alone or along with other agents attending a university-affiliated psychology clinic were screened regarding all subjective and objective adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of methylphenidate. Causality and seriousness of detected ADRs ...

  16. Plasma and brain concentrations of oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate and their impact on brain monoamine content in mice

    Balcioglu, Aygul; Ren, Jia-Qian; McCarthy, Deirdre; Spencer, Thomas J.; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2009-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a frequently prescribed stimulant for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An important assumption in the animal models that have been employed to study methylphenidate’s effects on the brain and behavior is that bioavailability of methylphenidate in the animal models reflects that in human subjects. From this perspective, the dose and route of administration of methylphenidate assume critical importance because both these factors likely influen...

  17. Priapism Associated with MethylphenidateSR (Concerta Withdrawal

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattention subtype (ADHD, developed stuttering priapism (intermittent, prolonged, painful erections after withdrawal of OROS methylphenidate (ConcertaR 36 mg/day, and is reported from Inova Fairfax Hospital for Children, Falls Church, VA, and Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

  18. The Influences of Methylphenidate and Tomoxetine on the Function of HPA in Children with ADHD%哌甲酯及托莫西汀对注意缺陷多动障碍儿童HPA轴功能的影响

    陈燕惠; 陈辉; 刘艳艳; 林桂秀; 韦立新; 洪艳玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过研究哌甲酯(MPH)及托莫西汀(ATX)治疗前后注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)儿童下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺(HPA)轴的功能状态,探讨HPA轴在ADHD中的作用.方法:采用前瞻、双盲、随机对照研究方法,根据美国(第4版)(DSM-IV)ADHD诊断和分型标准确诊111例6~14岁ADHD男童,其中注意缺陷为主型(ADHD-I)33例,多动-冲动为主型(ADHD-HI)30例,混合型(ADHD-C)48例,对照组为年龄匹配健康男童35名.31例ADHD儿童随机给予MPH治疗和ATX治疗,于治疗前和治疗后1个月进行皮质醇测定.血浆皮质醇测定采用全自动微粒酶免疫分析法,于上午8:00空腹抽血测定.结果:ADHD各组血浆皮质醇水平[(236.12±109.77)nmol/L)均较对照组[(353.32±112.75)nmol/L)明显降低(P<0.01).ADHD-HI组[(177.62±62.99)nmol/L )]下降程度较ADHD-I组[(246.71±129.27)nmol/L,P<0.05]及ADHD-C组[(265.41±106.00)nmol/L,P<0.01]为著.31例ADHD男童,治疗后皮质醇浓度(249.84±87.86)nmol/L高于治疗前的(164.94±48.98)nmol/L(P<0.001),而治疗后符合DSM-IV的症状数中位数(M/QR)为10/3分,低于治疗前的12/4分(P<0.01).结论:在非应激状态下,ADHD儿童存在着HPA轴调节功能障碍,这可能系HPA轴低反应性所致.哌甲酯和托莫西汀均能提高ADHD患儿的皮质醇水平,皮质醇的提高与行为的改善密切相关.%Objective:To explore the relationship between hypothalanns-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and ADHD. The function of HPA axis in children with ADHD has been investigated before and after the treatment of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine ( ATX).Methods: The clinical study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized case-control trail. One hundred and eleven male children with ADHD between the ages of 6 to 14 years old were included in this study. The diagnosis of ADHD and its tiree subtypes were according to the handbook for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by American Psychiatric Association ( DSM-iV). Among all the cases there were 33

  19. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Seyed Ali Mostafavi; Seyed Ali Keshavarz; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad.Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Maryam Chamari,; Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods: Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (...

  20. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed Ali; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Kooshesh, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Chamari, Maryam; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg) combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin) (1mg/kg), and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1...

  1. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p cannabis, opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study. PMID:25605438

  2. Transdermal selegiline.

    Patkar, Ashwin A; Pae, Chi-Un; Zarzar, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Although older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are effective in the treatment of depressive disorders, they are underutilized in clinical practice due to main concerns about interaction with tyramine-containing food, and side effects. Efforts to address these safety issues led to the development of a transdermal formulation of selegiline, called selegiline transdermal system (STS). STS has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of major depression. Transdermal administration of selegiline bypasses gastrointestinal absorption and first-pass metabolism. Therefore, STS permits inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B enzymes in the brain while preserving the activity of MAO-A in the gastrointestinal system, thereby minimizing the risk of possible interactions with tyramine-rich foods. Tyramine challenge tests have confirmed that dietary modifications are not required with the 6 mg STS. The FDA has required dietary modifications with the 9 mg and 12 mg STS. Compared to oral administration, transdermal selegiline leads to sustained (minimal peak-trough fluctuations) plasma concentrations of the parent compound, increasing the amount of drug delivered to the brain. The efficacy of STS has been established in several short-term and one long-term randomized controlled trials. In clinical trials, application site reactions and insomnia were observed more frequently with STS than placebo. Rates of orthostatic hypotension, sexual dysfunction and weight gain were comparable between STS and placebo. STS is a new generation of MAOI with superior safety profile to older MAOIs. It increases the pharmacological options available to treat depressive disorders and may benefit patients with major depression with atypical features and resistant depression. It is important for health-care professionals to be informed about the properties of STS. PMID:17612708

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  4. Switching from Methylphenidate-Immediate Release (MPH-IR) to Methylphenidate-OROS (OROS-MPH): A Multi-center, Open-label Study in Korea

    Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Ye-Ni; Cheong, Un-Sun; Kim, Jae-Won; Hwang, Jun-Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; ,

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate HCL OROS extended-release (OROS-MPH) among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had been previously treated with methylphenidate HCL immediate-release (MPH-IR). Methods The sample included 102 children aged 6-12 (9.4±2.6) years who had been diagnosed with ADHD according the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; Am...

