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Sample records for adhd synergistic effect

  1. Gene × environment interactions for ADHD: synergistic effect of 5HTTLPR genotype and youth appraisals of inter-parental conflict

    Jernigan Katherine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serotonin genes have been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; prior work suggests that serotonin may interact with psychosocial stressors in ADHD, perhaps via mechanisms involved in emotional dysregulation. Because the development of behavioral and emotional regulation depends heavily both on the child's experience within the family context and the child's construals of that experience, children's appraisals of inter-parental conflict are a compelling candidate potentiator of the effects of variation within the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR on liability for ADHD. Method 304 youth from the local community underwent a multi-informant diagnostic assessment procedure to identify ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls. Youth also completed the Children's Perception of Inter-Parental Conflict (CPIC scale to assess appraisals of self-blame in relation to their parents' marital disputes. The trialleic configuration of 5HTTLPR (long/short polymorphism with A> G substitution was genotyped and participants were assigned as having high (La/La N = 78, intermediate (La/Lg, La/short, N = 137, or low (Lg/Lg, Lg/short, short/short, N = 89 serotonin transporter activity genotypes. Teacher reported behavior problems were examined as the target outcome to avoid informant overlap for moderator and outcome measures. Results Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated significant 5HTTLPR × self-blame interactions for ADHD symptoms. Examination of the interactions indicated positive relations between reports of self-blame and ADHD symptoms for those with the high and low serotonin activity genotypes. There was no relation between self-blame and ADHD for those with intermediate activity 5HTTLPR genotypes. Conclusion Both high and low serotonergic activity may exert risk for ADHD when coupled with psychosocial distress such as children's self-blame in relation to

  2. ADHD

    ... be overly active. What are some of the signs of ADHD? Many children have trouble focusing and behaving at ... it is very important to get help for ADHD as early as possible. Additional Information: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ ...

  3. The Effect of Methylphenidate on Neurological Soft Signs in ADHD

    Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Snircova, Eva; Kulhan, Tomas; Farsky, Ivan; Nosalova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurological soft signs are very common in children with the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the first line medication of this disorder is methylphenidate. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of methylphenidate on the neurological soft signs in children and adolescents suffering from ADHD depending on the dose of methylphenidate. Methods Thirty five patients with ADHD were investigated by the ADHD RS-IV parent version questionnaire and the Revised Neur...

  4. ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…

  5. ADHD

    ... been a problem. Schools can also play a part in helping students with ADHD. Most schools will develop a plan ... they head off to college or start a job. When the time comes for you to do this, you may ...

  6. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

  7. A parietal biomarker for ADHD liability: As predicted by the distributed effects perspective model of ADHD

    Hale, T. Sigi; Wiley, Joshua F.; Smalley, Susan L.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Jaini, Ashwin M.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Hale, Wiley, Smalley, Tung, Kaminsky, McGough, Jaini and Loo. Background: We previously hypothesized that poor task-directed sensory information processing should be indexed by increased weighting of right hemisphere (RH) biased attention and visuo-perceptual brain functions during task operations and have demonstrated this phenotype in ADHD across multiple studies, using multiple methodologies. However, in our recent distributed effects model of ADHD, we surmised that this phenotype i...

  8. Some common regularities of synergistic effects display

    Our purpose here is to review and discuss some new general rules of synergistic effect display. The response of various biological objects to the simultaneous combined action of hyperthermia with ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, ultrasound and some chemical agents was analysed using the experimental data obtained by authors. To check the universality of the regularities of synergistic effect display, the results published by others were also involved. The data presented strongly invoke the need to elaborate a new theoretical conception of the synergy which, being useful for environmental radiation protection, took into account the new regularities revealed. (author)

  9. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Tripp Gail; Russell Vivienne A; Killeen Peter R; Johansen Espen; Wickens Jeff R; Tannock Rosemary; Williams Jonathan; Sagvolden Terje

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostr...

  10. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memo

  11. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n...... = 56) exhibiting the strongest effects was most often linked to conjugative transmission of natural plasmids carried by the E. coli isolates (70%). Thus, the capacity of an isolate to promote the biofilm through cocultivation was (i) transferable to the K-12 strain, (ii) was linked with the acquisition...

  12. Attributions and Perception of Methylphenidate Effects in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Pelham, William E; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Kipp, Heidi L; Smith, Bradley H; Evans, Steven W; Bukstein, Oscar

    2013-07-26

    Objective: Although a number of studies demonstrate that children with ADHD do not attribute their behavior to taking medication, it remains unstudied whether adolescents, who have a longer history of taking medication for ADHD, show performance attributions to medication. Method: A sample of 46 adolescents completed daily attributions for success or failure as a part of their participation in a summer treatment program with a double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment of methylphenidate. Results: Results demonstrated that adolescents with ADHD did not reliably discern active medication from placebo, rarely attributed their performance to the pill, and showed no differences in attributional style as a function of medication status. Conclusion: These data indicate that adolescents with ADHD may possess inaccurate beliefs about the effect of stimulant medication on their behavior. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23893533

  13. The Role of Parental ADHD in Sustaining the Effects of a Family-School Intervention for ADHD.

    Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523

  14. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  15. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD.

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Killeen, Peter R; Russell, Vivienne A; Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R; Tannock, Rosemary; Williams, Jonathan; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD. PMID:19226460

  16. Lobeline Effects on Cognitive Performance in Adult ADHD.

    Martin, Catherine A; Nuzzo, Paul A; Ranseen, John D; Kleven, Mark S; Guenthner, Greg; Williams, Yolanda; Walsh, Sharon L; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-08-21

    Objective: In preclinical studies, lobeline inhibited hyperactivity induced by nicotine and amphetamine, and improved performance and learning in studies utilizing radial-arm maze and spatial-discrimination water maze. This laboratory proof-of-concept study investigated lobeline as a treatment for ADHD symptoms in adults (31.11 ± 7.08 years). Method: Using cognitive tasks and self-report measures, the effects of lobeline (0, 7.5, 15, or 30 mg, s.l.) and methylphenidate (0, 15, or 30 mg, p.o.) were assessed in nine volunteers with ADHD. Results: Evidence suggested that lobeline could modestly improve working memory in adults with ADHD, but no significant improvement in attention was observed. Lobeline administration was associated with mild adverse side effects (nausea). Conclusion: Further investigation of lobeline on working memory may be warranted. PMID:23966351

  17. PROCESS EXAMINATION OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN ADHD: SEX AND SUBTYPE EFFECTS

    Wodka, Ericka L.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Prahme, Cristine; Larson, Jennifer C. Gidley; Loftis, Christopher; Denckla, Martha B.; MAHONE, E MARK

    2008-01-01

    To examine effects of group (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] versus Typically Developing [TD]), sex, and ADHD subtype on “process/optional” measures of executive functioning, children (n = 123; 54 ADHD, 69 TD) aged 8−16 completed subtests from the D-KEFS. No group, sex, or ADHD subtype effects were found on optional measures from the Trail Making, Color–Word Interference, and Tower tests. A significant interaction was found for Verbal Fluency Total Repetition Errors; boys with...

  18. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training for Children with ADHD and Mindful Parenting for their Parents

    van der Oord, Saskia; Bogels, Susan M.; Peijnenburg, Dorreke

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for children aged 8-12 with ADHD and parallel mindful parenting training for their parents. Parents (N = 22) completed questionnaires on their child's ADHD and ODD symptoms, their own ADHD symptoms, parenting stress, parental overreactivity, permissiveness and mindful…

  19. Effect of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate on Sleep in Children with ADHD

    Giblin, John M.; Strobel, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential effects of short-term treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on both subjective and objective sleep characteristics in children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 24) with ADHD. Method: Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraph measures as well as assessments of subjective sleep parameters were examined in…

  20. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ... for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication for ADHD will continue to benefit ...

  2. Synergistic neurotrophic effects of piracetam and thiotriazoline

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the synergy between the nootropic drug piracetam and the metabolic agent thiotriazoline that maintains energy metabolism and survival of neurons and other types of cells. Piracetam, a nootropic drug, a chemical pyrrolidone derivative, is used in neurological, psychiatric, and narcological practice. There is evidence on the positive effect of piracetam in elderly and senile patients with coronary heart disease. This drug is supposed to stimulate redox processes, to enhance glucose utilization, and to improve regional blood flow in the ischemic brain regions. Due to its action, the drug activates glycolytic processes and elevates ATP concentrations in brain tissue. Thiotriazoline is a compound that has antioxidant, anti-ischemic properties. The co-administration of piracetam and thiothriazoline is an innovation area in the treatment of stroke and other brain damages, especially in insulin resistance and high blood glucose levels. The paper considers the neurobiological properties of thiotriazoline and piracetam, which synergistically exert neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.

  3. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Hamid Abtahi; Ali Ghazavi; Masode Karimi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Material...

  4. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  5. Synergistic effect of propolis and antibiotics on the Salmonella Typhi

    Orsi Ricardo de Oliveira; Sforcin José Maurício; Funari Silvia Regina Cunha; Fernandes Junior Ary; Bankova Vassya

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate a possible synergistic effect between ethanolic extracts of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria and some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin) against Salmonella Typhi. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action, but the sample from Bulgaria was shown to be more efficient. Both samples showed a similar synergistic effect with these antibiotics. One may conclude that the propolis samples show an important antibacterial a...

  6. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Aaron T. Piepmeier; Chia-Hao Shih; Margaret Whedon; Lauren M. Williams; Matthew E. Davis; David A. Henning; SeYun Park; Calkins, Susan D.; Jennifer L. Etnier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. ...

  7. Effectiveness of Family, Child and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms in Iranian Students with ADHD

    Mokhtar Malekpour; Samira Hadi; Sara Aghababaei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. Multi-stage random sampling method was used to select subjects (60 children were included in this study). Children were randomly assigned into 4 groups, including 3 experimental and 1 control groups (each group cons...

  8. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  9. The Effect of Video Feedback on the Social Behavior of an Adolescent with ADHD

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Mazur, Amy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The social functioning of adolescents with ADHD is characteristically impaired, yet almost no interventions effectively address the peer relationships of these youth. This study evaluates the preliminary effects of a video-feedback intervention on the social behavior of a 16-year-old male with ADHD-combined type in the context of a…

  10. Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Schoevers, Robert A.; Booij, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) occupies brain striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) and is an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, patients with ADHD and comorbid cocaine dependence do not benefit significantly from treatment with MPH. To better understand the neu

  11. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: possible synergistic effect of stress hyperglycemia.

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress on the renal tubules has been implicated as a mechanism of injury in both stress hyperglycemia and contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of these effects has a synergistic effect on accentuating renal tubular apoptosis and therefore increasing the risk of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  12. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  13. Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Effects on Parent-Child Interaction for Children with ADHD

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic differences in observed parenting and child behavior and the moderating effects of ethnicity on the relationship between treatment and parent and child behavior. Method: Observations of 508 children with ADHD (ages 7-9) and their caregivers, collected during the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD, were analyzed using…

  14. Children's Self-Reports on Perceived Effects on Taking Stimulant Medication for ADHD

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Dahlstrom, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates children's views on positive and negative effects of stimulant medication for ADHD and the children's willingness to stop taking medication. Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 79 children with ADHD and one of each child's parents. Results/Conclusion: Swedish children treated with stimulants generally…

  15. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep, Behavior, and Cognition in ADHD and Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia

    Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Smits, Marcel G.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Gunning, W. Boudewijn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of melatonin treatment on sleep, behavior, cognition, and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic sleep onset insomnia. Method: A total of 105 medication-free children, ages 6 to 12 years, with rigorously diagnosed ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia…

  16. Nine Months of Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for ADHD and Effectiveness of MTA Fading Procedures

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Chuang, Shirley; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Langworthy-Lam, Kristen S.; March, John S.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    We examined 9-month data from the 14-month NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (the MTA) as a further check on the relative effect of medication (MedMgt) and behavioral treatment (Beh) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while Beh was still being delivered at greater intensity than at 14-month endpoint, and…

  17. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  18. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  19. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  20. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Anna Sophie Rommel

    Full Text Available While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  1. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  2. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  3. Differential effects of Theta/Beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency

    Martijn eArns

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of ADHD and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. In this study we compared adult ADHD patients (N=19 to a control group (N=28 and investigated if differences existed in sleep parameters such as Sleep Onset Latency (SOL, Sleep Duration (DUR and overall reported sleep problems (PSQI and if there is an association between sleep-parameters and ADHD symptoms. Secondly, in 37 ADHD patients we investigated the effects of SMR and Theta/Beta (TBR neurofeedback on ADHD symptoms and sleep parameters and if these sleep parameters may mediate treatment outcome to SMR and TBR neurofeedback. In this study we found a clear continuous relationship between self-reported sleep problems (PSQI and inattention in adults with- and without-ADHD. TBR neurofeedback resulted in a small reduction of SOL, this change in SOL did not correlate with the change in ADHD symptoms and the reduction in SOL only happened in the last half of treatment, suggesting this is an effect of symptom improvement not specifically related to TBR neurofeedback. SMR neurofeedback specifically reduced the SOL and PSQI score, and the change in SOL and change in PSQI correlated strongly with the change in inattention, and the reduction in SOL was achieved in the first half of treatment, suggesting the reduction in SOL mediated treatment response to SMR neurofeedback. Clinically, TBR and SMR neurofeedback had similar effects on symptom reduction in ADHD (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity.These results suggest differential effects and different working mechanisms for TBR and SMR neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD.

  4. Synergistic effect in the solvent extraction of some trivalent lanthanides

    The behaviour of Yb and La in extraction systems was studied, using as extractant binary mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA), di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and tributylphophate (TBP), by means of the radioactive tracers 140La and 169Yb. Different concentrations of nitric acid and NaNO3 as salting out were used in aqueous phase. Distribution coefficients obtained for the two elements, using a mixture of HTTA-TBP, were found to be much higher than those obtained with each of the extractants, showing synergistic effect. A small synergistic effect was seen to exist for La, but an antagonistic effect was observed for Yb, when a mixture of HTTA plus HDEHP was used in both cases. An antagonistic effect was also found for Yb by using a mixture of HDEHP and TBP, whereas the extraction of La was found to be independent of the TBP concentration when this mixture was employed. (Author)

  5. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  6. A research model for investigating the effects of artificial food colorings on children with ADHD.

    Kleinman, Ronald E; Brown, Ronald T; Cutter, Gary R; Dupaul, George J; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2011-06-01

    The United Kingdom and European Union recently restricted the use of artificial food colorings (AFCs) to improve the health of children. These decisions provide an interesting case study of the role of scientific evidence in the assessment of food additives and risk to children's health and formulation of food policy. Although there continues to be uncertainty concerning the link between AFCs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), policy decisions have been made that have far-reaching implications. In addition, publicity surrounding the policy changes may shape public perceptions concerning effective management of ADHD. We believe that the balance of existing evidence neither refutes nor supports the link between AFCs and ADHD, which highlights the need for carefully designed studies to further investigate the link between AFCs and ADHD. In this article we describe a model for such studies. In developing our model, we drew from current investigative standards in ADHD research, such as those used in the landmark Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. These standards encompass methodologic considerations including sample selection, outcome assessment, and data analyses. It is our hope that this model research methodology may prove valuable in addressing design considerations in future studies of AFCs and ADHD with the goal of producing reliable data that will enable policy-makers to better formulate effective, evidence-based food-policy decisions. PMID:21576306

  7. Theoretical conception, optimization and prognosis of synergistic effects

    There are two possible explanations for the increase in the overall biological effect under the combined action of ionizing radiation with another inactivating, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents. The first hypothesis is that the mechanism of the synergistic interaction of ionizing radiation with another effective agent may attribute to a reduced cellular capacity of repairing damage after their combined action. The second possible mechanism to explain and describe the basic features of synergistic interaction can be based on the supposition that synergism might be related to additional lethal or potentially lethal damage that arises from the interaction of sublesions induced by both agents. Based on this hypothesis, a simple mathematical model was employed. The model suggests that synergism takes place due to additional effective damage originated from the interaction of sublesions induced by each agent. These sublesions are considered to be ineffective when each agent is applied separately. The suggested model was shown to predict the greatest value of the synergistic effect, the condition under which it can be achieved as well as the dependence of synergy on the intensity of agents applied. The validity of the proposed model was tested for simultaneous action of hyperthermia with ionizing radiation on biological systems such as bacteriophage, bacterial spores, yeast and mammalian cells. (author)

  8. Synergistic neurotrophic effects of piracetam and thiotriazoline

    O. A. Gromova; I. Yu. Torshin; Pronin, A. V.; A. Yu. Volkov

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers the synergy between the nootropic drug piracetam and the metabolic agent thiotriazoline that maintains energy metabolism and survival of neurons and other types of cells. Piracetam, a nootropic drug, a chemical pyrrolidone derivative, is used in neurological, psychiatric, and narcological practice. There is evidence on the positive effect of piracetam in elderly and senile patients with coronary heart disease. This drug is supposed to stimulate redox processes, to enhance ...

  9. Meta-analysis of Effectiveness of Methylphenidate on the Rate of ADHD Symptoms

    Somaye Jamali-Paghale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, psychologists and psychiatrists in the field of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD have been research doing for measurement of validity and efficiency of available treatment and. In this regard, meta-analysis integrates the results of different studies then determines the effect size of drug treatment.This study seeks to investigate the effective rate of methylphenidateon on reducing ADHD symptoms by following the meta-analysis model.Materials and Methods: 21 Studies which were methodologically accepted were selected and meta-analysis was done on them. The research tool was meta-analysis check list.Results: the result indicated that rate of effect size drug treatment on reducing ADHD symptoms was 0.71 (p≤ 0.001. This rate of effective size according to Cohen table was higher than average and considered.Conclusion: Therefore, it seems that methylphenidateon can be applied as proper treatments for individuals suffering from ADHD symptoms.

  10. The effects of Children’s ADHD on Parents’ Relationship Dissolution and Labor Supply

    Kvist, Anette Primdal; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    This paper uses Danish register-based data for the population of children born in 1990-1997 to investigate the effects on parents of having a child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Ten years after birth, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD have a 75 % higher probability of...... having dissolved their relationship and a 7-13 % lower labor supply. Exploiting detailed information about documented risk factors behind ADHD, we find that roughly half of this gap is due to selection. However, a statistically and economically significant gap is left, which is likely related to the...

  11. The effects of children's ADHD on parents' relationship dissolution and labor supply

    Kvist, Anette Primdal; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Danish register-based data for the population of children born in 1990-1997 to investigate the effects on parents of having a child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Ten years after birth, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD have a 75 % higher probability of having dissolved their relationship and a 7-13 % lower labor supply. Exploiting detailed information about documented risk factors behind ADHD, we find that roughly half of this gap is due to select...

  12. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT program in adults with ADHD

    Simona eSalomone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, a neuropsychiatric condition characterised by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3 months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial is needed.

  13. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD.

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R; Shanahan, Jacqueline M; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O'Connell, Redmond G; Robertson, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT) intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT) program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3-months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) is needed. PMID:25713523

  14. Measurement of the effect of physical exercise on the concentration of individuals with ADHD.

    Alessandro P Silva

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run without a rest interval. The proposed physical stimulus was performed with 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE-EF and 14 without ADHD symptoms (GC-EF. After 5 min of rest, these volunteers accessed the computer game to accomplish the tasks in the shortest time possible. The computer game was also accessed by another 28 volunteers: 14 with ADHD (GE and 14 without these symptoms (GC. The response time to solve the tasks that require attention was recorded. The results of the four groups were analyzed using D'Agostino statistical tests of normality, Kruskal-Wallis analyses of variance and post-hoc Dunn tests. The groups of volunteers with ADHD who performed exercise (GE-EF showed improved performance for the tasks that require attention with a difference of 30.52% compared with the volunteers with ADHD who did not perform the exercise (GE. The (GE-EF group showed similar performance (2.5% difference with the volunteers in the (GC group who have no ADHD symptoms and did not exercise. This study shows that intense exercise can improve the attention of children with ADHD and may help their school performance.

  15. Meta-analysis of Effectiveness of Methylphenidate on the Rate of ADHD Symptoms

    Somaye Jamali-Paghale; Ahmad Abedi; Elham Aghaei; Salar Faramarzi; Arezou Gholami

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, psychologists and psychiatrists in the field of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) have been research doing for measurement of validity and efficiency of available treatment and. In this regard, meta-analysis integrates the results of different studies then determines the effect size of drug treatment.This study seeks to investigate the effective rate of methylphenidateon on reducing ADHD symptoms by following the meta-analysis model.Materials and Met...

  16. The effects of a self-alert training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD

    Salomone, Simona; Fleming, Grainne R.; Shanahan, Jacqueline M.; Castorina, Marco; Bramham, Jessica; O’Connell, Redmond G.; ROBERTSON, IAN H

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-p...

  17. The effects of a Self-Alert Training (SAT) program in adults with ADHD

    Simona Salomone; Jessica Bramham; Redmond G O'Connell

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neuropsychiatric condition characterised by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-p...

  18. Measurement of the Effect of Physical Exercise on the Concentration of Individuals with ADHD

    Silva, Alessandro P; Prado, Sueli O. S.; Scardovelli, Terigi A; Boschi, Silvia R. M. S.; Campos, Luiz C.; Frère, Annie F.

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) mainly affects the academic performance of children and adolescents. In addition to bringing physical and mental health benefits, physical activity has been used to prevent and improve ADHD comorbidities; however, its effectiveness has not been quantified. In this study, the effect of physical activity on children's attention was measured using a computer game. Intense physical activity was promoted by a relay race, which requires a 5-min run wi...

  19. Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections

    Gil Moreira Júnior

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum.

  20. The Effect of Focus Strategies on ADHD Students' English Vocabulary Learning in Junior High School

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. ADHD is also among the most prevalent chronic health conditions affecting school-aged children"(American Academy of Pediatrics, 2000. Too many young girls are not getting the help they need because of hidden symptoms and late diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of focus strategies on vocabulary learning of ADHD students at two junior high schools. To this end, eight female ADHD and eight normal students from two public schools were assigned to the both control group and the experimental one. The quantitative data was gathered from each student and was analyzed through 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA in a factorial arrangement with two repetitions. An orthogonal test was used to compare the strategies that were used in the control group (word list and the experimental group (key word method, concentration, making sentences and fold overs. The instrument of this study contained a questionnaire sent to the parents and English teachers, an interview with a psychologist, a pre-test and a post-test. The results indicated that the four focus strategies in the experimental group increased the vocabulary learning in ADHD students for the short term retention and this increase was significant in the first focus strategy (key word method and mostly the last one (fold overs in the normal and ADHD students. The mean scores of control group were lower than the treatment group both in the normal and ADHD students. The results of delayed post-test revealed that although focus strategies improved the scores of the normal students compared to the ADHD students, this difference was not significant.Keywords: ADHD, focus strategies, Key word method, fold overs, attention, two-way ANOVA

  1. ADHD Medications

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  2. Effect of Backward Walking on Attention: Possible Application on ADHD

    2015-01-01

    The human requires attentive effort as assessed in dual-task experiments. Consistently, an attentive task can modify the walking pattern and a attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by gait modifications. Here we investigated the relationships between backward walking and attentive performances in ADHD children (n=13) and healthy age-, height and weight matched controls (n=17). We evaluated the attentive/impulsive profile by means of a Go/No-Go task and the backwar...

  3. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment.

    Zhang, Ai-Wei; Guo, Wei-Hua; Qi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Jian-Zhen; Ma, Xiang-Xing; Yu, De-Xin

    2016-12-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect. PMID:27255899

  4. Synergistic Effects of Gold Nanocages in Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Treatment

    Zhang, Ai-wei; Guo, Wei-hua; Qi, Ya-fei; Wang, Jian-zhen; Ma, Xiang-xing; Yu, De-xin

    2016-06-01

    Gold nanocages (GNCs) are a promising material that not only converts near infrared (NIR) light to heat for the ablation of tumors but also acts as a radiosensitizer. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has a synergistic effect that can lead to significant tumor cell necrosis. In the current study, we synthesized GNCs that offered the combined effects of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. This combination strategy resulted in increased tumor cell apoptosis and significant tumor tissue necrosis. We propose that GNCs can be used for clinical treatment and to potentially overcome resistance to radiotherapy by clearly increasing the antitumor effect.

  5. The Effects of QEEG-Informed Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    Arns, Martijn; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Leon Kenemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    In ADHD several EEG biomarkers have been described before, with relevance to treatment outcome to stimulant medication. This pilot-study aimed at personalizing neurofeedback treatment to these specific sub-groups to investigate if such an approach leads to improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, pre- and post-treatment EEG and ERP changes were investigated in a sub-group to study the neurophysiological effects of neurofeedback. Twenty-one patients with ADHD were treated with QEEG-informed ne...

  6. Effects of local and global network connectivity on synergistic epidemics

    Broder-Rodgers, David; Taraskin, Sergei N

    2015-01-01

    The effects of local and global connectivity on the spread of synergistic susceptible-infected-removed epidemics were studied in lattice models with infinite- and finite-range rewiring (small-world and small-world-like models). Several effects were found numerically and supported analytically within a simple model: (i) rewiring enhanced resilience to epidemics with strong constructive synergy on networks with high local connectivity; (ii) rewiring enhanced spread of epidemics with destructive or weak constructive synergy on networks with arbitrary local connectivity; (iii) rewiring enhanced spread of epidemics, independent of synergy, in networks with low local connectivity.

  7. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties. PMID:25246134

  8. The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children.

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M E; Szeibel, P J; Koplewicz, H S

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of extra-task stimulation on the academic task performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 nondisabled boys worked on an arithmetic task during high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech), and no stimulation (silence). The music "distractors" were individualized for each child, and the arithmetic problems were at each child's ability level. A significant Group x Condition interaction was found for number of correct answers. Specifically, the nondisabled youngsters performed similarly under all three auditory conditions. In contrast, the children with ADHD did significantly better under the music condition than speech or silence conditions. However, a significant Group x Order interaction indicated that arithmetic performance was enhanced only for those children with ADHD who received music as the first condition. The facilitative effects of salient auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of the children with ADHD provide some support for the underarousal/optimal stimulation theory of ADHD. PMID:8732885

  9. Synergistic Effects of PPARγ Ligands and Retinoids in Cancer Treatment

    Masahito Shimizu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The activation of PPARs by their specific ligands is regarded as one of the promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell growth. However, recent clinical trials targeting several common cancers showed no beneficial effect when PPAR ligands are used as a monotherapy. Retinoid X receptors (RXRs, which play a critical role in normal cell proliferation as a master regulator for nuclear receptors, preferentially form heterodimers with PPARs. A malfunction of RXRα due to phosphorylation by the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway is associated with the development of certain types of human malignancies. The activation of PPARγ/RXR heterodimer by their respective ligands synergistically inhibits cell growth, while inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells when the phosphorylation of RXRα was inhibited. We herein review the synergistic antitumor effects produced by the combination of the PPAR, especially PPARγ, ligands plus other agents, especially retinoids, in a variety of human cancers. We also focus on the phosphorylation of RXRα because the inhibition of RXRα phosphorylation and the restoration of its physiological function may activate PPAR/RXR heterodimer and, therefore, be a potentially effective and critical strategy for the inhibition of cancer cell growth.

  10. Hyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate.

    Boonstra, A.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Oosterlaan, J; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Someren, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythm, as well as the effects of methylphenidate on these variables, in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: 1) Baseline group comparison; 2) Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over medication trial. SETTING: Data collection took place during daily lives of participants. PARTICIPANTS: 39 normal controls and 33 adults with ADHD for baseline comparisons; 31 adults with ADHD in medication trial. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment wit...

  11. Synergistic effect of ozonation and ionizing radiation for PVA decomposition.

    Sun, Weihua; Chen, Lujun; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-08-01

    Ozonation and ionizing radiation are both advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) without chemical addition and secondary pollution. Also, the two processes' efficiency is determined by different pH conditions, which creates more possibilities for their combination. Importantly, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation could be suitable for treating wastewaters with extreme pH values, i.e., textile wastewater. To find synergistic effects, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation mineralization was investigated for degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at different pH levels. A synergistic effect was found at initial pH in the range 3.0-9.4. When the initial pH was 3.0, the combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation gave a PVA mineralization degree of 17%. This was 2.7 times the sum achieved by the two individual processes, and factors of 2.1 and 1.7 were achieved at initial pH of 7.0 and 9.4, respectively. The combined process of ozonation and ionizing radiation was demonstrated to be a feasible strategy for treatment of PVA-containing wastewater. PMID:26257347

  12. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  13. Effect of Rolandic Spikes on ADHD Impulsive Behavior

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of Rolandic spikes with the neuropsychological profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was studied in a total of 48 patients at JW Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main; and Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany.

  14. ADHD- and Medication-Related Brain Activation Effects in Concordantly Affected Parent-Child Dyads with ADHD

    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Casey, B. J.; Tonev, Simon T.; Davidson, Matthew C.; Reiss, Allan L.; Garrett, Amy; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Glover, Gary; Shafritz, Keith M.; Vitolo, Alan; Kotler, Lisa A.; Jarrett, Matthew A.; Spicer, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Several studies have documented fronto-striatal dysfunction in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using response inhibition tasks. Our objective was to examine functional brain abnormalities among youths and adults with ADHD and to examine the relations between these neurobiological…

  15. ADHD medication reduces cotinine levels and withdrawal in smokers with ADHD

    Gehricke, Jean-G.; Hong, Nuong; Wigal, Timothy L; Chan, Vivien; Doan, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate, atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the st...

  16. Music and Video as Distractors for Boys with ADHD in the Classroom: Comparison with Controls, Individual Differences, and Medication Effects

    Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hoza, Betsy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Sams, Susan E.; Vallano, Gary; Majumdar, Antara; Carter, Randy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and video on the classroom behavior and performance of boys with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examined the effects of 0.3 mg/kg methylphenidate (MPH). In one study, 41 boys with ADHD and 26 controls worked in the presence of no distractor, music, or video. Video produced…

  17. Synergistic effect of repulsive inhibition in synchronization of excitatory networks.

    Belykh, Igor; Reimbayev, Reimbay; Zhao, Kun

    2015-06-01

    We show that the addition of pairwise repulsive inhibition to excitatory networks of bursting neurons induces synchrony, in contrast to one's expectations. Through stability analysis, we reveal the mechanism underlying this purely synergistic phenomenon and demonstrate that it originates from the transition between different types of bursting, caused by excitatory-inhibitory synaptic coupling. This effect is generic and observed in different models of bursting neurons and fast synaptic interactions. We also find a universal scaling law for the synchronization stability condition for large networks in terms of the number of excitatory and inhibitory inputs each neuron receives, regardless of the network size and topology. This general law is in sharp contrast with linearly coupled networks with positive (attractive) and negative (repulsive) coupling where the placement and structure of negative connections heavily affect synchronization. PMID:26172784

  18. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect between Silibinin and Antibiotics in Oral Bacteria

    Young-Soo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Silibinin is a composition of the silymarin group as a hepatoprotective agent, and it exhibits various biological activities, including antibacterial activity. In this study, the antibacterial activities of silibinin were investigated in combination with two antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria. Silibinin was determined with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.1 to 3.2 and 0.2 to 6.4 μg/mL, ampicillin from 0.125 to 64 and 0.5 to 64 μg/mL, gentamicin from 2 to 256 and 4 to 512 μg/mL, respectively. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.025–0.8 μg/mL and 0.1–3.2 μg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial activities of silibinin against oral bacteria were assessed using the checkerboard and time-kill methods to evaluate the synergistic effects of treatment with ampicillin or gentamicin. The results were evaluated showing that the combination effects of silibinin with antibiotics were synergistic (FIC index <0.5 against all tested oral bacteria. Furthermore, a time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2–6 h of treatment with the MBC of silibinin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with ampicillin or gentamicin. These results suggest that silibinin combined with other antibiotics may be microbiologically beneficial and not antagonistic.

  19. The effects of neurofeedback training on adult ADHD

    M.N Ermutlu; Sacit Karamürsel

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a multifactorial disorder with complex etiology and strong genetic underpinnings. The symptoms of ADHD predispose to accidents, create strain in interpersonal relationships, and disrupt the environment through interruptions and inappropriate behavior. It is notable that the more overt symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity tend to wane early in life, whereas the more covert symptom of inattention tends to persist over time. Adults with ...

  20. Using Conjoint Behavioral Consultation To Enhance the Generalization of Behavioral Parent Training Effects to School Settings for Children with ADHD.

    Johnson, Tracey L.

    Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder among children in the United States. A frequently used and effective intervention for ADHD involves parent training for behavioral management. While parent training improves child compliance, parent-child interactions, and parenting skills, the effects…

  1. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance in Children with Comorbid DCD and ADHD

    Bart, Orit; Podoly, Tamar; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) are two developmental disorders with considerable comorbidity. The impact of Methylphenidate (MPH) on ADHD symptoms is well documented. However, the effects of MPH on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of MPH on motor performance…

  3. Effectiveness of Family, Child, and Family-Child Based Intervention on ADHD Symptoms of Students with Disabilities

    Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…

  4. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Parent Training for Preschool Children With or at Risk of ADHD

    Rimestad, Marie Louise; Lambek, Rikke; Zacher Christiansen, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesize the evidence of parent training (PT) as an early intervention for preschool children aged 2.5 to 6 years with ADHD or ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixteen studies including 1,003 children were...... analyzed. Parent-rated outcomes revealed moderate effect sizes (ESs; Hedges' g) of 0.51 for ADHD symptoms, 0.40 for conduct problems, and 0.64 for negative parenting. Based on independent assessment, results were only significant for negative parenting. Parent-rated outcomes were sustained at follow-ups of...... 3 to 12 months. Program type, intervention modality, and child diagnostic status did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSION: PT was partially supported as an efficacious intervention for preschool children with ADHD or ADHD symptoms with moderate ESs on parent-rated outcomes, but no significant results...

  5. Synergistic effects of iron and temperature on Antarctic plankton assemblages

    J. M. Rose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron availability and temperature are important limiting factors for the biota in many areas of the world ocean, and both have been predicted to change in future climate scenarios. However, the impacts of combined changes in these two key factors on microbial trophic dynamics and nutrient cycling are unknown. We examined the relative effects of iron addition (+1 nM and increased temperature (+4°C on plankton assemblages of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, a region characterized by annual algal blooms and an active microbial community. Increased iron and temperature individually had consistently significant but relatively minor positive effects on total phytoplankton abundance, phytoplankton and microzooplankton community composition, as well as photosynthetic parameters and nutrient drawdown. Unexpectedly, increased iron had a consistently negative impact on microzooplankton abundance, most likely a secondary response to changes in phytoplankton community composition. When iron and temperature were increased in concert, the resulting interactive effects were greatly magnified. This synergy between iron and temperature increases would not have been predictable by examining the effects of each variable individually. Our results suggest the possibility that if iron availability increases under future climate regimes, the impacts of predicted temperature increases on plankton assemblages in polar regions could be significantly enhanced. Such synergistic and antagonistic interactions between individual climate change variables highlight the importance of multivariate studies for marine global change experiments.

  6. Synergistic antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy and ciprofloxacin.

    Ronqui, Maria Rita; de Aguiar Coletti, Tatiana Maria Starck Fogaça; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Miranda, Elaine Toscano; Fontana, Carla Raquel

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of a variety of pathogens resistant to current antibiotics remains the major problem in medical care, especially when bacterial infections are established as biofilms. In this study, we propose the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a monotherapy and associated with antibiotic as an alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PDT mediated by methylene blue (MB) on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in both biofilm and planktonic phases. Several concentrations of MB and light doses were tested. The bactericidal effects of PDT as a monotherapy did not increase with the concentration of photosensitizer, but were light dose-dependent. In addition, bacteria in biofilms were less affected than cells in the planktonic phase. Although not concentration-dependent, the disruption effect of PDT on biofilms was clearly illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also carried out experiments that evaluated the synergistic effect of photodynamic therapy and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. The best results were obtained after combination treatment of photodynamic therapy followed by ciprofloxacin on biofilms, which increased bacterial reduction on biofilms, resulting in a 5.4 log reduction for S. aureus biofilm and approximately 7 log for E. coli biofilm. PMID:26971277

  7. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  8. Treatment Effects of Methylphenidate on Cognitive Functioning in Children with Mental Retardation and ADHD

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Casat, Charles D.; Lane, David M.; Jerger, Susan W.; Roache, John D.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Lachar, David; Faria, Laura P.; Payne, Christa D.; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive effects of stimulant medication were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Performance on tasks tapping sustained attention, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and immediate memory was assessed for 24 children (mean age 10.9 years)…

  9. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

  10. Effects of White Noise on Off-Task Behavior and Academic Responding for Children with ADHD

    Cook, Andrew; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, C. Merle

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of white noise played through headphones on off-task behavior, percentage of items completed, and percentage of items completed correctly for 3 students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Headphones plus white noise were associated with decreases in off-task behavior relative to baseline and…

  11. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  12. Longitudinal Effects of ADHD in Children with Learning Disabilities or Emotional Disturbances

    Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W.; Shaver, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of comorbidity between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) or emotional disturbances (ED), few studies have examined the long-term effects of these comorbid relationships on student outcomes. We estimated the longitudinal academic, social, and behavioral outcomes in children…

  13. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... problems could also have a powerful effect on foster care caseloads....

  14. Synergistic effect of fragrant herbs in Japanese scent sachets.

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2015-02-01

    The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils. PMID:25671383

  15. Effects of maternal and paternal smoking on attentional control in children with and without ADHD

    Altink, M.E.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; X. Xu; Franke, B.; Sergeant, J.A.; Faraone, S V; Buitelaar, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on its adverse effects on cognitive functioning are sparse and inconsistent. Since the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy may be due to correlated genetic risk factors rather than being a pure environmental effect, we examined the effect of prenatal exposure to smoking on attentional control, taking into account the effects of both maternal and paternal...