  5. Psychosis induced by the interaction between disulfiram and methylphenidate may be dose dependent.

    Grau-López, Lara; Roncero, Carlos; Navarro, Maria C; Casas, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    There are few studies describing psychiatric symptoms occurring when methylphenidate and disulfiram are used together. The authors report a case of disulfiram and methylphenidate interaction in which psychotic symptoms could be dose dependent. The patient, diagnosed of alcohol and cocaine dependence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), started treatment with methylphenidate increasing doses and disulfiram 250 mg/day over 4 weeks. During the first 2 weeks at doses of 36 mg/day of methylphenidate and maintaining disulfiram, side effects were not observed. However, by increasing to 54 mg/day, psychotic symptoms were detected. The authors reported that the effects are dose dependent. This is the first report about dose-dependent side effects in substance use disorder with ADHD. PMID:22489591

  6. 托莫西汀对哌甲酯治疗无效的注意缺陷多动障碍患儿的疗效和安全性分析%Efficacy and Safety of Tomoxetine on ADHD Children That Underwent Ineffective Treatment with Methylphenidate

    王勇; 顾教伟; 王大斌

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究托莫西汀对哌甲酯治疗无效的注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)患儿的疗效和安全性.方法:对39例经哌甲酯治疗3~6个月无效的ADHD患儿给予托莫西汀治疗8周,分别于第4周和第8周采用Conners父母症状问卷评分评估其疗效和安全性.结果:托莫西汀治疗4周后,26例患儿症状得到缓解;8周后,28例患儿有效;Conners父母症状问卷评分品行、学习、心身障碍、冲动-多动、焦虑因子和多动指数均较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05).结论:托莫西汀可用于哌甲酯治疗无效的ADHD患儿,其不良反应轻微,可耐受.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of tomoxetine on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHA) in children with ineffective treatment by methylphenidate. Methods Tomoxetine was administrated for 8 weeks in 39 patients with ADHA unresponsive to 3 to 6 months treatment of methylphenidate. Conner's parents symptom questionnaire ( PSQ) was employed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tomoxetine at 4 and 8 weeks. Results The clinical symptom was relieved in 26 patients with 4-week treatment of tomoxetine and in 28 patients with 8-week treatment. The scores in the subscales of Conner's PSQ were reduced significantly after treatment(P < 0. 05) ,including behavior scale, learning problem, psychosomatic problems, opposition-hyperactivity, anxious factor and hyperactivity scale. Conclusion Tomoxetine could be effectively and well tolerated used for treatment of childhood ADHD unresponsive to methylphenidate.

  7. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    M Karahmadi; H Esmaili

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin) is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate). This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive d...

  8. ADHD Medications

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  9. Atomoxetine Open-Label Trial in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine (originally named tomoxetine, a new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD marketed by Eli Lilly, was compared to methylphenidate in a prospective, randomized, open-label study for 10 weeks duration, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Carolinas Medical Center, and Lilly Research Laboratories.

  10. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Kollins, Scott H.; Wigal, Tim L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Telang, Frank W.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher T.; Swanson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evalu...

  11. Methylphenidate treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young people with learning disability and difficult-to-treat epilepsy: Evidence of clinical benefit

    Fosi, T.; Lax-Pericall, M. T.; Scott, R C; Neville, B.G.; Aylett, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To establish the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of children and young people with learning disability and severe epilepsy. Methods This retrospective study systematically reviewed the case notes of all patients treated with methylphenidate (MPH) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) ADHD at a specialist epilepsy center between 1998 and 2005. Treatment eff...

  12. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  13. Comparison of Therapeutic Effects of Omega-3 and Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) in Treating Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Dashti, Naser; Hekmat, Hoda; Soltani, Hamid Reza; Rahimdel, Abolghasem; Javaherchian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a fixed pattern of disregard and hyperactivity that is much more severe than what is normal in children of the same age. Multiple drugs are used for the treatment of children with ADHD; however, their side effects and efficacy are not clearly known. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two drugs, that is, omega-3 and methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin®), used to treat patients with ADHD. Me...

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Niko; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at

  15. Methylphenidate Enhances NMDA-Receptor Response in Medial Prefrontal Cortex via Sigma-1 Receptor: A Novel Mechanism for Methylphenidate Action

    Zhang, Chun-lei; Feng, Ze-Jun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Ji-Yun; Zhang, Xue-Han; Zhen, Xue-chu; Li, Bao-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), commercially called Ritalin or Concerta, has been widely used as a drug for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Noteworthily, growing numbers of young people using prescribed MPH improperly for pleasurable enhancement, take high risk of addiction. Thus, understanding the mechanism underlying high level of MPH action in the brain becomes an important goal nowadays. As a blocker of catecholamine transporters, its therapeutic effect is explained as being due t...

  16. The effect of methylphenidate on oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder O efeito do metilfenidato sobre o transtorno opositivo-desafiador comórbido com transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro; Paulo Mattos; Isabella de Souza; Giuseppe Pastura; Fernanda Gomes

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of methylphenidate on the diagnosis of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We conducted an open-label study in which 10 children and adolescents with a dual diagnosis of ODD and ADHD were assessed for their ODD symptoms and treated with methylphenidate. At least one month after ADHD symptoms were under control, ODD symptoms were reevaluated with the Parent form of the Children Interview for ...

  17. Methylphenidate enhances working memory by modulating discrete frontal and parietal lobe regions in the human brain.

    Mehta, M A; Owen, A M; Sahakian, B J; Mavaddat, N; Pickard, J D; Robbins, T W

    2000-03-15

    The indirect catecholamine agonist methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the drug treatment of choice in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), one of the most common behavioral disorders of childhood (DSM-IV), although symptoms may persist into adulthood. Methylphenidate can enhance cognitive performance in adults and children diagnosed with AD/HD (Kempton et al., 1999; Riordan et al., 1999) and also in normal human volunteers on tasks sensitive to frontal lobe damage, including aspects of spatial working memory (SWM) performance (Elliott et al., 1997). The present study investigated changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) induced by methylphenidate during performance of a self-ordered SWM task to define the neuroanatomical loci of the beneficial effect of the drug. The results show that the methylphenidate-induced improvements in working memory performance occur with task-related reductions in rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. The beneficial effects of methylphenidate on working memory were greatest in the subjects with lower baseline working memory capacity. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a localization of a drug-induced improvement in SWM performance in humans and has relevance for understanding the treatment of AD/HD. PMID:10704519

  18. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  19. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of three fixed dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Medori, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Trott, G.E.; Lee, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and the need to evaluate efficacy and safety of methylphenidate treatment in these patients. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 401 adults with ADHD (218 men; 18-63 years) were randomly assigne

  20. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  1. Addressing the problem of ADHD medication as neuroenhancements.