  16. Synergistic effects of metformin, resveratrol, and hydroxymethylbutyrate on insulin sensitivity

    Bruckbauer A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antje Bruckbauer,1 Michael B Zemel1,21NuSirt Sciences Inc, 2Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mixture of the polyphenol, resveratrol, and the leucine metabolite, hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB, acts synergistically with low doses of metformin to impact insulin sensitivity and AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent outcomes in cell culture and in diabetic mice.Methods: C2C12 skeletal myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with resveratrol 0.2 µM, HMB 5 µM, and metformin 0.1 mM alone or in combination. db/db mice were treated for 2 weeks with high (1.5 g/kg diet, low (0.75 g/kg diet, or very low (0.25 g/kg diet doses of metformin alone or in combination with a diet containing resveratrol 12.5 mg and CaHMB 2 g/kg.Results: The combination of metformin-resveratrol-HMB significantly increased fat oxidation, AMP-activated protein kinase, and Sirt1 activity in muscle cells compared with metformin or resveratrol-HMB alone. A similar trend was found in 3T3L1 adipocytes. In mice, the two lower doses of metformin exerted no independent effect but, when combined with resveratrol-HMB, both low-dose and very low-dose metformin improved insulin sensitivity (HOMAIR, plasma insulin levels, and insulin tolerance test response to a level comparable with that found for high-dose metformin. In addition, the metformin-resveratrol-HMB combination decreased visceral fat and liver weight in mice.Conclusion: Resveratrol-HMB combined with metformin may act synergistically on AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways, leading to increased insulin sensitivity, which may reduce the therapeutic doses of metformin necessary in the treatment of diabetes.Keywords: diabetes, AMP-activated protein kinase, Sirt1, fat oxidation

  17. Is dopamine transporter gene effective on therapeutic response of methylphenidate in ADHD patients?

    Fatemeh Moharrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric illness, which affects about 5% of children worldwide. An 80% genetic background is responsible for ADHD due to its appearance in familial relationships. In addition, dopamine regulation in synaptic spaces, which have a central role in development of ADHD, is moderated by dopamine transporter neurotransmitter, which in turn is modulated by dopamine transporter gene named SLC6A3 or DAT1. Methylphenidate as the first line and most important prescribed medication for ADHD blocks dopamine transporter and increases the dopamine concentration in synaptic clefts. In theory, methylphenidate relay to dopamine transporter to play a role, and dopamine transporter synthesis is dependent on DAT1. This gene have 40 base pair in its 3`-untranslated region end that repeat from 3 to 11 times, with most frequent 9 and 10 repeats in human, forming several alleles in carriers including 9R and 10R and genotypes including 9R/9R, 10R/10R, 9R/10R. These genotypes, as the first suspected candidates, may explain why methylphenidate therapy is not sufficient some patients and how the side effects appear in some cases and not in all patients. Many studies have performed to investigate the association between responses to methylphenidate and genotypes and yet no consistency has occurred. This article has a rapid review on concerned literature.

  18. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  19. Simulation of synergistic effects on lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by neutron and gamma irradiation

    With semiconductor device simulation software TCAD, numerical simulations of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on 6 kinds of lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are carried out by means of changing the minority carrier lifetimes, adding charged traps to the oxide layer and increasing the surface recombination velocity in Si/SiO2 interface. The results indicate that ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors are not a simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects, and total ionizing dose effects can enhance neutron displacement damages, leading to greater gain degradation. The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are analyzed based on the results. The positive charge in the oxide layer and Si/SiO2 interface traps induced by gamma irradiation can enhance the recombination processes of carriers in the bulk defects induced by neutron irradiation, and this is the main cause of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors. - Highlights: • Numerical simulation methods of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are established with semiconductor device simulation software TCAD. • Ionizing/displacement synergistic effects between the lateral PNP bipolar transistors with different neutral base widths and base doping concentrations are compared. • The difference between ionizing/displacement synergistic effects and the simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects is analyzed. • The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are explained

  20. Simulation of synergistic effects on lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by neutron and gamma irradiation

    Wang, Chenhui, E-mail: wangchenhui@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi' an 710024 (China); Bai, Xiaoyan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Shanchao; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ding, Lili [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi' an 710024 (China); Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    With semiconductor device simulation software TCAD, numerical simulations of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on 6 kinds of lateral PNP bipolar transistors induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are carried out by means of changing the minority carrier lifetimes, adding charged traps to the oxide layer and increasing the surface recombination velocity in Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. The results indicate that ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors are not a simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects, and total ionizing dose effects can enhance neutron displacement damages, leading to greater gain degradation. The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are analyzed based on the results. The positive charge in the oxide layer and Si/SiO{sub 2} interface traps induced by gamma irradiation can enhance the recombination processes of carriers in the bulk defects induced by neutron irradiation, and this is the main cause of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects on the lateral PNP bipolar transistors. - Highlights: • Numerical simulation methods of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects induced by the mixed irradiation of neutron and gamma are established with semiconductor device simulation software TCAD. • Ionizing/displacement synergistic effects between the lateral PNP bipolar transistors with different neutral base widths and base doping concentrations are compared. • The difference between ionizing/displacement synergistic effects and the simple sum of total ionizing dose effects and displacement effects is analyzed. • The physical mechanisms of ionizing/displacement synergistic effects are explained.

  1. Effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja; José Uribarri

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally treated with pharmacological interventions; psychostimulants are first choice. Other alternatives have been used such as alpha agonists (clonidine), hence it is important to know its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists in treating ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of interve...

  2. Effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja; José Uribarri

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally treated with pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Pharmacological treatment is necessary for most patients. Antidepressants are an option so it is important to know about their effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic ...

  3. Effectiveness and safety of atomoxetine for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja; José Uribarr

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is generally treated with pharmacological interventions such as psychostimulants. The most used widely used one is methylphenidate followed by atomoxetine. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of atomoxetine in ADHD treatment in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness of atomoxetine compared w...

  4. Synergistic effects of combinations of antibiotics on coagulase negative staphylococcal (CoNS) biofilms

    Cerca, Nuno; Cerca, Filipe; Martins, Silvia; Pier, Gerald B.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2005-01-01

    Background. Previous studies examining synergistic effects of antibiotics against CoNS biofilms often relied on drug concentrations higher than the peak serum (PS) concentration, as determined by MIC assays, therefore having little clinical applicability. Other studies investigated synergistic effects of a wide range of antibiotics, however many are not routinely used in a clinical setting. Dicloxacillin is the major antibiotic used in Portugal to treat staphylococci infections...

  5. Good vibrations--effects of whole body vibration on attention in healthy individuals and individuals with ADHD.

    Anselm B M Fuermaier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD. METHODS: Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control was measured with a color-word interference paradigm. RESULTS: A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed.

  6. A Comparison of Effectiveness of Regulation of Working Memory Function and Methylphenidate on Remediation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Ali Akbar Soleimani; Zahra Farahmand; Samira Keshavarzi; Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and serious disorder affecting such key cognitive components as working memory. Working memory serves to facilitate and check attention in any individual and to focus on those affairs that need to be retained in mind. This study examines whether a combination of the two therapeutic methods of working memory training and Methylphenidate might be more effective in treating ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years of age than when methylp...

  7. An observational study of once-daily modified-release methylphenidate in ADHD: effectiveness on symptoms and impairment, and safety

    Döpfner, Manfred; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Breuer, Dieter; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-01-01

    ADHD affects over 5% of children worldwide. It is typically treated with stimulant medications, and methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed. This study investigated the effectiveness, on symptoms and impairment, and safety of Equasym XL®, a combination of 30% immediate-release and 70% modified-release MPH, in the treatment of ADHD in daily clinical practice. This open-label, observational, post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in 169 centres in Germany. Eligible patien...

  8. Overcoming barriers to effective early parenting interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): parent and practitioner views

    Smith, E.; Koerting, J; Latter, S; Knowles, M.M.; McCann, D C; Thompson, M.; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of early intervention approaches for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been increasingly acknowledged. Parenting programmes (PPs) are recommended for use with preschool children with ADHD. However, low ‘take-up’ and high ‘drop-out’ rates compromise the effectiveness of such programmes within the community. Methods This qualitative study examined the views of 25 parents and 18 practitioners regarding currently available PPs...

  9. Effects of norepinephrine transporter gene variants on NET binding in ADHD and healthy controls investigated by PET

    Sigurdardottir, Helen L.; Kranz, Georg S.; Rami‐Mark, Christina; James, Gregory M.; Vanicek, Thomas; Gryglewski, Gregor; Kautzky, Alexander; Hienert, Marius; Traub‐Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Rujescu, Dan; Kasper, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a key target for ADHD treatment and the NET gene has been of high interest as a possible modulator of ADHD pathophysiology. Therefore, we conducted an imaging genetics study to examine possible effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the NET gene on NET nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) in patients with ADHD and healthy controls (HCs). Twenty adult patients with ADHD and 20 HCs underwent (S,S)‐[18F]FMeNER‐D2 positron emission tomography (PET) and were genotyped on a MassARRAY MALDI‐TOF platform using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Linear mixed models analyses revealed a genotype‐dependent difference in NET BPND between groups in the thalamus and cerebellum. In the thalamus, a functional promoter SNP (−3081 A/T) and a 5′‐untranslated region (5′UTR) SNP (−182 T/C), showed higher binding in ADHD patients compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Furthermore, we detected an effect of genotype in HCs, with major allele carriers having lower binding. In contrast, for two 3′UTR SNPs (*269 T/C, *417 A/T), ADHD subjects had lower binding in the cerebellum compared to HCs depending on the major allele. Additionally, symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity correlated with NET BPND in the cerebellum depending on genotype. Symptoms correlated positively with cerebellar NET BPND for the major allele, while symptoms correlated negatively to NET BPND in minor allele carriers. Our findings support the role of genetic influence of the NE system on NET binding to be pertubated in ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp 37:884–895, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26678348

  10. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication: An ERP Study

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. Methods 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback condition...

  11. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication: An ERP Study

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. Methods: 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditi...

  12. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior. PMID:24882503

  13. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid. - Highlights: ► Synergistic effect of combined treatments of chlorine and irradiation was tested using seafood. ► Synergistic effect against natural microflora was observed for all combined treatments. ► Therefore, it is recommended that industry use the combined treatment for better effect.

  14. An observational study of once-daily modified-release methylphenidate in ADHD: effectiveness on symptoms and impairment, and safety.

    Döpfner, Manfred; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Breuer, Dieter; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-10-01

    ADHD affects over 5% of children worldwide. It is typically treated with stimulant medications, and methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed. This study investigated the effectiveness, on symptoms and impairment, and safety of Equasym XL(®), a combination of 30% immediate-release and 70% modified-release MPH, in the treatment of ADHD in daily clinical practice. This open-label, observational, post-marketing surveillance study was conducted in 169 centres in Germany. Eligible patients, aged 6-17 years, were diagnosed with ADHD and about to begin treatment with Equasym XL(®). Effectiveness was assessed by physicians using the clinical global impression (CGI) severity and improvement scales; teachers and parents completed questionnaires evaluating ADHD symptoms and behavioural problems (DAYAS, FBB-ADHD and SDQ-P). Assessments were carried out at baseline, after 1-3 and 6-12 weeks of treatment. Of 852 enrolled patients, 822 were evaluable; 25.30% were treatment naïve, 69.84% had previously received different MPH formulations, and 4.87% had received other medications. ADHD symptoms improved from baseline to last visit for the majority of patients for all outcome measures. According to physician ratings of core ADHD symptoms, 75.73% of patients showed improvements on the CGI-Improvement scale, 17.77% had no change, and 6.50% worsened. In teacher and parent ratings, the effectiveness of Equasym XL(®) was rated better than prior therapy at all measured time points across the day, particularly late morning (teachers) and early afternoon (parents). Equasym XL(®) was generally well tolerated; only 3.16% of patients permanently discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Equasym XL(®) is effective and well tolerated in daily clinical practice. PMID:21901417

  15. A comparison of effectiveness of regulation of working memory function and methylphenidate on remediation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent and serious disorder affecting such key cognitive components as working memory. Working memory serves to facilitate and check attention in any individual and to focus on those affairs that need to be retained in mind. This study examines whether a combination of the two therapeutic methods of working memory training and Methylphenidate might be more effective in treating ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years of age than when methylphenidate is applied alone.Subjects of the study are 48 children suffering from ADHD. They were selected by random sampling. The experimental group included 23 children with ADHD who received a combination of working memory training and Methylphenidate, and the control group which included 25 children with ADHD received Methylphenidate only. To check the effects of the intervention, Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48 was applied before and after the intervention. After intervention, data were collected from the remaining samples in the two groups. Data were examined both through descriptive statistical methods and analytic statistical methods, including T-student test and Quantile-Quantile Plots diagram.The study demonstrated that a combination of the cognitive intervention of working memory training and methylphenidate is more effective in alleviating ADHD symptoms rather than when methylphenidate is applied in isolation. In the CPRS pre-test and post-test, the mean difference of the experimental and the control group was 8.39 and 1.88 respectively, indicating that the working memory group has improved more than the control group.The study reveals that the ADHD symptoms were more contained in the test group than the control group due to working memory training. The cognitive intervention through working memory training may be effective in alleviating the severity of disorder measured in the pre-test.

  16. Treating ADHD in Children and Teens: Choosing the Safest and Most Effective Drugs

    ... ADHD)? ADHD is one of the most common behavior problems in school-aged children. It stands for “ ... may have trouble paying attention or controlling their behavior. They may struggle in school, jobs, and relationships, ...

  17. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... stimulates you, but these medicines have the opposite effect on kids with ADHD. If you take medication ...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  19. Synergistic effects of iron powder on intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of iron powder as a synergistic agent on the flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene composites (IFR-PP were studied. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and cone calorimeter (CONE were used to evaluate the synergistic effects of iron powder (Fe. The TGA data showed that Fe could enhance the thermal stability of the IFR-PP systems at high temperature and effectively increase the char residue formation. The CONE results revealed that Fe and IFR could clearly change the decomposition behavior of PP and form a char layer on the surface of the composites, consequently resulting in efficient reduction of the flammability parameters, such as heat release rate (HRR, mass loss (ML, Mass loss rate (MLR, total heat release (THR, carbon monoxide and so on. Thus, a suitable amount of Fe plays a synergistic effect in the flame retardancy of IFR composites.

  20. Effects of Coexisting Disorders on Cognition and Behavior in Children with ADHD

    Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Dewey, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of coexisting disorders affects memory, visual-motor skills, and daily functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Eighty-four boys and 18 girls (8 to 16 years old) participate in this study. Twenty children meet criteria for ADHD alone, 42 children for ADHD plus one other disorder, and 40 children for…

  1. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  2. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Problem Solving in Adults with ADHD

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Sontag, Thomas A.; Stasik, Dorota; Laufkotter, Rainer; Lange, Klaus W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Two studies were performed to assess both divergent and convergent thinking in adults with ADHD. Method: The first study compared the problem-solving abilities of healthy participants (N = 144) and unmedicated adults with ADHD (N = 144). In the second study, problem-solving abilities of adults with diagnosed ADHD (N = 22) were examined…

  3. The synthesis and synergistic antifungal effects of chalcones against drug resistant Candida albicans.

    Wang, Yuan-Hua; Dong, Huai-Huai; Zhao, Fei; Wang, Jie; Yan, Fang; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Jin, Yong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    To identify effective and low toxicity synergistic antifungal compounds, 24 derivatives of chalcone were synthesized to restore the effectiveness of fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC80) and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of the antifungal synergist fluconazole were measured against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. This was done via methods established by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI). Of the synthesized compounds, 2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (8) exhibited the most potent in vitro (FICI=0.007) effects. The structure activity relationship of the compounds are then discussed. PMID:27210436

  4. Synergistic enhancement effect of magnetic nanoparticles on anticancer drug accumulation in cancer cells

    Zhang, Renyun; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Chunhui; Song, Min; Li, Jingyuan; Lv, Gang; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Chen; Dai, Yongyuan; Gao, Feng; Fu, Degang; Li, Xiaomao; Guan, Zhiqun; Chen, Baoan

    2006-07-01

    Three kinds of magnetic nanoparticle, tetraheptylammonium capped nanoparticles of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and Ni have been synthesized, and the synergistic effect of these nanoparticles on the drug accumulation of the anticancer drug daunorubicin in leukaemia cells has been explored. Our observations indicate that the enhancement effect of Fe3O4 nanoparticles is much stronger than that of Fe2O3 and Ni nanoparticles, suggesting that nanoparticle surface chemistry and size as well as the unique properties of the magnetic nanoparticles themselves may contribute to the synergistic enhanced effect of the drug uptake of targeted cancer cells.

  5. Synergistic effect of ionizing radiation on chemical disinfectant treatments for reduction of natural microflora on seafood

    Kim, Hyunjoo; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Jo, Cheorun; Ha, Sang-Do

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on seafood products such as mussel and squid compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of chlorine and ionizing radiation on the natural microflora of mussel and squid. Total aerobic bacteria initially ranged from 102 to 104 Log CFU/g. More than 100 ppm of chlorine and irradiation at 1 kGy were sufficient to reduce the total aerobic bacteria on mussel and squid to a level lower than detection limit (10 CFU/g). Synergistic effects against natural microflora were observed for all combined treatment. These results suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combine chlorine-ionizing radiation treatment against natural microflora on mussel and squid.

  6. Pyrethroid resistance in Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): cross-resistance, stability and effect of synergists.

    Queiroz, Maria Cristina Vitelli; Sato, Mario Eidi

    2016-01-01

    Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The objectives of this research were to study the stability of fenpropathrin resistance and the cross-resistance relationships with different pyrethroids, and also to evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF)] on fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of this predaceous mite. The stability of fenpropathrin resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using P. macropilis populations with initial frequencies of 75 and 50% of resistant mites. The percentages of fenpropathrin resistant mites were evaluated monthly for a period of up to 12 months. A trend toward decreased resistance frequencies was observed only during the first 3-4 months. After this initial decrease, the fenpropathrin resistance was shown to be stable, maintaining constant resistance frequencies (around 30%) until the end of the evaluation period. Toxicity tests carried out using fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of P. macropilis indicated strong positive cross-resistance between fenpropathrin and the pyrethroids bifenthrin and deltamethrin. Bioassays with the synergists DEM, DEF and PBO were also performed. The maximum synergism ratio (SR = LC50 without synergist/LC50 with synergist) detected for the three evaluated synergists (PBO, DEM, DEF) was 5.86 (for DEF), indicating low influence of enzyme detoxification processes in fenpropathrin resistance. PMID:26530989

  7. Cognitive-electrophysiological indices of attentional and inhibitory processing in adults with ADHD: familial effects

    McLoughlin Gráinne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that starts in childhood and frequently persists in adults. In a comparison of adults with ADHD and a matched control sample, we previously showed that abnormal inhibitory processing is typically preceded or accompanied by other processing deficits in adult ADHD. We now compare these data further to additional data from first-degree relatives (fathers of children with ADHD to identify whether this pattern of abnormal processing shares familial influences with ADHD in adults. Methods Using a family design, we compared 20 fathers of children with the combined subtype of ADHD with 21 adults with ADHD combined subtype and 20 controls in event-related potential indices of preparatory states and subsequent response inhibition processing as elicited by a cued continuous performance task. Results Fathers of children with ADHD exhibited significantly weaker orienting attention to cues and inhibitory processing than the controls but not the ADHD sample. Conclusions These findings provide evidence for the familial association of attentional orienting and response inhibition processes with ADHD in adults and indicate a familial and neurobiological link between ADHD in children and adults.

  8. Effects of sarizotan in animal models of ADHD: challenging pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships.

    Danysz, Wojciech; Flik, Gunnar; McCreary, Andrew; Tober, Carsten; Dimpfel, Wilfried; Bizot, Jean C; Kostrzewa, Richard; Brown, Russell W; Jatzke, Claudia C; Greco, Sergio; Jenssen, Ann-Kristin; Parsons, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Sarizotan 1-[(2R)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-2-yl]-N-[[5-(4-fluorophenyl) pyridin-3-yl]methyl] methenamine, showed an in vivo pharmaco-EEG profile resembling that of methylphenidate which is used in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In turn, we tested sarizotan against impulsivity in juvenile rats measuring the choice for large delayed vs. a small immediate reward in a T-maze and obtained encouraging results starting at 0.03 mg/kg (plasma levels of ~11 nM). Results from rats treated neonatally with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), also supported anti-ADHD activity although starting at 0.3 mg/kg. However, microdialysis studies revealed that free brain concentration of sarizotan at active doses were below its affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, the assumed primary target. In contrast, electrophysiological experiments in mid-brain Raphé serotonergic cells paralleled by plasma sampling showed that there was ~60% inhibition of firing rate—indicating significant activation of 5-HT1A receptors—at a plasma concentration of 76 nM. In line with this, we observed that sarizotan concentrations in brain homogenates were similar to total blood levels but over 500 fold higher than free extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations as measured using brain microdialysis. These data suggest that sarizotan may have potential anti-ADHD effects at low doses free of the previously reported side-effects. Moreover, in this case a classical pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship based on free brain concentrations seems to be less appropriate than target engagement pharmacodynamic readouts. PMID:25796190

  9. Psychostimulant effects on academic and behavioral measures for ADHD junior high school students in a lecture format classroom.

    Evans, S W; Pelham, W E

    1991-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two doses of psychostimulants on nine ADHD students' performance in a classroom designed to be analogous to a junior high school American history class conducted during a summer treatment program. Double-blind, placebo-controlled assessment revealed significant and clinically important effects of psychostimulants on quiz and test performance, observations of attention and behavior during lectures, and teacher ratings, as well as accuracy on assignments completed during study hall. Analysis of individual differences revealed a 66% positive response rate. The implications for use of psychostimulants with ADHD young adolescents are discussed. PMID:1770184

  10. Reinforcement enhances vigilance among children with ADHD: comparisons to typically developing children and to the effects of methylphenidate.

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n = 25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n = 19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  11. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA), oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems. (author)

  12. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) Program: Feasibility and Preliminary Support for a Psychosocial Intervention for Teenage Drivers with ADHD

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Hulme, Kevin; Linke, Stuart; Nelson-Tuttle, Chris; Pariseau, Meaghan; Gangloff, Brian; Lewis, Kemper; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha; Buck, Melina

    2011-01-01

    Teenage drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at considerable risk for negative driving outcomes, including traffic citations, accidents, and injuries. Presently, no efficacious psychosocial interventions exist for teenage drivers with ADHD. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program is a…

  13. An FMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD

    Peterson, Bradley S; Potenza, Marc N; Wang, Zhishun;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of psychostimulants on brain activity in children and adolescents with ADHD performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. METHOD: The authors acquired 52 functional MRI scans in 16 youths with ADHD who were known responders to stimulant medication and 20...

  14. ADHD: does parenting style matter?

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Danforth, Jeffrey S; Brooks, Donna

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition typically arising in childhood, which untreated, can have consequences reaching into adolescence and beyond. Effective pharmacological treatment is available and has become widespread in the West. Outcomes for both the child with ADHD and the parent may be influenced by the nature of interaction between them. The authors of this article aim to review published research examining the interaction between parents and their children with ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted of studies written in English between 2000 and 2007 with the keywords ADHD and parenting. Child ADHD elicits high levels of parental stress and maladaptive parenting. The presence of parental psychopathology is common and influences the parent's response to the child's ADHD symptoms. Optimizing parent-child interaction and parental psychiatric status may improve outcomes for both parent and child. PMID:18559885

  15. Degradation by synergistic effect in synthetic insulators; Degradacion por efecto sinergico en aisladores sinteticos

    Garza M, Anibal; Montesinos S, Jose I. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    A study is presented of the main degradation phenomena experimented by synthetic insulators and the simultaneous participation of such phenomena to propitiate a synergistic effect. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio de los principales fenomenos de degradacion que sufren los aisladores sinteticos y la participacion simultanea de dichos fenomenos para propiciar un efecto sinergico.

  16. Synergistic effects in mechanical properties of PLA/PCL blends with optimized composition, processing, and morphology

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Fortelný, Ivan; Nevoralová, Martina; Hodan, Jiří; Kredatusová, Jana; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 120 (2015), s. 98971-98982. ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biodegradable polymer blends * synergistic effects * impact strength Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  17. Effects of a parent training program on the behavior of a boy with ADHD at home and at school

    Suna Kaymak Özmen

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the best researched disorders in childhood and adolescents (Petermann & Hampel, 2009). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a parent training program in a seven year-old boy with ADHD by applying a single-case design. It was monitored, to what extent the child would be able to develop the favored target behavior within the context of home and school. Measurement of change was conducted by using rating scales wit...

  18. Differential effects of theta/beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency

    Arns, Martijn; Feddema, Ilse; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. In this study we compared adult ADHD patients (N = 19) to a control group (N = 28) and investigated if differences existed in sleep parameters such...

  19. Differential effects of Theta/Beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency

    Martijn eArns; Ilse eFeddema; J. Leon eKenemans

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role for sleep and sleep problems in the etiology of ADHD and a recent model about the working mechanism of sensori-motor rhythm (SMR) neurofeedback, proposed that this intervention normalizes sleep and thus improves ADHD symptoms such as inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. In this study we compared adult ADHD patients (N=19) to a control group (N=28) and investigated if differences existed in sleep parameters such as Sleep Onset Latency (SOL), Sleep Duration (...

  20. Is dopamine transporter gene effective on therapeutic response of methylphenidate in ADHD patients?

    Fatemeh Moharrari; Soheila Barabadian

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric illness, which affects about 5% of children worldwide. An 80% genetic background is responsible for ADHD due to its appearance in familial relationships. In addition, dopamine regulation in synaptic spaces, which have a central role in development of ADHD, is moderated by dopamine transporter neurotransmitter, which in turn is modulated by dopamine transporter gene named SLC6A3 or DAT1. Methylphenidate as the ...

  1. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between ADHD Symptoms and IQ

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ ...

  2. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ

    Rommel, A.S.; Rijsdijk, F.; Greven, C. U.; Asherson, P.; Kuntsi, J.

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ ...

  3. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

    Gal Dubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, "natural", therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period. Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  4. Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with ADHD in Routine Clinical Practice: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Van Den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Van Der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to routine clinical care (RCC). Method: After a first phase of RCC, 94 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ages 4-12, all referred to a Dutch outpatient mental health clinic, were randomly assigned to 5 months of BPT plus concurrent…

  5. An FMRI study of the effects of psychostimulants on default-mode processing during Stroop task performance in youths with ADHD

    Peterson, Bradley S; Potenza, Marc N; Wang, Zhishun;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of psychostimulants on brain activity in children and adolescents with ADHD performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. METHOD: The authors acquired 52 functional MRI scans in 16 youths with ADHD who were known responders to stimulant medication and 20...... healthy comparison youths. Participants with ADHD were scanned on and off medication in a counterbalanced design, and comparison subjects were scanned once without medication. RESULTS: Stimulant medication significantly improved suppression of default-mode activity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex...... in the ADHD group. When off medication, youths with ADHD were unable to suppress default-mode activity to the same degree as comparison subjects, whereas when on medication, they suppressed this activity to comparison group levels. Greater activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex when off...

  6. [Psychosocial intervention follow-up in children with ADHD: effects on academic, emotional and social functioning].

    Presentación Herrero, M Jesús; Siegenthaler Hierro, Rebeca; Jara Jiménez, Pilar; Miranda Casas, Ana

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the maintenance of the effects, one year after its conclusion, of an intervention that integrated three coordinated programs, implemented with 27 children with ADHD, aged between 7 and 10 years, their parents and teachers. The intervention lasted 10 weeks and included behavior-modification and cognitive-behavioral techniques, academic adaptations and social skills. We evaluated the effects on academic, emotional and social adjustment from the information provided by parents, teachers and classmates. The results confirm the maintenance in the follow-up evaluation of the improvements experienced after the treatment, especially in the academic and social areas, in which these children displayed the greatest difficulties. PMID:21044513

  7. Human harvest, climate change and their synergistic effects drove the Chinese Crested Tern to the brink of extinction

    Shuihua Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect refers to simultaneous actions of separate factors which have a greater total effect than the sum of the individual factor effects. However, there has been a limited knowledge on how synergistic effects occur and individual roles of different drivers are not often considered. Therefore, it becomes quite challenging to manage multiple threatening processes simultaneously in order to mitigate biodiversity loss. In this regard, our hypothesis is, if the traits actually play different roles in the synergistic interaction, conservation efforts could be made more effectively. To understand the synergistic effect and test our hypothesis, we examined the processes associated with the endangerment of critically endangered Chinese Crested Tern (Thalasseus bernsteini, whose total population number was estimated no more than 50. Through monitoring of breeding colonies and investigations into causative factors, combined with other data on human activities, we found that widespread human harvest of seabird eggs and increasing frequency of typhoons are the major factors that threatened the Chinese Crested Tern. Furthermore, 28 percent of breeding failures were due to the synergistic effects in which egg harvest-induced renestings suffered the higher frequent typhoons. In such combined interactions, the egg harvest has clearly served as a proximal factor for the population decline, and the superimposition of enhanced typhoon activity further accelerated the species toward imminent extinction. Our findings suggest that species endangerment, on one hand, should be treated as a synergistic process, while conservation efforts, on the other hand, should focus principally on combatting the threat that triggers synergistic effects.

  8. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Joel Schwartz; Antonella Zanobetti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were u...

  9. A comparative study of the effectiveness of nonattendance and workshop education of primary school teachers on their knowledge, attitude and function towards ADHD students in Isfahan in 2010

    Nasrin Sarraf

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Nonattendance education was as effective as workshop education in promotion of teachers′ knowledge, but workshop education was more effective in attitude change and promotion of teachers′ knowledge of function about dealing with ADHD students.

  10. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  11. The Effects of Childhood ADHD Symptoms on Early-Onset Substance Use: A Swedish Twin Study

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of substance use problems. Few studies, however, have focused on early-onset substance use. This study therefore investigated how the two symptom dimensions of ADHD (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention) are…

  12. The Effect of Ritalin on Response to Reward and Punishment in Children with ADHD.

    Arnett, Peter A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Groups of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children taking a placebo, high dose, or low dose of Ritalin were compared in their responses to reward and punishment. Results suggest that Ritalin may improve the ability of ADHD children to withhold inappropriate responding by dampening their response to reward cues and, possibly, making…

  13. Parental perceptions of the effects of exercise on behavior in children and adolescents with ADHD

    Jennifer I. Gapin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This is the first study to empirically document parents' perceptions of how PA influences ADHD and suggests that PA can be a viable strategy for reducing symptoms. PA may have greater benefits for specific symptoms of ADHD, providing critical information for developing PA interventions for children and adolescents.

  14. An Examination of the Effects of ADHD Coaching on University Students' Executive Functioning

    Parker, David R.; Hoffman, Sharon Field; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Rolands, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Seven undergraduates at a selective Midwestern university participated in a semester-long pilot study regarding the impact of ADHD coaching services on their academic experiences. Coaches in the study had extensive qualifications, including specific training to address the needs of college students with ADHD. Three major themes emerged from…

  15. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

  16. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  17. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF FEEDING AND DEXAMETHASONE ON SERUM LEPTIN LEVELS

    Laferrère, B.; FRIED, S.K.; Hough, K.; CAMPBELL, S.A.; THORNTON, J.; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the time course of the stimulatory effect of dexamethasone on serum leptin and whether it depends on food intake. Dexamethasone (4mg) was administered I. V. over 1 minute to healthy human volunteers (n=8) under fasting and feeding conditions (2000 kcal given at three meals over 7 hours). At 10 hours, serum leptin levels were increased only in the fed subjects (delta leptin 10.6±1.6 vs −2.4±1.9 ng/ml, p=0.01, n=8). To assess the interactive effect...

  18. Effects of local and global network connectivity on synergistic epidemics.

    Broder-Rodgers, David; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J; Taraskin, Sergei N

    2015-12-01

    Epidemics in networks can be affected by cooperation in transmission of infection and also connectivity between nodes. An interplay between these two properties and their influence on epidemic spread are addressed in the paper. A particular type of cooperative effects (called synergy effects) is considered, where the transmission rate between a pair of nodes depends on the number of infected neighbors. The connectivity effects are studied by constructing networks of different topology, starting with lattices with only local connectivity and then with networks that have both local and global connectivity obtained by random bond-rewiring to nodes within a certain distance. The susceptible-infected-removed epidemics were found to exhibit several interesting effects: (i) for epidemics with strong constructive synergy spreading in networks with high local connectivity, the bond rewiring has a negative role in epidemic spread, i.e., it reduces invasion probability; (ii) in contrast, for epidemics with destructive or weak constructive synergy spreading on networks of arbitrary local connectivity, rewiring helps epidemics to spread; (iii) and, finally, rewiring always enhances the spread of epidemics, independent of synergy, if the local connectivity is low. PMID:26764751

  19. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  20. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Guo, Fangmin; Liu, Yinong; Shi, Xiaobin; Jiang, Daqiang; Brown, Dennis E.; Ren, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This material also has a high mechanical energy storage efficiency of 96% and a high energy storage density of 36 J/cm3 that is almost one order of larger than that of spring steel. It is demonstrated that the synergistic effect allows the exceptional mechanical properties of nanowires to be harvested at macro scale and the mechanical properties of matrix to be greatly improved, resulting in these superior properties. This study provides new avenues for developing advanced composites with superior properties by using effective synergistic effect between components.

  1. Synergistic effects of ethanol and cocaine on brain stimulation reward.

    Lewis, M. J.; June, H L

    1994-01-01

    The effects of two widely abused drugs, ethanol and cocaine, were examined alone and in combination on intracranial reward processes. In agreement with previous research, higher doses of both cocaine and ethanol alone produced facilitation of behavior maintained by brain stimulation reward. Low intraperitoneal doses of ethanol and cocaine, which alone did not affect performance, were found to reduce stimulation reward threshold and modestly increase response rate. The enhancement of brain sti...

  2. Synergistic strengthening effect of nanocrystalline copper reinforced with carbon nanotubes

    Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Hu, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Fu-Chi; Li, Sheng-Lin; Korznikov, Elena; Zhao, Xiu-Chen; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Kang, Zhe

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced nanocrystalline copper matrix composite with super high strength and moderate plasticity was synthesized. We successfully overcome the agglomeration problem of the carbon nanotubes and the grain growth problem of the nanocrystalline copper matrix by combined use of the electroless deposition and spark plasma sintering methods. The yield strength of the composite reach up to 692 MPa, which is increased by 2 and 5 times comparing with those of the nanocrystalline and coarse copper, respectively. Simultaneously, the plasticity of the composite was also significantly increased in contrast with that of the nanocrystalline copper. The increase of the density of the carbon nanotubes after coating, the isolation effect caused by the copper coating, and the improvement of the compatibility between the reinforcements and matrix as well as the effective control of the grain growth of the copper matrix all contribute to improving the mechanical properties of the composite. In addition, a new strengthening mechanism, i.e., the series-connection effect of the nanocrystalline copper grains introduced by carbon nanotubes, is proposed to further explain the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite.

  3. Synergistic strengthening effect of nanocrystalline copper reinforced with carbon nanotubes.

    Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Hu, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Fu-Chi; Li, Sheng-Lin; Korznikov, Elena; Zhao, Xiu-Chen; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Kang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes reinforced nanocrystalline copper matrix composite with super high strength and moderate plasticity was synthesized. We successfully overcome the agglomeration problem of the carbon nanotubes and the grain growth problem of the nanocrystalline copper matrix by combined use of the electroless deposition and spark plasma sintering methods. The yield strength of the composite reach up to 692 MPa, which is increased by 2 and 5 times comparing with those of the nanocrystalline and coarse copper, respectively. Simultaneously, the plasticity of the composite was also significantly increased in contrast with that of the nanocrystalline copper. The increase of the density of the carbon nanotubes after coating, the isolation effect caused by the copper coating, and the improvement of the compatibility between the reinforcements and matrix as well as the effective control of the grain growth of the copper matrix all contribute to improving the mechanical properties of the composite. In addition, a new strengthening mechanism, i.e., the series-connection effect of the nanocrystalline copper grains introduced by carbon nanotubes, is proposed to further explain the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite. PMID:27185503

  4. Synergistic effect of ligating and ionic functions, prearranged on a calix[4]arene

    Mikulášek, Libor; Grüner, Bohumír; Danila, C.; Böhmer, V.; Čáslavský, Josef; Selucký, P.

    -, č. 38 (2006), s. 4001-4003. ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA AV ČR IAA400310613 Grant ostatní: EC(XE) F16W-CT-2003-508854 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Synergistic effect Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.521, year: 2006

  5. Synergistic Effects Induced by Combined Treatments of Aqueous Extract of Propolis and Venom

    Drigla, Flaviu; Balacescu, Ovidiu; VISAN, SIMONA; BISBOACA, SIMONA ELENA; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered to be one of the most aggressive breast neoplasia due to failure of chemotherapy response. Thus, there is an urgent need of finding alternative therapies for TNBC. This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic effect induced by propolis and bee venom on luminal (MCF-7) and TNBC (Hs578T) cell lines. Methods In order to evalua...

  6. Synergistic effects of atorvastatin and rosiglitazone on endothelium protection in rats with dyslipidemia

    Zhang, Wei-Li; Yan, Wen-Ju; Sun, Bei; Zou, Zhi-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Whether atorvastatin combined with rosiglitazone has synergistic effects on endothelial function improvement in the setting of dyslipidemia is unknown. Methods Dyslipidemia rat model was produced with high-fat and high-cholesterol diet administration. Thereafter, atorvastatin, rosiglitazone or atorvastatin combined with rosiglitazone were prescribed for 2 weeks. At baseline, 6 weeks of dysli...