    Graf, William D; Miller, Geoffrey; Nagel, Saskia K

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand, production, and consumption are a) the inclusion of milder ADHD diagnoses; b) the vast marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry; and c) the illegal diversion of controlled ADHD medication to consumers seeking stimulants as neuroenhancements. Rapidly rising rates of any neurological disorder - especially a behaviorly-defined disorder closely linked to potent medications currently prescribed to more than 5% of the population - deserves ongoing scrutiny. Major social and ethical problems arise from vague-symptom medicalization, neurological disorder trivialization, medication overuse, and controlled substances diversion to healthy persons for nonmedical purposes. We argue against the 'spectrumization' of ADHD in an effort to curtail further diagnosis creep. PMID:24738763

  2. School-Based Administration of ADHD Drugs Decline, along with Diversion, Theft, and Misuse

    DuPont, Robert L.; Bucher, Richard H.; Wilford, Bonnie B.; Coleman, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000 researchers have reported a decline in the administration of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications given by school nurses, although no decline has been noted in the incidence of ADHD in school-age populations. Government data for the same period show reduced levels of methylphenidate abuse as measured by its…

  3. Examination of methylphenidate-mediated behavior regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 in mice

    Mines, Marjelo A.; Beurel, Eleonore; Jope, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in dopaminergic activity have been implicated in psychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and are treated with therapeutic stimulants, commonly methylphenidate or amphetamine. Amphetamine administration increases glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activation, which is necessary for certain acute behavioral responses to amphetamine, including increased locomotor activity and impaired sensorimotor gating. Here, we tested if modulating GSK3 by a...

  4. Dystonia in an Adolescent on Risperidone Following the Discontinuation of Methylphenidate: A Case Report

    Guler, Gulen; Yildirim, Veli; Kutuk, Meryem Ozlem; Fevziye TOROS

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with common comorbidities that include oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety disorder, and affective disorders. Because of these comorbidities, drug combination treatments and drug-drug interactions are becoming increasingly more frequent. The present case report describes an acute dystonic reaction following the abrupt discontinuation of methylphenidate from a drug regimen with risperidone. Th...

  5. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Methylphenidate Dose-Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Nick, Todd G.; Melguizo Castro, Maria S.; Stein, Mark A.; Brinkman, William B.; Graham, Amanda J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. Method:…

  6. Animal Model of Methylphenidate's Longterm Memory-Enhancing Effects

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a…

  7. ADHD: current and future therapeutics.

    Heal, David J; Smith, Sharon L; Findling, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    The stimulants, amphetamine and methylphenidate, have long been the mainstay of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapy. They are rapidly effective and are generally the first medications selected by physicians. In the development of alternative pharmacological approaches, drug candidates have been evaluated with a wide diversity of mechanisms. All of these developments have contributed real progress in the field, but there is still much room for improvement and unmet clinical need in ADHD pharmacotherapy. The availability of a wide range of compounds with a high degree of specificity for individual monoamines (dopamine and noradrenaline) and/or different pharmacological mechanisms has refined our understanding of the essential elements for optimum pharmacological effect in managing ADHD. In this chapter, we review the pharmacology of the different classes of drug used to treat ADHD and provide a neurochemical rationale, predominantly from the use of in vivo microdialysis experiments, to explain their relative efficacy and potential to elicit side effects. In addition, we will consider how predictions based on results from animal models translate into clinical outcomes. The treatment of ADHD is also described from the perspective of the physician. Finally, the new research development for drugs to treat ADHD is discussed. PMID:21487953

  8. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  9. First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been...... published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The...... Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy...

  10. Attenuation of methylphenidate-induced sensitization by co-administration of buspirone.

    Alam, Nausheen; Najam, Rahila; Naeem, Sadaf

    2016-03-01

    Methylphenidate, which inhibit dopamine transporter is effective in the treatment of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), but long term use of this drug is often associated with addiction and dependence. Locomotor sensitization development to psychostimulants like methylphenidate is an important contributor to drug abuse induced by psychostimulants. Different studies have shown that long term administration of drugs of abuse increases the effectiveness of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-1A somatodendritic receptors. Repeated buspirone administration reduces the effectiveness of 5-HT1A somatodendritic receptors. This study was designed to determine that buspirone co-administration may reduce methylphenidate-induced sensitization. The motor activity was compared by using familiar and novel environments after long-term administration of methylphenidate, buspirone and their co-administration. Long term oral administration of methylphenidate at a dose of 2.0mg/kg/day enhanced motor activity in home cage i.e. activity of familiar environment monitored at alternate day. Locomotor enhancing effects of methylphenidate were augmented on 13th day of drug administration suggesting sensitization induced by the drug. The sensitization effects were significant in home cage monitored on alternate day and also in an open field monitored weekly. Buspirone co-administration at a dose of 10mg/kg/day prevented methylphenidate-induced sensitization. It is suggested that the sensitization development to methylphenidate may oppose by buspirone co-administration due to the reduction in the sensitivity of 5-HT1A somatodendritic receptors. These findings may help extend future therapeutics in ADHD. PMID:27087081

  11. Dopamine and Norepinephrine Receptors Participate in Methylphenidate Enhancement of In Vivo Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

    Jenson, Daniel; Yang, Kechun; Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Levine, Amber; Broussard, John I.; Tang, Jianrong; Dani, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children. Methylphenidate (MPH, e.g., Ritalin) has been used to treat ADHD for over 50 years. It is the most commonly prescribed treatment for ADHD, and in the past decade it was the drug most commonly prescribed to teenagers. In addition, MPH has become one of the most widely abused drugs on college campuses. In this study, we examined the effects of MPH on hippocampal synaptic pl...

  12. [Methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: monitoring in biological matrices].

    Papaseit, E; García-Algar, O; Simó, S; Pichini, S; Farré, M

    2013-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has emerged in the last few years as the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorder in the paediatric population. In 1980's, methylphenidate (MFD) a psychomotor stimulant drug, was approved in Spain for the symptomatic therapy of ADHD. Since then, MFD has become one of the most extensively prescribed and studied treatment for ADHD both in children and adults. In this paper, the main pharmacological issues of MFD are reviewed, focusing on its pharmacokinetics in conventional (blood and urine) and non-conventional (hair, oral fluid and sweat) biological matrices, its pharmaceutical preparations, therapeutic levels and side effects. PMID:23063334

  13. [Cardiovascular risks and management during Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder treatment with methylphenidate].

    Bange, F; Le Heuzey, M-F; Acquaviva, E; Delorme, R; Mouren, M-C

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common of the pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Methylphenidate is an important element of therapeutic strategies for ADHD. Clinicians are interested in the safety of methylphenidate. Because this drug raises heart rate and blood pressure, concerns have been raised about its cardiovascular safety. Concerns were based on case reports of sudden cardiac death in methylphenidate users, plausible pharmacological pathways involving well-established stimulant effects on heart rate and blood pressure. Until recently, data were limited to a number of observational studies too small to examine serious cardiac events. In the past two years, large retrospective, population-based cohort studies were performed. These studies did not show any evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in risk of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, or stroke. Treatment of children with methylphenidate is not significantly associated with an increase in the short term or mid-term risk of severe cardiac events. For many, available data now will be seen as reassuring. But gaps persist in the methodical and comprehensive assessments of the safety of methylphenidate. Analyses cannot be generalized to children with long-term use of stimulants. Furthermore, long-term effects of slight increases in heart rate or blood pressure are unknown. Stimulant administration continues to have a detectable adrenergic effect even after years of treatment. In the MTA study, greater cumulative stimulant exposure was associated with a higher heart rate at years 3 and 8. Although less severe, such adverse cardiac events are nonetheless alarming to patients. This adrenergic effect may have clinical implications, especially for individual patients with underlying heart abnormalities and it deserves further investigation. More research is necessary to optimize a safe use of methylphenidate regarding its cardiovascular effects

  14. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and (11C)raclopride (D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  15. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  16. The Effect of Animal-assisted Play Therapy (AAT on Improving the Life Quality of Parents having Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children Treated with Methylphenidate

    Nazila Motarabesoun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children is considered to be one of the most widespread neuro-behavioral disorders in children, which is typically characterized by problems such as poor educational performance, communication difficulties and other social inconsistencies. Timely identification and treatment of this disorder can result in significant improvement in their individual and social performances and it can reduce the symptoms of this disorder. Nowadays, play therapy is regarded as one of the recent treatments. One type of play therapy is referred to as animal-assisted play therapy. Methodology: This study was based on a single case study in which two children with ADHD were studied. Before the treatment intervention, the life quality questionnaire (SF-36 was conducted on three consecutive days as the baseline. Then, based on the designed operational procedure, the stages of treatment intervention were carried out with a domestic animal (rabbit within six 45-minute sessions. At the end of the two treatment sessions and during the whole intervention period, the dependent variable, the effect size and improvement rate were measured. Results: the results of the study indicated that the experimented animal-assisted play therapy was statistically significant for both children (P< 0.05. However, the rate of improvement in clinical terms was not meaningfully significant. Conclusion: with respect to the obtained significant differences in eye diagrams and the calculated physical and mental health indexes and the statistical significance of the effect size, it can be concluded that animal-assisted play therapy can contribute to the relative improvement of the life quality of these children’s parents. Keywords: ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children; animal-assisted play therapy; life quality of ADHD children’s parents;

  17. Methylphenidate Treatment in Adolescent Rats with an Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Phenotype: Cocaine Addiction Vulnerability and Dopamine Transporter Function

    Harvey, Roxann C; Sen, Sucharita; Deaciuc, Agripina; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate animal models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug reinforcement allow investigation of possible underlying biological bases of ADHD and its comorbidity with cocaine addiction. Toward this end, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibiting an ADHD phenotype were compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar (WIS) rats. Initially, 1.5 mg/kg oral methylphenidate or vehicle was administered between postnatal days 28 and 55, and acquisition of visual discrimination learning was examined. After discontinuing adolescent treatments, adult rats were evaluated for cocaine self-administration and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. During adolescence, SHRs showed deficits in visual discrimination relative to WKY and WIS rats when non-medicated. Methylphenidate improved visual discrimination only in SHRs. Compared with WKY and WIS rats, SHRs with previous methylphenidate treatment acquired cocaine self-administration faster, identified cocaine as a highly efficacious reinforcer by displaying an upward shift in the cocaine dose–response function, and showed the greatest motivation to self-administer cocaine by exhibiting the highest progressive ratio breakpoints. In the PFC, the maximal dopamine uptake (Vmax) at DAT was decreased in SHRs and increased in WKY and WIS rats by previous methylphenidate treatment. The affinity (Km) for dopamine at DAT in the PFC was not different between strains, nor was Vmax or Km altered in the striatum by previous methylphenidate treatment in any strain. Methylphenidate-induced decreases in dopamine clearance by DAT in the PFC may underlie increased cocaine self-administration in SHRs. These preclinical findings suggest that caution should be exercised when methylphenidate is prescribed for first-time treatment of ADHD in adolescent patients, as cocaine addiction vulnerability may be augmented. PMID:21150910

  18. Evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

    Smucker, W D; Hedayat, M

    2001-09-01

    Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychologic conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. The stimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine remain the pharmacologic agents of first choice for the management of ADHD. These agents are equally effective in improving the core symptoms of the disorder, but individual children may respond better to one stimulant medication than to another. Achievement of maximal benefit may require titration of the initial dosage and dosing before breakfast, before lunch and in the afternoon. The family physician should tailor the treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child and family. Psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in the child with ADHD. PMID:11563573

  19. What Exactly Are the Benefits of Stimulants for ADHD?

    Advokat, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stimulant drugs (methylphenidate and amphetamine) have been used successfully for decades to improve the behavioral impairments of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A voluminous literature supports the benefits of stimulants for improving classroom manageability…

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Methylphenidate Affects the Dopamine System and the Reactivity to Natural Reward in Adulthood in Rats

    Lepelletier, François-Xavier; Tauber, Clovis; NICOLAS, Céline; Solinas, Marcello; Castelnau, Pierre; Belzung, Catherine; Emond, Patrick; Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Chalon, Sylvie; Galineau, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a commonly-used medication for the treatment of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). However, its prescription to adults with ADHD and narcolepsy raises the question of how the brain is impacted by MPH exposure during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to elucidate the long-term neurobiological consequences of prenatal exposure to MPH using a rat model. Methods: We focused on the effects of such treatment on the adult dopamine...

  1. No Relation Between Therapeutic Response to Methylphenidate and its Cardiovascular Side Effects in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Venkataramana Bhat; Natalie Grizenko; Steven Sanche; Ridha Joober

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between therapeutic response to methylphenidate (MPH) and its associated short term cardiovascular side effects (Systolic Blood Pressure-SBP, Diastolic Blood Pressure-DBP and Heart Rate-HR changes) in children with ADHD, based on the hypothesis that these parameters share common underlying mechanisms.Method: A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial of children 6 to 12 years old diagnosed with ADHD was done. The chi...

  2. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiat...

  3. Effects of methylphenidate on attentional set-shifting in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Cao Ai-hua; Yu Lin; Wang Yu-wei; Wang Jun-mei; Yang Le-jin; Lei Ge-fei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although deficits of attentional set-shifting have been reported in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is rarely examined in animal models. Methods This study compared spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs; a genetic animal model of ADHD) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (normoactive control strains), on attentional set-shifting task (ASST) performance. Furthermore, the dose-effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on attentiona...