  7. Synergistic effect of xylitol and ursolic acid combination on oral biofilms

    Zou, Yunyun; Lee, Yoon; Huh, Jinyoung; Park, Jeong-Won

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic antibacterial effect of xylitol and ursolic acid (UA) against oral biofilms in vitro. Materials and Methods S. mutans UA 159 (wild type), S. mutans KCOM 1207, KCOM 1128 and S. sobrinus ATCC 33478 were used. The susceptibility of S. mutans to UA and xylitol was evaluated using a broth microdilution method. Based on the results, combined susceptibility was evaluated using optimal inhibitory combinations (OIC), optimal bactericidal c...

  8. Synergistic effect in conductive networks constructed with carbon nanofillers in different dimensions

    Fu, Q; S. M. Zhang; Lin, L; Deng, H.; Gao, X; E. Bilotti; Peijs, T.; Zhang, Q

    2012-01-01

    Herein, investigation on synergistic effect during network formation for conductive network constructed with carbon nanofillers in different dimensions is conducted. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and carbon black (CB) are employed as conductive fillers in this system. Morphological control of the conductive network is realized by adjusting the ratio between different fillers. Classical percolation threshold theory and adjusted excluded volume theory are used to analyze the electrical ...

  9. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Polyphenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater

    Ahmed Tafesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols or phenolic compounds are groups of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants and found in olive mill wastewater (OMW. Phenolic compounds as well as OMW extracts were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the tested phenols were not effective against the four bacterial strains when tested as single compounds at concentrations of up to 1000 μg mL−1. Hydroxytyrosol at 400 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. Gallic acid was effective at 200, and 400 μg mL−1 against S. aureus, and S. pyogenes, respectively, but not against the gram negative bacteria. An OMW fraction called AntiSolvent was obtained after the addition of ethanol to the crude OMW. HPLC analysis of AntiSolvent fraction revealed that this fraction contains mainly hydroxytyrosol (10.3%, verbascoside (7.4%, and tyrosol (2.6%. The combinations of AntiSolvent/gallic acid were tested using the low minimal inhibitory concentrations which revealed that 50/100–100/100 μg mL−1 caused complete growth inhibition of the four strains. These results suggest that OMW specific fractions augmented with natural phenolic ingredients may be utilized as a source of bioactive compounds to control pathogenic bacteria.

  10. Synergistic effect of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ameliorates drought stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions. PMID:26362119

  11. Synergistic effect of Croton caudatus (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (flowers) extracts against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus

    Someshwar Singha; Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the synergistic effect of crude and solvent extract of Croton caudatus (C. caudatus ) (fruits) and Tiliacora acuminata (T. acuminata) (flowers) against the larval form of Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Crude and solvent [chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v), benzene and ethyl acetate] extracts of two plants, C. caudatus (fruits) and T. acuminata (flowers) were examined separately against filarial vector Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae with gradually increasing concentration i.e. from 0.1%to 0.5%of crude extract and 25 ppm to 75 ppm of solvent extracts. To observe the synergistic effect, if any, extracts of these two plant parts were mixed at different concentrations and treated against mosquito larvae. Phytochemical analyses of extracts of both the plant parts were carried out. Results: In a 72-h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at 0.5% (crude) and 75 ppm (solvent) concentration for fruits of C. caudatus and flowers of T. acuminata individually. For synergistic effect, only 0.2%of the mixture of these two crude extracts and 75 ppm concentration of chloroform:methanol (1:1 v/v) and ethyl acetate extracts showed 100%mortality after 24 h and 48 h of exposure respectively. Conclusions:In the field of mosquito control, insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative to the toxic chemicals. Some secondary metabolites in combination may be responsible for better larvicidal activity.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene on Diopside Scaffolds

    Liu, Tingting; Wu, Ping; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    A synergetic effect between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene on diopside (Di) scaffolds was demonstrated. 3D network architecture in the matrix was formed through the 1D CNTs inlaid among the 2D graphene platelets (GNPs). The mechanical properties of the CNTs/GNPs/Di scaffolds were significantly improved compared with the CNTs/Di scaffolds and GNPs/Di scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds exhibited excellent apatite-forming ability, a modest degradation rate, and stable mechanical properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, cell culturing tests indicated that the scaffolds supported the cells attachment and proliferation. Taken together, the CNTs/GNPs/Di scaffolds offered great potential for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Synergistic effects obtained by combined electron beam and microwave irradiation

    A new method based on microwave energy addition to accelerated electron beam energy for material processing was developed. The main idea of this work was to combine the advantages of both electron beam (EB) irradiation and microwave (MW) irradiation, i.e. EB high irradiation efficiency and MW high selectivity and volumetric heating, for material processing. The first expected and obtained result was the decrease of the required EB absorbed dose. Thus, the ionizing radiation costs could be reduced and the application of low intensity EB accelerators will become very economically attractive in the material-processing field. Another expected and obtained result was the improvement of material properties. A special designed facility consisting of an EB accelerator of 5.5 MeV and a MW source of 2.45 GHz and 1.6 kW that performs combined EB and MW irradiation is presented. There are three fields of interest under our investigation for application of combined EB and MW irradiation: environmental waste treatment (sewage sludge, flue gases), sterilization (food residuals, hospital wastes) and food quality and safety. Both, EB (ionizing radiation) and MW (non-ionizing) material processing are based on the radiation ability to alter physical and chemical properties of materials. Irradiation with electron beams was put forth as a very effective method for material processing because can produce ions, electrons, and free radicals at any temperature in the solid, liquid and gas. EB processes are very effective for material processing but the required absorbed dose is still high for pollutants removal, sterilization, vulcanization, etc. MW processing of materials is a relatively new technology that provides new approaches to improve the physical properties of materials and to produce new materials and microstructures that cannot be achieved by other methods. MW processes are less effective for material processing than EB processes but the cost of microwave systems is considerably

  14. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood and they are...... typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  15. Screening af voksne for ADHD

    Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arngrim, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    ADHD is a well established condition in childhood, but much less attention has been given to this diagnosis among adults. It is estimated that 2-4% of the adult population has this condition. Adults with ADHD present symptoms that differ somewhat from those presenting in childhood and they are...... typically characterized by problems with planning of work and daily life activities as well as social persistence. The Adult ADHD Self-report Scale (ASRS) can be used in general practice as an introduction to the diagnostic process of ADHD in a psychiatry setting and to evaluate the effect of treatment....... ASRS is now available in Danish and is recommended as a screener for adult ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-12...

  16. Co-administration of morphine and gabapentin leads to dose dependent synergistic effects in a rat model of postoperative pain

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    2016-01-01

    dose combinations and investigate whether co-administration leads to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations in total) were evaluated in the rat...... plantar incision model using an electronic von Frey device. The percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and the area under the response curve (AUC) were used for evaluation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the drugs. Identification of synergistic interactions was based on Loewe additivity response...... surface analyses. The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response...

  17. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available bjective: This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms .Method:Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day plus folic (5mg/day, and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus placebo. Parent-reported ADHD symptoms and Overt Aggression Scale score were the outcome measures. Quality of life was assessed as well. Assessments were performed at pre-intervention, and at one month and two months after starting the interventions using repeated measure analysis Results:The mean age of children was 9.6(2.7 years. Age and gender were not associated with the groups. ADHD symptoms significantly decreased in both groups during the trial. However, no difference was observed between the groups. Moreover, aggression non-significantly decreased in both groups. Meanwhile, there was no difference between the two groups in efficacy for treating different types of aggressive behaviors including: verbal aggression, physical aggression against people, physical aggression against properties or objects, and aggression against self (self-injurious behavior. While methylphenidate improved quality of life of children with ADHD, folic acid did not improve it more than placebo. Both medications were well tolerated.Conclusion:considering the marked limitations of this trial, this primarily report suggests that methylphenidate may improve ADHD symptoms and the quality of life of children with ADHD. Current evidence does not support that folic acid as an adjuvant is effective for treating ADHD symptoms or aggression, or the improving quality of life of children with ADHD.

  18. Synergistic effects of retinoic acid and tamoxifen on human breast cancer cells: Proteomic characterization

    The anti-estrogen tamoxifen and vitamin A-related compound, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), in combination act synergistically to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In the present study, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach to globally analyze this synergistic effect of RA and tamoxifen. Proteomic study revealed that multiple clusters of proteins were involved in RA and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, including post-transcriptional and splicing factors, proteins related to cellular proliferation or differentiation, and proteins related to energy production and internal degradation systems. The negative growth factor-transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) was secreted by RA and/or tamoxifen treatment and was studies as a potential mediator of the synergistic effects of RA and tamoxifen in apoptosis. By comparing protein alterations in treatments of RA and tamoxifen alone or in combination to those of TGFβ treatment, or co-treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB 431542, proteomic results showed that a number of proteins were involved in TGFβ signaling pathway. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of RA and tamoxifen-induced TGFβ signaling pathway in breast cancer cells

  19. Effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapy of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults – health technology assessment

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a mental disorder. Symptoms include hyperactivity, lack of attentiveness, and frivolousness. This disorder always begins in childhood, but can remain through adulthood. ADHD affects all areas of life and limits the quality of life due to its symptoms and the high rate of associated disorders that can develop. An established form of therapy is using stimulant medications, most commonly, containing Methylphenidate as the active ingredient. However, in Germany this ingredient is not approved for adults suffering from ADHD. Therefore, many adults cannot obtain appropriate medication to treat this disorder. Objective: The following report (Health Technology Assessment [HTA] examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the medical treatment of ADHD in adults as well as the ethical, social and legal aspects thereof. Methods: In August 2009, a systematic literature search is performed in all relevant scientific databases. The selected citations fulfill predetermined inclusion criteria. The data in the publications is then systematically extracted, reviewed and assessed. A manual search of citations is conducted as well. Results: Nineteen studies fulfill the inclusion criteria: nine randomised controlled studies (RCT, five meta-analyses, three economic studies and two studies relevant to the legal aspects of the HTA.All RCT reveal that adult patients who receive medication containing a stimulant (Methylphenidate and Amphetamine and Atomoxetine, see a reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to the placebo-treated patients. The drug response rate among the control group ranges from 7 to 42%; in the treatment group from 17 to 59.6%. The meta-analyses confirm the findings of the RCT. In light of the control group, it can be ascertained that there are higher annual costs (both direct and indirect for patients with ADHD. The average annual medical expenses for an adult with ADHD were 1,262 $ in

  20. The presence of ADHD

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses high quality register-data to study the spillover effects on firstborns from having a younger sibling suffering from ADHD. Using OLS and cousin fixed effects analyses it is found that the educational outcomes of healthy firstborn children are significantly reduced by the presence of...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... more effective than receiving only medication or only behavior therapy. Since individual needs vary, however, you should work with your child’s doctor to help find most effective treatment for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ...

  2. Effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions; psychostimulants are first choice. Other alternatives have been used such as alpha agonists (clonidine, hence it is important to know its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists in treating ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing alpha agonists to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, Lilacs, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 34 studies found initially, three were included, among which a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Clonidine is considered an effective second and third line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but it is less effective than stimulants. Its use is associated with many side effects.

  3. Antagonistic and synergistic effects of light irradiation on the effects of copper on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Cheloni, Giulia; Cosio, Claudia; Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@unige.ch

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Light intensity and spectral composition affect Cu uptake and effects to C. reinhardtii. • High light (HL) reduced Cu effect on growth inhibition, oxidative stress and damage. • HL in combination with Cu up-regulated genes involved in the antioxidant responses. • HL with increased UVB radiation exacerbated Cu uptake and Cu-induced toxic effects. - Abstract: The present study showed the important role of light intensity and spectral composition on Cu uptake and effects on green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. High-intenisty light (HL) increased cellular Cu concentrations, but mitigated the Cu-induced decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation at high Cu concentrations, indicating that Cu and HL interact in an antagonistic manner. HL up-regulated the transcription of genes involved in the antioxidant response in C. reinhardtii and thus reduced the oxidative stress upon exposure to Cu and HL. Combined exposure to Cu and UVBR resulted in an increase of cellular Cu contents and caused severe oxidative damage to the cells. The observed effects were higher than the sum of the effects corresponding to exposure to UVBR or Cu alone suggesting a synergistic interaction.

  4. Antagonistic and synergistic effects of light irradiation on the effects of copper on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Highlights: • Light intensity and spectral composition affect Cu uptake and effects to C. reinhardtii. • High light (HL) reduced Cu effect on growth inhibition, oxidative stress and damage. • HL in combination with Cu up-regulated genes involved in the antioxidant responses. • HL with increased UVB radiation exacerbated Cu uptake and Cu-induced toxic effects. - Abstract: The present study showed the important role of light intensity and spectral composition on Cu uptake and effects on green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. High-intenisty light (HL) increased cellular Cu concentrations, but mitigated the Cu-induced decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation at high Cu concentrations, indicating that Cu and HL interact in an antagonistic manner. HL up-regulated the transcription of genes involved in the antioxidant response in C. reinhardtii and thus reduced the oxidative stress upon exposure to Cu and HL. Combined exposure to Cu and UVBR resulted in an increase of cellular Cu contents and caused severe oxidative damage to the cells. The observed effects were higher than the sum of the effects corresponding to exposure to UVBR or Cu alone suggesting a synergistic interaction

  5. Synergistic effect of cellulase and xylanase during hydrolysis of natural lignocellulosic substrates.

    Song, Hui-Ting; Gao, Yuan; Yang, Yi-Min; Xiao, Wen-Jing; Liu, Shi-Hui; Xia, Wu-Cheng; Liu, Zi-Lu; Yi, Li; Jiang, Zheng-Bing

    2016-11-01

    Synergistic combination of cellulase and xylanase has been performed on pre-treated substrates in many previous studies, while few on natural substrates. In this study, three unpretreated lignocellulosic substrates were studied, including corncob, corn stover, and rice straw. The results indicated that when the mixed cellulase and xylanase were applied, reducing sugar concentrations were calculated as 19.53, 15.56, and 17.35mg/ml, respectively, based on the 3,5 dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Compared to the treatment with only cellulose, the hydrolysis yields caused by mixed cellulase and xylanase were improved by 133%, 164%, and 545%, respectively. In addition, the conversion yield of corncob, corn stover, and rice straw by cellulase-xylanase co-treatment reached 43.9%, 48.5%, and 40.2%, respectively, based on HPLC analysis, which confirmed the synergistic effect of cellulase-xylanase that was much higher than either of the single enzyme treatment. The substrate morphology was also evaluated to explore the synergistic mechanism of cellulase-xylanase. PMID:27560367

  6. Discriminating among ADHD alone, ADHD with a comorbid psychological disorder, and feigned ADHD in a college sample.

    Williamson, Kimberly D; Combs, Hannah L; Berry, David T R; Harp, Jordan P; Mason, Lisa H; Edmundson, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s concern has increased that college students might feign ADHD in pursuit of academic accommodations and stimulant medication. In response, several studies have validated tests for use in differentiating feigned from genuine ADHD. Although results have generally been positive, relatively few publications have addressed the possible impact of the presence of psychological disorders comorbid with ADHD. Because ADHD is thought to have accompanying conditions at rates of 50% and higher, it is important to determine if the additional psychological disorders might compromise the accuracy of feigning detection measures. The present study extended the findings of Jasinski et al. (2011) to examine the efficacy of various measures in the context of feigned versus genuine ADHD with comorbid psychological disorders in undergraduate students. Two clinical groups (ADHD only and ADHD + comorbid psychological disorder) were contrasted with two non-clinical groups (normal controls answering honestly and normal participants feigning ADHD). Extending previous research to individuals with ADHD and either an anxiety or learning disorder, performance validity tests such as the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), the Letter Memory Test (LMT), and the Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) were effective in differentiating both ADHD groups from normal participants feigning ADHD. However, the Digit Memory Test (DMT) underperformed in this study, as did embedded validity indices from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-III (WJ-III). PMID:25225947

  7. Synergistic Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Fatty Acids on Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Kermanizadeh, Ali;

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids exposure may increase sensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells to cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ZnO NPs and palmitic acid (PA) or free fatty acids (FFAs) mixture (oleic/PA 2:1) on toxicity to human colon...... epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The ZnO NPs exposure concentration dependently induced cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells showing as reduced proliferation and activity measured by 3 different assays. PA exposure induced cytotoxicity, and coexposure to ZnO NPs and PA showed the largest cytotoxic effects. The presence of...

  8. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent program for the treatment of children with ADHD.

    Miranda, Ana; Presentación, Maria Jesús; Soriano, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent program for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) carried out by teachers in a classroom context. Dependent measures included neuropsychological tasks, behavioral rating scales for parents and teachers, direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and academic records of children with ADHD. Fifty children with ADHD participated in the study. The teachers of 29 of the 50 students were trained in the use of behavior modification techniques, cognitive behavior strategies, and instructional management strategies. The other 21 students formed the control group. Parents' and teachers'ratings detected improvements in primary symptoms (inattention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity) and in behavioral difficulties usually associated with ADHD (e.g., antisocial behavior, psychopathological disorders, anxiety). Furthermore, the results showed increased academic scores, enhanced classroom behavioral observations, and improved teachers' knowledge about the strategies directed toward responding to the children's educational needs. PMID:15493252

  9. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Aaron T. Piepmeier

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: children with and without ADHD realize benefits in speed of processing and inhibitory control in response to a session of acute exercise, but do not experience benefits in planning or set shifting.

  10. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion

  11. Synergistic effect of cisplatin and synchrotron irradiation on F98 gliomas growing in nude mice

    Ricard, Clement; Fernandez, Manuel [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Requardt, Herwig [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Wion, Didier [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Vial, Jean-Claude [Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, St Martin d’Hères (France); Segebarth, Christoph; Sanden, Boudewijn van der, E-mail: boudewijn.vandersanden@ujf-grenoble.fr [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-01

    Synchrotron photoactivation therapy of cisplatin relies on a synergistic effect of synchrotron X-rays and platinum and leads to tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma multiforme appears as one of the most aggressive forms of cancer with poor prognosis and no curative treatment available. Recently, a new kind of radio-chemotherapy has been developed using synchrotron irradiation for the photoactivation of molecules with high-Z elements such as cisplatin (PAT-Plat). This protocol showed a cure of 33% of rats bearing the F98 glioma but the efficiency of the treatment was only measured in terms of overall survival. Here, characterization of the effects of the PAT-Plat on tumor volume and tumor blood perfusion are proposed. Changes in these parameters may predict the overall survival. Firstly, changes in tumor growth of the F98 glioma implanted in the hindlimb of nude mice after the PAT-Plat treatment and its different modalities have been characterized. Secondly, the effects of the treatment on tumor blood perfusion have been observed by intravital two-photon microscopy. Cisplatin alone had no detectable effect on the tumor volume. A reduction of tumor growth was measured after a 15 Gy synchrotron irradiation, but the whole therapy (15 Gy irradiation + cisplatin) showed the largest decrease in tumor growth, indicating a synergistic effect of both synchrotron irradiation and cisplatin treatment. A high number of unperfused vessels (52%) were observed in the peritumoral area in comparison with untreated controls. In the PAT-Plat protocol the transient tumor growth reduction may be due to synergistic interactions of tumor-cell-killing effects and reduction of the tumor blood perfusion.

  12. Synergistic antidepressant-like effect of ferulic acid in combination with piperine: involvement of monoaminergic system.

    Li, Gaowen; Ruan, Lina; Chen, Ruijie; Wang, Renye; Xie, Xupei; Zhang, Meixi; Chen, Lichao; Yan, Qizhi; Reed, Miranda; Chen, Jiechun; Xu, Ying; Pan, Jianchun; Huang, Wu

    2015-12-01

    The lifetime prevalence rate for major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately 17 % for most developed countries around the world. Dietary polyphenols are currently used as an adjuvant therapy to accelerate the therapeutic efficacy on depression. Ferulic acid (FA) or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid (Fig. 1a) is a main polyphenolic component of Chinese herb Radix Angelicae Sinensis, which is found to have antidepressant-like effects through regulating serotonergic and noradrenergic function. The present study examined the synergistic effect of low doses of FA combined with subthreshold dose of piperine, a bioavailability enhancer, on depression-like behaviors in mice, and investigated the possible mechanism. The administration of FA, even in the highest dose tested, reduced immobility time by 60 % in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests (TST and FST) in mice when compared to control. The maximal antidepressant-like effect of FA was obtained with 200 mg/kg. In addition, piperine only produced a weak antidepressant-like effect in the TST and FST. However, the evidence from the interaction analysis suggested a synergistic effect when low doses of FA were combined with a subthreshold dose of piperine. Further neurochemical evidence such as monoamine levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and measurements of monoamine oxidase activity also supported a synergistic effect of FA and piperine in the enhancement of monoaminergic function. This finding supports the concept that the combination strategy might be an alternative therapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with high efficacy and low side effects. PMID:26220010

  13. Time-of-day effects in arousal: disrupted diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ADHD

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study with multiple measurements to take into account interday and intraday variability. Methods: Salivary cortisol was sampled five times a day (awakenin...

  14. Differentiating ADHD from oral language difficulties in children: role of movements and effects of stimulant medication

    Hughes, Carroll W.; Pickering, Joyce; Baker, Kristi; Bolanos, Gina; Silver, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to test if an objective measure of both attention and movement would differentiate children with Oral Language Disorders (OLD) from those with comorbid Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and if stimulant medication improved performance when both disorders were present. Methods The sample consisted of thirty-three children with an identified oral language disorder (of which 22 had comorbid ADHD) ages 6 to 13 who were enrolled in a yearlong...

  15. The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on reactive aggression in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and healthy controls.

    Marco Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT has been linked to the underlying neurobiology of aggressive behavior, particularly with evidence from studies in animals and humans. However, the underlying neurobiology of aggression remains unclear in the context of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, a disorder known to be associated with aggression and impulsivity. We investigated the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD, and the resulting diminished central nervous serotonergic neurotransmission, on reactive aggression in healthy controls and adults with ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty male patients with ADHD and twenty healthy male controls were subjected to ATD with an amino acid (AA beverage that lacked tryptophan (TRP, the physiological precursor of 5-HT and a TRP-balanced AA beverage (BAL in a double-blind, within-subject crossover-study over two study days. We assessed reactive aggression 3.25 hours after ATD/BAL intake using a point-subtraction aggression game (PSAG in which participants played for points against a fictitious opponent. Point subtraction was taken as a measure for reactive aggression. Lowered rates of reactive aggression were found in the ADHD group under ATD after low provocation (LP, with controls showing the opposite effect. In patients with ADHD, trait-impulsivity was negatively correlated with the ATD effect on reactive aggression after LP. Statistical power was limited due to large standard deviations observed in the data on point subtraction, which may limit the use of this particular paradigm in adults with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous findings, the data provide preliminary evidence of an inverse association between trait-impulsivity and the ATD effect on reactive aggression after LP (as assessed by the PSAG in patients with ADHD and that this relationship can be found in both adolescents and adults. Because of limited statistical power larger sample

  16. Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savanna.

    Pringle, Robert M; Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Palmer, Todd M; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. We factorially manipulated two principal sources of disturbance in African savannas, fire and elephants, and measured their independent and interactive effects on the numerically dominant vertebrate (the arboreal gekkonid lizard Lygodactylus keniensis) and invertebrate (a guild of symbiotic Acacia ants) animal species in a semi-arid Kenyan savanna. Elephant exclusion alone (minus fire) had negligible effects on gecko density. Fire alone (minus elephants) had negligible effects on gecko density after 4 months, but increased gecko density twofold after 16 months, likely because the decay of fire-damaged woody biomass created refuges and nest sites for geckos. In the presence of elephants, fire increased gecko density nearly threefold within 4 months of the experimental burn; this occurred because fire increased the incidence of elephant damage to trees, which in turn improved microhabitat quality for geckos. However, this synergistic positive effect of fire and elephants attenuated over the ensuing year, such that only the main effect of fire was evident after 16 months. Fire also altered the structure of symbiotic plant-ant assemblages occupying the dominant tree species (Acacia drepanolobium); this influenced gecko habitat selection but did not explain the synergistic effect of fire and elephants. However, fire-driven shifts in plant-ant occupancy may have indirectly mediated this effect by increasing trees' susceptibility to elephant damage. Our

  17. Coaching for ADHD

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  18. Combined-modality radioimmunotherapy: synergistic effect of paclitaxel and additive effect of bevacizumab

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of paclitaxel and bevacizumab on the therapeutic efficacy of 90Y-labeled B3 monoclonal antibody, directed against Ley antigen, for the treatment of Ley-positive A431 tumors implanted subcutaneously in the right hind flank of nude mice. Methods: When the tumor size reached ∼200 mm3, the mice received a single dose of intravenous (iv) 90Y-labeled B3 (60 μCi/150 μg or 100 μCi/150 μg B3), intraperitoneal paclitaxel (40 mg/kg) or iv bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) for monotherapy. To investigate the effect of combined therapies on survival, the mice were treated with two or three agents in the following combinations: 90Y-B3 on day 0 and paclitaxel on day 1; bevacizumab on −1 day and 90Y-B3 on day 0; bevacizumab on −1 day and paclitaxel on day 1; bevacizumab, 90Y-B3 and paclitaxel each at 1-day intervals. The mice with no treatment were used as a control. The tumor volume at 1000 mm3 was used as a surrogate end point of survival. Results: Compared to control animals, paclitaxel delayed tumor growth with a significantly longer median survival time (P90Y-B3 increased the median survival time in a dose-dependent manner (P90Y-B3 showed a statistically insignificant increase in the median survival time compared to 90Y-B3 alone (P=.25). The tumor sizes of all animals in these groups reached the surrogate end point of survival by day 35. In contrast, the combined therapy involving 90Y-B3 with paclitaxel showed a striking synergistic effect in shrinking tumors and prolonging the survival time (P90Y-B3 and 100 μCi 90Y-B3, respectively. The addition of bevacizumab treatment 1 day before the combined therapy of 60 μCi 90Y-B3 with paclitaxel did not produce a statistically significant increase in survival when compared to the 90Y-B3 with paclitaxel (P>.10). Fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated that paclitaxel increased, whereas bevacizumab decreased, the accumulation and penetration of Alexa Fluor 647-B3 into

  19. Effectiveness and safety of amphetamine for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD drug treatment is based on psychostimulants, and methylphenidate is still the most widely used one. Other psychostimulants used include amphetamines, hence the importance of knowing both its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of amphetamine in ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of studies that evaluated the effectiveness of interventions comparing amphetamine to methylphenidate was conducted. The outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 114 studies found initially, four were included, among which a systematic review, a primary article and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: The evidence on amphetamine for ADHD treatment recommends its use as an alternative to MPH. Further good-quality studies are needed.

  20. Effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Pharmacological treatment is necessary for most patients. Antidepressants are an option so it is important to know about their effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing antidepressants to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes assessed were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. We searched the following databases up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 37 studies found initially, three were included, a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: The available evidence on the use of antidepressants in ADHD suggests that they are not first choice; their indication is subject to comorbidities and context. Further good-quality studies are needed.

  1. The OutSMARTers program for children with ADHD: A pilot study on the effects of social skills, self-regulation and executive functioning training

    Ester Ingvarsdóttir 1978

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of the OutSMARTers program on social skills, self-regulation and executive functions compared to a Waitlist group and an ADHD parent training program. Participants consisted of 41 children with ADHD, aged 8-11. All groups were assessed with behavioral checklists and neuropsychological measures at baseline and post-treatment and the two active treatment groups were reasessed with behavioral checklists in a 3-month follow-up. The results showed decreased ...

  2. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh; Zohreh Sayyari; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH) with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms. Method Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day) plus folic (5mg/day), and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus place...

  3. The Effects of a Consumer-Oriented Multimedia Game on the Reading Disorders of Children with ADHD

    McGraw, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    It is impossible to overstate the importance of effective interventions for addressing two highly prevalent and potentially devastating disorders affecting school-aged children—dyslexia and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Both have been found to increase children’s risk for underachievement, school failure, dropping out, suspension, expulsion, and delinquency (Crawford, 1996; Dickman, 1996; Gregg, 1995a, 1995b, 1996; Lyon, 1996). Furthermore, there is evidence that the disord...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ... and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  5. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-pyrolysis of yinning coal and poplar sawdust

    Zhu Shenghua; Bai Yonghui; Yan Lunjing; Hao Qiaoling; Li Fan

    2016-01-01

    Co-process of biomass and coal is perceived as a way to enhance the energy utilization by virtue of the integrated and interactive effects between different types of carbonaceous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of Yining coal and poplar sawdust, and to determine whether there is any synergistic effect in pyrolytic product yields. The coal was blended with sawdust at a mass fraction of 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 a...

  6. Some regularities of manifestation of synergistic effects of microplasticity under electrolytic iron hydpidation

    Effect of the crystalline lattice type, material chemical composition, kinds of strain and regimes of cathode polarization on the fact of appearance and magnitude of the microplastic aftereffect deformation (MAD) has been studied. Investigation of some factors determining the MAD strengthening during the electrolytic metal hydridation allows one to define the following necessary conditions for manifestation of those synergistic effects: a sufficiently high hydrogen permeability; an existence of strains gradient and hydrogen concentration across sample cross section, an existence of some specific structural state

  7. Synergistic Effect of Fullerene-Capped Gold Nanoparticles on Graphene Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of graphene/fullerene-capped gold nanoparticle nanocomposite film which was used to construct supercapacitor electrodes. The fullerene-based self-assembled monolayers on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were attained via the fullerene(C60)-gold interaction. The fullerene-capped AuNPs effectively separated the graphene sheets preventing aggregation. A synergistic effect was observed—the specific capacitance of graphene/fullerene-capped AuNP electrode is 197 F/g, which is high...

  8. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  9. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of environmental factors can

  10. Effectiveness and safety of atomoxetine for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions such as psychostimulants. The most used widely used one is methylphenidate followed by atomoxetine. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of atomoxetine in ADHD treatment in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness of atomoxetine compared with placebo and methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes assessed were educational functioning, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The search was done up to February 2012 in English and Spanish in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles were independently evaluated by two investigators. Results: Of the 108 studies found initially, 11 were included, among which five systematic reviews, one primary article and 5 clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Atomoxetine is recommended as a second option in ADHD and was found to be superior to placebo. Its use is recommended when methylphenidate fails or comorbidities are present.

  11. Synergistic anti-proliferative effects of gambogic acid with docetaxel in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines

    Zou Zhengyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Gambogic acid has a marked anti-tumor effect for gastric and colorectal cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, recent investigations on gambogic acid have focused mainly on mono-drug therapy, and its potential role in cancer therapy has not been comprehensively illustrated. This study aimed to assess the interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel on human gastrointestinal cancer cells and to investigate the mechanism of gambogic acid plus docetaxel treatment-induced apoptotic cell death. Methods MTT assay was used to determine IC50 values in BGC-823, MKN-28, LOVO and SW-116 cells after gambogic acid and docetaxel administration. Median effect analysis was applied for determination of synergism and antagonism. Synergistic interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel was evaluated using the combination index (CI method. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. Additionally, mRNA expression of drug-associated genes, i.e., β-tublin III and tau, and the apoptosis-related gene survivin, were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Gambogic acid provided a synergistic effect on the cytotoxicity induced by docetaxel in all four cell lines. The combined application of gambogic acid and docetaxel enhanced apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Moreover, gambogic acid markedly decreased the mRNA expression of docetaxel-related genes, including β-tubulin III, tau and survivin, in BGC-823 cells. Conclusions Gambogic acid plus docetaxel produced a synergistic anti-tumor effect in gastrointestinal cancer cells, suggesting that the drug combination may offer a novel treatment option for patients with gastric and colorectal cancers.

  12. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  13. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  14. College Students with ADHD

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation College Students with ADHD Quick Links Facts For Families Guide ... with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) attend college. College students with ADHD face a number of challenges, including ...

  15. Effects of a parent training program on the behavior of a boy with ADHD at home and at school

    Suna Kaymak Özmen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the best researched disorders in childhood and adolescents (Petermann & Hampel, 2009. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a parent training program in a seven year-old boy with ADHD by applying a single-case design. It was monitored, to what extent the child would be able to develop the favored target behavior within the context of home and school. Measurement of change was conducted by using rating scales with the boy’s mother and teacher. The results indicated that the training was obviously able to trigger a positive behavior change at home. Effects were still present after a four week follow-up period. The improvements were detectable in the school setting, as well, where they also stayed stable. This study is to be viewed as an indication that a parent training program can have significant implications on the problem behavior of children with ADHD in different areas of live.

  16. Green synthesis and synergistic catalytic effect ofAg/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Hsu, Kai-Chih; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite of silver nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (Ag/rGO) has been developed as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) with sodium borohydride, owing to the larger specific surface area and synergistic effect of rGO. A facile and rapid microwave-assisted green route has been used for the uniform deposition of Ag nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide simultaneously with l-arginine as the reducing agent. The resulting Ag/rGO na...

  17. Morphology control of hydroxyapatite microcrystals: Synergistic effects of citrate and CTAB.

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-05-01

    Using hydrothermal treatment and with the synergistic regulating effects of citrate and CTAB, various 3D hierarchical superstructure of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microcrystals were synthesized by simply adjusting the Ct/CTAB ratio and calcium-citrate complex (CC) morphology. The resulting superstructure was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc. With the shape transformation of CC from sphere-like colloid, nano-needle to lamellar-like particles, the final products were hollow spheres, bunched-like microrods and nanorod clusters, respectively. A possible mechanism for the formation of HAp hierarchical microstructure was proposed. PMID:26952410

  18. Synergistic effect of temperature, protein and salt concentration on structures and interactions among lysozyme proteins

    Kundu, Sarathi; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Synergistic effect of temperature, protein and salt concentration on structures and interactions among lysozyme proteins in solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering technique. Scattering study shows that for a particular protein concentration, with increasing temperature, short-range attraction decreases but long-range repulsion becomes system specific. In absence of salt, lower value of attractive interaction is obtained, however, in presence of salt it becomes higher and decreases with increasing temperature. For specific condition, weak long range attraction and intermediate range repulsion exists. At higher temperature (90 °C), fractal structure develops and the corresponding fractal dimension depends upon the experimental conditions.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical supercapacitor properties with synergistic effect of polyaniline, graphene and AgxO

    Usman, Muhammad; Pan, Lujun; Asif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zafar; Khan, M. A.; Fu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The graphene-Ag2O/polyaniline (GAP) composite has been synthesized by in-situ polymerization. It has been observed that Ag2O nanoparticles exist on the porous spongy background of PANI (polyaniline). The optimized composition of the synthesized composite exhibits an extraordinary specific capacitance of 1572 Fg-1 at 0.05 Ag-1 current density and good cyclic stability of 85% over 3000 charge-discharge cycles. The extraordinary electrochemical performance indicates the positive synergistic effect of PANI, graphene and Ag2O. The Ag2O nanoparticles might be responsible for improved electrical conductivity, and graphene might contribute in enhancing the electrochemical stability of the PANI electrode.

  20. Achieving large linear elasticity and high strength in bulk nanocompsite via synergistic effect

    Shijie Hao; Lishan Cui; Fangmin Guo; Yinong Liu; Xiaobin Shi; Daqiang Jiang; Dennis E. Brown; Yang Ren

    2015-01-01

    Elastic strain in bulk metallic materials is usually limited to only a fraction of 1%. Developing bulk metallic materials showing large linear elasticity and high strength has proven to be difficult. Here, based on the synergistic effect between nanowires and orientated martensite NiTi shape memory alloy, we developed an in-situ Nb nanowires -orientated martensitic NiTi matrix composite showing an ultra-large linear elastic strain of 4% and an ultrahigh yield strength of 1.8 GPa. This materia...

  1. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-pyrolysis of yinning coal and poplar sawdust

    Zhu Shenghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-process of biomass and coal is perceived as a way to enhance the energy utilization by virtue of the integrated and interactive effects between different types of carbonaceous fuels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-pyrolysis characteristics of Yining coal and poplar sawdust, and to determine whether there is any synergistic effect in pyrolytic product yields. The coal was blended with sawdust at a mass fraction of 9:1, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7 and 1:9 respectively. The change of char yields, maximum weight loss rate and the corresponding temperature of different coal/sawdust blends during pyrolysis were compared by thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The total tar yields during separate coal, sawdust as well as their blends pyrolysis were acquired from the low temperature aluminum retort distillation test. By compare the experimental and theoretical value of the char yields from TG and tar yields from carbonization test, it was observed that co-pyrolysis of coal/sawdust blends produced less char and tar than the total amount produced by separate coal and sawdust pyrolysis. The different product distribution suggested that there was synergy effect in gas product yields. The co-pyrolysis of demineralized and devolatilized sawdust with coal indicated that the ash in the sawdust was the main contributor to the synergistic effect.

  2. Synergistic effect of xylitol and ursolic acid combination on oral biofilms

    Zou, Yunyun; Lee, Yoon; Huh, Jinyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to evaluate the synergistic antibacterial effect of xylitol and ursolic acid (UA) against oral biofilms in vitro. Materials and Methods S. mutans UA 159 (wild type), S. mutans KCOM 1207, KCOM 1128 and S. sobrinus ATCC 33478 were used. The susceptibility of S. mutans to UA and xylitol was evaluated using a broth microdilution method. Based on the results, combined susceptibility was evaluated using optimal inhibitory combinations (OIC), optimal bactericidal combinations (OBC), and fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC). The anti-biofilm activity of xylitol and UA on Streptococcus spp. was evaluated by growing cells in 24-well polystyrene microtiter plates for the biofilm assay. Significant mean differences among experimental groups were determined by Fisher's Least Significant Difference (p < 0.05). Results The synergistic interactions between xylitol and UA were observed against all tested strains, showing the FICs < 1. The combined treatment of xylitol and UA inhibited the biofilm formation significantly and also prevented pH decline to critical value of 5.5 effectively. The biofilm disassembly was substantially influenced by different age of biofilm when exposed to the combined treatment of xylitol and UA. Comparing to the single strain, relatively higher concentration of xylitol and UA was needed for inhibiting and disassembling biofilm formed by a mixed culture of S. mutans 159 and S. sobrinus 33478. Conclusions This study demonstrated that xylitol and UA, synergistic inhibitors, can be a potential agent for enhancing the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm efficacy against S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the oral environment. PMID:25383348

  3. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  4. A non-interventional study of extended-release methylphenidate in the routine treatment of adolescents with ADHD: effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment.