  4. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  5. Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects

    Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Sams, Susan E.; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced…

  6. The sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on and off methylphenidate: a matched case-control study.

    Galland, Barbara C; Tripp, E Gail; Taylor, Barry J

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of regular use of methylphenidate medication in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on sleep timing, duration and sleep architecture. Twenty-seven children aged 6-12 years meeting diagnostic criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV ADHD and 27 control children matched for age (+/-3 months) and gender. Two nights of standard polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were conducted. ADHD children were allocated randomly to an on- or 48 h off-methylphenidate protocol for first or second recordings. Control children's recordings were matched for night, but no medication was used. Mixed modelling was employed in the analyses so that the full data set was used to determine the degree of medication effects. Methylphenidate in ADHD children prolonged sleep onset by an average of 29 min [confidence interval (CI) 11.6, 46.7], reduced sleep efficiency by 6.5% (CI 2.6, 10.3) and shortened sleep by 1.2 h (CI 0.65, 1.9). Arousal indices were preserved. Relative amounts of stages 1, 2 and slow wave sleep were unchanged by medication. Rapid eye movement sleep was reduced (-2.4%) on the medication night, an effect that became non-significant when control data were incorporated in the analyses. PSG data from ADHD children off-medication were similar to control data. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate reduces sleep quantity but does not alter sleep architecture in children diagnosed with ADHD. An adequate amount of sleep is integral to good daytime functioning, thus the sleep side effects of methylphenidate may affect adversely the daytime symptoms the drug is targeted to control. PMID:20050995

  7. Extended-release Methylphenidate Treatment and Outcomes in Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: 2 Case Reports.

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Çelebi, Fahri; Ertekin, Erhan; Kahn, David A

    2015-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder is frequently comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, treatment recommendations are not clear in the presence of such comorbidity. A few studies in the literature have reported improvement in symptoms of both disorders with treatment specific for ADHD (ie, stimulants and atomoxetine). In this report, we present cases of 2 adults with social anxiety disorder and ADHD who were treated with methylphenidate monotherapy. Both cases responded well in terms of not only their ADHD symptoms but also the social anxiety disorder symptoms. Methylphenidate was well tolerated with no significant side effects. More studies are needed to better establish the potential of ADHD medications to be effective for comorbid social anxiety disorder symptoms. PMID:25955266

  8. Alternative pharmacological strategies for adult ADHD treatment: a systematic review.

    Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke

    2016-01-01

    Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition associated with high disability and frequent comorbidity. Current standard pharmacotherapy (methylphenidate and atomoxetine) improves ADHD symptoms in the short-term, but poor data were published about long-term treatment. In addition a number of patients present partial or no response to methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Research into the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of alternative pharmacological approaches in adult ADHD patients. Among alternative compounds, amphetamines (mixed amphetamine salts and lisdexamfetamine) have the most robust evidence of efficacy, but they may be associated with serious side effects (e.g. psychotic symptoms or hypertension). Antidepressants, particularly those acting as noradrenaline or dopamine enhancers, have evidence of efficacy, but they should be avoided in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder. Finally metadoxine and lithium may be particularly suitable in case of comorbid alcohol misuse or bipolar disorder. PMID:26693882

  9. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  10. Assessment of cardiovascular risks due to methylphenidate in six months of treatment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    mehmet emre ari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In ADHD patients, the elongation of QTc duration and increase in the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were statistically significant during 6 months of methylphenidate treatment. However, all these changes remained within normal limits. All patients receiving this drug should be monitored carefully for cardiovascular side effects.

  11. A pilot study for augmenting atomoxetine with methylphenidate: safety of concomitant therapy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Ball Susan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined augmenting atomoxetine with extended-release methylphenidate in children whose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD previously failed to respond adequately to stimulant medication. Methods Children with ADHD and prior stimulant treatment (N = 25 received atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg/day plus placebo. After 4 weeks, patients who were responders (n = 4 were continued on atomoxetine/placebo while remaining patients were randomly assigned to either methylphenidate (ATX/MPH (1.1 mg/kg/day or placebo augmentation (ATX/PB for another 6 weeks. Patients and sites were blind to timing of active augmentation. Safety measures included vital signs, weight, and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by ADHD rating scales. Results Categorical increases in vital signs occurred for 5 patients (3 patients in ATX/MPH, 2 patients in ATX/PBO. Sixteen percent discontinued the study due to AE, but no difference between augmentation groups. Atomoxetine treatment was efficacious on outcome measures (P ≤ .001, but methylphenidate did not enhance response. Conclusion Methylphenidate appears to be safely combined with atomoxetine, but conclusions limited by small sample. With atomoxetine treatment, 43% of patients achieved normalization on ADHD ratings.

  12. Switch in Therapy from Methylphenidate to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Warrer, Pernille; Thomsen, Per Hove; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate therapy switching from methylphenidate (MPH) to atomoxetine (ATX) in a clinical sample of Danish children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); specifically, to determine the duration of MPH treatment before...

  13. Motivational Incentives and Methylphenidate Enhance Electrophysiological Correlates of Error Monitoring in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.; Batty, Martin J.; Liotti, Mario; Hollis, Chris P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity and/or inattention and are particularly impaired when performing tasks that require a high level of cognitive control. Methylphenidate (MPH) and motivational incentives may help improve…

  14. Selegiline Transdermal Patch

    Transdermal selegiline is used to treat depression. Selegiline is in a class of medications called monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It works by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances that are needed to maintain ...

  15. Diclofenac Transdermal Patch

    ... transdermal diclofenac may cause swelling, ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestines. These problems may ... right part of the stomach flu-like symptoms dark-colored urine rash blisters on skin fever pale ...

  16. Relationship between quality of life and psychopathological profile: data from an observational study in children with ADHD

    Becker, Andreas; Roessner, Veit; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-01-01

    Although ADHD significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, QoL in children with ADHD has rarely been investigated in association with psychopathological profile, and the relationship remains unclear. The open-label OBSEER study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of Equasym XL®, a modified-release methylphenidate, in routine care of children and adolescents (aged 6–17 years) with ADHD. At baseline, questionnaires assessing psychopathological profile...

  17. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Patel DS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of thedrug occurs by means of skin. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitationof hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steadyplasma level of the drug. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the activeingredients into the circulatory system via skin. This review article covers a brief outline of theprinciples of transdermal permeation, various components of transdermal patch, approaches oftransdermal patch, evaluation of transdermal system, its application with its limitation.

  18. [Transdermal Delivery of NSAIDs].

    Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko

    2015-11-01

    Skin has been studied as administration site of drug for its systemic effects, since systemic therapeutic agents can be delivered for long time with a controlled ratio, escaping from the first pass effect by liver by the transdermal delivery, which can decrease the dosage form. The low permeability of drug molecules through stratum corneum has been the limiting factor for developing transdermal delivery system of therapeutic agents. To enhance the permeability of drug molecules, many studies have been reported. PMID:26689064

  19. Are GPs adequately equipped with the knowledge for educating and counseling of families with ADHD children?

    Zarei Nabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP, as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, the duration of practice as a GP, marital status, general knowledge about ADHD, and the management of ADHD. Results Less than half of them believed that they have adequate knowledge and information about this disorder. They usually do not like to be the primary care providers for children with ADHD. The majority of them prefer to refer the children to related specialists, mostly psychiatrists or psychologists. More than one third of them believed that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Only 6.6% of them reported that ADHD persists for the whole life. Their knowledge about methylphenidate is reasonable. Conclusions As many other countries worldwide, the knowledge of GPs about ADHD should be improved. They do not asses and manage children with probable ADHD by themselves without referring to related professionals. They do not opt for the use of methylphenidate.

  20. Response to methylphenidate by adult and pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Spanish multicenter DIHANA study

    Valdizán-Usón, JR; Cánovas-Martínez, A; De Lucas-Taracena, MT; Díaz-Atienza, F; Eddy-Ives, LS; Fernández-Jaén, A; Fernández-Pérez, M; García-Giral, M; García-Magán, P; Garraus-Oneca, M; Idiazábal-Alecha, MA; López-Benito, M; Lorenzo-Sanz, G; Martínez-Antón, J; Martínez-Granero, MA; Montañés-Rada, F; Mulas-Delgado, F; Ochando-Perales, G; Ortega-García, E; Pelaz-Antolín, A; Ramos-Quiroga, JA; Ruiz-Sanz, FC; Vaquerizo-Madrid, J; Yusta-Izquierdo, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this multicenter Spanish study was to evaluate the response to immediate-release methylphenidate by children and adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to obtain information on current therapy patterns and safety characteristics. Methods: This multicenter, observational, retrospective, noninterventional study included 730 patients aged 4–65 years with a diagnosis of ADHD. Information was obtained based on a review of medical records for the years 2002–2006 in sequential order. Results: The ADHD predominantly inattentive subtype affected 29.7% of patients, ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive was found in 5.2%, and the combined subtype in 65.1%. Overall, a significant lower Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score and mean number of DSM-IV TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision) symptoms by subtype were found after one year of treatment with immediate-release methylphenidate; CGI decreased from 4.51 to 1.69, symptoms of inattention from 7.90 to 4.34, symptoms of hyperactivity from 6.73 to 3.39, and combined subtype symptoms from 14.62 to 7.7. Satisfaction with immediate-release methylphenidate after one year was evaluated as “very satisfied” or “satisfied” by 86.90% of the sample; 25.75% of all patients reported at least one adverse effect. At the end of the study, 41.47% of all the patients treated with immediate-release methylphenidate were still receiving it, with a mean time of 3.80 years on therapy. Conclusion: Good efficacy and safety results were found for immediate-release methylphenidate in patients with ADHD. PMID:23430373

  1. Selegiline in Comparison with Methylphenidate in Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit yperactivity Disorder: A Double-blind, Randomized Trial

    Farbod Fadai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: "n "nAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . "nMethod: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. "nResults: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . "nConclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies .

  2. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  3. Parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment for the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and for parents themselves.

    Kim, J-W; Park, S; Kim, B-N; Shin, M-S; Cho, S-C; Kim, J-H; Son, J-W; Shin, Y-M; Chung, U-S; Han, D-H

    2013-06-01

    Given the shortage of studies on parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment in Asian populations, we assessed parental response to OROS-methylphenidate treatment of Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in relation to children's academic performance and behavioral symptoms as well as parental rearing stress and depressive symptoms.We enrolled 132 medication-naïve children with ADHD into a multicenter, open-label, 12-week trial of OROS-MPH. The outcome measures were the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS), the comprehensive attention test and academic performance rating scale, and the clinical global impression (CGI)-severity/improvement instrument (for the children) and Beck depression inventory and parenting stress index (for their parents).We found parent-perceived improvements in children's ADHD-related behavioral symptoms and academic function and their parents' depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Investigator-rated ADHD symptoms and subjects' neuropsychological function were also improved (pParents of Korean children with ADHD perceive that OROS-methylphenidate treatment improves their children's academic function and behavior as well as their own child-rearing stress and emotional state. These findings must be interpreted with caution, due to a non-comparative open-label trial. PMID:23364873

  4. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin (1mg/kg, and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1mg/kg. ADHD rating scale and sleep patterns questionnaires were completed. Research hypotheses were assessed at the baseline, the second, fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment.Results: The mean sleep latency and total sleep disturbance scores were reduced in melatonin group, while the scores increased in the placebo group (p≥0.05. Data analysis, using ANOVA with repeated measures, did not show any statistically significant differences between the two groups in ADHD scores.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with methylphenidate can partially improve symptoms of sleep disturbance. However, it does not seem to reduce attention deficiency and hyperactivity behavior of children with ADHD.

  5. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of bupropion versus methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Maneeton N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Narong Maneeton,1 Benchalak Maneeton,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Pakapan Woottiluk2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, 2Psychiatric Nursing Division, Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: Some trials have suggested that bupropion, as well as methylphenidate, is bene­ficial in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of bupropion in comparison with methylphenidate for ADHD treatment. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared bupropion and methylphenidate. Clinical studies conducted between January 1991 and January 2014 were reviewed.Data sources: MEDLINE®, EMBASE™, CINAHL, PsycINFO®, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched in January 2014. Additionally, clinical trials were identified from the databases of ClinicalTrials.gov and the EU Clinical Trials Register.Study eligible criteria, participants, and interventions: All RCTs of bupropion and methylphenidate reporting final outcomes relevant to 1 ADHD severity, 2 response or remission rates, 3 overall discontinuation rate, or 4 discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Language restriction was not applied.Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The relevant clinical trials were examined and the data of interest were extracted. Additionally, the risks of bias were also inspected. The efficacy outcomes were the mean changed scores of ADHD rating scales, the overall response rate, and the overall remission rates. The overall discontinuation rate and the discontinuation rate due to adverse events were determined. Relative risks and weighted mean differences or standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a random effect model.Results: A total of 146 subjects in four RCTs comparing bupropion with methylphenidate in the treatment of