    Sobanski, Esther; Döpfner, Manfred; Ose, Claudia; Fischer, Roland

    2013-12-01

    This multi-centre, open-label, non-interventional study evaluates effectiveness, safety and adherence to treatment of a specific extended-release methylphenidate with a 50 % immediate and a 50 % extended-release component (Medikinet(®) retard) in the clinical routine treatment of 381 adolescents with ADHD and a mean age of 14.0 ± 1.9 years. ADHD and associated psychiatric symptoms, medication status and dosage frequency, treatment adherence and adverse events were assessed at baseline and after a median treatment length with Medikinet(®) retard of 70 days. Primary outcome criterion was the change of ADHD symptom severity from baseline to endpoint according to the ADHD-KGE (German: ADHS-Klinische Gesamteinschätzung) change score. At baseline, 4.2 % of the patients were treatment naïve, 92.7 % had previously received different methylphenidate formulations and 3.1 % had received atomoxetine or amphetamine. During the study, patients received a mean daily dose of 35.7 ± 15.1 mg Medikinet(®) retard. At endpoint, in 78 % of patients, the total ADHD symptom severity was reduced, in 20.4 %, it remained unchanged and in 1.6 %, it was worsened. The mean ADHD-KGE total ADHD symptom score was reduced from 1.8 ± 0.7 (moderate) at baseline to 0.8 ± 0.5 (mild; p methylphenidate formulation to Medikinet(®) retard, multiple dosing with ≥3 daily medication intakes was reduced from 12.9 % at baseline to 3.1 % at endpoint (p problems. The findings suggest that pharmacologically treated adolescents with ADHD and insufficient symptom reduction and/or treatment adherence benefit from switching to Medikinet(®) retard and that it is well tolerated when given in clinical routine care. PMID:23794192

  5. Effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug and is available to most patients. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate (MPH in ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies was conducted with time limit February, 2012, in English and Spanish. The following databases were consulted: PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles were independently evaluated by two investigators and were assessed for methodological quality. Results: Of the 377 studies found initially, 14 were included, including two systematic reviews, 7 primary articles on therapeutic interventions and 5 clinical guidelines. Most of the studies have shortcoming with regards to search strategies, critical analysis, small samples and low Jadad scale. Conclusions: MPH is superior to placebo for moderate to severe cases of ADHD in the of 6-19 year-old population.

  6. Effect of lime pre-treatment on the synergistic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by hemicellulases.

    Beukes, Natasha; Pletschke, Brett I

    2010-06-01

    Agricultural crop wastes are typically lignocellulosic in composition and thus partially recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation. The recalcitrant nature of plant biomass and the inability to obtain complete enzymatic hydrolysis has led to the establishment of various pre-treatment strategies. Alkaline pre-treatments increase the accessibility of the exposed surface to enzymatic hydrolysis through the removal of acetyl and uronic acid substituents on hemicelluloses. Unlike the use of steam and acid pre-treatments, alkaline pre-treatments (e.g. lime) solubilise lignin and a small percentage of the hemicelluloses. The most common alkaline pre-treatments that are employed make use of sodium hydroxide and lime. This study compared the synergistic degradation of un-treated and lime pre-treated sugarcane bagasse using cellulosomal and non-cellulosomal hemicellulases as free enzymes. The enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA and 62.5% ManA produced the highest amount of reducing sugar of 91.834 micromol/min for the degradation of un-treated bagasse. This enzyme combination produced a degree of synergy of 1.87. The free enzymes displayed an approximately 6-fold increase in the enzyme activity, i.e. the total amount of reducing sugar released (593.65 micromol/min) with the enzyme combination of 37.5% ArfA, 25% ManA and 37.5% XynA for the lime pre-treated substrate and a degree of synergy of 2.14. To conclude, this study indicated that pre-treating the sugarcane bagasse is essential, in order to increase the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis by disruption of the lignin sheath, that the lime pre-treatment did not have any dramatic effect on the synergistic relationship between the free enzymes, and that time may play an important role in the establishment of synergistic relationships between enzymes. PMID:20156678

  7. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Rubin Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D. Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20 or ADHD+D (n = 36, aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA, Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C, and Life Participation Scale for ADHD-Child Version (LPS-C were assessed. Results Atomoxetine demonstrated significant improvement for both groups on the ADHDRS-IV, LPS-C, and K-TEA reading comprehension standard and composite scores. K-TEA spelling subtest improvement was significant for the ADHD group, whereas the ADHD+D group showed significant reading decoding improvements. Substantial K-TEA reading and spelling subtest age equivalence gains (in months were achieved for both groups. The WMTB-C central executive score change was significantly greater for the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD+D group showed significant phonological loop score enhancement by visit over the ADHD group. Atomoxetine was well tolerated, and commonly reported adverse events were similar to those previously reported. Conclusions Atomoxetine reduced ADHD symptoms and improved reading scores in both groups. Conversely, different patterns and magnitude of improvement in working memory component scores existed between ADHD and ADHD+D patients. Though limited by small sample size, group differences in relation to the comparable changes in improvement in ADHD symptoms could suggest that brain systems related to the therapeutic benefit of atomoxetine in reducing ADHD symptoms may be different in individuals with ADHD+D and ADHD without dyslexia. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00191048

  8. Green synthesis and synergistic catalytic effect ofAg/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Hsu, Kai-Chih; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2014-09-01

    A nanocomposite of silver nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (Ag/rGO) has been developed as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) with sodium borohydride, owing to the larger specific surface area and synergistic effect of rGO. A facile and rapid microwave-assisted green route has been used for the uniform deposition of Ag nanoparticles and the reduction of graphene oxide simultaneously with l-arginine as the reducing agent. The resulting Ag/rGO nanocomposite contained about 51 wt% of Ag, and the Ag nanoparticles deposited on the surface of rGO had a mean diameter of 8.6 ± 3.5 nm. Also, the Ag/rGO nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity and stability toward the reduction of 4-NP to 4-AP with sodium borohydride. The reduction reaction obeyed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate constants increased not only with the increase of temperature and catalyst amount but also with the increase of initial 4-NP concentration, revealing that the support rGO could enhance the catalytic activity via a synergistic effect. A mechanism for the catalytic reduction of 4-NP with NaBH4 by Ag/rGO nanocomposite via both the liquid-phase and solid-phase routes has been suggested.

  9. Synergistic effect of rhenium and ruthenium in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys

    Yu, X.X. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, C.Y., E-mail: cywang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.N. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan, P. [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zezhang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Re and Ru synergistic effects in nickel-based superalloys are investigated. • The Al site occupation of Re atom in the γ′ phase is observed directly. • The addition of Ru results in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase. -- Abstract: The microstructures of ternary Ni–Al–Re and quaternary Ni–Al–Re–Ru single-crystal alloys were investigated at atomic and electronic levels to clarify the synergistic effect of Re and Ru in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys. In the Ni–Al–Re alloy, it was directly observed that Re atom occupied the Al site of γ′ phase. In the Ni–Al–Re–Ru alloy, the mechanisms of Re repartition between γ and γ′ phases were proposed. In the dendritic cores, high concentrations of Re exceeded the solubility limit of γ′ phase and partitioned to γ phase, which led to the homogenization. In the interdendritic regions, Ru resulted in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase which was proved by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

  10. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  11. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan.

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2004-10-01

    Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were treated with 10 insecticides, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion, fenthion, formothion, and malathion), one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate), by a topical application assay under laboratory conditions. Subparental lines of each generation treated with the same insecticide were selected for 30 generations and were designated as x-r lines (x, insecticide; r, resistant). The parent colony was maintained as the susceptible colony. The line treated with naled exhibited the lowest increase in resistance (4.7-fold), whereas the line treated with formothion exhibited the highest increase in resistance (up to 594-fold) compared with the susceptible colony. Synergism bioassays also were carried out. Based on this, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate displayed a synergistic effect for naled, trichlorfon, and malathion resistance, whereas piperonyl butoxide displayed a synergistic effect for pyrethroid resistance. All 10 resistant lines also exhibited some cross-resistance to other insecticides, not only to the same chemical class of insecticides but also to other classes. However, none of the organophosphate-resistant or the methomyl-resistant lines exhibited cross-resistance to two of the pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate). Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed here should provide useful tools and information for designing an insecticide management strategy for controlling this fruit fly in the field. PMID:15568360

  12. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  13. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  14. A synergistic effect between cholesterol and tryptophan-flanked transmembrane helices modulates membrane curvature.

    van Duyl, Bianca Y; Meeldijk, Hans; Verkleij, Arie J; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Chupin, Vladimir; de Kruijff, Ben; Killian, J Antoinette

    2005-03-22

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the structural consequences of hydrophobic mismatch for membrane proteins in lipid bilayers that contain cholesterol. For this purpose, tryptophan-flanked peptides, designed to mimic transmembrane segments of membrane proteins, were incorporated in model membranes of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers of varying thickness and containing varying amounts of cholesterol. Analysis of the lipid organization by (31)P NMR and cryo-TEM demonstrated the formation of an isotropic phase, most likely representing a cubic phase, which occurred exclusively in mixtures containing lipids with relatively long acyl chains. Formation of this phase was inhibited by incorporation of lysophosphatidylcholine. These results indicate that the isotropic phase is formed as a consequence of negative hydrophobic mismatch and that its formation is related to a negative membrane curvature. When either peptide or cholesterol was omitted from the mixture, isotropic-phase formation did not occur, not even when the concentrations of these compounds were significantly increased. This suggests that formation of the isotropic phase is the result of a synergistic effect between the peptides and cholesterol. Interestingly, isotropic-phase formation was not observed when the tryptophans in the peptide were replaced by either lysines or histidines. We propose a model for the mechanism of this synergistic effect, in which its dependence on the flanking residues is explained by preferential interactions between cholesterol and tryptophan residues. PMID:15766283

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hydrogels from 1-vinylimidazole. Highly resistant co-polymers with synergistic effect

    Primo, Gastón A.; Garcia Manzano, María F.; Romero, Marcelo R.; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I., E-mail: cia@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2015-03-01

    Monomers N, N-(dimethyl) amine ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMT) and N-[3 - (dimethylamine) propyl] methacrylamide (DMAPMD) were co-polymerized with 1-vinylimidazole (VI) in different proportions and crosslinked with N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in aqueous phase, to yield highly resistant hydrogels. The polymeric products were studied by swelling kinetics, solvent diffusion within the crosslinked network, thermal decomposition, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM), and mechanical and rheological tests. The incorporation of VI in the polymerization reaction led to beneficial changes in the properties of the final materials such as improvement in the resistance of the materials and increase in the percentage of deformation capable of withstanding elongation before breaking. All VI-containing products were mechanically strong with respect to homo-polymers (DMAPMD 100% and DMAEMT 100%). The most resistant products were DMAPMD-co-VI 60% and DMAEMT-co-VI 60%. A synergistic effect with the addition of VI is revealed by Young’s modulus that increases 5 and 10 times regarding the hydrogels yielded from pure monomers, respectively. - Highlights: • Highly resistant materials with improved mechanical properties can be obtained by adding 1-vinylimidazole as co-polymer. • A synergistic effect can be observed by the combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers. • The mechanical and swelling properties of different materials obtained were determined.

  16. Secondary brown carbon formation via the dicarbonyl imine pathway: nitrogen heterocycle formation and synergistic effects.

    Kampf, C J; Filippi, A; Zuth, C; Hoffmann, T; Opatz, T

    2016-07-21

    Dicarbonyls are known to be important precursors of so-called atmospheric brown carbon, significantly affecting aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing. In this systematic study we report the formation of light-absorbing nitrogen containing compounds from simple 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,5-dicarbonyl + amine reactions. A combination of spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric techniques was used to characterize reaction products in solutions mimicking atmospheric particulates. Experiments with individual dicarbonyls and dicarbonyl mixtures in ammonium sulfate and glycine solutions demonstrate that nitrogen heterocycles are common structural motifs of brown carbon chromophores formed in such reaction systems. 1,4- and 1,5-dicarbonyl reaction systems, which were used as surrogates for terpene ozonolysis products, showed rapid formation of light-absorbing material and products with absorbance maxima at ∼450 nm. Synergistic effects on absorbance properties were observed in mixed (di-)carbonyl experiments, as indicated by the formation of a strong absorber in ammonium sulfate solutions containing acetaldehyde and acetylacetone. This cross-reaction oligomer shows an absorbance maximum at 385 nm, relevant for the actinic flux region of the atmosphere. This study demonstrates the complexity of secondary brown carbon formation via the imine pathway and highlights that cross-reactions with synergistic effects have to be considered an important pathway for atmospheric BrC formation. PMID:27334793

  17. A randomised controlled trial into the effects of food and ADHD

    Pelsser, L.; Frankena, K.; Toorman, J.; Savelkoul, H. F. J.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Buitelaar, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a restricted elimination diet in reducing symptoms in an unselected group of children with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dietary studies have already shown evidence of efficacy in selected subgroups. Twenty-seven children (mean age 6.2) who all met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, were assigned randomly to either an intervention group (15/27) or a waiting-list control group (12/27). Primary endpoint was the clinical response, ...

  18. A randomised controlled trial into the effects of food on ADHD

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a restricted elimination diet in reducing symptoms in an unselected group of children with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dietary studies have already shown evidence of efficacy in selected subgroups. Twenty-seven children (mean age 6.2) who all met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD, were assigned randomly to either an intervention group (15/27) or a waiting-list control group (12/27). Primary end...

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of the 'Incredible Years parent training' to parents of young children with ADHD symptoms

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting. Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years® Parent Training Program (IYPT......) through a Danish early intervention clinic. Using a benchmarking approach, we compared self-report data with data from a recent efficacy study. Eight out of nine outcome measures showed comparable or higher magnitude of effect from pretest to posttest. Effects were maintained or improved across six months...

  20. Individual and combined effects of LD and ADHD on computerized neurocognitive concussion test performance: evidence for separate norms.

    Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P; Kegel, Nate; Johnson, Eric; Burkhart, Scott; Schatz, Philip

    2013-08-01

    Decreased neurocognitive performance in individuals with self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) is well documented in the neuropsychological research literature. Previous studies employing paper-and-pencil neurocognitive assessments report lower performance in individuals with ADHD and LD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and combined LD/ADHD on baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) used for the concussion assessment. Results revealed athletes with a self-reported diagnosis of LD, ADHD, and/or combined LD/ADHD demonstrated lower performance on baseline CNT and reported larger numbers of symptoms than did control athletes without these diagnoses. These findings provide evidence for the development of separate normative data for athletes with LD, ADHD, and LD/ADHD diagnoses on CNT batteries commonly used for concussion management. PMID:23608188

  1. ADHD: current and future therapeutics.

    Heal, David J; Smith, Sharon L; Findling, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    The stimulants, amphetamine and methylphenidate, have long been the mainstay of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapy. They are rapidly effective and are generally the first medications selected by physicians. In the development of alternative pharmacological approaches, drug candidates have been evaluated with a wide diversity of mechanisms. All of these developments have contributed real progress in the field, but there is still much room for improvement and unmet clinical need in ADHD pharmacotherapy. The availability of a wide range of compounds with a high degree of specificity for individual monoamines (dopamine and noradrenaline) and/or different pharmacological mechanisms has refined our understanding of the essential elements for optimum pharmacological effect in managing ADHD. In this chapter, we review the pharmacology of the different classes of drug used to treat ADHD and provide a neurochemical rationale, predominantly from the use of in vivo microdialysis experiments, to explain their relative efficacy and potential to elicit side effects. In addition, we will consider how predictions based on results from animal models translate into clinical outcomes. The treatment of ADHD is also described from the perspective of the physician. Finally, the new research development for drugs to treat ADHD is discussed. PMID:21487953

  2. Family conflict tendency and ADHD.

    Niederhofer, H; Hackenberg, B; Lanzendörfer, K

    2004-04-01

    A lack of perseverance, poor attention, and poorly modulated behaviour are important criteria of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Instructions often have to be repeated, sometimes even by different family members before a child with ADHD attends and complies. We hypothesised that a child with ADHD might cause less disagreement in families with almost no conflicts. Responses to the Mannheim Parents Interview and teacher's form of the Conners scale completed by families of 15 boys (ages 6 to 12 years), diagnosed with ADHD were compared with those of a matched, healthy control group of 15 boys. Parents completed a form assessing the family's cooperation and child-rearing practices. Having few family conflicts, i.e., almost no Verbal Disagreement may reduce Physical Punishment and Anger and Disregard and augment the Openness to another's needs and, for that reason, have protective effects on children's behaviour modulation. PMID:15154188

  3. YY162 prevents ADHD-like behavioral side effects and cytotoxicity induced by Aroclor1254 via interactive signaling between antioxidant potential, BDNF/TrkB, DAT and NET.

    Nam, Yunsung; Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Lim, Yong Kwang; Jung, Jong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ha, Jong Ryul; Chae, Jong Seok; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) has become the primary drug of choice for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, its psychotropic effects severely hamper long-term clinical use. We evaluated the effects of YY162, which consists of terpenoid-strengthened Ginkgo biloba and ginsenoside Rg3, on the ADHD-like condition induced by Aroclor1254, because both components have been suggested to modulate oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which may be critical targets for understanding the pathogenesis of ADHD. YY162 attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in BDNF levels induced by Aroclor1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. YY162 significantly attenuated Aroclor1254-induced ADHD-like behavior and oxidative stress in ICR mice. Furthermore, YY162 attenuated reductions in p-TrkB, BDNF, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression. These attenuating effects of YY162 were comparable to those of MP. Importantly, K252a, a TrkB antagonist, counteracted the protective effects of YY162. Our results suggest that YY162 possesses significant protective activities against ADHD-like conditions with negligible behavioral side effects, and that interactive signaling between antioxidant potential and BDNF/TrkB receptor for the positive modulation of the DAT and NET is important for YY162-mediated neuroprotective activity. PMID:24394491

  4. Synergistic Effect of Probiotics, Butyrate and l-Carnitine in Treatment of IBD

    Mahsa Moeinian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic, environmental factors, dysregulation of immune system, intestinal microbes and oxidative stress are the most important factors that play the role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Current treatments do not always result in complete remission and usually accompanied with several adverse effects. Recent studies showed that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and oxidative stress play the pivotal role in the induction of inflammation. Butyrate, l-Carnitine, and probiotics have the potential to control inflammation by reduction of main inflammatory cytokines, including NF-κB and TNF-α. They also stimulate antioxidant enzymes and inhibit IκB kinase (IKK. Regarding the beneficial effects of these three compounds in inflammation via several mechanisms, we hypothesize that the mixture of these compounds would be synergistically effective in reduction of inflammation and alleviation of IBD. Further experimental investigations are needed, to evaluate the hypothesis.

  5. Synergistic Effects of Linderanolide B Combined with Arbutin, PTU or Kojic Acid on Tyrosinase Inhibition.

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chou, Hsin-Yu; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Melanin uncontrollable accumulation is a serious social problem to not only women, but also men, and causes pigment over-expression disorders such as freckles, melasma or pigmented acne scars. The synergism is used widely in medication, and the effectiveness makes the drug applications more valuable. Within this experiment, three well-known compounds were chosen: kojic acid, 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU) and arbutin, and they were combined individually with our substance linderanolide B, which is purified from Cinnamomum subavenium. Hence, deciphering the synergistic action of possible whitening agents was the goal of this study. The tyrosinase activity, melanin content, and the combination index (CI) values were observed in B16F10 cells, in addition, the consequences were detected by isobologram analysis. We discovered that certain melanin inhibitors showed synergistic properties when they were combined together to suppress tyrosinase activities. As a result, linderanolide B has a potential synergy on tyrosinase inhibition, and it can be used widely in cosmetic and medication industries. PMID:26343134

  6. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN CENTRAL BANKS

    Radoica Luburić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on two very important and current approaches to management: Total Quality Management (TQM and Operational Risk Management (ORM. As a paradigm of business success, TQM provides the key assumptions for survival, development and success of an organisation, regardless of any limitations whatsoever. ORM, on the other hand, is predetermined to be an irreplaceable managerial tool that enables organisations to survive in any environment. In times of accelerated political, economic and technological changes, frequent natural disasters, acts of terrorism and other external events, a successful risk management has been gaining importance and becomes one of the key competitive advantages of an organisation. The ultimate objective is to make TQM and ORM, as two rather compatible and complementary approaches to risk management, harmonized, efficient and functional in order to get their synergistic effects in an organisation in full swing and practice. Various organisations, and thus central banks as conservative institutions, have an innovative opportunity to timely minimize their operational risk through preventive, comprehensive and synergistic operation of TQM and ORM and thus significantly contribute to improving their business performance.

  7. Synergistic sub-lethal effects of a biocide mixture on the springtail Folsomia fimetaria

    The toxicity of three biocides, esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan, on adult survival and recruitment of juveniles was studied in the springtail Folsomia fimetaria, both in single and mixture experiments. Recruitment of juveniles was more sensitive to biocide exposure than adult survival. The concepts of concentration addition and independent action returned almost identical toxicity predictions, though both models failed to predict the observed toxicity due to synergistic deviations at high exposure concentrations. A comparison with a similar study on earthworms showed that response-patterns were species-specific. Consequently, there is no single reference concept which is applicable for all species of one ecosystem, which in turn questions the usefulness of such mixture prediction concepts in ecological risk assessment. -- Highlights: • Toxicity of esfenvalerate, picoxystrobin and triclosan to Folsomia fimetaria was assessed. • Both, the single biocides and the mixture affected recruitment stronger than survival. • Concentration addition and independent action predictions were almost identical. • Inhibition of recruitment after mixture exposure was stronger than predicted. • Comparison with an earthworm study showed that responses are species-specific. -- The concepts of concentration addition and independent action failed to predict mixture toxicity due to dose-dependent synergistic effects

  8. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  9. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

    Ken Cham-Fai Leung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis (SB is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX. Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F. nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A. actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P. gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM. This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care.

  10. Synergistic and antagonistic effects of combined subzero temperature and high pressure on inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    Moussa, Marwen; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The combined effects of subzero temperature and high pressure on the inactivation of Escherichia coli K12TG1 were investigated. Cells of this bacterial strain were exposed to high pressure (50 to 450 MPa, 10-min holding time) at two temperatures (-20 degrees C without freezing and 25 degrees C) and three water activity levels (a(w)) (0.850, 0.992, and ca. 1.000) achieved with the addition of glycerol. There was a synergistic interaction between subzero temperature and high pressure in their effects on microbial inactivation. Indeed, to achieve the same inactivation rate, the pressures required at -20 degrees C (in the liquid state) were more than 100 MPa less than those required at 25 degrees C, at pressures in the range of 100 to 300 MPa with an a(w) of 0.992. However, at pressures greater than 300 MPa, this trend was reversed, and subzero temperature counteracted the inactivation effect of pressure. When the amount of water in the bacterial suspension was increased, the synergistic effect was enhanced. Conversely, when the a(w) was decreased by the addition of solute to the bacterial suspension, the baroprotective effect of subzero temperature increased sharply. These results support the argument that water compression is involved in the antimicrobial effect of high pressure. From a thermodynamic point of view, the mechanical energy transferred to the cell during the pressure treatment can be characterized by the change in volume of the system. The amount of mechanical energy transferred to the cell system is strongly related to cell compressibility, which depends on the water quantity in the cytoplasm. PMID:16391037

  11. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Rubin Richard; Greenbaum Michael; Gathercole Susan; Sumner Calvin R; Williams David; Hollandbeck Millie; Wietecha Linda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D). Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20) or ADHD+D (n = 36), aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA), Working Memory Test Battery for C...

  12. Aspects of ADHD in adults : neurocognitive functioning, actigraphy, effects of methylphenidate, and association with genetic polymorphisms

    Boonstra, Aukje Marije

    2006-01-01

    The current thesis encompasses a number of empirical, clinical studies into various aspects of ADHD in adults. The common theme of the studies and thereby the overall aim of the thesis is to further substantiate the external validity (especially the concurrent and predictive validity) of the diagnos

  13. The Effects of Single versus Mixed Gender Treatment for Adolescent Girls with ADHD

    Babinski, Dara E.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Ross, J. Megan; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the social behavior of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in single and mixed gender treatment settings. We collected ratings of social behavior (i.e., prosocial peer interactions, assertiveness, self-management, compliance, physical aggression, relational aggression) during single and mixed…

  14. The Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene ("DRD4") Moderates Family Environmental Effects on ADHD

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Waldman, Irwin; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prime candidate for exploration of gene-by-environment interaction (i.e., G x E), particularly in relation to dopamine system genes, due to strong evidence that dopamine systems are dysregulated in the disorder. Using a G x E design, we examined whether the "DRD4" promoter 120-bp tandem repeat…

  15. Effects of Comorbid ADHD with Learning Disabilities on Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression in Adults

    McGillivray, J. A.; Baker, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: ADHD and learning disabilities (LD) frequently coexist and there are indications that comorbidity may increase the risk of psychopathology. Method: The current study examined the gender distribution and frequency of comorbidity and its impact on the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and aggression in a clinic sample of 80…

  16. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  17. Synergistic anticancer effects of curcumin and resveratrol in Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Du, Qin; Hu, Bing; An, Hong-Mei; Shen, Ke-Ping; Xu, Ling; Deng, Shan; Wei, Meng-Meng

    2013-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum are one of the commonly used paired-herbs for liver cancer treatment. Curcumin and resveratrol are the major anticancer constituents of Curcuma aromatica and Polygonum cuspidatum, respectively. Curcumin and resveratrol have been found to exhibit a synergistic anticancer effect in colon cancer. However, the combined effect of curcumin and resveratrol against hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the combined effects of curcumin and resveratrol in hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells. The results showed that curcumin and resveratrol significantly inhibited the proliferation of Hepa1-6 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol elicited a synergistic antiproliferative effect in Hepa1-6 cells. The apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells induced by the combination treatment with curcumin and resveratrol was accompanied by caspase-3, -8 and -9 activation, which was completely abrogated by a pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Combination of curcumin and resveratrol upregulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in Hepa1-6 cells. The ROS scavenger, NAC, partially attenuated the apoptosis and caspase activation induced by the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol. In addition, the combination of curcumin and resveratrol downregulated XIAP and survivin expression. These data suggest that the combination treatment of curcumin and resveratrol is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer. The present study also provides new insights into the effective mechanism of paired-herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23446753

  18. Isolated and synergistic effects of chemical and structural defenses of two species of Tethya (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    Ribeiro, Suzi Meneses; Cassiano, Keila Mara; Cavalcanti, Diana Negrão; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Pereira, Renato Crespo

    2012-02-01

    Sponges are an important source of many interesting secondary metabolites with multiple ecological roles. Sponges can also use their spicules as a means of deterring consumers. The present study investigated the importance of chemicals and spicules as defensive strategies against predation for two congeneric sponge species from the Brazilian coast, Tethya rubra and Tethya maza. Crude extract and spicules differed somewhat in their effectiveness between these sponge species, with T. maza better defended than T. rubra against predation by the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen and synergistic effects stronger in T. rubra. These results show that defensive strategies may be similar between sponge species possessing monophyletic origin, and reveal the importance of research on congeneric species to understand the ecology and evolution of defensive strategies.

  19. Synergistic effects of interfacial modifiers enhance current and voltage in hybrid solar cells

    Jonas Weickert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To unleash the full potential of hybrid solar cells, it is imperative to get significant photocurrent contribution from both the sensitizing dye and the polymeric hole transporter. Here we report on the interfacial modifier 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP, which induces controlled orientation of poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT, the most widely used hole transporting polymer for hybrid solar cells, at the interface. 4-MP optimizes the charge separating interface between P3HT and a squaraine dye-decorated TiO2, inducing enhanced contribution to photocurrent generation by the polymer. In combination with 4-tert-butylpyridine, which enhances the open circuit potential in dye-sensitized and hybrid solar cells but reduces the photocurrent, a synergistic effect is observed and it is possible to enhance both open circuit voltage and photocurrent simultaneously. Similar effects on device performance are also found for two other commonly used dye molecules, a fullerene derivative and a common indoline dye.

  20. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  1. Synergistic effects of atmospheric pressure plasma-emitted components on DNA oligomers: a Raman spectroscopic study.

    Edengeiser, Eugen; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Bründermann, Erik; Schneider, Simon; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E; Havenith, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have become of increasing importance in sterilization processes especially with the growing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria. Albeit the potential for technological application is obvious, much less is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial inactivation. X-jet technology separates plasma-generated reactive particles and photons, thus allowing the investigation of their individual and joint effects on DNA. Raman spectroscopy shows that particles and photons cause different modifications in DNA single and double strands. The treatment with the combination of particles and photons does not only result in cumulative, but in synergistic effects. Profilometry confirms that etching is a minor contributor to the observed DNA damage in vitro. Schematics of DNA oligomer treatment with cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. PMID:25656637

  2. Levelling the playing field: screening for synergistic effects in coalesced bimetallic nanoparticles

    Tan, Rachel Lee Siew; Song, Xiaohui; Chen, Bo; Chong, Wen Han; Fang, Yin; Zhang, Hua; Wei, Jun; Chen, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    Depending on the synthetic methods, bimetallic nanoparticles can have either core-shell, phase segregated, alloy, or partially coalesced structures, presenting different degrees of atomic mixing on their surface. Along with the variations of size and morphology, the structural differences make it difficult to compare the catalytic activity of bimetallic nanoparticles. In this article, we developed a facile screening method that can focus on the synergistic effects rather than structural differences. Prefabricated nanoparticles are mixed together to form linear aggregates and coalesced to form bimetallic junctions. Their hollow silica shells allow materials transport but prevent further aggregation. With a level playing field, this screening platform can identify the best bimetallic combination for a catalytic reaction, before optimizing the synthesis. This approach is more advantageous than the conventional approaches where structural difference may have dominant effects on the catalytic performance.Depending on the synthetic methods, bimetallic nanoparticles can have either core-shell, phase segregated, alloy, or partially coalesced structures, presenting different degrees of atomic mixing on their surface. Along with the variations of size and morphology, the structural differences make it difficult to compare the catalytic activity of bimetallic nanoparticles. In this article, we developed a facile screening method that can focus on the synergistic effects rather than structural differences. Prefabricated nanoparticles are mixed together to form linear aggregates and coalesced to form bimetallic junctions. Their hollow silica shells allow materials transport but prevent further aggregation. With a level playing field, this screening platform can identify the best bimetallic combination for a catalytic reaction, before optimizing the synthesis. This approach is more advantageous than the conventional approaches where structural difference may have dominant

  3. Synergistic bactericidal effect by combined exposure to Ag nanoparticles and UVA

    Broad and strong antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) have been used for biomedical applications, water treatment, etc. In this study, a synergistic antibacterial effect between Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ultraviolet (UV) light was examined. AgNPs ( 1 μm) with UVA and AgNPs with UVB (280–325 nm) did not. As significant bactericidal activity was also exhibited by hydrogen peroxide-treated AgNPs, the surface oxidation of AgNPs caused by UVA irradiation was considered to contribute to the enhanced antibacterial effect. Although no difference in NP-incorporation rates was observed with or without the surface oxidation of AgNPs, a particle size of less than 0.1 μm was a factor for AgNPs uptake and an essential requirement for the antimicrobial function of Ag particles. Incorporated AgNPs oxidized by UVA irradiation released larger amounts of Ag ion inside cells than reduced AgNPs, which reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as glutathione. The synergistic use of AgNPs and UVA could become a powerful tool with broad antimicrobial applications. Highlights: • Combined treatment with AgNPs and UV achieved a remarkable antibacterial effect in E. coli. • For the antibacterial effect, it is necessary to satisfy the following requirements: • 1) Translocation of nano-sized Ag particles inside E. coli. • 2) Oxidation of AgNPs by UVA, and extensive and persistent release of Ag+ inside E. coli. • Ag+ released inside cells reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as GSH

  4. Synergistic bactericidal effect by combined exposure to Ag nanoparticles and UVA

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2013-08-01

    Broad and strong antimicrobial properties of silver (Ag) have been used for biomedical applications, water treatment, etc. In this study, a synergistic antibacterial effect between Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ultraviolet (UV) light was examined. AgNPs (< 0.1 μm) with subsequent exposure to UVA (320–400 nm) showed pronounced toxicity in Escherichia coli, but micro-sized Ag particles (> 1 μm) with UVA and AgNPs with UVB (280–325 nm) did not. As significant bactericidal activity was also exhibited by hydrogen peroxide-treated AgNPs, the surface oxidation of AgNPs caused by UVA irradiation was considered to contribute to the enhanced antibacterial effect. Although no difference in NP-incorporation rates was observed with or without the surface oxidation of AgNPs, a particle size of less than 0.1 μm was a factor for AgNPs uptake and an essential requirement for the antimicrobial function of Ag particles. Incorporated AgNPs oxidized by UVA irradiation released larger amounts of Ag ion inside cells than reduced AgNPs, which reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as glutathione. The synergistic use of AgNPs and UVA could become a powerful tool with broad antimicrobial applications. Highlights: • Combined treatment with AgNPs and UV achieved a remarkable antibacterial effect in E. coli. • For the antibacterial effect, it is necessary to satisfy the following requirements: • 1) Translocation of nano-sized Ag particles inside E. coli. • 2) Oxidation of AgNPs by UVA, and extensive and persistent release of Ag{sup +} inside E. coli. • Ag{sup +} released inside cells reacted with intercellular molecules having –SH groups such as GSH.

  5. Longer Eye Contact Improves ADHD Children's Compliance with Parents' Commands

    Kapalka, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eye contact in reducing ADHD children's problems with compliance. Seventy-six parents of ADHD boys between ages 5 and 10 were randomized into two treatment groups and a control group. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that, as hypothesized, eye contact was effective in reducing ADHD children's problems with…

  6. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  7. ADHD ja rentoutuminen : Rentoutusopas ADHD-liitolle

    Koskinen, Henna; Miettinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli tuottaa ADHD-liitolle opetuskäyttöön ja jaettavaksi rentoutusopas, jossa on kaikenikäisille rentoutumisvaihtoehtoja. Työ sai alkunsa suunnittelupalaverissa yhdessä ADHD-liiton kanssa. ADHD on aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö ja se on neuropsykiatrinen häiriö. ADHD:n ydinoireet ovat tarkkaamattomuus, yliaktiivisuus ja impulsiivisuus ja ne näkyvät sekä painottuvat eri tavoin ja haittaavat usealla elämän osa-alueella. Työssämme perehdytään ADHD:n etiologiaan,...

  8. Effects of Formulated Fertilizer Synergist on Abscisic Acid Accumulation, Proline Content and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Rice under Drought

    WANG Shao-xian; XIA Shi-tou; PENG Ke-qin; KUANG Feng-chun; CAO Yong; XIAO Lang-tao

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the effects of formulated fertilizer synergist on the drought tolerance in rice, pot experiment was conducted to analyze the photosynthetic characteristics and the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and proline in middle-season rice variety Peiliangyou 93. The synergist could improve the net photosynthetic rate, and coordination between the water loss and the CO2 absorption as well as reduce the harmful effect on photosynthetic process under drought conditions. Under drought, the ABA accumulated massively both in roots and leaves, while the ABA content in roots was far higher than that in leaves. The results indicate that synergist could increase the ABA accumulation, but reduce the proline accumulation in rice plant under drought.

  9. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  10. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  11. HIFU and Chemotherapy Synergistic Inhibitory Effect on Dunning AT2 Tumour-Bearing Rats

    Curiel, Laura; Paparel, Philipe; Chesnais, Sabrina; Gelet, Albert; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2005-03-01

    Since there is no 100% satisfactory treatment for localized prostate cancer in patients presenting symptoms representing a poor prognosis (stage T3, high Gleason score, PSA level greater than 15 ng/ml, etc.), this study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and synergistic inhibition effects of using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with chemotherapy (Taxane + Estramustine). Forty-one Dunning AT2 tumour-bearing Copenhagen rats receiving HIFU and/or chemotherapy were divided into four groups: control group; chemotherapy group; HIFU group; and HIFU-chemotherapy combined group. Increase in the tumour volume was observed over 3 weeks and the tumour volume doubling time was evaluated. Growth curves for each group were then plotted and statistically evaluated. HIFU treatment combined with Taxane + Estramusine was found to have a significant synergistic effect; on day 30, the distribution of tumour volume relative to the treatment group was significantly different (p = 0.0007). The control group volumes were significantly greater than those of the chemotherapy-only (p = 0.006) or HIFU-only group (p = 0.006). The greatest difference was observed between the chemotherapy plus HIFU combined group and the control group. Additionally, tumour-doubling times were 7.7 days for the control group, 13.2 days for the HIFU-only group, and 31.2 days for the chemotherapy plus HIFU group. The differences in tumour growth rates between the chemotherapy plus HIFU combined group and a chemotherapy-only + HIFU-only grouping was 3.8% (p = 0.0020). Thus, the combined chemotherapy plus HIFU treatment was clearly more effective in reducing the tumour size than HIFU only or chemotherapy only, which indicates a synergy between the two types of treatment. Our results suggest that this combined therapy could be useful for the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer.