  6. A young man with acute dilated cardiomyopathy associated with methylphenidate

    Tor-Bjarne Nymark

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Tor-Bjarne Nymark1, A Hovland2, H Bjørnstad2, E W Nielsen1,31Section for Emergency Medicine; 2Department of Cardiology, Nordland Hospital, Bodø, Norway; 3University of Tromsø, Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: An 18-year-old obese man with a body mass index of 40, diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and treated with methylphenidate (Concerta® was acutely admitted to hospital with hypoxia and dyspnoea. On investigation signs of liver-, renal-, and heart-failure were found. Noradrenalin infusion was started. Echocardiography showed dilated left ventricle and an ejection fraction (EF of 25%. Liver function improved, noradrenalin and dobutamine were tapered, but three days after admission a new echocardiography showed an EF of 10%. The patient was transferred to the National Hospital (Rikshospitalet, Oslo, where intensified treatment including intra aortic balloon pump (IABP was instituted. Cardiac function improved, and 3 weeks later the IABP was disconnected. EF at this point was 15%. The patient was denied heart transplantation due to various cofactors. The investigation concluded with a probable relationship between his cardiomyopathy and the use of methylphenidate (Concerta.Keywords: cardiomyopathy, heart failure, ADHD, methylphenidate

  7. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case report

    Liebrenz Michael; Hof Danielle; Buadze Anna; Stohler Rudolf; Eich Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin®) and 20 mg sustai...

  8. Methylphenidate and the Juvenile Brain: Enhancement of Attention at the Expense of Cortical Plasticity?

    Urban, Kimberly R.; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug for juveniles and adolescents. Used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals, it has been regarded as a relatively safe medication for the past several decades. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that the age-dependent activities of the drug, as well as potential developmental effects, are largely ignored. In addition, the diagnosis...

  9. Descending glutamatergic pathways of PFC are involved in acute and chronic action of Methylphenidate

    Wanchoo, S.J.; Swann, A.C.; Dafny, N

    2009-01-01

    Progressive augmentation of behavioral response following repeated psychostimulant administrations is known as behavioral sensitization, and is an indicator of a drug’s liability for abuse. It is known that methylphenidate (MPD) (also known as Ritalin), a drug used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), induces sensitization in animals following repeated injections. It was recently reported that bilateral electric (non-specific) lesion of prefrontal cortex (PFC) prevented M...

  10. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed t...

  11. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methylphenidate for hyperactivity in childhood

    Lord, J.; Paisley, S.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperkinetic Disorder (HD) is characterised by the presence of severe and pervasive signs of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. It is estimated that approximately 1% of children may meet the diagnostic criteria for HD. The broader definition of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) leads to higher estimates of prevalence. Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant that is indicated for use as part of a comprehensive treatment programme for attention deficit hy...

  12. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account. PMID:24311027

  13. An observational study of response heterogeneity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder following treatment switch to modified-release methylphenidate

    Hautmann, Christopher; Rothenberger, Aribert; Döpfner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate (MPH) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The overall population of children and adolescents with ADHD may comprise distinct clusters of patients that differ in response to MPH. The aim of this analysis was to look for subgroups with different treatment trajectories and to identify their distinctive features. Methods OBSEER was a prospective, observational study examining the effectiveness a...

  14. Effects of methylphenidate on sensitivity to reinforcement in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an application of the matching law.

    Murray, L K; Kollins, S H

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hypothesized to be the result of decreased sensitivity to consequences compared to typical children. The present study examined sensitivity to reinforcement in 2 boys diagnosed with ADHD using the matching law to provide more precise and quantitative measurement of this construct. This experiment also evaluated the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on sensitivity to reinforcement of children with A...

  15. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence : a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Konstenius, Maija; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya; Guterstam, Joar; Beck, Olof; Philips, Björn; Franck, Johan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To test the efficacy and safety of osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) in doses up to 180 mg/day to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and prevent any drug relapse in individuals with a co-diagnosis of ADHD and amphetamine dependence. DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled 24-week double-blind trial with parallel groups design. SETTING: Participants were recruited from medium security prisons in Sweden. The medication started within 2 weeks before r...

  16. [Update on Current Care guidelines: ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children and adolescents)].

    2012-01-01

    The updated Current Care guideline for children and adolescents with ADHD covers both diagnosis and treatment. Psychosocial support is provided when hyperactivity problems arise, even before specific diagnosis. While psychosocial interventions are effective in the treatment of ADHD, the core symptoms are best treated with medication, such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine or atomoxetine. Collaboration between families, primary health care services, specialist consultation services and day-care and school professionals is essential within the chain of care. PMID:22486070

  17. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication: An ERP Study

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. Methods 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback condition...

  18. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication: An ERP Study

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. Methods: 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditi...

  19. A network meta-analysis of atomoxetine and osmotic release oral system methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients.

    Bushe, Chris; Day, Kathleen; Reed, Victoria; Karlsdotter, Kristina; Berggren, Lovisa; Pitcher, Ashley; Televantou, Foula; Haynes, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    The lack of head-to-head clinical studies powered to compare atomoxetine and osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate necessitates treatment comparison by methods that include indirect evidence such as network meta-analysis (NMA). A NMA assessing the relative treatment effects of atomoxetine and OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was conducted. Studies were identified by systematic literature review. Analyses summarised improvements in efficacy, measured by ADHD-specific scales, using Cohen'sdto calculate the standardised mean difference (SMD), and all cause discontinuations. Results showed effect sizes (SMD, 95% credible interval (CrI)) relative to placebo that did not differ significantly between atomoxetine (0.46, 0.36-0.56) and OROS methylphenidate (0.51, 0.40-0.63) in clinical studies of up to 12 weeks' duration (SMD, 95% CrI for atomoxetine versus OROS methylphenidate: -0.05, -0.18-0.08). Patients treated with these medications responded better than those given placebo across all analyses. There was also no significant difference in discontinuation rates between atomoxetine and OROS methylphenidate (odds ratio, 95% CrI: 0.85, 0.53-1.35). Between-study heterogeneity was low overall. Results of this NMA suggest that the efficacy of atomoxetine and OROS methylphenidate in adults does not differ significantly. Clinical guidelines may require amendment to reflect these recent data. PMID:27005307

  20. Open-Label Dose Optimization of Methylphenidate Modified Release Long Acting (MPH-LA): A Post Hoc Analysis of Real-Life Titration from a 40-Week Randomized Trial

    Huss, Michael; Ginsberg, Ylva; Arngrim, Torben; Philipsen, Alexandra; Carter, Katherine; Chen, Chien-Wei; Gandhi, Preetam; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives In the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults it is important to recognize that individual patients respond to a wide range of methylphenidate doses. Studies with methylphenidate modified release long acting (MPH-LA) in children have reported the need for treatment optimization for improved outcomes. We report the results from a post hoc analysis of a 5-week dose optimization phase from a large randomized, placebo-controlled, multicen...