  12. Synergistic effects of proton and phenylalanine on the regulation of muscle pyruvate kinase.

    Consler, T G; Jennewein, M J; Cai, G Z; Lee, J C

    1990-12-01

    Steady-state kinetic studies of muscle pyruvate kinase were conducted as a function of pH and phenylalanine concentrations. Results show that at a pH below 7.0, there is no observable effect of phenylalanine on the kinetic properties of muscle pyruvate kinase. When the results at a pH below 6.5 are used as the state for comparison, the kinetic results show that phenylalanine and proton exert a synergistic effect on the allosteric properties of the enzyme. A significantly greater change in Hill coefficients at high pH can be detected in the presence of phenylalanine than in its absence. To pinpoint the specific mechanism that leads to the synergistic effect, the kinetic data were resolved into the five equilibrium and two rate constants that characterize the basic two-state model. It can be shown that KTI, the binding constant of phenylalanine to the inactive T state, is strongly proton-linked. The affinity of phenylalanine for the T state increases with increasing pH. When the pH dependence of KTI was analyzed by the linked-function theory [Wyman, J. (1964) Adv. Protein Chem. 19, 224-285], it was shown that deprotonation favors phenylalanine binding to the T state. KRI (the binding constant of phenylalanine to the active R state), KTS (the binding constant of substrate to the T state), and L (the isomerization constant of the two states) not only are all weakly proton-linked but also it was shown that protonation favors the ligand-pyruvate kinase complex. KRS, the binding constant of substrate for the R state, shows no observable linkage to proton concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2176882

  13. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Bhat Venkataramana; Grizenko Natalie; Lee James; Sengupta Sarojini; Polotskaia Anna; Joober Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic) and undesired (side) effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years) were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose), each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' ...

  14. Delivering Evidence-Based Treatments for Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the Context of Parental ADHD

    Wang, Christine H.; Mazursky-Horowitz, Heather; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) and stimulant medications are efficacious treatments for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is some evidence to suggest that parental ADHD may reduce the effectiveness of both treatment modalities. This review paper summarizes the literature related to the evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatment of child ADHD in the context of parental ADHD. We also review the literature on the effects of treating parents’ ADH...

  15. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Zaganas, Ioannis D.;

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural...... was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L−1, due to low methane production (only 39%) compared to the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatised inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible “synergistic effect” which led to a more efficient AD of poultry...... manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure....

  16. Synergistic effects of cellobiose dehydrogenase and manganese-dependent peroxidases during lignin degradation

    2001-01-01

    The synergistic effects of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnP) on the degradation of kraft pulp cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) were investigated. Addition of CDH significantly increased the amount of water-soluble products reduced from CEL by MnP. CDH facilitated the reduction of the contents of methoxyl, carboxyl, phenolic hydroxyl and total hydroxyl groups of CEL by MnP. 1H-NMR analysis showed that addition of CDH also decreased further the amount of protons of CEL degraded by MnP. The results proved for the first time that CDH could promote degradation of lignin by MnP and suggest that CDH could not only promote degradation of cellulose but also is an important part of the lignin biodegradation system.

  17. Additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in prevention of oral cancer

    Sunira Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is a practical strategy to optimize good health and to reduce the risk of various chronic diseases and cancer. There are approximately 5,000 individual phytochemicals which have been identified. These interfere with multiple important cellular pathways and play an important role in maintaining balance between health and disease. This article aims to provide awareness of various additive and synergistic effects of these natural occurring chemical substances (phytochemicals found in various fruits and vegetables. Their mechanism of action in preventing various chronic diseases and cancer is also been highlighted in this article. Grouping plant foods by color provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumer′s make-wise food choices and promote health. We believe phytochemicals can be best acquired through whole-food consumption and not through the pills or an extracts.

  18. Synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide on flammability behaviour of aerospace epoxy system

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardancy of mono-component epoxy resin (RTM6, widely used for aerospace composites, treated with zinc borate (ZB, aluminium trihydroxide (ATH and their mixtures at different concentrations have been investigated by morphological and thermal characterization. Cone calorimeter data reveal that combustion behaviour, heat release rate peak (PHRR and heat release rate average (HRR Average of RTM6 resin decrease substantially when synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide intervene. Thermogravimetric (TGA results and analysis of the residue show that addition higher than 20% w/w of ZB, ATH, and their mixture greatly promotes RTM6 char formation acting as a barrier layer for the fire development. Depending upon the different used flame additives, SEM micrographs indicate that the morphology of residual char could vary from a compact amalgam-like structure, for the RTM6+ZB system, to a granular structure, characterized by very small particles of degraded resin and additive for the ATH.

  19. Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    investigated experimentally how different combinations of salinity and temperature affect the physiological performance of adult eelgrass (Zostera marina) shoots and seedlings. Plants were exposed to different combinations of salinity (salinity 5, 12.5 and 20) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) in a 5-week...... and temperature. Seedlings had higher absolute mortality, while adult shoots were relatively more sensitive to unfavorable levels of salinity. Leaf tissue sucrose concentrations in both life stages decreased at low salinity, whereas salinity and temperature resulted in contrasting starch...... concentrations between seedlings and adult shoots. Our results show that altered salinity and temperature may have negative synergistic effects on eelgrass performance. Future climate changes may thus have serious impacts on eelgrass survival and performance....

  20. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  1. The synergistic effect of ultrasound and ionising radiation on human lymphocytes

    Small lymphocytes in human peripheral blood were exposed to various sequences of ultrasound (2 W cm-2 for 30 min) 60Co γ-irradiation (45.32 rad min-1 for 200 rad total) to determine if a synergistic effect exists in producing chromosome damage. The results showed a statistically significant difference between controls and combined sequences where ultrasound was given either simultaneously with γ-rays or immediately after γ-rays. Both acentric fragments and dicentric chromosomes were significantly increased in the simultaneous sequences, but only fragments were significantly increased by ultrasound given immediately after γ-ray sequence. No significant difference were noted when ultrasound was used before γ-ray or when ultrasound was given later than 2 h after γ-ray. Several hypotheses that could explain this apparent synergism are discussed and a general description of further investigation is present. (author)

  2. Synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Final report

    An experimental procedure was devised to test the possible synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Appropriate techniques were developed to expose the rats to cigarette smoke through mouth-breathing and to add known amounts of polonium-210 to the cigarette smoke. The findings from this experiment included: (1) lung deposition of polonium-210 was 31 plus or minus 2%, (2) early retention of polonium was two-phased with half-times of 4 and 84 hours, and (3) bronchitis, emphysema and lung tumors were observed in the experimental animals. Though the spontaneous occurrence of two lung tumors in the number of animals at risk was highly improbable, any conclusion that this resulted from the exposure to cigarette smoke must be highly qualified

  3. Synergistic Effect of Copper and Cobalt in Cu-Co-O Composite Nanocatalyst for Catalytic Ozonation

    Dong, Yuming; Wu, Lina; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Pingping; Feng, Cuiyun [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China)

    2013-11-15

    A novel Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst was designed and prepared for the ozonation of phenol. A synergistic effect of copper and cobalt was observed over the Cu-Co-O composite nanocatalyst, which showed higher activity than either copper or cobalt oxide alone. In addition, the Cu-Co-O composite revealed good activity in a wide initial pH range (4.11-8.05) of water. The fine dispersion of cobalt on the surface of copper oxide boosted the interaction between catalyst and ozone, and the surface Lewis acid sites on the Cu-Co-O composite were determined as the active sites. The Raman spectroscopy also proved that the Cu-Co-O composite was quite sensitive to the ozone. The trivalent cobalt in the Cu-Co-O composite was proposed as the valid state.

  4. Understanding the synergistic effect of WO3-BiVO4 heterostructures by impedance spectroscopy.

    Shi, Xinjian; Herraiz-Cardona, Isaac; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bisquert, Juan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Gimenez, Sixto

    2016-04-01

    WO3-BiVO4 n-n heterostructures have demonstrated remarkable performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting due to the synergistic effect between the individual components. Although the enhanced functional capabilities of this system have been widely reported, in-depth mechanistic studies explaining the carrier dynamics of this heterostructure are limited. The main goal is to provide rational design strategies for further optimization as well as to extend these strategies to different candidate systems for solar fuel production. In the present study, we perform systematic optoelectronic and photoelectrochemical characterization to understand the carrier dynamics of the system and develop a simple physical model to highlight the importance of the selective contacts to minimize bulk recombination in this heterostructure. Our results collectively indicate that while BiVO4 is responsible for the enhanced optical properties, WO3 controls the transport properties of the heterostructured WO3-BiVO4 system, leading to reduced bulk recombination. PMID:26975634

  5. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  6. Strong and Nonspecific Synergistic Antibacterial Efficiency of Antibiotics Combined with Silver Nanoparticles at Very Low Concentrations Showing No Cytotoxic Effect

    Aleš Panáček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of bacteria towards traditional antibiotics currently constitutes one of the most important health care issues with serious negative impacts in practice. Overcoming this issue can be achieved by using antibacterial agents with multimode antibacterial action. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs are one of the well-known antibacterial substances showing such multimode antibacterial action. Therefore, AgNPs are suitable candidates for use in combinations with traditional antibiotics in order to improve their antibacterial action. In this work, a systematic study quantifying the synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was performed. Employing the microdilution method as more suitable and reliable than the disc diffusion method, strong synergistic effects were shown for all tested antibiotics combined with AgNPs at very low concentrations of both antibiotics and AgNPs. No trends were observed for synergistic effects of antibiotics with different modes of action and different chemical structures in combination with AgNPs, indicating non-specific synergistic effects. Moreover, a very low amount of silver is needed for effective antibacterial action of the antibiotics, which represents an important finding for potential medical applications due to the negligible cytotoxic effect of AgNPs towards human cells at these concentration levels.

  7. Synergistic effect of Andrographis echioides and Cadaba trifoliata leaf extracts against larvae of dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    Sankaran Rajkumar; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Rajarathinavelu Nagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The larvicidal potential of Andrographis echioides and Cadaba trifoliata leaf extract was tested separately against larvae of Aedes aegypti and also tested mixture of these two plant extracts for synergistic effect against the larvae. Methods: Pulverized leaves of A. echioides and C.trifoliata were subjected separately to soxhlet extraction using organic solvent of ethanol. These two plant extracts were examined separately against 4th instar larvae of A.aegypti with gradually increasing concentration i.e. from 50 to 250mg/l using WHO protocol. To observe the synergistic effect, extracts of these two plants were mixed at different concentrations and tested against the larva. The 24h LC50 values of individual plant extract and mixed extracts were determined following probit analysis. Results: A. echioides extract shows more lethal effect than C. trifoliata extract towards larvae of A.aegypti with LC50 values of 108.3 and 123.4 mg/l, respectively, whereas , synergistic larvicidal effect was found to be even more effective than the plant extract tested separately in terms of LC50 being 68.3 mg/l. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that synergistic effect of A. echioides and C. trifoliata can be considered as a more powerful arsenal for the control of A.aegypti than the usage of these two extract separately.

  8. Synergistic effects of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha: central monoamine, corticosterone, and behavioral variations.

    Brebner, K; Hayley, S; Zacharko, R; Merali, Z; Anisman, H

    2000-06-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) influence neuroendocrine activity, promote central neurotransmitter alterations, and induce a constellation of symptoms collectively referred to as sickness behaviors. These cytokines may also elicit anxiety and anhedonia, and have been associated with psychological disturbances in humans. In the present investigation, systemic IL-1beta and TNF-alpha dose-dependently and synergistically disrupted consumption of a highly palatable food source (chocolate milk), possibly reflecting anorexia or anhedonia engendered by the treatments. As well, these cytokines synergistically increased plasma corticosterone levels. Although IL-1beta and TNF-alpha provoked variations of amine turnover in the hypothalamus, locus coeruleus, and central amygdala, synergistic effects were not evident in this respect. Nevertheless, in view of the central amine variations induced by the cytokines, it is suggested that immune activation may come to influence complex behavioral processes, as well as affective state. PMID:10788757

  9. Non-synergistic cytotoxic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria toxin combinations in Caco-2 cells.

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-22

    Exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins via food and feed generally involves a conglomeration of compounds contaminating the consumed products. Investigations on combinatory effects of mycotoxins are therefore of great importance. In this study, cytotoxic effects of binary mixtures of the Fusarium toxins enniatin B, aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, and tenuazonic acid produced by Alternaria spp., were evaluated by the WST-1 assay in the colorectal carcinoma cell-line Caco-2 after 24h of incubation. The selection of these mycotoxins was based on typically occurring natural contamination patterns in grains. Aurofusarin, which can be found abundantly in contaminated foodstuff and has not been toxicologically characterized properly so far, showed pronounced cytotoxicity, decreasing the mitochondrial activity at 10μM to 51% compared to a solvent control. Combinations of other mycotoxins with aurofusarin showed additive effects. In contrast, binary mixtures of enniatin B, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone at cytotoxic concentrations, predominantly resulted in antagonistic effects. Binary combinations of these four Fusarium toxins with tenuazonic acid also revealed interacting effects leading to a decrease in cytotoxicity, compared to expected combinatory effects. Especially in combination with deoxynivalenol, tenuazonic acid was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of this mycotoxin in Caco-2 cells. Synergistic effects were not observed for any toxin combination under the chosen conditions. PMID:26529482

  10. Stimulant ADHD medication and risk for substance abuse

    Chang, Z.(Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA); Lichtenstein, P.; Halldner, L; D'Onofrio, B; Serlachius, E.; Fazel, S.; Långström, N.; Larsson, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are persistent concerns of long-term effects of stimulant ADHD medication on the development of substance abuse. Methods: Using Swedish national registers, we studied all individuals born between 1960 and 1998 and diagnosed with ADHD (26,249 men and 12,504 women). We investigated the association between stimulant ADHD medication in 2006 and substance abuse during 2009. Substance abuse was indexed by substance-related death, crime, or hospital visits. Results: ADHD medication...

  11. The Pharmacogenomic Era: Promise for Personalizing ADHD Therapy

    Stein, Mark A.; McGough, James J

    2008-01-01

    Currently, ADHD treatment is often determined empirically through trial and error until an adequate response is obtained or side effects occur. ADHD is highly heritable and there is wide individual variability in response to ADHD medications, suggesting that the mechanism of action of stimulant medications may provide clues for genetic predictors of response. The promise of ADHD pharmacogenetics is far reaching, and includes the potential to develop individualized medication regimens that imp...

  12. Effects of delayed reinforcers on the behavior of an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje; Kvande, Grethe

    2005-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affecting 3-5% of grade-school children, is a behavioral disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It has been suggested that the symptoms are caused by altered reinforcement and extinction processes, behaviorally described as an abnormally short and steep delay-of-reinforcement gradient in ADHD. The present study tested predictions from the suggested shortened and steepened delay gradient in ADHD in an animal model, the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). It was predicted that SHR responding during baseline would mainly consist of responses with short inter-response times, and that responding would be more rapidly reduced in the SHR than in the controls by the introduction of a time interval between the response and reinforcer delivery. Effects of a resetting delay of reinforcement procedure with water as the reinforcer were tested on two baseline reinforcement schedules: variable interval 30 s (VI 30 s) and conjoint variable interval 60 s differential reinforcement of high rate 1s (VI 60 s DRH 1 s). The results showed a higher rate of responses in the SHR than in the controls during baseline, mainly consisting of responses with short inter-response times. The statistical analyses showed that response rates decreased more rapidly as a function of reinforcer delay in the SHR than in the controls. The analyses of the estimates of the reinforcer decay parameter showed no strain differences during the VI 30 s schedule but showed a significant strain difference at the end, but not at the start, of the sessions during the VI 60 s DRH 1 s schedule. In general, the results support predictions from the suggested steepened delay gradient in SHR. However, the predictions were only partly confirmed by the analyses of the decay parameter. PMID:15922066

  13. Studies on The Synergistic Effect of Some Irradiated Essential Oils in Some Food Products

    Cumin, rosemary and thyme essential oils were gamma irradiated. Then, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were studied to measure the synergistic effect of their essential oils mixtures. 4, 6 and 4 kGy were the recommended doses for cumin, rosemary and thyme, respectively according to antimicrobial activity (agar well-diffusion) against S. typhimurium, S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli. There were no changes in the physiochemical properties due to irradiation but, some changes occurred in the GC/MS analysis where, the amount of oxygenated compounds increased in cumin and thyme essential oils while, the oxygenated compounds decreased in rosemary essential oil. The mixture made from non-irradiated cumin (C0) and rosemary (R0) essential oils were showed the highest antimicrobial activity against E. coil and B. cereus at 50 μl. Mixtures made from non-irradiated cumin and thyme (T0) essential oils showed the highest antimicrobial activity against B. cereus. Mixtures made form irradiated cumin at dose 4 kGy (C4) and rosemary at dose 6 kGy (R6) essential oils introduced promising antimicrobial activity as well as C0XR0 mixture. Fraction inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were studied against selected four bacterial strains for measuring synergistic activity however, (FIC) represented indifference in all essential oils mixtures but, the C0 X R0 mixture against B. cereus (0.375) and E. coli (0.375) was synergy (below 0.5). Furthermore, the FIC shows addition in case of R0XT0, C2XR6, C4XR6 and R6XT4 against B. cereus. And in case of C4XR6 against S. typhimurium. Preliminary experiment represented that 0.2, 0.4 and 0.1% were the acceptable odor in sunflower oil supplemented with rosemary, cumin and thyme essential oils, respectively.

  14. Synergistic effect of two combinations of antituberculous drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Tudó, Griselda; Martínez, José Antonio; González-Martín, Julian

    2012-05-01

    Fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin are promising drugs to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and have been proposed for shortening the treatment of TB. The objectives were to study the synergistic effect of the combinations of three drugs and to evaluate the in vitro interactions of the following combinations against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A) isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol and B) ofloxacin, rifampicin, and ethambutol using an adaptation of the two-dimensional chequerboard assay. A total of 12 isolates resistant to isoniazid or to isoniazid-streptomycin and 11 drug-susceptible isolates were tested. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FICI) was calculated as follows: FICI = FIC(A) + FICB + FIC(C) = A/MIC(A) + B/MIC(B) + C/MIC(C) where A, B and C were the MICs of each antibiotic in combination and MIC(A), MIC(B) and MIC(C) were the individual MICs. The FICI was interpreted as synergism when the value was ≤0.75. In combination A, 11 drug-susceptible isolates decreased the individual MIC one to three dilutions, showing indifferent activity in 81.8% (FICI = 0.88-1.6) and synergistic activity in 18.1% (FICI = 0.6). In combination B, 21 out of the 23 isolates studied (91.3%) showed synergism (FICI = 0.31-0.62). In conclusion, adaptation of the two-dimensional chequerboard assay is a reliable method to study in vitro three-drug combinations. Both three-drug combinations tested may be useful against drug-resistant isolates, although the combination including ofloxacin showed better efficacy, being of potential use in drug-susceptible and isoniazid-resistant isolates. PMID:22342247

  15. Motor problems in children with ADHD and clinical effects of Methylphenidate as assessed with the MFNU

    Stray, Liv Larsen

    2009-01-01

    The Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU) has been developed over a 25 year period based on clinical observations and assessments of children referred for evaluation of possible Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). The sub-tests of the MFNU were constructed to demonstrate these motor problems to parents and teachers of these children, and to make changes in motor performance observable when the child was medicated with Methylphenidate (...

  16. Synergistic effects of three Piper amides on generalist and specialist herbivores.

    Dyer, L A; Dodson, C D; Stireman, J O; Tobler, M A; Smilanich, A M; Fincher, R M; Letourneau, D K

    2003-11-01

    The tropical rainforest shrub Piper cenocladum, which is normally defended against herbivores by a mutualistic ant, contains three amides that have various defensive functions. While the ants are effective primarily against specialist herbivores, we hypothesized that these secondary compounds would be effective against a wider range of insects, thus providing a broad array of defenses against herbivores. We also tested whether a mixture of amides would be more effective against herbivores than individual amides. Diets spiked with amides were offered to five herbivores: a naïve generalist caterpillar (Spodoptera frugiperda), two caterpillar species that are monophagous on P. cenocladum (Eois spp.), leaf-cutting ants (Atta cephalotes), and an omnivorous ant (Paraponera clavata). Amides had negative effects on all insects, whether they were naïve, experienced, generalized, or specialized feeders. For Spodoptera, amide mixtures caused decreased pupal weights and survivorship and increased development times. Eois pupal weights, larval mass gain, and development times were affected by additions of individual amides, but increased parasitism and lower survivorship were caused only by the amide mixture. Amide mixtures also deterred feeding by the two ant species, and crude plant extracts were strongly deterrent to P. clavata. The mixture of all three amides had the most dramatic deterrent and toxic effects across experiments, with the effects usually surpassing expected additive responses, indicating that these compounds can act synergistically against a wide array of herbivores. PMID:14682530

  17. Synergistic androgenic effect of a petroleum product caused by the joint action of at least three different types of compounds

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Candido, Angelica; Vrabie, Cozmina M; Scarlett, Alan G; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found a dose-dependent synergistic effect in recombinant yeast stably transfected with the human androgen receptor (AR), in response to co-exposure to testosterone and a commercially-available lubricant (engine) oil for cars. As there is relatively little knowledge on synergi

  18. Synergistic effect of polyaspartic acid and iodide ion on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in H2SO4

    Highlights: •Polyaspartic acid acts as a modest cathodic inhibitor for mild steel in H2SO4. •Results revealed synergistic effect between polyaspartic acid and iodide ion. •Inhibition efficiency depends on the temperature of H2SO4 medium. •XPS analysis revealed co-adsorption of polyaspartic acid and iodide ion. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of polyaspartic acid (PASP) and its synergistic effect with KI on mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution are studied by weight loss and electrochemical methods. The inhibition efficiency increases with the concentration of PASP and increases further with the presence of 1 mM KI. Result of the zero charge potential measurement shows that iodide ion promotes the film formation of PASP greatly. The mild steel surfaces after immersion test were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An adsorption model is proposed to elucidate the synergistic mechanism of synergistic effect

  19. Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Bigorra, Aitana; Garolera, Maite; Guijarro, Silvina; Hervás, Amaia

    2016-08-01

    ADHD affects working memory (WM) and other executive functions (EFs) and thereby negatively impacts school performance, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. The main aim of this study was to analyse the efficacy of computerized WM training (CWMT) on EF rating scales. A secondary objective was to assess its efficacy on performance-based measures of EF (PBMEF), learning, clinical symptoms and functional impairment. 66 children with combined-type ADHD between 7 and 12 years of age from the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit (Spain) were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial. The participants were randomized (1:1) to an experimental group (EG) (CWMT) (n = 36) or a control group (CG) (placebo training). Assessments were conducted at baseline (T0), 1-2 weeks (T1), and 6 months post-intervention (T2) with the administration of EF rating scales, PBMEF, measures of academic achievement, and questionnaires regarding clinical symptoms and functional impairment. Participants, parents, teachers and professionals who performed the cognitive assessments were blinded. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed significant improvements in EF scales-parent version, from T1 to T2, on the metacognition index [p = 0.03, d' = -0.78 (95 % CI -1.28 to -0.27)] and on WM (also significant at T2-T0) and plan/organize subscales. Significant improvements were also noted in EF scales-teacher version, from T0 to T1 and T2, on the metacognitive index [p = 0.05, d' = -0.37 (95 % CI -0.86 to 0.12) T1-T0, p = 0.02, d' = -0.81 (95 % CI -1.31 to -0.30) T2-T0] and on the initiate, WM, monitor and shift subscales. There were also significant improvements in PBMEF, ADHD symptoms, and functional impairment. CWMT had a significant impact on ADHD deficits by achieving long-term far-transfer effects. PMID:26669692

  20. Synergistic effects of iron and temperature on Antarctic phytoplankton and microzooplankton assemblages

    J. M. Rose

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron availability and temperature are important limiting factors for the biota in many areas of the world ocean, and both have been predicted to change in future climate scenarios. However, the impacts of combined changes in these two key factors on microbial trophic dynamics and nutrient cycling are unknown. We examined the relative effects of iron addition (+1 nM and increased temperature (+4°C on plankton assemblages of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, a region characterized by annual algal blooms and an active microbial community. Increased iron and temperature individually had consistently significant but relatively minor positive effects on total phytoplankton abundance, phytoplankton and microzooplankton community composition, as well as photosynthetic parameters and nutrient drawdown. Unexpectedly, increased iron had a consistently negative impact on microzooplankton abundance, most likely a secondary response to changes in phytoplankton community composition. When iron and temperature were increased in concert, the resulting interactive effects were greatly magnified. This synergy between iron and temperature increases would not have been predictable by examining the effects of each variable individually. Our results suggest the possibility that if iron availability increases under future climate regimes, the impacts of predicted temperature increases on plankton assemblages in polar regions could be significantly enhanced. Such synergistic and antagonistic interactions between individual climate change variables highlight the importance of multivariate studies for marine global change experiments.

  1. How synergistic or antagonistic effects may influence the mutual hazard ranking of chemicals

    Lars Carlsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of various agents, including humic materials, nanomaterials, microplastics, or simply specific chemical compounds, may cause changes in the apparent persistence, bioaccumulation, and/or toxicity (PBT of a chemical compound leading to an either increased or decreased PBT characteristics and thus an increased or decreased hazard evaluation. In the present paper, a series chloro-containing obsolete pesticides is studied as an illustrative example. Partial order methodology is used to quantify how changed P, B, or T characteristics of methoxychlor (MEC influences the measure of the hazard of MEC, relative to the other 11 compounds in the series investigated. Not surprisingly, an increase in one of the three indicators (P, B, or T lead to an increased average order and thus an increased relative hazard as a result of a synergistic effect. A decrease in one of the indicator values analogously causes a decreased average order/relative hazard through an antagonistic effect; the effect, however, being less pronounced. It is further seen that the effect of changing the apparent value of the three indicators is different. Thus, persistence apparently is more important that bioaccumulation which again appears more important than toxicity, which is in agreement with previous work. The results are discussed with reference to the European chemicals framework on registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH framework.

  2. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner. PMID:23303545

  3. Synergistic Effect of Nanophotocatalysis and Nonthermal Plasma on the Removal of Indoor HCHO

    Yuanwei Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis is an effective method of air purification at the condition of a higher pollutant concentration. However, its wide application in indoor air cleaning is limited due to the low level of indoor air contaminants. Immobilizing the nanosized TiO2 particles on the surface of activated carbon filter (TiO2/AC film could increase the photocatalytic reaction rate as a local high pollutant concentration can be formed on the surface of TiO2 by the adsorption of AC. However, the pollutant removal still decreased quickly with the increase in flow velocity, which results in a decrease in air treatment capacity. In order to improve the air treatment capacity by the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO method, this paper used formaldehyde (HCHO as a contaminant to study the effect of combination of PCO with nonthermal plasma technology (NTP on the removal of HCHO. The experimental results show that HCHO removal is more effective with line-to-plate electrode discharge reactor; the HCHO removal and the reaction rate can be enhanced and the amount of air that needs to be cleaned can be improved. Meanwhile, the results show that there is the synergistic effect on the indoor air purification by the combination of PCO with NTP.

  4. ADRB2 and LEPR gene polymorphisms: synergistic effects on the risk of obesity in Japanese.

    Pereira, Tiago V; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to validate a recently reported synergistic effect between variants located in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and in the β-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene on the risk of overweight/obesity. We studied a middle-aged/elderly sample of 4,193 nondiabetic Japanese subjects stratified according gender (1,911 women and 2,282 men). The LEPR Gln223Arg (rs1137101) variant as well as both ADRB2 Arg16Gly (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714) polymorphisms were analyzed. The primary outcome was the risk of overweight/obesity defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), whereas secondary outcomes included the risk of a BMI ≥27 kg/m(2) and BMI as a continuous variable. None of the studied polymorphisms showed statistically significant individual effects, regardless of the group or phenotype studied. Haplotype analysis also did not disclose any associations of ADRB2 polymorphisms with BMI. However, dimensionality reduction-based models confirmed significant interactions among the investigated variants for BMI as a continuous variable as well as for the risk of obesity defined as BMI ≥27 kg/m(2). All disclosed interactions were found in men only. Our results provide external validation for a male specific ADRB2-LEPR interaction effect on the risk of overweight/obesity, but indicate that effect sizes associated with these interactions may be smaller in the population studied. PMID:21233812

  5. Behavioral effects of intra-cranial self-stimulation in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Sagvolden, Terje

    2005-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by inappropriate levels of activity, attention, and impulsivity, has been suggested to be caused by changes in reinforcement and extinction processes possibly linked to dysfunctioning dopamine systems. The present study investigated reinforcement processes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of ADHD. Using intra-cranial self-stimulation (ICSS), behavioral effects of varying current intensity, reinforcer density, and reinforcer delay were tested. Current was varied in order to find the weakest current producing the maximal response rate (optimal current) in the SHR and the controls during high (120 reinforcers/min) and low reinforcer densities (1 reinforcer/min). The results showed that optimal current was significantly lower in the SHR than in the controls during high reinforcer density while maximal response rates were not significantly different. During low reinforcer density, optimal current was not significantly different in the two strains, but maximal response rate was significantly higher in the SHR than in the controls. The SHR produced more responses during the testing of reinforcer density, but changes in reinforcer density affected response rates similarly in the two strains. The decrease in response rate as a function of reinforcer delay was more pronounced in the SHR than in the controls. Overall, more responses with short inter-response times (IRT) were found in the SHR compared to the controls during intermittent reinforcement. The results are consistent with a steepened delay-of-reinforcement gradient in SHR. PMID:15922065

  6. Effect of training focused on executive functions (attention, inhibition, and working memory) in preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    Re, Anna M.; Capodieci, Agnese; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving 5-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development ...

  7. Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender

    Fliers, E.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Vermeulen, S. H.; Altink, M.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Faraone, S. V.; Sergeant, J.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objective. ADHD is frequently accompanied by motor coordination problems. However, the co-occurrence of poor motor performance has received less attention in research than other coexisting problems in ADHD. The underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of motor coordination problems in a large sample of children with ADHD, and the relationship between motor coordination problems and inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive sympto...

  8. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  9. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Doxorubicin and Tacrolimus (FK506 on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Francesca Capone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and shows a complex clinical course, poor response to pharmacological treatment, and a severe prognosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether tacrolimus (FK506 has synergistic antitumor effects with doxorubicin on two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2. Cell viability was analyzed by Sulforhodamine B assay and synergic effect was evaluated by the software CalcuSyn. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V and Dead Cell assay. Apoptosis-related protein PARP-1 cleaved and autophagy-related protein expressions (Beclin-1 and LC3B were measured by western blotting analysis. Cytokines concentration in cellular supernatants after treatments was studied by Bio-Plex assay. Interestingly the formulation with doxorubicin and tacrolimus induced higher cytotoxicity level on tumor cells than single treatment. Moreover, our results showed that the mechanisms involved were (i a strong cell apoptosis induction, (ii contemporaneous decrease of autophagy activation, understood as prosurvival process, and (iii downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, future studies could relate to the doxorubicin/tacrolimus combination effects in mice models bearing HCC in order to see if this formulation could be useful in HCC treatment.

  10. Effect of Eugenol against Streptococcus agalactiae and Synergistic Interaction with Biologically Produced Silver Nanoparticles

    Renata Perugini Biasi-Garbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci (GBS is an important infections agent in newborns associated with maternal vaginal colonization. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in GBS-colonized pregnant women has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of early neonatal infection in various geographic regions. However, this strategy may lead to resistance selecting among GBS, indicating the need for new alternatives to prevent bacterial transmission and even to treat GBS infections. This study reported for the first time the effect of eugenol on GBS isolated from colonized women, alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio. Eugenol showed a bactericidal effect against planktonic cells of all GBS strains, and this effect appeared to be time-dependent as judged by the time-kill curves and viability analysis. Combination of eugenol with AgNPbio resulted in a strong synergistic activity, significantly reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration values of both compounds. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed fragmented cells and changes in bacterial morphology after incubation with eugenol. In addition, eugenol inhibited the viability of sessile cells during biofilm formation and in mature biofilms. These results indicate the potential of eugenol as an alternative for controlling GBS infections.

  11. Synergistic effect of fosfomycin and fluoroquinolones against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in a biofilm.

    Mikuniya,Takeshi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Ulifloxacin is the active form of the prodrug prulifloxacin and shows a highly potent antipseudomonal activity. In this study, we examined the combined effect of fosfomycin and ulifloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa growing in a biofilm using a modified Robbins device with artificial urine, and compared it to that of the combination of fosfomycin and ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin. An ATP bioluminescence assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the agents against sessile cells in a mature biofilm developed on a silicon disk. The total bioactivity of P. aeruginosa growing in a biofilm that had not been fully eradicated by fosfomycin or any of the fluoroquinolones alone at 10 times the MIC decreased after combination treatment with fosfomycin and fluoroquinolones. Morphological changes occurred in a time-dependent fashion; namely, swollen and/or rounding cells emerged within a couple of hours after combination treatment, marking the initial stage in the process leading to the destruction of the biofilms. We could not find any difference among the 3 fluoroquinolones with regard to their synergistic effects when administered with fosfomycin. The combination treatment of fosfomycin and fluoroquinolones with highly potent antipseudomonal activities was effective in eradicating sessile cells of P. aeruginosa in the biofilm and promises to be beneficial against biofilm-associated infectious diseases.

  12. The synergistic effects of radiation and caffeine on embryonic development in mice

    The combined action of radiation with caffeine has been studied in mouse embryos. Radiation and/or caffeine were administered to ICR mice on day 7 of gestation, at which time the embryos were in the early stage of organogenesis. Intrauterine death, gross malformation, body weight and sex ratio were selected as indicators of effects. Doses of gamma irradiation were 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy and those of caffeine were 0.10 and 0.25 mg/g of body weight. Intrauterine mortality increased with increasing radiation dose and this trend was more remarkable in combination with caffeine. The malformation such as parietal hernia, exencephalia, hydrocephalia and cleft palate appeared frequently in the fetuses treated with both radiation and caffeine compared to the fetuses treated with each agent separately. Fetal body weight was a sensitive indicator of the effects on growth retardation of radiation and/or caffeine. The sex ratio of live fetuses did not change by means of treatment with radiation and/or caffeine. Intrauterine mortality and frequency of malformations in mice treated with both radiation and caffeine were higher than the sum of those induced by radiation and those by caffeine separately. The results demonstrated that the combined effects of radiation and caffeine were synergistic. (author)

  13. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups. PMID:26251965

  14. Self-Monitoring of Attention versus Self-Monitoring of Academic Performance: Effects among Students with ADHD in the General Education Classroom

    Harris, Karen R.; Friedlander, Barbara Danoff; Saddler, Bruce; Frizzelle, Remedios; Graham, Steve

    2005-01-01

    A counterbalanced, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used to determine if attention and performance monitoring had differential effects on the on-task and spelling study behavior of 6 elementary students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the general education classroom. Both self-monitoring of attention and…

  15. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  16. Long-Term Effects of Methylphenidate on Neural Networks Associated with Executive Attention in Children with ADHD: Results from a Longitudinal Functional MRI Study

    Konrad, Kerstin; Neufang, Susanne; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal functional MRI study examines the effects of stimulants on neural activity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that one year of methylphenidate treatment might be beneficial though insufficient to show normalization of neural correlates of attention.

  17. Sweat it out? : The effects of physical exercise on cognition and behavior in children and adults with ADHD: a systematic literature review

    Den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Thome, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    As attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disorders in childhood, effective yet safe treatment options are highly important. Recent research introduced physical exercise as a potential treatment option, particularly for children with ADH

  18. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... ADHD. Medications can control ADHD symptoms on the day that the pills are taken. For several decades, ... and non-stimulant types—can last throughout the day. A single dose of a long-acting medication ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can ... with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may ...

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... help a child with ADHD gain a better self-image. The therapist can help the child identify ... try to help the child understand ways to change or better cope with ADHD symptoms, such as ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ... ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working Together Resources Copyright © ...

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... speak. Contents What is ADHD? How Common is ADHD? Common Signs and Symptoms Getting Treatment Supporting School Success The Teenage Years Working ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... 62nd Annual Meeting 2017 Psychopharmacology Update Institute Annual Review Course Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  8. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Crushes What's a Booger? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A Text Size ...

  9. Synergistic Effects of Alloying and Thiolate Modification in Furfural Hydrogenation over Cu-Based Catalysts.

    Pang, Simon H; Love, Nicole E; Medlin, J Will

    2014-12-01

    Control of bimetallic surface composition and surface modification with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) represent two methods for modifying catalyst activity and selectivity. However, possible synergistic effects of employing these strategies in concert have not been previously explored. We investigated the effects of modifying Cu/Al2O3 catalysts by alloying with Ni and modifying with octadecanethiol (C18) SAMs, using furfural hydrogenation as a probe reaction. Incorporation of small amounts of Ni (Cu4Ni) improved catalytic activity while slightly reducing hydrogenation selectivity. Further incorporation of Ni resulted in high rates for decarbonylation and ring-opening. Modification of the Cu4Ni catalyst with C18-SAMs resulted in improvement in both the activity and hydrogenation selectivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments on bimetallic thin films and density functional theory calculations revealed that the C18-SAM kinetically stabilized Cu at the surface under hydrogenation conditions. These results indicate that thiolate monolayers can be used to control surface bimetallic composition to improve catalytic performance. PMID:26278941

  10. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure. PMID:24701918

  11. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Joana Gomes

    Full Text Available The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.

  12. Synergistic effects of algal overgrowth and corallivory on Caribbean reef-building corals.

    Wolf, Alexander T; Nugues, Maggy M

    2013-08-01

    Indirect biotic interactions play a crucial role in structuring ecological communities, but many of these interactions have not been explored. Algal competition and corallivory are two major stressors contributing to the decline of coral reefs. Here, we provide the first evidence of algal-induced corallivory and synergistic effects between the two stressors on corals. When corals (Montastraeafaveolata) were placed in contact with algae (Halimeda opuntia) together with corallivorous fireworms (Hermodice carunculata) in aquaria, corals suffered high tissue mortality. This mortality was reduced in the presence of algae only, and no mortality occurred in the presence of fireworms only or when excluding both algae and fireworms. These findings were supported by field observations showing a predominance of fireworms inside algae contacting live corals, and by an in situ experiment demonstrating higher coral mortality in contact with algae left undisturbed than with algae from which all mobile epifauna were periodically removed. Among the main contributing mechanisms, we suggest that algal contact produces decaying coral tissue that attracts the corallivore and enhances its aggregation behavior. Our study demonstrates an indirect effect pathway by which algae can impact corals, which shares similarities with the classic models of apparent competition and habitat facilitation. PMID:24015510

  13. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells

    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin and quercetin increases the anti-carcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Methods and results Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of arctigenin and quercetin alone or in combination for 48h. The anti-proliferative activity of arctigenin was 10-20 fold stronger than quercetin in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arctigenin demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. Conclusion The combination of arctigenin and quercetin, that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. PMID:25380086

  14. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  15. The synergistic effect of visible light and gentamycin on Pseudomona aeruginosa microorganisms.

    Reznick, Yana; Banin, Ehud; Lipovsky, Anat; Lubart, Rachel; Polak, Pazit; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Recently there were several publications on the bactericidal effect of visible light, most of them claiming that blue part of the spectrum (400 nm-500 nm) is responsible for killing various pathogens(1-5). The phototoxic effect of blue light was suggested to be a result of light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by endogenous bacterial photosensitizers which mostly absorb light in the blue region(4,6,7). There are also reports of biocidal effect of red and near infra red(8) as well as green light(9). In the present study, we developed a method that allowed us to characterize the effect of high power green (wavelength of 532 nm) continuous (CW) and pulsed Q-switched (Q-S) light on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using this method we also studied the effect of green light combined with antibiotic treatment (gentamycin) on the bacteria viability. P. aeruginosa is a common noscomial opportunistic pathogen causing various diseases. The strain is fairly resistant to various antibiotics and contains many predicted AcrB/Mex-type RND multidrug efflux systems(10). The method utilized free-living stationary phase Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa strain PAO1), grown in Luria Broth (LB) medium exposed to Q-switched and/or CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamycin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. The obtained results showed that laser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and that gentamycin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa. The combined laser and gentamycin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and the viability of P. aeruginosa was reduced by 8 log's. The proposed method can further be implemented via the development of catheter like device capable of injecting an antibiotic solution into the infected organ while simultaneously illuminating the area with light. PMID:23852319

  16. Evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

    Smucker, W D; Hedayat, M

    2001-09-01

    Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are present in as many as 9 percent of school-age children. ADHD-specific questionnaires can help determine whether children meet diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The recommended evaluation also includes documenting the type and severity of ADHD symptoms, verifying the presence of normal vision and hearing, screening for comorbid psychologic conditions, reviewing the child's developmental history and school performance, and applying objective measures of cognitive function. The stimulants methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine remain the pharmacologic agents of first choice for the management of ADHD. These agents are equally effective in improving the core symptoms of the disorder, but individual children may respond better to one stimulant medication than to another. Achievement of maximal benefit may require titration of the initial dosage and dosing before breakfast, before lunch and in the afternoon. The family physician should tailor the treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child and family. Psychosocial, behavioral and educational strategies that enhance specific behaviors may improve educational and social functioning in the child with ADHD. PMID:11563573

  17. Classification of suppressor additives based on synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects

    Highlights: → Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. → These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. → In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). - Abstract: Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). While the type-I suppressor selectively forms efficient barriers for copper inter-diffusion on chloride-terminated electrode surfaces we identified a type-II suppressor that interacts non-selectively with any kind of anions chemisorbed on copper (chloride, sulfate, sulfonate). Type-I suppressors are vital for the superconformal copper growth mode in Damascene processing and show an antagonistic interaction with SPS (Bis-Sodium-Sulfopropyl-Disulfide) which involves the deactivation of this suppressor chemistry. This suppressor deactivation is rationalized in terms of compositional changes in the layer of the chemisorbed anions due to the competition of chloride and MPS (Mercaptopropane Sulfonic Acid) for adsorption sites on the metallic copper surface. MPS is the product of the dissociative SPS adsorption within the preexisting chloride matrix on the copper surface. The non-selectivity in the adsorption behavior of the type-II suppressor is rationalized in terms of anion/cation pairing effects of the poly-cationic suppressor and the anion

  18. Girls and ADHD

    ... other girls, girls with ADHD experience more depression, anxiety, distress, poor teacher relationships, stress, external locus of control (the feeling that “the winds of fate” control their destiny instead of themselves), and impaired academics. Compared with boys with ADHD, girls with ADHD ...

  19. ADHD: Tips to Try

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  20. Synergistic antiviral effect in vitro of azidothymidine and amphotericin B methyl ester in combination on HIV infection

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Svenningsen, A;

    1992-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue azidothymidine (AZT) and the methyl ester of amphotericin B (AME) were assayed for antiviral effect on HIV infection singly and in combination. Both compounds were effective in inhibiting HIV infection of MT-4 cells. At concentrations where either compound alone had no sig...... synergistic antiviral properties. Amphotericin B itself significantly reduced HIV infectivity in vitro and should not be used as an antifungal agent in cultures intended to propagate HIV....

  1. Synergistic effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on lipid and pro-inflammatory profiles in pre-diabetic subjects

    Kater Ana-Lucia A; Batista Marcelo C; Ferreira Sandra RG

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Ezetimibe specifically blocks the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol and plant sterols. Synergism of ezetimibe-statin therapy on LDL-cholesterol has been demonstrated, but data concerning the pleiotropic effects of this combination are controversial. Objective This open-label trial evaluated whether the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe also results in a synergistic effect that reduces the pro-inflammatory status of pre-diabetic subjects. Methods Fifty pr...

  2. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C

  3. Evaluation of synergistic effect in vacuum pack, refrigeration and irradiated treatments of minimally processed cassava

    Cassava is cultivated almost all over the world and it is considered one of the most important nutritious sources of calories in the human diet. Cassava is a viable food against starvation in several poor areas of the world because it is an extremely resistant culture and may reach satisfactory economical yield. We utilized vacuum packed industrialized cassava irradiated with 0,1 kGy, 3kGy and 5kGy and stored under refrigeration for 1, 21, 30 and 50 days. Our objective was to analyse the synergistic effect of vacuum packing, irradiation and refrigeration on the preservation of minimally processed cassava. The samples were analyzed for pH, acidity, weight, humidity, texture and color. The irradiation did not affect the chemical characteristics of the cassava. Neither the pH nor the acidity, the most relevant variables to verify deterioration in cassava, presented significant alterations during the period of storage. Comparing the irradiated treatments, the dose of 1kGy and 3kGy affected the physic-chemical characteristics of the cassava the least during the period of storage and refrigeration for 50 days; the doses of 1kGy,3kGy and 5kGy scored the highest rates the sensorial analysis during the period of storage for 21 days. (author)

  4. Surfactant-Assisted Nanocrystalline Zinc Coordination Polymers: Controlled Particle Sizes and Synergistic Effects in Catalysis.

    Huang, Chao; Wang, Huarui; Wang, Xiaolu; Gao, Kuan; Wu, Jie; Hou, Hongwei; Fan, Yaoting

    2016-04-25

    Different morphologies and particle sizes of two crystalline zinc-based coordination polymers (CPs), [Zn(pytz)H2 O]n (1; H2 pytz=2,6-bis(tetrazole)pyridine) and [Zn2 (pytz)2 4 H2 O] (2), from the bulk scale to the nanoscale, could be obtained under solvothermal conditions with different surfactants (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) 2000) as templates. PVP and PEG 2000 could act as capping and structure-directing agents, respectively, to influence the growth of crystalline particles and control their sizes. CP 1 exhibits a two-dimensional framework with window-like units and 2 shows a bimetallic structure. Nanocrystalline 1 and 2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts to study how adjacent catalytic active sites synergistically effected their catalytic reactivities in the direct catalytic conversion of aromatic dinitriles into oxazolines. The results showed that 1 produced bis-oxazolines as the sole products, whereas 2 gave the mono-oxazolines as the major products under the same reaction conditions. PMID:26997347

  5. Synergistic effects of mica and wollastonite fillers on thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating

    Zia-ul-Mustafa, M., E-mail: engr.ziamustafa@gmail.com; Ahmad, Faiz; Megat-Yusoff, Puteri S. M.; Aziz, Hammad [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    In this study, intumescent fire retardant coatings (IFRC) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of reinforced mica and wollastonite fillers based IFRC towards heat shielding, char expansion, char composition and char morphology. Ammonium poly-phosphate (APP) was used as acid source, expandable graphite (EG) as carbon source, melamine as blowing agent, boric acid as additive and Hardener H-2310 polyamide amine in bisphenol A epoxy resin BE-188(BPA) was used as curing agent. Bunsen burner fire test was used for thermal performance according to UL-94 for 1 h. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was used to observe char microstructure. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyse char composition. The results showed that addition of clay filler in IFRC enhanced the fire protection performance of intumescent coating. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed the presence of boron phosphate, silicon phosphate oxide, aluminium borate in the char that improved the thermal performance of intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC). Resultantly, the presence of these developed compounds enhanced the Integrity of structural steel upto 500°C.

  6. Assembly of graphene oxide on nonconductive nonwovens by the synergistic effect of interception and electrophoresis

    Jiao, Kunyan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Xianhua; Shan, Mingjing; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Jiao, Yanan [Tianjin Polytechnic University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Braided Composites, Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-09-15

    Electrophoretic deposition has always been an attractive method to deposit nanoparticles on conductive materials, while most fiber-based materials have poor conductivity which limits the application of electrophoretic deposition in assembling nanoparticles onto fiber-based materials. A new approach to assemble graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on nonconductive nonwovens via the synergistic effect of electrophoresis and fiber interception was reported in this study. To improve surface wettability, polypropylene (PP) nonwovens were modified by acrylic acid and subsequent N{sub 2} plasma treatment. Then GO nanosheets were anchored onto modified nonwovens by electrophoresis process and nonwoven interception. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) manifested that etching and grafting simultaneously occurred on the surface of modified PP nonwovens, resulting in a great improvement of nonwoven hydrophily, which corresponded to the results of water contact angle. Furthermore, the results of X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, SEM, and FTIR indicated that different amounts of GO nanosheets were successfully assembled onto modified PP nonwovens. This method provides a new avenue for incorporating carbon nanoparticles with nonconductive fiber-based materials, and modified PP nonwovens assembled with GO nanosheets show good air filtration performance for sodium chloride aerosol with a filtration efficiency of 87.9 % and a pressure drop of 36.4 mmH{sub 2}O, and the reduced GO/PP composite nonwovens exhibit enhanced conductivity.

  7. The Synergistic Effects of Probiotic Microorganisms on the Microbial Production of Butyrate In Vitro

    Abbas, Khadija A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyrate producing microbiota perform a number of activities important in supporting the normal function of the human gastrointestinal tract. The goal of this study was to determine the synergistic effects of lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria on butyrate production in vitro co-culture. PCR was used to detect the genes butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA transferase that contribute to butyrate production, in a panel of representative gut microbiota. Preliminary data suggested that two Clostridium sp. (ASF 500 and ASF 502 and one Eubacterium sp. (ASF492 possessed at least one of these genes for butyrate production. Co-culture experiments mixing a lactate-producer with a butyrate-producer showed an increase in butyrate production. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to estimate the number of bacteria in co-culture by targeting the 16S rDNA gene. Butyrate levels in the mixing experiment were analyzed using GC/MS. Preliminary results showed that butyrate genes are present in Clostridium sp. ASF 500 and ASF 502, however, assessment of butyrate production showed the butyrate levels do not correlate with the results from qPCR.

  8. Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC

    Kuhudzai, Remeredzai J.; Malherbe, Johan; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, Arun; Zhu, Zihua; Nandasiri, Manjula I.

    2015-10-23

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behavior has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 ºC for 30 hours in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  9. Synergistic effects of iodine and silver ions co-implanted in 6H-SiC

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, A.; Zhu, Z.; Nandasiri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behaviour has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 °C for 30 h in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  10. Synergistic effect of cationic and anionic surfactants for the modification of Ca-montmorillonite

    Highlights: ► The basal spacing of MMT–CTAB–SDS reaches 5.30 nm. ► MMT–CTAB–SDS shows perfect dispersion property and excellent heat resistance. ► SDS helped to improve the heat resistance and decrease the surface energy of the MMT–CTAB–SDS particles. - Abstract: The synergistic effect of cationic surfactant (CTAB) and anionic surfactant (SDS) for the modification of Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) has been developed, and the novel cation–anion modified organomontmorillonite (MMT–CTAB–SDS) was prepared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the interlayer spacing of montmorillonite was well expanded by the intercalation of CTAB and SDS and the basal spacing increased from 1.54 nm (Ca-MMT) to 5.30 nm (MMT–CTAB–SDS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) showed that the MMT–CTAB–SDS displayed excellent heat resistance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis proved that the MMT–CTAB–SDS exhibited excellent dispersion property and the plates with few silicate layers can be observed. Contact angle tests indicated that the hydrophilicity of MMT–CTAB–SDS was lower than that of Ca-MMT and higher than that of MMT–CTAB. It was verified that SDS contributed to expanding the interlayer space, further improved the heat resistance of the MMT–CTAB and decreased the surface energy of the MMT–CTAB–SDS particles

  11. Synergistic effect of manganese oxide nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets in composite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    A graphene-Mn3O4-graphene (GMG) sandwich structure with homogeneous anchoring of Mn3O4 nanoparticles among flexible and conductive graphene nanosheets (GSs) is achieved through dispersion of the GSs in Mn(NO3)2 solution and subsequent calcination. Mn3O4 nanoparticles are 50 ∼ 200 nm clusters consisting of 10 ∼ 20 nm primary particles, and serve as spacers to prevent the re-stacking of the GSs. GSs provide a highly conductive network among Mn3O4 nanoparticles for efficient electron transfer and buffer any volume change during cycling. Due to the strong synergistic effect between Mn3O4 and GSs, the capacity contributions from GSs and Mn3O4 in GMG are much larger than capacities of pure GSs and Mn3O4. Consequently, the GMG composite electrodes show excellent electrochemical properties for lithium ion battery applications, demonstrating a large reversible capacity of 750 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C based on the mass of GMG with no capacity fading after 100 cycles, and high rate abilities of 500 mAh g−1 at 5 C and 380 mAh g−1 at 10 C. (paper)

  12. Synergistic effect of a biosurfactant and protamine on gene transfection efficiency.

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2013-04-11

    Several barriers need to be overcome to ensure successful gene transfection, including passing of the foreign gene through the plasma membrane, escape of this material from lysosomal degradation, and its translocation into the nucleus. We previously showed that the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) enhanced the efficiency of gene transfection mediated by cationic liposomes by facilitating rapid delivery of foreign genes into target cells through membrane fusion between liposomes and the plasma membrane. Moreover, using MEL-A-containing cationic liposomes, the foreign gene was efficiently delivered into the nucleus because it was released directly into the cytosol and thus escaped lysosomal degradation. Here we investigated the effect of pre-condensation of plasmid DNA by a cationic polymer, protamine, on gene transfection. We found that the efficiency of pre-condensed DNA transfection mediated by MEL-A-containing OH liposomes was >10 times higher than that of non-condensed DNA transfection. In contrast, the efficiency of pre-condensed DNA transfection mediated by OH liposomes was only 1.5 times higher than that of non-condensed DNA transfection. MEL-A did not influence plasmid DNA encapsulation by cationic liposomes, but it greatly accelerated the nuclear delivery of pre-condensed plasmid DNA. Our findings indicate that MEL-A and protamine synergistically accelerate the nuclear delivery of foreign gene and consequently promote gene transfection efficiency. PMID:23422688

  13. Intronic microRNAs support their host genes by mediating synergistic and antagonistic regulatory effects

    Krumsiek Jan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-mediated control of gene expression via translational inhibition has substantial impact on cellular regulatory mechanisms. About 37% of mammalian microRNAs appear to be located within introns of protein coding genes, linking their expression to the promoter-driven regulation of the host gene. In our study we investigate this linkage towards a relationship beyond transcriptional co-regulation. Results Using measures based on both annotation and experimental data, we show that intronic microRNAs tend to support their host genes by regulation of target gene expression with significantly correlated expression patterns. We used expression data of three differentiating cell types and compared gene expression profiles of host and target genes. Many microRNA target genes show expression patterns significantly correlated with the expressions of the microRNA host genes. By calculating functional similarities between host and predicted microRNA target genes based on GO annotations, we confirm that many microRNAs link host and target gene activity in an either synergistic or antagonistic manner. Conclusions These two regulatory effects may result from fine tuning of target gene expression functionally related to the host or knock-down of remaining opponent target gene expression. This finding allows to extend the common practice of mapping large scale gene expression data to protein associated genes with functionality of co-expressed intronic microRNAs.

  14. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the production of ganoderic acid derived from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom in a shaken flasks using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal dose of methyl jasmonate and asprin significantly impacts on the amount of ganoderic acid production as a response (p<0.05. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 0.085 mg/ml in which the optimal concentrations obtained for methyl jasmonate and asprin were 250mM and 4.4mM, respectively. Also the influence of ganoderic acid production on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and squalene synthase (two important metabolic pathway genes in ganoderic acid was investigated, and the results showed that these genes’ expression has increased by 10 and 11 folds, respectively.  

  15. Sono-advanced Fenton decolorization of azo dye Orange G: Analysis of synergistic effect and mechanisms.

    Cai, Meiqiang; Su, Jie; Lian, Guanghu; Wei, Xiaoqin; Dong, Chunying; Zhang, Haojie; Jin, Micong; Wei, Zongsu

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a successful decolorization of Orange G was achieved by means of coupling zero valent iron (ZVI), H2O2 and ultrasound (US) under acidic pH conditions. The synergistic effect and characterization of potential roles of the factors including ZVI, tert-Butanol as radical scavenger, dissolved ferrous ions and H2O2 generated from sonication were evaluated in this sono-advanced Fenton process (SAFP) system. A clear synergy was evident in terms of decolorization rate and the TOC removal as the input of US enhanced the activity of the Fe(0)/H2O2 system. The results suggested that the ZVI was potential replacement for the Fe(2+) ion. This remarkable activity was attributed to the capacity of Fe(2+) formed and reduction of sonic-dissolved Fe(2+) concentration by the formation of {Fe·Fe(2+)}. The modification of the condition of H2O2 addition such as the dosage and input method showed significant variations in terms of decolorization rate. This result indicated that the optimal external addition of H2O2 and input method is a limited factor of decolorization rate due to its comparatively insufficient generated by ultrasound. PMID:26964940

  16. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and synergistic effect between antibiotic and the essential oils of some medicinal plants

    Fadila Moussaoui; Tajelmolk Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the in vitro antibacterial properties of five essential oils against ten bacterial strains and study the synergistic effect of the combination of essential oils with standard antibiotics. Methods: Origanum compactum, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana L. were used alone and combined used with standard antibiotics to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. The disk diffusion method was employed. Results: The results showed that the combined application of the essential oils of the plants with antibiotics led to a synergistic effect in some cases, but antagonistic effect was also observed in some bacteria. Conclusions: This study shows that the combination of essential oils of the five plants with antibiotics may be useful in the fight against emerging microbial drug resistance.

  18. The synergistic effect of Escherichia coli inactivation by sequential disinfection with low level chlorine dioxide followed by free chlorine.

    Yang, Wu; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Sui-Yi; Chen, Bo-Yan; Huo, Ming-Xin; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-12-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there was little information available on pathogen removal using low level disinfectant followed by free chlorine in sequential disinfection (SD). This study investigated Escherichia coli inactivation by four types of disinfection: single step disinfection (SSD), SD, traditional sequential disinfection (TSD) and mixed disinfectant disinfection (MDD). Results indicated that SD had higher ability to inactivate E. coli than the others, indicating there was a positive synergistic effect on chlorine disinfection by prior dosing with a low level of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). The ONPG assay suggested that the permeability of cell wall rather than the viability of E. coli were changed under 0.02 mg/l ClO(2) treatment. The coexistence of residual ClO(2) and free chlorine also plays an active synergistic effect. Additionally, temperature had a positive effect on E. coli inactivation in SD, while inactivation was reduced in alkaline compared to neutral and acidic conditions. PMID:23165713

  19. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Parents Behavioral Training and Medication with Ritalin on the Rate of the Signs of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Mina Shahrbanian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research is to determine the effectiveness of parents’ behavioral training in compare to medication on the rate of the signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Materials & Methods: Our population in this research was all boys in the elementary school (third, fourth and fifth grades and finally a sample of 630 subjects were included. We used a questionnaire of children’s morbid signs (CSI-4 which was completed by parents. For determination of acceptable scores in this scale, all subjects who obtained score 6 and more were selected and out of these subjects by use of random method as many as 45 subjects were chosen and 15 subjects were considered as the behavioral experimental group (under special care of a psychiatrist and the other 15 subjects were randomly put as the control group. The parents participated in seven sessions of behavioral training program, while for control group no kinds of training and medication intervention were carried out. Results: The results showed that both parent’s behavioral training program and medication have been effective meaningfully on ADHD (P=0.0005, also considering the averages differences, medication with Ritalin has caused more reduction of the signs of ADHD than parent’s behavioral training. Conclusion: At present, for children afflicted with ADHD, multi interventions are recommended that contains medication and parents training.

  20. Effective Methylphenidate Treatment of an Adult Aspergers Syndrome and a Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Investigation with fMRI

    Roy, Mandy; Dillo, Wolfgang; Bessling, Svenja; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Ohlmeier, Martin D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aspergers Syndrome can present as comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Very few cases of the assessment and treatment of this comorbidity in adulthood are described in the research literature. Method: A 26-year-old patient as suffering from ADHD in combination with Aspergers Syndrome is diagnosed. Treatment is…

  1. Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender

    Fliers, E.; Rommelse, N.; Vermeulen, S.H.H.M.; Altink, M.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Faraone, S.V.; Sergeant, J.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objective. ADHD is frequently accompanied by motor coordination problems. However, the co-occurrence of poor motor performance has received less attention in research than other coexisting problems in ADHD. The underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Therefore, we inv

  2. Synergistic effects of sulbactam in multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Fatih Temocin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is a frequently isolated etiologic agent of nosocomial infections, especially in intensive care units. With the increase in multi-drug resistance of A. baumannii isolates, finding appropriate treatment alternatives for infections caused by these bacteria has become more difficult, and available alternate treatments include the use of older antibiotics such as colistin or a combination of antibiotics. The current study aimed to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of various antibiotic combinations against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii strains. Thirty multi-drug and carbapenem resistant A. baumannii strains isolated at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital between June 2011 and June 2012 were used in the study. Antibiotic susceptibility tests and species-level identification were performed using conventional methods and the VITEK 2 system. The effects of meropenem, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, tigecycline, and colistin alone and in combination with sulbactam against the isolates were studied using Etest (bioMérieux in Mueller-Hinton agar medium. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC was used to determine the efficacy of the various combinations. While all combinations showed a predominant indifferent effect, a synergistic effect was also observed in 4 of the 5 combinations. Synergy was demonstrated in 43% of the isolates with the meropenem-sulbactam combination, in 27% of the isolates with tigecycline-sulbactam, and in 17% of the isolates with colistin-sulbactam and amikacin-sulbactam. No synergy was detected with the sulbactam-ciprofloxacin combination and antagonism was detected only in the sulbactam-colistin combination (6.66% of the isolates. Antibiotic combinations can be used as an alternative treatment approach in multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections.

  3. Caspase Mediated Synergistic Effect of Boswellia serrata Extract in Combination with Doxorubicin against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Mohammad Ahmed Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the growth-inhibiting and apoptosis mediating effects of B. serrata extract as monotherapy and combination therapy with DOX against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Boswellic acid rich fraction of B. serrata extract was prepared. MTT assay on HepG2 and Hep3B cells was carried out using B. serrata alone and in combination with DOX. Further, caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level were estimated. Isobolographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of combination therapy. Additionally, protective effect of B. serrata extract on DOX induced hepatic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats. B. serrata extract inhibited growth of HepG2 (IC50 value of 21.21±0.92 μg/mL as well as HepG2 (IC50 value of 18.65±0.71 μg/mL. DOX inhibited growth in HepG2 and Hep3B cells with an IC50 of 1.06±0.04 μg/mL and 1.92±0.09 μg/mL. Isobolographic analysis showed combination index (CI of DOX and B. serrata extract of 0.53±0.03 to 0.79±0.02 suggesting synergistic behavior against the two cell lines. B. serrata extract also caused dose dependent increase in caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level which was higher (P<0.001 with DOX (1 μM and B. serrata extract (20 μg/mL combination. B. serrata extract also protected Wistar rats against DOX induced hepatic toxicity.

  4. Synergistic effects of prostaglandin E1 and lithium in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Rong RAN; Bo GAO; Rui SHENG; Li-sha ZHANG; Hui-lin ZHANG; Zhen-lun GU; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important regulators of cellular survival and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia.Both prostaglandin El (PGEI) and lithium have been reported to protect neurons against ischemic injury.The present study was undertaken to examine if lithium could potentiate the neuroprotection of PGE 1 against cerebral ischemia,and if the synergetic effects take place at the level of HSPs.Methods:Brain ischemia was induced by a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats.Rats were pretreated with subcutaneous injection of lithium for 2 d and a single intravenous administration of PGEI immediately after ischemic insult.Cerebrocortical blood flow of each group was closely monitored prior to onset of ischemia,5 min,15 rain,30 min and 60 min after surgical operation.Body temperature was measured before,5 min,2 h and 24 h after the onset of pMCAO.The infarct volume,brain edema and motor behavior deficits were analyzed 24 h after ischemic insult.Cytoprotective HSP70 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were detected by immunoblotting.Brain sections from the striatum of the ipsilateral hemisphere were double-labeled with the anti-HSP70 antibody and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).Results:Treatment with PGEI (8 and 16 ~tg/kg,iv) or lithium (0.5 mEq/kg,sc) alone reduced infarct volume,neurological deficits and brain edema induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats.Moreover,a greater neuroprotection was observed when PGEI and lithium were given together.Co-administration of PGE1 and lithium significantly upregulated cytoprotective HSP70 and HO-1 protein levels.Conclusion:Lithium and PGEI may exert synergistic effects in treatment of cerebral ischemia and thus may have potential clinical value for the treatment of stroke.

  5. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    Starck M

    2016-03-01

    suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the future, parents should be screened for ADHD symptoms if they or their child receive treatment and to adjust processes and design of treatment to the symptoms.Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, adult, parents, frequency, DSM-5, ICD-10

  6. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  7. Synergistic effect of HBMPPT with PSO, DOSO and TBP on the extraction of U(VI) and on the separation of U(VI) and Th(IV)

    Some popular neutral extractants (PSO-petroleum sulfoxide, DOSO-di-n-octyl sulfoxide, TBP-tributylphosphate etc.) were chosen as synergist to study the synergistic effect on the extraction reaction with HBMPPT (4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione) for U(VI), and the synergistic separation ability of HBMPPT for U(VI) and Th(IV). The synergistic extraction ability shown by the studied systems for U(VI) is as follows: PSO > DOSO > TBP, and the same sequence was also verified for the separation coefficient of U(VI) and Th(IV). The synergistic complexes may be presented as: UO2NO3 x BMPPT x S and UO2(BMPPT)2 x S for U(VI) (S is PSO, DOSO or TBP). (author)

  8. Synergistic Effects of Potentilla fruticosa L. Leaves Combined with Green Tea Polyphenols in a Variety of Oxidation Systems.

    Liu, Zehua; Luo, Ziwen; Jia, Caixia; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu

    2016-05-01

    Potentilla fruticosa L. leaves are widely used as tea in China, with many commercial "Jinlaomei" teas available in markets. It has been confirmed to possess significant antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. In this study, the synergistic effects of P. fruticosa leaves extracts (PFE) combined with green tea polyphenols (GTP) were studied to elucidate their use in combination and find specific combinations with least concentrations that enhance the antioxidant activity. Isobolographic analysis indicated that the combination of PFE and GTP demonstrated extensive synergism (22/28 of the tests showed significant synergy) with 3:1 (PFE:GTP) exhibiting the best synergistic effect. Chemical compositions and content of 7 phenolic compounds in PFE, GTP, and their mixtures were evaluated by reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography. While chemical composition did not seem to change after the combination, as no new peaks appeared in the chromatogram, and no existing peaks disappeared. However, the content of (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and , (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) changed. Besides, antioxidant interactions of extracts and compounds were evaluated, EGC with hyperoside exhibited the greatest synergistic effect and the combination of 3:1 exhibited the strongest synergism (DPPH γ = 0.86, ABTS γ = 1.12, FRAP γ = 1.16). Therefore, interaction of phytochemicals may be one reason for the synergistic effects in PFE + GTP, with EGC + hyperoside likely playing an important role. This report provides a theoretical basis for the concomitant use of P. fruticosa blended with GTP, which can be effectively used as a compounded tea, dietary supplements, and substituent of synthetic antioxidant. PMID:27061936

  9. Synergistic Effects of Nitrogen Amendments and Ethylene on Atmospheric Methane Uptake under a Temperate Old-growth Forest

    XU Xingkai; HAN Lin; LUO Xianbao; HAN Shijie

    2011-01-01

    An increase in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can promote soil acidification, which may increase the release of ethylene (C2H4) under forest floors. Unfortunately, knowledge of whether increasing N deposition and C2H4 releases have synergistic effects on soil methane (CH4) uptake is limited and certainly deserves to be examined. We conducted some field measurements and laboratory experiments to examine this issue. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4C1 at a rate of 45 kg N ha-1 yr 1 reduced the soil CH4 uptake under a temperate old-growth forest in northeast China, and there were synergistic effects of N amnendments in the presence of C2H4 concentrations equal to atmospheric CH4 concentration on the soil CH4 uptake, particularly in the NH4Cl-treated plots. Effective concentrations of added C2H4 on the soil CH4 uptake were smaller in NH4+-treated plots than in KNO3-treated plots. The concentration of ca 0.3 μ1 C2H4 L-1 in the headspace gases reduced by 20% soil atmospheric CH4 uptake in the NH4Cl-treated plots, and this concentration was easily produced in temperate forest topsoils under short-term anoxic conditions. Together with short-term stimulating effects of N amendments and soil acidification on C2H4 production from forest soils, our observations suggest that knowledge of synergistic effects of NH4+, rather than NO3-, amendments and C2H4 on the in situ soil CH4 uptake is critical for understanding the role of atmospheric N deposition and cycling of C2H4 under forest floors in reducing global atmospheric CH4 uptake by forests. Synergistic functions of NH4+-N deposition and C2H4 release due to soil acidification in reducing atmospheric CH4 uptake by forests are discussed.

  10. ADHD matures: time for practitioners to do the same?

    Bolea, B; Adamou, M; Arif, M; Asherson, P; Gudjonsson, G; Müller, U; Nutt, D J; Pitts, M; Thome, J; Young, S

    2012-06-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not restricted to children. Abundant evidence from follow-up studies accumulated since the 1970s supports the concept of ADHD in adulthood. Genetic research points to a heritability of 76%, and neuroimaging studies have reported structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with ADHD. Contrary to popular belief, ADHD is not a culturally bound disorder and has been described worldwide. ADHD has a cost for society, as adults with this disorder suffer from increased rates of unemployment and psychiatric comorbidity, including substance use disorders. Studies undertaken in forensic populations describe high rates of ADHD in these groups, particularly amongst young offenders. One of the main issues in the diagnosis of ADHD in the adult is the fact that most clinicians have not been educated to diagnose and treat ADHD. Effective pharmacological treatments for ADHD are available and should be prescribed for these patients. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) guidelines established a benchmark for service development required to treat ADHD adequately in the adult population. However, the implementation of new services has been slow. More resources are needed to effectively assess and treat ADHD in the adult. PMID:21890596

  11. Studies on synergistic toxic effects of copper and dithiocarbamate pesticides with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum (Stokes).

    Bonnemain, H; Dive, D

    1990-06-01

    The toxicity of seven dithiocarbamates and interactions occurring with copper were studied with the ciliate protozoan Colpidium campylum. No product was toxic at 0.1 mg liter-1. Thiram and mancozeb are the most toxic products (lethal at 1 mg liter-1) and ziram and propineb the least toxic. Concerning interactions with copper, no or slight interactions were observed with propineb and mancozeb, although a strong synergistic toxic effect was observed in a previous work with two structurally related products, maneb and zineb. On the contrary, the responses observed with alkyl-related dithiocarbamates (ferbam and ziram) and ethylene bis-related dithiocarbamates (nabam, thiram, and metiram) are in correlation with the results known in the literature. The synergistic toxic effect of copper and dithiocarbamates thus seems to be related mainly to the alkyl- or the ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate structure, but is not constant for molecules associated with metals (propineb, mancozeb, maneb, and zineb). PMID:2114279

  12. The relationship between ADHD and key cognitive phenotypes is not mediated by shared familial effects with IQ

    Wood, A. C.; Rijsdijk, F.; Johnson, K. A.; Andreou, P.; Albrecht, B.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Buitelaar, J. K.; McLoughlin, G.; Rommelse, N. N. J.; Sergeant, J. A.; Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S.; Uebel, H.; van der Meere, J. J.; Banaschewski, T.; Gill, M.; Manor, I.; Miranda, A.; Mulas, F.; Oades, R. D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Steinhausen, H. C.; Faraone, S. V.; Asherson, P.; Kuntsi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Twin and sibling studies have identified specific cognitive phenotypes that may mediate the association between genes and the clinical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is also associated with lower IQ scores. We aimed to investigate whether the familial association between measures of cognitive performance and the clinical diagnosis of ADHD is mediated through shared familial influences with IQ. Method Multivariate familial models were run on data from 1265 individuals aged 6–18 years, comprising 920 participants from ADHD sibling pairs and 345 control participants. Cognitive assessments included a four-choice reaction time (RT) task, a go/no-go task, a choice–delay task and an IQ assessment. The analyses focused on the cognitive variables of mean RT (MRT), RT variability (RTV), commission errors (CE), omission errors (OE) and choice impulsivity (CI). Results Significant familial association (rF) was confirmed between cognitive performance and both ADHD (rF=0.41–0.71) and IQ (rF=−0.25 to −0.49). The association between ADHD and cognitive performance was largely independent (80–87%) of any contribution from etiological factors shared with IQ. The exception was for CI, where 49% of the overlap could be accounted for by the familial variance underlying IQ. Conclusions The aetiological factors underlying lower IQ in ADHD seem to be distinct from those between ADHD and RT/error measures. This suggests that lower IQ does not account for the key cognitive impairments observed in ADHD. The results have implications for molecular genetic studies designed to identify genes involved in ADHD. PMID:20522277

  13. Synergistic effects of heat and irradiation treatment (thermoradiation) in the sterilization of medical products

    This paper describes a generic class of sterilization processes is which properly chosen combinations of radiation and heat synergistically inactivate many bacteria and viruses. Treatments with optimal combinations are shown to offer the possibility of using lower total doses and lower temperatures than would be required separately for sterilization. This results from easier elimination of heat-labile, radioresistant organisms and radiolabile, heat-resistant organisms, and from synergistic inactivation of organisms which are both radioresistant and heat resistant. These processes depend upon temperature, dose-rate, and time in fairly complex ways; therefore, an analytical framework in which they can be defined is also presented. (author)

  14. Potent Synergistic Effect of Doxycycline with Fluconazole against Candida albicans Is Mediated by Interference with Iron Homeostasis

    Fiori, Alessandro; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Doxycycline was found to act synergistically with the antifungal fluconazole against Candida albicans. Combination with doxycycline converts fluconazole from fungistatic to fungicidal, prevents the onset of drug resistance, and is also effective against a clinical isolate characterized by elevated resistance to fluconazole. Investigation of the interactions between the two drugs by way of checkerboard assays indicated that doxycycline had an influence on the MIC for fluconazole, as defined by...

  15. Synergistic Effects of Food Insecurity and Drug Use on Medication Adherence among People Living with HIV Infection

    Chen, Yiyun; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity and drug use are closely connected in the context of poverty, and both have been suggested to interfere with HIV medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). Yet the potential interaction between the two factors on adherence has not been examined. For this study we collected longitudinal data on HIV medication adherence among PLWH in Atlanta, GA, to assess a possible synergistic effect between the two factors on HIV medication adherence. People informed about...

  16. Synergistic anticancer effect of the extracts from Polyalthia evecta caused apoptosis in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells

    Sasipawan Machana; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Sahapat Barusrux; Kanjana Thumanu; Waraporn Tanthanuch

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anticancer activity of the extract fraction of Polyalthia evecta (P. evecta) (Pierre) Finet & Gagnep and the synergistic anticancer effect of the extracts from P. evecta by using the ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy. Methods: The 50% ethanol-water crude leaf extract of P. evecta (EW-L) was prepared and was further fractionated to isolate various fractions. The anticancer activity was investigated from cytotoxicity against HepG2 using a neutral red assay and apoptosis induction by evaluation of nuclei morphological changes after DAPI staining. Synergistic anticancer effects of the extracts from P. evecta were performed using the ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy. Results: The result showed that the EW-L showed higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells than its fractionated extracts. The hexane extract exhibited higher cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction than the water extracts, but less than the EW-L. The combined water and hexane extracts apparently increased cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction. The %apoptotic cells induced by the extract mixture were increased about 2-fold compared to the single hexane extract. Conclusions: The polar extract fraction is necessary for the anticancer activity of the non-polar extract fraction. The ATR/FT-IR spectra illustrates the physical interaction among the constituents in the extract mixture and reveals the presence of polyphenolic constituents in the EW-L, which might play a role for the synergistic anticancer effect.