  1. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Takon, Inyang

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1), and girls are generally older at the time of referral.Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment for patients with severe ADHD and severe impairment. Stimulant medications are licensed in the UK for the management of ADHD in school-age children and young people, and are effective in controlling ADHD symptoms.While immediate-release preparations of methylphenidate (MPH) have proven effective in the treatment of ADHD, there are a number of problems associated with their use, most notably compliance, stigma and medication diversion. Modified release preparations are now available that overcome the need for multiple daily dosing, and which offer different MPH release profiles, thereby enabling the physician to match the medication to the patient's particular requirements.This review describes the diagnosis, referral and treatment pathways for patients with ADHD in the UK and the practical considerations when initiating pharmacological treatment. The clinical experience of treating ADHD with a modified-release MPH preparation (Equasym XL®) is illustrated with case studies. PMID:21962224

  2. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Takon Inyang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1, and girls are generally older at the time of referral. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment for patients with severe ADHD and severe impairment. Stimulant medications are licensed in the UK for the management of ADHD in school-age children and young people, and are effective in controlling ADHD symptoms. While immediate-release preparations of methylphenidate (MPH have proven effective in the treatment of ADHD, there are a number of problems associated with their use, most notably compliance, stigma and medication diversion. Modified release preparations are now available that overcome the need for multiple daily dosing, and which offer different MPH release profiles, thereby enabling the physician to match the medication to the patient's particular requirements. This review describes the diagnosis, referral and treatment pathways for patients with ADHD in the UK and the practical considerations when initiating pharmacological treatment. The clinical experience of treating ADHD with a modified-release MPH preparation (Equasym XL® is illustrated with case studies.

  3. Transdermal Patches: A Complete Review on Transdermal Drug Delivery System

    Patel DS; Patel MV; Patel KN; Patel BA; Patel PA

    2012-01-01

    Today about 70% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improvesuch characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery system(TDDS) provides a means to sustain drug release as well as reduce the intensity of action and thusreduce the side effects associated with its oral therapy and differs from traditional topical drug delivery.Transdermal Drug Delivery System is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients o...

  4. Association among SNAP-25 Gene "Dd"eI and "Mnl"I Polymorphisms and Hemodynamic Changes during Methylphenidate Use: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Oner, Ozgur; Akin, Ata; Herken, Hasan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Ciftci, Koray; Ay, Mustafa Ertan; Bicer, Duygu; Oncu, Bedriye; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Munir, Kerim; Yazgan, Yanki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interaction of treatment-related hemodynamic changes with genotype status for Synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) gene in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on and off single dose short-acting methylphenidate treatment with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Method:…

  5. Self-Regulation of Visual Attention and Facial Expression of Emotions in ADHD Children

    Kuhle, Hans J.; Kinkelbur, Jorg; Andes, Kerstin; Heidorn, Fridjof M.; Zeyer, Solveigh; Rautzenberg, Petra; Jansen, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test if visual focusing and mimic display as features of self-regulation in ADHD children show a curvilinear relation to rising methylphenidate (MPH) doses. To test if small dose steps of 2.5mg MPH cause significant changes in behavior. And to test the relation of these features to intellectual performance, parents' ratings, and…

  6. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  7. ADHD-like behavior in a patient with hypothalamic hamartoma.

    Katayama, Koujyu; Yamashita, Yushiro; Yatsuga, Shuichi; Koga, Yasutoshi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2016-01-01

    We report a male patient with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) who manifested central precocious puberty (CPP) at 4 years of age. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment was started at 6 years of age and his pubertal signs were suppressed. At 9 years of age, the patient was emotionally unstable, aggressive, and antisocial. He had severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavior and conduct disorder. No seizure activity was observed. GnRH analogue treatment was discontinued for 8 months from 9 years and 4 months of age due to his mother's illness. During this period sexual urges were observed. Treatment with daily methylphenidate markedly improved his behavioral problems. However, his sexual urges were not suppressed until 3 months after the GnRH analogue treatment was restarted. The present case is unique because the patient's behavioral problems were observed despite the parahypothalamic type of HH and absence of seizures. This case is also rare because behavioral problems were observed without seizures, and no ADHD cases with hamartoma have been reported previously. Recently, clinical studies have described an association between psychiatric morbidity, including ADHD, and hyperandrogenism disorders. Our patient's ADHD-like symptoms might be due to hyperandrogenism. In such cases, GnRH analogue with methylphenidate could be effective for improving ADHD-like symptoms. PMID:26028458

  8. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  9. Deviant patterns of methylphenidate use in adults

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Zoëga, Helga; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several survey studies have documented misuse of methylphenidate defined as the use of non-prescribed methylphenidate or use different from what was prescribed. We aimed to identify and characterize adults with deviant patterns of methylphenidate use in Denmark during 2007-2012. Further......, we aimed to identify risk factors associated with deviant patterns of use. METHODS: Based on individual-level prescription data, new users of methylphenidate were followed for one year after filling their first prescription on methylphenidate. Adult patients were identified with deviant patterns of...... use if they had ≥4 different prescribers and filled ≥1095 defined daily doses of methylphenidate during the year of follow-up. Risk factors were estimated by using logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 20 829 new users of methylphenidate, we identified 82 (0.39%) patients displaying deviant patterns of...

  10. Lisdexamfetamine: A Review in ADHD in Adults.

    Frampton, James E

    2016-04-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (lisdexamfetamine) is a long-acting amfetamine prodrug with a convenient once-daily oral regimen that offers the potential for improved adherence and reduced abuse compared with short-acting preparations of amfetamines. Lisdexamfetamine (as Elvanse Adult(®); Tyvense Adult™) has been approved for use in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under the EU decentralization procedure, with the first approvals in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. This approval reflects the results of three short-term trials in adults with ADHD in which fixed- or flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine produced significantly greater improvements than placebo in ADHD symptoms, overall functioning, executive functioning (including in patients with significant pre-existing impairment) and quality of life. Of note, a post hoc analysis of one of these studies suggested that the response to lisdexamfetamine was generally similar in treatment-naïve patients and those who had already received-and not responded satisfactorily to-previous ADHD therapies, including methylphenidate (MPH). Two further studies demonstrated the longer-term effectiveness of flexible-dose lisdexamfetamine in reducing ADHD symptoms, albeit maintenance of efficacy required ongoing treatment with the drug. Lisdexamfetamine was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with an adverse event profile typical of that reported for other long-acting stimulants. Head-to-head comparisons with other long-acting agents, notably MPH and atomoxetine, are lacking. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available data, lisdexamfetamine provides a useful alternative option for the treatment of adults with ADHD, including those who have not responded adequately to previous ADHD therapies, including MPH. PMID:27048350