  17. Novel synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin with bortezomib on hepatocellular carcinoma cells and orthotopic tumor model

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the chemotherapy efficacy against HCC is still unsatisfactory. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been emerged as an important cancer therapeutic target. However, HCC cells often resistant to rapamycin because of the paradoxical activation of Akt by rapamycin. In this study, we investigated whether bortezomib could enhance the antitumor effects of rapamycin. The effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on HCC proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness in vitro were assessed by CCK-8 analysis, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342 staining and transwell assays, respectively. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Akt were detected by Western blotting. The effects of rapamycin and/or bortezomib on the mRNA expression levels of p53, p27, p21 and Bcl-2 family in HCCLM3 cells were evaluated by RT-PCR. The roles of rapamycin and bortezomib on HCC growth and metastasis in xenograft models were evaluated by tumor volumes and fluorescent signals. The effects of rapamycin and bortezomib on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo were test by PCNA and TUNEL staining. Bortezomib synergized with rapamycin to reduce cell growth, induce apoptosis, and inhibit cell mobility in vitro. Further mechanistic studies showed that bortezomib inhibited rapamycin-induced phosphorylated Akt, which in turn enhanced apoptosis of HCC cell lines. The alteration of the mRNA expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53, p27, p21 and apoptosis associated genes Bcl-2, Bax were also involved in the synergistic antitumor effects of rapamycin and bortezomib. P53 inhibitor PFT-α significantly attenuate the effect of rapamycin and bortezomib on cell apoptosis, which indicated that the pro-apoptotic effect of rapamycin and bortezomib may be p53-dependent. Treatment of HCCLM3-R bearing nude mice with rapamycin and bortezomib significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition (72.4%), comparing with either rapamycin- (54.7%) or

  18. A prospective evaluation of synergistic effect of sulbactam and tazobactam combination with meropenem or colistin against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Mohammed Ali M.Marie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the synergistic effect of sulbactam/tazobactam in combination with meropenem or colistin against multidrug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from hospitalized patients from a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. During the study period, 54 multidrug and carbapenem-resistant isolates of A. baumannii isolates were collected from blood and respiratory samples of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or bacteremia. Microbroth checkerboard assay (CBA and E-test were performed to look for synergistic interface of sulbactam and tazobactam with meropenem or colistin. All 54 MDR isolates of A. baumannii were resistant to carbapenem. Minimum inhibitory concentration [50/90] value against sulbactam, tazobactam, meropenem, colistin was found to be 64/128, 64/128, 64/256, and 0.5/1.0 respectively. Synergy was detected in more isolates with CBA compared to E-test. All four combinations showed significant synergistic bactericidal activity. However, the combination with colistin showed greater synergistic effect than combination with meropenem. Antagonism was not detected with any of the combinations and any method, but indifference was seen in tazobactam and colistin combination alone. A significant bactericidal effect was seen with sulbactam combination with meropenem or colistin in both methods. A combination therapy can be a choice of treatment. As colistin is known to exhibit nephrotoxicity, the combination of sulbactam and meropenem might be considered as an alternative antibiotic treatment for such multi- and extremely resistant bacteria. Yet, sample size is small in our study, so further well-designed in vitro and clinical studies on large scale should confirm our findings.

  19. Effectiveness of one-year pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an open-label prospective study of time in treatment, dose, side-effects and comorbidity.

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsøyr, Ole; Haavik, Jan; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    How to generalize from randomized placebo controlled trials of ADHD drug treatment in adults to 'real-world' clinical practice is intriguing. This open-labeled prospective observational study examined the effectiveness of long-term stimulant and non-stimulant medication in adult ADHD including dose, side-effects and comorbidity in a clinical setting. A specialized ADHD outpatient clinic gave previously non-medicated adults (n=250) with ADHD methylphenidate as first-line drug according to current guidelines. Patients who were non-tolerant or experiencing low efficacy were switched to amphetamine or atomoxetine. Primary outcomes were changes of ADHD-symptoms evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and overall severity by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Secondary outcomes were measures of mental distress, and response on the Clinical-Global-Impressions-Improvement Scale. Data at baseline and follow-ups were compared in longitudinal mixed model analyses for time on-medication, dosage, comorbidity, and side-effects. As results, 232 patients (93%) completed examination at the 12 month endpoint, and 163 (70%) remained on medication. Compared with the patients who discontinued medication, those still on medication had greater percentage reduction in ASRS-scores (median 39%, versus 13%, Pside-effects were related to lower effectiveness and more frequent termination of medication. Taken together, one-year treatment with stimulants or atomoxetine was associated with a clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms and mental distress, and improvement of measured function. No serious adverse events were observed. PMID:25453480

  20. COMBINATION OF MORPHINE AND GABAPENTIN LEADS TO SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS IN A RAT MODEL OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie;

    of hindpaw withdrawal thresholds, after subcutaneous administration of morphine (0, 1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (0, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations of the above doses) were obtained using an electronic von Frey device. Surface of synergistic interaction (SSI) analysis was used...

  1. Menin and p53 have non-synergistic effects on tumorigenesis in mice

    While it is now more than a decade since the first description of the gene mutation underlying the tumour predisposition syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), the mechanism by which its protein product menin acts to prevent development of tumours is still poorly understood. We undertook a genetic experiment to assess whether menin synergises with p53. Mice carrying various combinations of Men1 and Trp53 mutations were generated then survival and pathology assessed. While homozygous loss of Trp53 in mice resulted in early onset, aggressive tumours and profoundly reduced lifespan, heterozygous loss of either Trp53 or Men1 caused later onset disease, with a spectrum of tumours characteristic of each tumour suppressor gene. Loss of one copy of Men1 in animals also lacking both alleles of Trp53 did not exacerbate phenotype, based on survival, animal weight or sites of pathology, compared to Trp53 deletion alone. Dual heterozygous deletion of Men1 and Trp53 resulted in a small reduction in lifespan compared to the individual mutations, without new tumour sites. In the adrenal, we observed development of cortical tumours in dual heterozygous animals, as we have previously seen in Men1+/− animals, and there was loss of heterozygosity at the Men1 allele in these tumours. Median number of pathology observations per animal was increased in dual heterozygous animals compared with heterozygous loss of Trp53 alone. Simultaneous heterozygous deletion of Men1 in animals with either heterozygous or homozygous deletion of Trp53 did not result in formation of tumours at any new sites, implying additive rather than synergistic effects of these pathways. Mice that were Men1+/− in addition to Trp53+/− had tumours in endocrine as well as other sites, implying that increase in total tumour burden, at sites typically associated with either Men1 or Trp53 loss, contributed to the slight decrease in survival in Men1+/−: Trp53+/− animals in comparison with their

  2. Adolescent atomoxetine treatment in a rodent model of ADHD: effects on cocaine self-administration and dopamine transporters in frontostriatal regions.

    Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Jordan, Chloe J; Kantak, Kathleen M; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine abuse and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid. Preclinical research indicates that medial prefrontal (mPFC) and orbitofrontal (OFC) cortices are important neural substrates for both disorders. Using the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD, we reported that adolescent treatment with the stimulant methylphenidate, a dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporter inhibitor, enhanced cocaine self-administration during adulthood, and was associated with increased DAT function in mPFC. This study investigates the effects of atomoxetine ((R)-N-methyl-γ-(2-methylphenoxy)-benzenepropanamine hydrochloride) treatment, a selective NET inhibitor, during adolescence on cocaine self-administration and on DAT function and cell-surface expression in mPFC and OFC during adulthood. SHR acquired cocaine self-administration faster than Wistar-Kyoto and Wistar. Across cocaine doses, SHR earned more cocaine infusions and had higher progressive-ratio breakpoints than Wistar-Kyoto and Wistar, demonstrating that the SHR phenotype models comorbid ADHD and cocaine abuse. Prior atomoxetine treatment did not augment cocaine self-administration in SHR, but acquisition was enhanced in Wistar-Kyoto. No strain differences were found for DAT kinetic parameters or cellular localization in the vehicle controls. Atomoxetine did not alter DAT kinetic parameters or localization in SHR mPFC. Rather, atomoxetine decreased V(max) and DAT cell surface expression in SHR OFC, indicating that inhibition of NET by atomoxetine treatment during adolescence indirectly reduced DAT function and trafficking to the cell surface in OFC, specifically in the ADHD model. Thus, atomoxetine, unlike methylphenidate, does not enhance vulnerability to cocaine abuse in SHR and may represent an important alternative for teens with ADHD when drug addiction is a concern. PMID:23822950

  3. Synergistic Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Growth Inhibition of Carcinoma (KB) Cells under Oxidative Stress

    Medicinal plants with synergistic effects on growth inhibition of cancer cells under oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 51 natural medicinal plants, which were reported to have anticancer effect on hepatoma, stomach cancer or colon cancers which are frequently found in Korean, were prepared and screened for their synergistic activity on growth inhibition of cancer cells under chemically-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Twenty seven samples showed synergistic activity on the growth inhibition in various extent under chemically-induced oxidative stress. Among those samples, eleven samples, such as Melia azedarach, Agastache rugosa, Catalpa ovata, Prunus persica, Sinomenium acutum, Pulsatilla koreana, Oldenlandia diffiusa, Anthriscus sylvestris, Schizandra chinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, Cridium officinale, showed decrease in IC50 values more than 50%, other 16 samples showed decrease in IC50 values between 50-25%, compared with the value acquired when medicinal plant sample was used alone. Among those 11 samples, extract of Catalpa ovata showed the highest activity. IC50 values were decrease to 61% and 28% when carcinoma cells were treated with Catalpa ovata extract in combination of 75 and 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide, respectively

  4. The synergistic effects of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil herbicides on weed population in rice agroecosystem

    Four treatments with the herbicides 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil were carried out in two consecutive rice planting seasons, to study the synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil on rice weed populations at Pasir Panjang, the Northwest Selangor Project (PBLS), Projek Barat Laut Selangor) rice granary area. The treatments were control, 1x recommended rate (single dose), 2x recommended rate (double dose) of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and farmer practice. In all plots, propanil herbicide was applied at similar rate. Among the ecological indices measured were Simpson Index of diversity and importance (I.V.). A total number of 19 weed species was identified and the most common important weed was Najas graminae Del. The second most commonly found important weed was Scirpus lateriflorus Gmel. Other important weeds frequently found were Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. In the rice agroecosystem, species diversity of weeds was affected but total weed biomass was not affected synergistically by the mixture of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil. The negative synergistic effect of 2,4-D dimethyl amine and propanil was to increase the total biomass of Scirpus lateriflorus, at 2x recommended dose rate of 2,4-D dimethyl amine. (Author)

  5. A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication.

    Arcos-Burgos, M; Jain, M; Acosta, M T; Shively, S; Stanescu, H; Wallis, D; Domené, S; Vélez, J I; Karkera, J D; Balog, J; Berg, K; Kleta, R; Gahl, W A; Roessler, E; Long, R; Lie, J; Pineda, D; Londoño, A C; Palacio, J D; Arbelaez, A; Lopera, F; Elia, J; Hakonarson, H; Johansson, S; Knappskog, P M; Haavik, J; Ribases, M; Cormand, B; Bayes, M; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Hervas, A; Maher, B S; Faraone, S V; Seitz, C; Freitag, C M; Palmason, H; Meyer, J; Romanos, M; Walitza, S; Hemminger, U; Warnke, A; Romanos, J; Renner, T; Jacob, C; Lesch, K-P; Swanson, J; Vortmeyer, A; Bailey-Wilson, J E; Castellanos, F X; Muenke, M

    2010-11-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a very high heritability (0.8), suggesting that about 80% of phenotypic variance is due to genetic factors. We used the integration of statistical and functional approaches to discover a novel gene that contributes to ADHD. For our statistical approach, we started with a linkage study based on large multigenerational families in a population isolate, followed by fine mapping of targeted regions using a family-based design. Family- and population-based association studies in five samples from disparate regions of the world were used for replication. Brain imaging studies were performed to evaluate gene function. The linkage study discovered a genome region harbored in the Latrophilin 3 gene (LPHN3). In the world-wide samples (total n=6360, with 2627 ADHD cases and 2531 controls) statistical association of LPHN3 and ADHD was confirmed. Functional studies revealed that LPHN3 variants are expressed in key brain regions related to attention and activity, affect metabolism in neural circuits implicated in ADHD, and are associated with response to stimulant medication. Linkage and replicated association of ADHD with a novel non-candidate gene (LPHN3) provide new insights into the genetics, neurobiology, and treatment of ADHD. PMID:20157310

  6. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  7. Effective and selective nitrate electroreduction into nitrogen through synergistic parameter interactions

    Highlights: ► Nitrate electroreduction was optimized through factorial designs of experiments. ► Stainless steel electrodes exhibited stability below 6.0 V electric potential. ► The electrode distance and voltage showed strong individual effects and interactions. ► Nitrates were removed at 60–95% with an energy consumption of 0.1–10 × 10−3 kWh/g-N. ► High conversion with low energy required an optimization of parameter interactions. - Abstract: Effective and selective nitrate electroreduction with low energy consumption was achieved at room temperature through synergistic interactions of the distance between the electrodes (D), voltage applied (U), initial pH and reaction time. Almost 90–95% of nitrates were converted with energy consumption exceeding 8 × 10−3 kWh/g-N for D = 3–5 mm and U = 4.0–4.5 V, when using 70 cm2 stainless steel electrodes in a batch reactor containing 150–400 mL of aqueous KNO3 (100–1000 mg-N/L). Further investigations through 34 factorial experiment designs demonstrated that only D and U displayed strong individual effects, but all parameters exhibited appreciable interactions. The effectiveness and selectivity of the nitrate conversion into nitrogen were discussed in terms of changes in the reaction scheme. Energy consumption of up to 0.87 × 10−3 kWh/g-N with conversion yields of 55–60% were noticed at pHs of 6–7 after 120 min. Lower energy consumption of 0.1 × 10−3 kWh/gN resulted in nitrate conversion yields of almost 43% after only 40–80 min. No nitrite or ammonia appeared to form at 5.3 V for D = 7.2 mm and neutral pH. Parameters simulation allowed to predict the nitrate conversion yield in correlation with the process selectivity according to the energy constraint, and conversely. This opens promising prospects for low-cost nitrate removal without generating nitrite nor ammonia.

  8. Synergistic effects of leucine and resveratrol on insulin sensitivity and fat metabolism in adipocytes and mice

    Bruckbauer Antje

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirtuins are important regulators of glucose and fat metabolism, and sirtuin activation has been proposed as a therapeutic target for insulin resistance and diabetes. We have shown leucine to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation via Sirt1 dependent pathways. Resveratrol is a widely recognized activator of Sirt; however, the biologically-effective high concentrations used in cell and animal studies are generally impractical or difficult to achieve in humans. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether leucine would exhibit synergy with low levels of resveratrol on sirtuin-dependent outcomes in adipocytes and in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Methods 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes were treated with Leucine (0.5 mM, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB (5 μM or Resveratrol (200 nM alone or in combination. In addition, diet-induced obese mice were treated for 6-weeks with low (2 g/kg diet or high (10 g/kg diet dose HMB, Leucine (24 g/kg diet; 200% of normal level or low (12.5 mg/kg diet or high (225 mg/kg diet dose resveratrol, alone or as combination with leucine-resveratrol or HMB-resveratrol. Results Fatty acid oxidation, AMPK, Sirt1 and Sirt3 activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in muscle cells, were significantly increased by the combinations compared to the individual treatments. Similarly, 6-week feeding of low-dose resveratrol combined with either leucine or its metabolite HMB to DIO mice increased adipose Sirt1 activity, muscle glucose and palmitate uptake (measured via PET/CT, insulin sensitivity (HOMAIR, improved inflammatory stress biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, MCP-1, adiponectin and reduced adiposity comparable to the effects of high dose resveratrol, while low-dose resveratrol exerted no independent effect. Conclusion These data demonstrate that either leucine or its metabolite HMB may be combined with a low concentration of resveratrol to exert synergistic effects on Sirt1-dependent outcomes; this may result in more

  9. Synergistic Effects of Citalopram and Morphine in the Renal Colic Pain Relief; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Mehrdad Esmailian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the synergistic effects of opioids and other analgesic drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been established in relieving acute pain due to renal calculi, no studies today have evaluated the concomitant administration of opiates and other drugs with analgesic effects, such as serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. Considering the high prevalence of renal colic, the present study was carried out to compare the effect of concomitant prescription of morphine and a placebo with that of morphine and citalopram on the management of acute pain due to renal calculi. Methods: The present double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out from October 2012 to March 2013 in the Al-Zahra educational Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 90 patients with acute renal colic pain were randomly divided into two groups of 45 subjects. The subjects in one group received morphine/ placebo and another one morphine/citalopram. The patients’ pain severity was determined by visual analogue scale (VAS before and 20 minutes after administration of medications. In case of persistent pain the second or even third dose was administered and the pain severity was once again determined. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 using chi-squared, two-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test, and log rank test. Results: The decrease in pain severity in the morphine/citalopram group was significantly compared to the morphine/placebo group and the time before administration of the medications (p<0.001. In contrast, administration of morphine/placebo did not have a significant effect on pain severity at this interval (p=0.32. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the first injection was successful in relieving pain in 15 (33.3% and 26 (57.8% subjects in the morphine/placebo and morphine/citalopram groups, respectively. The second injection of these medications resulted in therapeutic success in 35 (87.8% and 42 (95.6% subjects in the above groups

  10. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Stimulant Therapy (Ritalin) Neurofeedback, and Parental Management Training and Interaction of the Three Approaches on Improving ADHD and Quality of Mother -Child Communication

    Sh. Basteh Hoseini; H.R. Nikkhah; M. Jadidi; M.M. Shamsaee; K. Khoushabi; Gh. Malek Khosravi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: This research was designed to investigate and compare the effective-ness of stimulant therapy (Ritalin), neurofeedback, parental management training and interac-tion of the treatments on the improvement of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and quality of mother-child communication. Materials & Methods: This is a pseudo-experimental research with pretest-posttest de-sign including ADHD children living in Tehran; 40 subjects were randomly selected from c...

  11. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  12. Synergistic effect of propolis and antibiotics on the Salmonella Typhi Efeito sinérgico da própolis e antibióticos sobre Salmonella Typhi

    Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi; José Maurício Sforcin; Silvia Regina Cunha Funari; Ary Fernandes Junior; Vassya Bankova

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work was to investigate a possible synergistic effect between ethanolic extracts of propolis from Brazil and Bulgaria and some antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Cefalexin) against Salmonella Typhi. Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis showed an antibacterial action, but the sample from Bulgaria was shown to be more efficient. Both samples showed a similar synergistic effect with these antibiotics. One may conclude that the propolis samples show an important antibacterial a...

  13. Synergistic effect of total-lymphoid irradiation with extracted donor alloantigen in inducing transplantation unresponsiveness

    The synergistic effect of total lymphoid irradiation with KCl-extracted donor type antigen (H-Ag) was examined in the rat cardiac graft model. TLI therapy alone of 10, 16, and 20 Gy achieved by a 2 Gy daily treatment of WFu recipients produced modest prolongation of BUF heart survival to median survival times (MST) of 11, 26, and 30 days, respectively, in comparison with normal control (MST = 6). The TLI immunosuppressive effect was significantly potentiated with donor H-Ag when combined with 16 (greater than 100 days) but not with 10 or 20 Gy TLI therapy. This effect was specific: 16 Gy TLI treated recipients of BUF hearts rejected their grafts in a MST of 27 days when treated with third-party BN H-Ag. The state of unresponsiveness was transferable to 6 Gy total-body-irradiated WFu recipients of BUF hearts with 60 x 10(6) purified T cells isolated from TLI/H-Ag-treated rats (greater than 100) but not from normal controls (MST = 6). In vitro analysis of nontransplanted WFu rats 1-4 weeks after completion of 16 Gy TLI therapy alone demonstrated a nonspecifically reduced MLR proliferative response as well as the presence of potent nonspecific suppressor cells (NSC). By 3 or even 6 months post-TLI, W3/25- NSC displayed persistent suppressive activity and inhibited normal proliferative response to alloantigens. Limiting dilution assay revealed that the frequency of T cytotoxic cells (fTc) was severely decreased to 1:63111 at one day and to 1:16488 at one week postirradiation in comparison with normal control (1:2551). At 3 and 6 months the fTc of 1:2301 and 1:2040, respectively, approximated normal levels. These combined in vivo and in vitro results demonstrate that 16 Gy TLI therapy induces an unresponsiveness mediated by NSC and that the administration of donor type H-Ag facilitates the generation of potent regulatory T cells capable of inducing prolonged heart allograft survival

  14. Synergistic Effect of Schwann Cells and Retinoic Acid on Differentiation and Synaptogenesis of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells in vitro

    XUE-BAO ZHANG; YUAN-SHAN ZENG; WEI ZHANG; YA-YUN CHEN; WEI ZHANG; YI XIONG; SUI-JUN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergistic effect of Schwann cells (YCs) and retinoic acid (RA) on differentiation and synaptogenesis of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hippocampus of neonatal rats. Methods The classical method for 2×2 factorial analysis experiment was used to assess synergistic action of SCs and RA. NSCs were treated with RA, SCs,and SCs + RA in DMEM/F12 with 0.5% fetal bovine serum for six days, respectively. Double immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the differentiation of NSCs including nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Map2. The expression of PSD95 was used to demonstrate synaptogenesis. Results After NSCs were treated with RA or SCs, the expression of nestin and GFAP was significantly decreased while the expression of Map2 and PSD95 was significantly increased in comparison with the control. Factorial ANOVA showed that interactions between SCs and RA could induce the expression of Map2 and PSD95. Conclusion SCs and RA could promote synergistically the neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis of hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro while they decreased the astrocytes and nestin positive NSCs.

  15. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MANAGEMENT OF ADHD

    S ARMAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDis the most common psychiatric disorder among school age children. It consists of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsive behavior. The onset of the disorder is before the age of 7 years and it happens at least in two situations. It causes significant impairment in social and academic functioning. A determination of factors that influences the therapeutic response in ADHD is the aim of this study. Methods: This study is designed as an analytic descriptive on hyperactive children. The tools that were used was the interview with parents and it provided CSI-4 checklist. Results: Methylphenidate was completely effective in ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder and was effective in majority sign of conduct disorder. There wasn't any relation between therapeutic response and demographic characteristics. Discussion: Methylphenidate is effective not only in ADHD but also in mixed ADHD and disruptive behavior.

  17. Effect of Training Focused on Executive Functions (attention, inhibition and working memory in Preschoolers exhibiting ADHD symptoms

    Anna Maria Re

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of early intervention strategies for children with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is important because it provides an opportunity to prevent severe problems in the future. The main purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a group training for the control of attention, working memory and impulsive behaviors, involving five-year-old children with ADHD symptoms. Twenty-six children with ADHD symptoms and 26 with typical development were randomly divided in two conditions. 13 children in each group were assigned to the training condition and the other to the business as usual condition (normal class activity. Children who participated in the intervention showed an improvement in the tasks measuring their control of attention, impulsive behavior and working memory. Moreover, children with typical development who attended the training also improved their competencies. The results confirm the importance of an early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD symptoms.

  18. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  19. Synergistic effect of human leukocyte interferon and nonoxynol 9 against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Rapp, F; Wrzos, H

    1985-01-01

    The nonionic surfactant nonoxynol 9 (NP9), in combination with human alpha interferon, synergistically reduced the titer of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. The degree of synergy was highest at an interferon concentration of 10(3) IU/ml and an NP9 dilution of 1:1,500. We postulate that NP9 inactivates extracellular HSV-2, whereas interferon inhibits HSV-2 replication at the intracellular level.

  20. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% femal...

  1. Commentary: Are alpha-2 agonist really effective in children with tics with comorbid ADHD? A commentary on Whittington et al. (2016).

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-09-01

    In this issue, Whittington et al. (2016) present a systematic review that reports the efficacy of three primary treatments for children with Tourette syndrome (TS) - (a) α2-adrenergic receptor agonists; (b) antipsychotic medications; and (c) habit reversal training/comprehensive behavioral intervention. In this commentary, we highlight the large degree of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analysis of trials involving alpha-2 agonist medications and present possible explanations for the observed heterogeneity. Among these possible explanations is the possibility that presence of comorbid ADHD may moderate the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists in the treatment of tic disorder with the medications being more effective in patients with both conditions. The commentary reviews the evidence supporting this possible moderating effect of ADHD and discusses the implications for such a relationship. PMID:27535650

  2. Synergistic Effects of Electron-beam Irradiation and Leek Extract on the Quality of Pork Jerky during Ambient Storage

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Mingu; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the synergistic effect(s) of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler) extract on the quality of pork jerky during ambient storage, we irradiated prepared pork jerky samples (control and samples with 0.5% and 1.0% leek extract) with EB technology at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy, stored them for 2 months at 25°C, and analyzed them. Water activity was 0.73 to 0.77 in non-irradiated samples, and no significant difference in the water activity was observed b...

  3. Synergistic effects of drought and fire on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and woodlands

    Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross

    2014-05-01

    More than half of the global forest carbon stock is held in tropical forests. A relatively large proportion of the tropical forest carbon is stored in plant biomass rather than in the soil, making these stocks particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as droughts, fires and cyclones. The frequencies, duration and intensities of such disturbances may change under future climates with poorly resolved but potentially significant (synergistic) effects on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and thereby on global geochemical cycles. In this study we analyse high-resolution global data sets for tropical forest biomass (Saatchi et al., 2011. PNAS) and fire affected areas (GFED4, Giglio et al.,2013. JGR 118), together with climate data (WorldClim, Hijmans et al., 2005. Int. J. Clim. 25), to quantify the sensitivity of tropical forest carbon stocks in South America, Africa and Asia/Australia to seasonal water deficits and fire. Here, the climatic water deficit (D), calculated as the difference between mean annual potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration, is used as a measure of seasonal water stress (i.e., evaporative demand not met by available water), while the mean annual burned area fraction (1995-2013) of grid cells is used as a measure of average fire activity. Tropical forest carbon stocks are maximal, as expected, where water deficits are negligible. In those densely forested environments fire tends to be extremely rare as fuels are too wet to burn for most of the time. In all three continents, potential tropical forest carbon stocks are well predicted by a non-linear decreasing function of the mean annual climatic water deficit, with a steep drop in carbon stocks at D of 700-800 mm per year. At this threshold in the climatic water deficit we observe a strong increase in fire activity that is indicative of a critical change in vegetation structure (i.e., tree/grass ratio) and associated shift in the dominant climatic constraint on

  4. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer.

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Protein systems (PS) are routinely used by companies from Brazil and around the globe to improve the texture, yield, and palatability of processed foods. Understanding the synergistic behavior among the different protein structures of these systems during thermal treatment under the influence of pH can help to better define optimum conditions for products and processes. The interpretation of the reactions and interactions that occur simultaneously among the protein constituents of these systems as dispersions during thermal processing is still a major challenge. Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate under different conditions of pH (5.0, 6.5, and 7.0) and heat processing (85°C/15min and 95°C/5min). The solutions were standardized to 25% of total solids and 17% of protein. Ten analytical parameters were used to characterize each of the startup-viscosity ramps for 35 experiments conducted in a 2×3 × 5 mixed planning matrix, using principal component analysis to interpret behavioral similarities. The study showed the clear influence of pH 5.5 in the elevation of the initial temperature of the PS startup viscosity by at least 5°C, as well as the effect of different milk protein concentrate:whey protein concentrate ratios above 15:85 at pH 7.0 on the viscographic profile curves. These results suggested that the primary agent driving the changes was the synergism among the reactions and interactions of casein with whey proteins during processing. This study reinforces the importance of the rapid viscosity analyzer as an analytical tool for the simulation of industrial processes involving PS, and the use of the startup viscosity ramp as a means of interpreting the interactions of system components with respect to changes related to the treatment temperature. PMID:26409966

  5. Synergistic effect of exercise and statins on femoral strength in rats.

    Starnes, Joseph W; Neidre, Daria B; Nyman, Jeffry S; Roy, Anuradha; Nelson, Matthew J; Gutierrez, Gloria; Wang, Xiaodu

    2013-08-01

    It is now widely recognized that in order to optimize bone health in the later years, bone healthy behaviors should begin at a young age and continue throughout life. Prescribed orally to lower lipid levels in adults of all ages, statins have also been shown to stimulate bone formation in vitro by promoting bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) activity and to stimulate bone formation in vivo. Weight bearing exercise is well known to stimulate bone formation through a mechanism whereby mechanical loading is 'sensed' by the mechano-sensors leading to a cascade of events involving the activation of osteoblasts. For individuals with high cholesterol levels, both of these interventions are recommended throughout adult life. Since statins and exercise stimulate bone formation via different mechanisms, we hypothesized that exercise in combination with oral simvastatin synergistically increases bone mineral density and strength. Mature adult female, Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control (n=9), statin only (n=8), exercise only (n=11), and statin plus exercise (n=11). Simvastatin was given to the two groups at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day in standard rat chow for the entire 5 week period. All rats ate the same mass of food. The two exercise groups ran on a treadmill with progressively greater speeds and time, ending on week 5 at 30 m/min for 60 min. After 5 weeks, rats were euthanized, and excised femurs were scanned for areal bone mineral density (BMD) and tested by three point bending to obtain the following performance measures: maximum force (strength), stiffness, and work-to-fracture. Only the group treated with statins and exercise showed a positive effect on the biomechanical performance of the femurs. Compared to controls, this group had increased maximum force, stiffness, moment of inertia, and BMD. Linear regression analysis revealed that the increased performance was related to increased BMD. We conclude that the combination of oral statins and

  6. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Parents Behavioral Training and Medication with Ritalin on the Rate of the Signs of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Mina Shahrbanian; Sirous Salehi; Ahadallah Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present research is to determine the effectiveness of parents’ behavioral training in compare to medication on the rate of the signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials & Methods: Our population in this research was all boys in the elementary school (third, fourth and fifth grades) and finally a sample of 630 subjects were included. We used a questionnaire of children’s morbid signs (CSI-4) which was completed by parents. For determinatio...

  7. In vivo synergistic cytogenetic effects of aminophylline on lymphocyte cultures from patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Mylonaki, Effie; Manika, Katerina [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Zarogoulidis, Paul, E-mail: pzarog@hotmail.com [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Domvri, Kalliopi; Voutsas, Vasilis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas [Pulmonary Department, “G.Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Mourelatos, Dionysios [Biology and Genetics, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► SCEs in vivo, a possible predictor of tumor chemoresponse. ► In vivo exposure to combined treatment, applying the SCE assay. ► Aminophylline enhances DNA instability induced by chemotherapy in vivo. ► In vivo synergistic effect of Aminophylline with the chemotherapeutic agents. - Abstract: Background: The anti-cancer and cytogenetic effects of aminophylline (AM) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo cytogenetic effects of AM in newly diagnosed patients with small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), receiving chemotherapy for the first time. Methods: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from six patients with SCLC and six patients with NSCLC after the in vitro addition of AM and after the in vivo administration of AM in patients receiving chemotherapy. Results: The in vitro addition of AM significantly increased SCEs only in SCLC patients (p < 0.001). The in vivo administration of AM after chemotherapy increased SCEs in both cancer types (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.003) and this increase was synergistic, the rates of SCEs in the presence of AM were higher than the expected SCE values if the increases above background for chemotherapy and AM were independent and additive (SCLC: p < 0.001, NSCLC: p = 0.008). Although in both groups of patients cell division delays were observed after the combined chemotherapy plus in vivo AM treatment, the correlation between the magnitude of the SCE response and the PRI depression was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These observations suggest that AM enhances the results of concurrently administered chemotherapy by synergistically increasing its cytogenetic effects in patients with lung cancer.

  8. An effective solution to discover synergistic drugs for anti-cerebral ischemia from traditional Chinese medicinal formulae.

    Shaojing Li

    Full Text Available Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted to pursuing combination therapies that comprise more than one active ingredient. Interestingly, combination therapies have been used for more than 2500 years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Understanding optimal proportions and synergistic mechanisms of multi-component drugs are critical for developing novel strategies to combat complex diseases. A new multi-objective optimization algorithm based on least angle regression-partial least squares was proposed to construct the predictive model to evaluate the synergistic effect of the three components of a novel combination drug Yi-qi-jie-du formula (YJ, which came from clinical TCM prescription for the treatment of encephalopathy. Optimal proportion of the three components, ginsenosides (G, berberine (B and jasminoidin (J was determined via particle swarm optimum. Furthermore, the combination mechanisms were interpreted using PLS VIP and principal components analysis. The results showed that YJ had optimal proportion 3(G: 2(B: 0.5(J, and it yielded synergy in the treatment of rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia. YJ with optimal proportion had good pharmacological effects on acute ischemic stroke. The mechanisms study demonstrated that the combination of G, B and J could exhibit the strongest synergistic effect. J might play an indispensable role in the formula, especially when combined with B for the acute stage of stroke. All these data in this study suggested that in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, besides restoring blood supply and protecting easily damaged cells in the area of the ischemic penumbra as early as possible, we should pay more attention to the removal of the toxic metabolites at the same time. Mathematical system modeling may be an essential tool for the analysis of the complex pharmacological effects of multi-component drug. The powerful mathematical analysis method could

  9. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of ...

  10. Synergistic effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on lipid and pro-inflammatory profiles in pre-diabetic subjects

    Kater Ana-Lucia A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ezetimibe specifically blocks the absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol and plant sterols. Synergism of ezetimibe-statin therapy on LDL-cholesterol has been demonstrated, but data concerning the pleiotropic effects of this combination are controversial. Objective This open-label trial evaluated whether the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe also results in a synergistic effect that reduces the pro-inflammatory status of pre-diabetic subjects. Methods Fifty pre-diabetic subjects were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups, one receiving ezetimibe (10 mg/day, the other, simvastatin (20 mg/d for 12 weeks, followed by an additional 12-week period of combined therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels decreased in all the periods analyzed (p Conclusion Expected synergistic lowering effects of a simvastatin and ezetimibe combination on LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides levels were confirmed in subjects with early disturbances of glucose metabolism. We suggest an additive effect of this combination also on inflammatory status based on the reduction of C-reactive protein. Attenuation of pro-inflammatory conditions may be relevant in reducing cardiometabolic risk. Title/ID of trial registration Effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on lipid and inflammation/NCT01103648.

  11. Drug synergistic antifertility effect of combined administration of low-dose gossypol with steroid hormones in rats

    CHANG Qing; LIU Zhe; MA Wen-zhi; HEI Chang-chun; SHEN Xin-sheng; QIAN Xiao-jing; XU Zeng-lu

    2011-01-01

    Background Our previous studies suggested that low-dose gossypol combined with steroid hormones has a reversible antifertility role in adult male rats, and the course of treatment was shorter than that of either gossypol or steroid hormones alone. This result suggested that low-dose gossypol and steroid hormones have a drug synergistic effect on antifertility. The aim of the study was to find the target organs of the antifertility synergistic effect of the combined regimen.Methods Thirty-two adult male rats were divided into four groups randomly: group GH, rats were fed orally with group H, the same dosage of DSG/EE/TU as in group GH were administered; group C, rats were treated with vehicle (1% methyl cellulose) as control. Testes and epididymis were removed at 8 weeks post-treatment for evaluating their weight,volumes, volume fraction, and total volume of testicular tissue structures and the seminiferous tubule diameter using stereological assay. Sperm cell numbers and the motility of epididymal sperm were quantitated by flow cytometry and morphological methods.Results Compared with group C, spermatogenesis was normal in group G and suppressed in groups H and GH.Similar changes of testicular tissue structures and sperm number were found in groups H and GH. The decreases of epididymal sperm number and motility in group GH were greater than that of the low-dose gossypol or steroid hormones alone group.Conclusions The suppression of spermatogenesis was induced by steroid hormones in the combined regimen, and the epididymis was the target organ of low-dose gossypol. Combined use of low-dose gossypol and steroid hormones played a comprehensive antifertility role in their synergistic effect on reducing the number and motility of epididymal sperm.

  12. Nitrogen and Sulfur Dual-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide: Synergistic Effect of Dopants Towards Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Highlights: • Non-hydrothermal single-step dual doping of reduced graphene oxide with N and S. • Simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide and dual doping using single doping agent. • Synergistic effect of N and S in oxygen reduction reaction. • Highly active, durable and methanol tolerant. - Abstract: We describe a facile single-step non-hydrothermal chemical route for the synthesis of N and S dual-doped reduced graphene oxide (SN-rGO) and the synergistic effect of N and S in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and dual doping of rGO are achieved in one-step with a single doping agent in ethylene glycol. SN-rGO has pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen and thiophenic sulphur and it has N/C and S/C atomic ratio of 0.12 and 0.08, respectively. The atomic percentage of pyridinic N (66%) is significantly higher than pyrrolic N (34%). The electrocatalytic performance of SN-rGO towards ORR is examined in terms of onset potential, kinetic current density, number of electrons transferred, durability and methanol tolerance in alkaline solution. SN-rGO shows excellent electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of −15 mV (Hg/HgO) and it tends promotes the four electron pathway. The activity of SN-rGO is superior to that of rGO doped only with N and S (N-rGO and S-rGO) and undoped rGO. The comparison of the ORR activity of SN-rGO with N-rGO and S-rGO indicates the synergistic effect of heteroatoms of SN-rGO in the electrocatalytic reaction. SN-rGO is highly durable and completely silent towards the anode fuel methanol

  13. Treatment of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Irritability: Results From the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA)

    Fernandez de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J.; Jeffrey M. Halperin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whe...

  14. Bimetallic nanoalloys in heterogeneous catalysis of industrially important reactions: synergistic effects and structural organization of active components

    The review is concerned with correlations between the synergistic effects and structural organization of the surface of bimetallic alloys that are used as active components of catalysts for selective hydrogenation of organic compounds and for CO oxidation in hydrogen-rich mixtures. Studies on the preparation of novel highly efficient catalysts using modern theoretical approaches, computer-assisted molecular design and original synthetic procedures are considered. It is shown that introduction of the second metal into the monometallic catalyst and subsequent formation of alloy particles with modified structure of the surface and near-surface layers leads to nonadditive enhancement of catalytic activity and/or selectivity. The bibliography includes 203 references

  15. Characterization of synergistic anti-cancer effects of docosahexaenoic acid and curcumin on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice

    The major obstacles to the successful use of individual nutritional compounds as preventive or therapeutic agents are their efficacy and bioavailability. One approach to overcoming this problem is to use combinations of nutrients to induce synergistic effects. The objective of this research was to investigate the synergistic effects of two dietary components: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid present in cold-water fish, and curcumin (CCM), an herbal nutrient present in turmeric, in an in vivo model of DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice. We used the carcinogen DMBA to induce breast tumors in SENCAR mice on control, CCM, DHA, or DHA + CCM diets. Appearance and tumor progression were monitored daily. The tumors were harvested 15 days following their first appearance for morphological and immunohistological analysis. Western analysis was performed to determine expression of maspin and survivin in the tumor tissues. Characterization of tumor growth was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Otherwise all other results are reported as mean ± SD and analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc procedure. Analysis of gene microarray data indicates that combined treatment with DHA + CCM altered the profile of “PAM50” genes in the SK-BR-3 cell line from an ER-/Her-2+ to that resembling a “normal-like” phenotype. The in vivo studies demonstrated that DHA + CCM treatment reduced the incidence of breast tumors, delayed tumor initiation, and reduced progression of tumor growth. Dietary treatment had no effect on breast size development, but tumors from mice on a control diet (untreated) were less differentiated than tumors from mice fed CCM or DHA + CCM diets. The synergistic effects also led to increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, maspin, but reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin. The SK-BR-3 cells and DMBA-induced tumors, both with an ER- and Her-2+ phenotype, were affected by the synergistic

  16. Synergistic Effect of Chemical and Thermical Treatment on the Structure and Sorption Properties of Natural and Chemically Modified Slovak Zeolite

    Štefan Svetík

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The calcinated natural and chemically modified zeolite from the deposit Nižný Hrabovec (Slovak Republic was studied. The changes of zeolite structure due to synergistic effect of temperature and chemical treat-ment were studied by DTA. The static radioindicatore method was used for studying the sorption of zeolite through the uptake of Cs and Co cations from model solutions. The results showed that the uptake of Cs and Co cations strongly depends on the modification of zeolite and on the higher temperature of calcination.

  17. In vivo synergistic cytogenetic effects of aminophylline on lymphocyte cultures from patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    Highlights: ► SCEs in vivo, a possible predictor of tumor chemoresponse. ► In vivo exposure to combined treatment, applying the SCE assay. ► Aminophylline enhances DNA instability induced by chemotherapy in vivo. ► In vivo synergistic effect of Aminophylline with the chemotherapeutic agents. - Abstract: Background: The anti-cancer and cytogenetic effects of aminophylline (AM) have been demonstrated in several clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo cytogenetic effects of AM in newly diagnosed patients with small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), receiving chemotherapy for the first time. Methods: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and proliferation rate index (PRI) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from six patients with SCLC and six patients with NSCLC after the in vitro addition of AM and after the in vivo administration of AM in patients receiving chemotherapy. Results: The in vitro addition of AM significantly increased SCEs only in SCLC patients (p 0.05). Conclusions: These observations suggest that AM enhances the results of concurrently administered chemotherapy by synergistically increasing its cytogenetic effects in patients with lung cancer

  18. Synergistic effects of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen on methane uptake in forest soils without and with freezing treatment.

    Wu, Haohao; Xu, Xingkai; Duan, Cuntao; Li, Tuansheng; Cheng, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about how the interaction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic nitrogen (N) released into the soil just after freezing can affect methane (CH4) uptake in forest soils. Here, we present how freezing treatment and glucose, as a DOC source, can affect the roles of NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N in inhibiting soil CH4 uptake, by using soil-core incubation experiments. A long-term freezing at low temperature reduced cumulative CH4 uptake in the soils sampled from two temperate forest stands without carbon (C) and N addition. The inhibition effects of N addition as NH4Cl and KNO3 on the soil CH4 uptake were much larger than C addition. Freezing treatment eliminated the inhibition effect of NH4Cl and KNO3 addition on CH4 uptake, and this response was affected by glucose addition and forest types. The addition of glucose eliminated the inhibition effect of NO3(-)-N on CH4 uptake in the forest soils without and with freezing treatment, while the addition of NH4(+)-N and glucose inhibited synergistically the soil CH4 uptake. The results highlight the importance of synergistic effects of DOC and N inputs on the soil CH4 uptake under forest stands during soil wetting and thawing periods. PMID:27572826

  19. Determination of Antibiotic Resistance and Synergistic Effect of Multiple Antibiotics on Helicobacter Pylori Isolated from the Stomach Ulcer Biopsy Specimens

    Habibi Nava, F. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Resistance of Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori to antibiotics is the main cause of relapse into Helcobacterial infections. With the use of several antibiotics that have synergistic effect, we can inhibit this antibiotic resistance. Thus, we aimed at determining resistance patterns and assessing the synergy of combining multiple antibiotics on H. pylori. Material and Methods: Biopsy specimens were taken from 100 patients with gastric ulcer referred to Imam Reza hospital in Amol, north of Iran. After isolation and identification of H. Pylori, antibiogram was performed with different antibiotic disks containing one antibiotic, a combination of two antibiotics (metronidazole + clarithromycin and three antibiotics (metronidazole + Claritromycin + Ciprofloxacin. Results: In this study, H. pylori were isolated from 53 (53% biopsy specimens. Of these, 49 (5.92% were resistant to metronidazole, 14 (26% to amoxicillin, 10 (19% to clarithromycin, 7 (13% to tetracycline, 13 (5/24% to furazolidone and 7 (13% to ciprofloxacin. In survey of synergistic effect, an increase in inhibition zone diameter around of combined disks was seen up to 5mm compared to the most effective antibiotic. Conclusion: The inhibition zone diameter of discs containing two and three antibiotics was large, in comparison with one antibiotic. Key words: H. Pylori; Antibiotic Resistance; Synergy Effect

  20. Synergistic effects of neutron and gamma ray irradiation of a commercial CHMOS microcontroller

    This paper presents the experimental results of a combined irradiation environment of neutron and gamma rays on 80C196KC20, which is a 16-bit high performance member of the MCS96 microcontroller family. The electrical and functional tests were made in three irradiation environments: neutron, gamma rays, combined irradiation of neutron and gamma rays. The experimental results show that the neutron irradiation can affect the total ionizing dose behaviour. Compared with the single radiation environment, the microcontroller exhibits considerably more severe degradation in neutron and gamma ray synergistic irradiation. This phenomenon may cause a significant hardness assurance problem. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  1. ADHD, Multimodal Treatment, and Longitudinal Outcome: Evidence, Paradox, and Challenge

    Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Given major increases in the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in rates of medication for this condition, we carefully examine evidence for effects of single versus multimodal (i.e., combined medication and psychosocial/behavioral) interventions for ADHD. Our primary data source is the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA), a 14-month, randomized clinical trial in which intensive behavioral, medication, and multimodal treatment arms were contras...

  2. Sociomoral Reasoning in Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Kate E. Thomason; Gisli Gudjonsson; Elaine German; Robin Morris; Susan Young

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequently linked with antisocial behaviour, yet less is known about its relationship with sociomoral reasoning, and the possible mediating effect of intelligence. A pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between antisocial personality traits, intelligence and sociomoral reasoning in adults with ADHD. Twenty two adults with ADHD and 21 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and IQ completed a battery of measures including...

  3. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD

    2010-01-01

    Background Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory functioning of adults with ADHD. Methods Eighteen adults with ADHD who were clinical responders to methylphenidate participated in this randomized crossover trial. After 3 days of no treatment, patien...

  4. Implementation Intentions Facilitate Response Inhibition in Children with ADHD

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with action control problems such as failure to inhibit inappropriate responses. Two studies investigated whether self-regulation by implementation intentions (if-then plans; Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493 503) facilitates response inhibition in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with ADHD who furnished a suppression goal with implementation ...

  5. Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children

    R. Gupta; Kar, B. R.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. Typical development of attentional processes is rapid during early childhood. ADHD results in impairment in response inhibition, error monitoring, attentional disengagement, executive attention, and delay aversion and may effect the ongoing development of these processes during childhood. We examined the development of attentional processes in children with ADHD and normal children. Two hundred forty children (120 in...

  6. Using environmental distractors in the diagnosis of ADHD

    Hanoch eCassuto; Anat eBen-Simon; Itai eBerger

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the incorporation of environmental distractors in computerized continuous performance test (CPT) on the ability of the test in distinguishing ADHD from non-ADHD children. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display more distractibility than controls while performing CPT as measured by omission errors in the presence of pure visual, pure auditory, and a combination of visual and auditory distracting stimuli. Participants were 663 children aged 7-...

  7. Using environmental distractors in the diagnosis of ADHD

    Cassuto, Hanoch; Ben-Simon, Anat; Berger, Itai

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the incorporation of environmental distractors in computerized continuous performance test (CPT) on the ability of the test in distinguishing ADHD from non-ADHD children. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display more distractibility than controls while performing CPT as measured by omission errors in the presence of pure visual, pure auditory, and a combination of visual and auditory distracting stimuli. Participants were 663 children aged 7–...

  8. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i....

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... of any type of ADHD treatment is to reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include ... build on them. Therapy can also help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may use one or more of ...

  10. ADHD er ikke hysteri

    Lange, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Anders; Tranæs, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan.......Livsværdi. Mennesker med ADHD bør kunne få et bedre liv, men man ved endnu ikke præcis hvordan....

  11. ADHD in Young Children

    ... diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in young children. http://bit.ly/1nCUenn , http://bit.ly/1UYugZ8 Discuss with parents the benefits ... the country. Visit this page for more help: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/finding-therapy.html . ...

  12. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and glial integrity: S100B, cytokines and kynurenine metabolism - effects of medication

    Schwarz Markus J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD show a marked temporal variability in their display of symptoms and neuropsychological performance. This could be explained in terms of an impaired glial supply of energy to support neuronal activity. Method We pursued one test of the idea with measures of a neurotrophin reflecting glial integrity (S100B and the influences of 8 cytokines on the metabolism of amino-acids, and of tryptophan/kynurenine to neuroprotective or potentially toxic products that could modulate glial function. Serum samples from 21 medication-naïve children with ADHD, 21 typically-developing controls, 14 medicated children with ADHD and 7 healthy siblings were analysed in this preliminary exploration of group differences and associations. Results There were no marked group differences in levels of S100B, no major imbalance in the ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory interleukins nor in the metabolism of kynurenine to toxic metabolites in ADHD. However, four trends are described that may be worthy of closer examination in a more extensive study. First, S100B levels tended to be lower in ADHD children that did not show oppositional/conduct problems. Second, in medicated children raised interleukin levels showed a trend to normalisation. Third, while across all children the sensitivity to allergy reflected increased levels of IL-16 and IL-10, the latter showed a significant inverse relationship to measures of S100B in the ADHD group. Fourthly, against expectations healthy controls tended to show higher levels of toxic 3-hydroxykynurenine (3 HK than those with ADHD. Conclusions Thus, there were no clear signs (S100B that the glial functions were compromised in ADHD. However, other markers of glial function require examination. Nonetheless there is preliminary evidence that a minor imbalance of the immunological system was improved on medication. Finally, if lower levels of the potentially toxic 3

  13. Synergistic effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria and elastic stress on corrosion of X80 steel in soil solution

    Highlights: • The elastic stress and activities of SRB enhance corrosion independently. • The elastic stress and activities of SRB have synergistic effects on corrosion. • Activities of SRB stimulate the initiation of pitting corrosion. • The elastic stress promotes the growth of pits in the inoculated soil solution. • The elastic stress and activities of SRB induce tiny secondary corrosion pitting. - Abstract: In this paper, the individual and simultaneous effects of stress and sulfate-reducing bacteria on corrosion of X80 steel were conducted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both elastic stress and activity of SRB enhance corrosion of the steel and, furthermore, they have synergistic effects on corrosion behavior of the steel. The activities of SRB give rise to the initiation of pits, and the applied elastic stress keeps and promotes the growth of pits. The activities of SRB and the applied elastic stress induce tiny secondary corrosion pitting at the bottom of the primary pitting

  14. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  15. Synergistic Effect of Zuo Jin Wan on DDP-Induced Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901/DDP Cells

    Qing-Feng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, Zuo Jin Wan (ZJW, has been found as an anticancer drug in human cancer. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ZJW extracts on DDP-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901/DDP cells. Our results demonstrated that ZJW extracts could increase the sensitivity of SGC-7901/DDP cells to DDP by increasing the concentration of DDP in cytoplasm and enhance the proapoptosis of DDP by upregulating the JNK and Bax expression, downregulating the Bcl-2 expression, increasing the accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm, and promoting the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9. In vivo, ZJW extracts enhanced the inhibiting effect of DDP on tumor growth in SGC-7901/DDP xenograft model and upregulated the expression of p-JNK and Bax but downregulated the Bcl-2 expression in xenograft tumors. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo, ZJW extracts could enhance the proapoptotic effect of DDP by promoting the activation of JNK and the expression of Bcl-2, inhibiting the Bax expression, followed by increasing the release of Cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and finally activating the caspase cade reaction. Our results implied that ZJW might serve as a synergistic drug with chemotherapeutic drugs DDP in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  16. Chemosensitizing effect of podophyllotoxin acetate on topoisomerase inhibitors leads to synergistic enhancement of lung cancer cell apoptosis

    HONG, WAN GI; CHO, JEONG HYUN; HWANG, SANG-GU; LEE, EUNAH; LEE, JAESEOK; KIM, JONG-IL; UM, HONG-DUCK; PARK, JONG KUK

    2016-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin acetate (PA) acts as a radiosensitizer against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined its potential role as a chemosensitizer in conjunction with the topoisomerase inhibitors etoposide (Eto) and camptothecin (Cpt). The effects of combinations of PA and Eto/Cpt were examined with CompuSyn software in two NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H1299. Combination index (CI) values indicated synergistic effects of PA and the topoisomerase inhibitors. The intracellular mechanism underlying synergism was further determined using propidium iodide uptake, immunoblotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Combination of PA with Eto/Cpt promoted disruption of the dynamics of actin filaments, leading to subsequent enhancement of apoptotic cell death via induction of caspase-3, -8, and -9, accompanied by increased phosphorylation of p38. Conversely, suppression of p38 phosphorylation blocked the apoptotic effect of the drug combinations. Notably, CREB-1, a transcription factor, was constitutively activated in both cell types, and synergistically inhibited upon combination treatment. Our results collectively indicate that PA functions as a chemosensitizer by enhancing apoptosis through activation of the p38/caspase axis and suppression of CREB-1. PMID:27035096

  17. ADHD and temporality

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological...... difference in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological...

  18. Synergistic effects of ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling and atomic oxygen on altered and coated Kapton surfaces

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Elvin

    1992-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power system for Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses solar array blankets which provide structural support for the solar cells and house the electrical interconnections. In the low earth orbital (LEO) environment where SSF will be located, surfaces will be exposed to potentially damaging environmental conditions including solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and atomic oxygen. It is necessary to use ground based tests to determine how these environmental conditions would affect the mass loss and optical properties of candidate SSF blanket materials. Silicone containing, silicone coated, and SiO(x) coated polyimide film materials were exposed to simulated LEO environmental conditions to determine their durability and whether the environmental conditions of UV, thermal cycling and oxygen atoms act synergistically on these materials. A candidate PV blanket material called AOR Kapton, a polysiloxane polyimide cast from a solution mixture, shows an improvement in durability to oxygen atoms erosion after exposure to UV radiation or thermal cycling combined with UV radiation. This may indicate that the environmental conditions react synergistically with this material, and the damage predicted by exposure to atomic oxygen alone is more severe than that which would occur in LEO where atomic oxygen, thermal cycling and UV radiation are present together.

  19. Metformin synergistically enhances antiproliferative effects of cisplatin and etoposide in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells

    Sarah Fernandes Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of combining conventional antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and etoposide with metformin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the NCI-H460 cell line, in order to develop new therapeutic options with high efficacy and low toxicity.METHODS: We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and calculated the combination index for the drugs studied.RESULTS: We found that the use of metformin as monotherapy reduced the metabolic viability of the cell line studied. Combining metformin with cisplatin or etoposide produced a synergistic effect and was more effective than was the use of cisplatin or etoposide as monotherapy.CONCLUSIONS: Metformin, due to its independent effects on liver kinase B1, had antiproliferative effects on the NCI-H460 cell line. When metformin was combined with cisplatin or etoposide, the cell death rate was even higher.

  20. Synergistic antibacterial effects of β-Chloro-L-alanine and phosphomycin on urinary tract isolates of E. coli

    Nima Hosseini Jazani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the synergistic effect of sub-MIC doses of Phosphomycin with β-Chloro-L-alanine against urinary tract isolates of E. coli. Materials and methods: A total of 40 isolates were collected from urine specimens submitted to the clinical diagnostic Laboratories in Urmia, Iran. The amounts of MIC and MBC for Phosphomycin, β-Chloro-L-alanine or a mixture of 0.5 mM β-Chloro-L-alanine with sub-MIC doses of Phosphomycin were determined and three groups were compared. Results: Of 40 E. coli isolates, 12. 5% were susceptible to all investigated concentrations of phosphomycin and 2. 5% were resistant. The mean MIC value for phosphomycin in the other E. coli isolates was determined as 25. 7± 35. 5 µg/ mL. All of the bacterial isolates were resistant to all investigated concentrations of β-Chloro-L-alanine. Application of β-Chloro-L-alanine and phosphomycin combination decreased the MIC and MBC values in 22. 5% of the isolates. Discussion and conclusion: This study suggests that β-Chloro-L-alanine and phosphomycin combination have in vitro synergistic effect on some isolates of urinary tract E. coli.

  1. Potent synergistic effect of doxycycline with fluconazole against Candida albicans is mediated by interference with iron homeostasis.

    Fiori, Alessandro; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    Doxycycline was found to act synergistically with the antifungal fluconazole against Candida albicans. Combination with doxycycline converts fluconazole from fungistatic to fungicidal, prevents the onset of drug resistance, and is also effective against a clinical isolate characterized by elevated resistance to fluconazole. Investigation of the interactions between the two drugs by way of checkerboard assays indicated that doxycycline had an influence on the MIC for fluconazole, as defined by CLSI standards, only at high concentrations (200 μg/ml). However, lower concentrations were effective at eliminating residual cell growth at supra-MICs of fluconazole. Using MIC-0, defined as a drug combination resulting in optically clear wells, as an endpoint, doxycycline was found to be synergistic with fluconazole at a concentration as low as 25 μg/ml, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of ERG11 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but not in C. albicans, despite the full competence of the pathogen's protein to act as a suppressor in baker's yeast. PMID:22564841

  2. Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.

    Yehuda, S; Rabinovitz-Shenkar, S; Carasso, R L

    2011-10-01

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity constitute the core diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Patients generally suffer from sleep disturbance and malnutrition that can account for tiredness during the day, poor concentration, poor eating and depressed mood, along with anemia and an n-3 polyunsaturated acid deficiency. The change of ADHD behavior in children (9-12) was studied, following 10 weeks of treatment with a polyunsaturated acid mixture on six variables: cooperation, mood, concentration, homework preparation, fatigue and sleep quality. Iron status was also examined. Polyunsaturated acid administration was associated with significant improvement in quality of life, ability to concentrate, sleep quality and hemoglobin levels. PMID:21587279

  3. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    Highlights: ► Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. ► Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. ► Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. ► Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  4. Modeling and investigations on TID-ASETs synergistic effect in LM124 operational amplifier from three different manufacturers

    The synergistic effect between Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Analog Single Event Transient (ASET) in LM124 operational amplifiers (op-amps) from three different manufacturers is investigated. This effect is clearly identified on only two manufacturers by three, highlighting manufacturer dependent. In fact, significant variations were observed on both the TID sensitivity and the ASET response of LM124 devices from different manufacturers. Hypotheses are made on the cause of the differences observed. A previously developed ASET simulation tool is used to model the transient response. The effects of TID on devices are taken into account in the model by injecting the variations of key electrical parameters obtained during Co irradiation. An excellent agreement is observed between the experimental responses and the model outputs, independently of the TID level, the bias configuration and the manufacturer of the device. (authors)

  5. Synergistic effect of calcium and zinc on glucose/xylose utilization and butanol tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Wu, Youduo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Lijie; Yuan, Wenjie; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol outperforms bioethanol as an advanced biofuel, but is not economically competitive in terms of its titer, yield and productivity associated with feedstocks and energy cost. In this work, the synergistic effect of calcium and zinc was investigated in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using glucose, xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures as carbon source(s). Significant improvements associated with enhanced glucose/xylose utilization, cell growth, acids re-assimilation and butanol biosynthesis were achieved. Especially, the maximum butanol and ABE production of 16.1 and 25.9 g L(-1) were achieved from 69.3 g L(-1) glucose with butanol/ABE productivities of 0.40 and 0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) compared to those of 11.7 and 19.4 g/L with 0.18 and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1) obtained in the control respectively without any supplement. More importantly, zinc was significantly involved in the butanol tolerance based on the improved xylose utilization under various butanol-shock conditions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g L(-1) butanol). Under the same conditions, calcium and zinc co-supplementation led to the best xylose utilization and butanol production. These results suggested that calcium and zinc could play synergistic roles improving ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. PMID:26850441

  6. Animal models of ADHD.

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  7. [Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of ADHD in Adults].

    Auclair, Vickie; Harvey, Philippe-Olivier; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background The international prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated at 2.5%. ADHD is associated with serious impairment in academic, occupational, social and emotional functioning. Despite the debilitating nature of this disorder, few individuals with ADHD receive appropriate help. Further, although psychopharmacology is considered the first-line treatment of adults with ADHD, it is now recognized that medication alone may be insufficient. Thus, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a promising approach.Objectives This study aimed to review literature and investigate the efficacy of CBT, in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions such anxiety and depression for adults with ADHD, by several studies through a meta-analysis.Methods We searched the literature from 1946 through 2015 using especially MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO. We used a random-effects model, Odds Ratios (OR) and Hedge's g.Results Data from 12 randomized controlled studies were included, totaling 575 subjects. The results showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms (Hedge's g = 0.95) and comorbid anxiety (Hedge's g = 0.39) and depression (Hedge's g = 0.30) for the CBT group in comparison with controls. Following the end of treatment, ADHD symptoms continue to improve, but not the comorbid conditions.Conclusion In summary, in adults with ADHD, CBT appears to be a promising treatment. PMID:27570962

  8. Synergistic Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and N-nitrosodiethylamine tion Cell Malignant Transformatition

    ZHANG Lei; ZHAO Rui; YE Shu Qing; ZHOU Ling; WU Yong Ning; ZENG Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present paper aims to investigate the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) tion tumorigenesis and its potential mechanism. Methods The potentials of TCDD and DEN in separatition or in combinatition to induce malignant transformatition were tested in Balb/c 3T3 cells by using a cell transformatition assay method. The possible mechanism of observed effects was studied further by adding α-naphthoflavtione (α-NF), a competitive binding agent of TCDD, to the Aryl hydrocarbtion receptor (AhR) pathway. The mRNA expressitions of Cyp1a1 and Cyp2a5 gene in Balb/c 3T3 cells treated by DEN and TCDD in separatition or in combinatition with or without presence of α-NF were measured with fluorescence quantificatition RT-PCR technique. Results The cell transformatition frequency (TF) was significantly higher in case of inductition with TCDD in combinatition with DEN, as compared to that with either TCDD or DEN altione. These effects were not inhibited via α-NF. The mRNA expressition levels of both Cyp1a1 and Cyp2a5 were enhanced by TCDD treatment altione, but this inducible effect was blocked in cells treated by TCDD and DEN in combinatition. Ctionclusition TCDD and DEN had a significant synergistic effect tion tumorigenesis when they were used in combinatition. AhR pathway may not be the key mechanism of this synergistic effect. Thus, it is necessary to further test the potential mechanism involved in cancer development.

  9. Delivery of baicalein and paclitaxel using self-assembled nanoparticles: synergistic antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo

    Wang W

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1,* Mei Xi,2,* Xuezhong Duan,1 Yong Wang,3 Fansheng Kong4 1Department of Chinese Medicine Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine, General Hospital of Ji’nan Command, People’s Liberation Army, 2Emergency Department, The Fourth People’s Hospital of Ji’nan, Medical School, Tai Shan Medical College, 3Department of Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy, General Hospital of Ji’nan Command, People’s Liberation Army, 4Department of Hematology, General Hospital of Ji’nan Command, People’s Liberation Army, Ji’nan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Combination anticancer therapy is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects to maximize the treatment effect and overcome multidrug resistance. The aim of the study reported here was to develop multifunctional, dual-ligand, modified, self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs for the combination delivery of baicalein (BCL and paclitaxel (PTX prodrugs.Methods: Prodrug of PTX and prodrug of BCL, containing dual-targeted ligands of folate (FA and hyaluronic acid (HA, were synthesized. Multifunctional self-assembled NPs for combination delivery of PTX prodrug and BCL prodrug (PTX-BCL were prepared and the synergistic antitumor effect was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the novel modified vectors was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/PTX cells. The in vivo antitumor efficiency and systemic toxicity of different formulations were further investigated in mice bearing A549/PTX drug-resistant human lung cancer xenografts.Results: The size of the PTX-BCL NPs was approximately 90 nm, with a positive zeta potential of +3.3. The PTX-BCL NPs displayed remarkably better antitumor activity over a wide range of drug concentrations, and showed an obvious synergism effect with CI50 values of 0.707 and 0.513, indicating that double

  10. Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a “reinforcer” and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known. Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal mo...

  11. The effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on attention and impulsivity in an animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Ewelina Makulska-Gertruda; Joachim Hauser; Thomas-A. Sontag; Lange, Klaus W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. The main symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Both etiology and neurobiological basis of ADHD are unknown. In this context, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), especially omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs, have become a focus of interest. The symptoms of ADHD have been suggested to be associated with a deficienc...

  12. Parental Support as a Mediating Factor in the Relationship Between ADHD Symptoms and Self-Esteem

    Stefana Kristín Ólafsdóttir 1983

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and self-esteem as well as examining whether parental support could serve as a mediating factor in this relationship. The hypotheses set forth were three: First, students with ADHD diagnosis have lower average self-esteem then students without ADHD diagnosis. Second, there is a positive association between parental support and self-esteem. Third, the effects of ADHD diagnosis on self-esteem are mediated through paren...

  13. Synergistic effects of tributyltin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the persistent and accumulative environmental pollutants tributyltin (TBT) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) individually and in combination on differentiating bone cells. TBT and TCDD are chemically distinct compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity, but they typically have the same sources of exposure and both have been shown to affect bone development at low exposure levels. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from femurs and tibias of C57BL/6 J mice, differentiated in culture into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and exposed to 0.1–10 nM TBT, 0.01–1 nM TCDD or 10 nM TBT + 1 nM TCDD. In osteoblasts, the combined exposure to TBT and TCDD significantly decreased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin more than TBT or TCDD alone. PCR array showed different gene expression profiles for TBT and TCDD individually, and the combination evoked several additional alterations in gene expression. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) was increased by TCDD as expected, but simultaneous exposure to TBT prevented the increase thus potentially strengthening AHR-mediated effects of TCDD. The number of osteoclasts was reduced by TCDD alone and in combination with TBT, but TBT alone had no effect. However, the total area of resorbed bone was remarkably lower after combined exposure than after TBT or TCDD alone. In conclusion, very low concentrations of TBT and TCDD have synergistic deleterious effects on bone formation and additive effects on bone resorption. -- Highlights: ► Combined exposure to TCDD and TBT evoked a unique gene expression profile. ► Osteoblast differentiation was synergistically disturbed after combined exposure. ► Bone resorbing activity was additively decreased after combined exposure.

  14. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Chen Wantao

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. Methods In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Results Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. Conclusion The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR) have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR) alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

  16. Synergistic effects of tributyltin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on differentiating osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    Koskela, Antti, E-mail: antti.koskela@oulu.fi [University of Oulu, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Oulu (Finland); Viluksela, Matti [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, Kuopio (Finland); Keinänen, Meeri; Tuukkanen, Juha [University of Oulu, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, Kuopio (Finland)

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the persistent and accumulative environmental pollutants tributyltin (TBT) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) individually and in combination on differentiating bone cells. TBT and TCDD are chemically distinct compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity, but they typically have the same sources of exposure and both have been shown to affect bone development at low exposure levels. Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from femurs and tibias of C57BL/6 J mice, differentiated in culture into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and exposed to 0.1–10 nM TBT, 0.01–1 nM TCDD or 10 nM TBT + 1 nM TCDD. In osteoblasts, the combined exposure to TBT and TCDD significantly decreased the mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin more than TBT or TCDD alone. PCR array showed different gene expression profiles for TBT and TCDD individually, and the combination evoked several additional alterations in gene expression. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) was increased by TCDD as expected, but simultaneous exposure to TBT prevented the increase thus potentially strengthening AHR-mediated effects of TCDD. The number of osteoclasts was reduced by TCDD alone and in combination with TBT, but TBT alone had no effect. However, the total area of resorbed bone was remarkably lower after combined exposure than after TBT or TCDD alone. In conclusion, very low concentrations of TBT and TCDD have synergistic deleterious effects on bone formation and additive effects on bone resorption. -- Highlights: ► Combined exposure to TCDD and TBT evoked a unique gene expression profile. ► Osteoblast differentiation was synergistically disturbed after combined exposure. ► Bone resorbing activity was additively decreased after combined exposure.

  17. FOXO3a reactivation mediates the synergistic cytotoxic effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    FOXO3a, a well-known transcriptional regulator, controls a wide spectrum of biological processes. The Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway inactivates FOXO3a via phosphorylation-induced nuclear exclusion and degradation. A loss or gain of FOXO3a activity has been correlated with efficiency of chemotherapies in various cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Therefore, in the current study, we have investigated the FOXO3a activity modulating and antitumor effects of rapamycin and cisplatin in OSCC cells. Cisplatin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent way in OSCC Tca8113 cells. Rapamycin alone had no effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Rapamycin downregulated the expression of S-phase kinase associated protein-2 (Skp2) and increased the FOXO3a protein stability but induced the upregulation of feedback Akt activation-mediated FOXO3a phosphorylation. Cisplatin decreased the phosphorylation of FOXO3a via Akt inhibition. Rapamycin combined with cisplatin as its feedback Akt activation inhibitor revealed the most dramatic FOXO3a nuclear localization and reactivation with the prevention of its feedback loop and exposed significant synergistic effects of decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in vitro and decreased tumor size in vivo. Furthermore, the downstream effects of FOXO3a reactivation were found to be accumulation of p27 and Bim. In conclusion, rapamycin/cisplatin combination therapy boosts synergistic antitumor effects through the significant FOXO3a reactivation in OSCC cells. These results may represent a novel mechanism by which rapamycin/cisplatin combination therapy proves to be a potent molecular-targeted strategy for OSCC.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Pre-Treatment on Alkaline Etching of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabrics and Films

    A. Elabid Amel, E.; Guo, Ying; Shi, Jianjun; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Dyeing of PET materials by traditional methods presents several problems. Plasma technology has received enormous attention as a solution for the environmental problems related with textile surface modifications, and there has been a rapid development and commercialization of plasma technology over the past decade. In this work, the synergistic effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on alkaline etching and deep coloring of dyeing properties on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics and films was investigated. The topographical changes of the PET surface were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, which revealed a smooth surface morphology of the untreated sample whereas a high surface roughness for the plasma and/or alkaline treated samples. The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma on alkaline etching of the structure and properties of PET were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the main objective of performing DSC was to investigate the effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the Tg and Tm. Using a tensile strength tester YG065H and following a standard procedure the maximum force and elongation at maximum force of PET materials was investigated. Oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatment was found to increase the PET fabric weight loss rate. The color strength of PET fabrics was increased by various plasma pre-treatment times. The penetration of plasma and alkaline reactive species deep into the PET structure results in better dyeability and leaves a significant effect on the K/S values of the plasma pre-treated PET. It indicated that plasma pre-treatment has a great synergistic effect with the alkaline treatment of PET.

  19. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  20. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  1. USING A DOE AND EIS TO EVALUATE THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF LOW TOXICITY INHIBITORS FOR MILD STEEL

    G. V. Bueno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhibitors are widely used to prevent corrosion in cooling-water systems, and their protective performance can be enhanced by combination. The aim of this paper is to identify possible synergistic effects between four low toxicity substances used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in industrial cooling-water systems. Electrochemical measurements were obtained following a design of experiments (DOE where the independent variables were the inhibitors concentrations and the response variable the charge transfer resistance estimated from impedance diagrams. Potentiodynamic polarization curves show that all of them act as anodic corrosion inhibitors. Among the tested formulations, only the interaction between sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate showed statistically significant effects, indicating that they can perform better when used together. The results of this work show the importance of using a statistical tool when designing inhibitor mixtures.

  2. In vitro anti-Acanthamoeba synergistic effect of chlorhexidine and cationic carbosilane dendrimers against both trophozoite and cyst forms.

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Sánchez-Nieves, J; Soliveri, J; Gómez, R; de la Mata, F J; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2016-07-25

    Acanthamoeba sp. are the causative agents of severe illnesses in humans such as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Medical therapy is not yet well established. Treatments of AK last for several months and generate toxicity, resistances appear due to the cysts stage and recurrences can occur. In this study has been demonstrated that the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX) and carbosilane dendrimers containing ammonium or guanidine moieties has in vitro synergistic effect against Acanthamoeba polyphaga. This synergy provokes an important reduction in the minimal trophozoite amoebicidal concentration (MTAC) of CLX, which means a reduction of their toxic effects on human cells. Moreover, some CLX/dendrimer combinations show important activity against the cyst resistance stage. PMID:27173821

  3. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  4. Moderator Effects of Working Memory on the Stability of ADHD Symptoms by Dopamine Receptor Gene Polymorphisms during Development

    Trampush, Joey W.; Jacobs, Michelle M.; Hurd, Yasmin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene (DRD1 and DRD2, respectively) polymorphisms and the development of working memory skills can interact to influence symptom change over 10 years in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we examined whether improvements in working memory maintenance…

  5. Task-Related Default Mode Network Modulation and Inhibitory Control in ADHD: Effects of Motivation and Methylphenidate

    Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Hollis, Chris; Batty, Martin J.; Groom, Madeleine J.; Totman, John J.; Liotti, Mario; Scerif, Gaia; Liddle, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including poor attention and inhibitory control, are at least partially alleviated by factors that increase engagement of attention, suggesting a hypodopaminergic reward deficit. Lapses of attention are associated with attenuated deactivation of the default…

  6. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...

  7. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    Bai GN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guan-nan Bai,1 Yu-feng Wang,2,3 Li Yang,2,3 Wen-yi Niu1 1Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods: We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44 or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45. Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual, attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results: Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively. Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after

  8. Overview of Corrosion, Erosion, and Synergistic Effects of Erosion and Corrosion in the WTP Pre-treatment Facility

    Imrich, K. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-27

    Corrosion is an extremely complex process that is affected by numerous factors. Addition of a flowing multi-phase solution further complicates the analysis. The synergistic effects of the multiple corrosive species as well as the flow-induced synergistic effects from erosion and corrosion must be thoroughly evaluated in order to predict material degradation responses. Public domain data can help guide the analysis, but cannot reliably provide the design basis especially when the process is one-of-a-kind, designed for 40 plus years of service, and has no viable means for repair or replacement. Testing in representative simulants and environmental conditions with prototypic components will provide a stronger technical basis for design. This philosophy was exemplified by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site and only after 15 plus years of successful operation has it been validated. There have been “hiccups”, some identified during the cold commissioning phase and some during radioactive operations, but they were minor and overcome. In addition, the system is robust enough to tolerate most flowsheet changes and the DWPF design allows minor modifications and replacements – approaches not available with the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) “Black Cell” design methodology. Based on the available data, the synergistic effect between erosion and corrosion is a credible – virtually certain – degradation mechanism and must be considered for the design of the WTP process systems. Testing is recommended due to the number of variables (e.g., material properties, process parameters, and component design) that can affect synergy between erosion and corrosion and because the available literature is of limited applicability for the complex process chemistries anticipated in the WTP. Applicable testing will provide a reasonable and defensible path forward for design of the WTP Black Cell and Hard-to-Reach process equipment. These

  9. Synergistic Effect and Molecular Mechanism of Homoharringtonine and Bortezomib on SKM-1 Cell Apoptosis.

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are clonal marrow stem-cell disorders with a high risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Treatment options are limited and targeted therapies are not available for MDS. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism of Homoharringtonine (HHT and Bortezomib towards high-risk MDS cell line SKM-1 in vitro and the role of miR-3151 was first evaluated in SKM-1 cells.SKM-1 cells were treated with different concentrations of HHT or Bortezomib, and cell viability was analyzed with CCK-8 assay. The influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and the percentage of apoptosis cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Calcusyn software was used to calculate combination index (CI values. Western blot was used to analysis phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear NF-κB protein expression in SKM-1 cells. Mature miR-3151 level and p53 protein level were detected after HHT or Bortezomib treatment. The cell proliferation and p53 protein level were reassessed in SKM-1 cells infected with lentivirus to overexpress miR-3151.Simultaneous exposure to HHT and Bortezomib (10.4:1 resulted in a significant reduction of cell proliferation in SKM-1 cells (P < 0.05. Cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and G2/M phase was observed (P < 0.05. HHT and Bortezomib synergistically induced cell apoptosis by regulating members of caspase 9, caspase 3 and Bcl-2 family (P < 0.01. The mechanisms of the synergy involved Akt and NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition, downregulation of mature miR-3151 and increment of downstream p53 protein level. Overexpression of miR-3151 promoted cell proliferation and inhibited p53 protein expression in SKM-1 (P < 0.01.HHT and Bortezomib synergistically inhibit SKM-1 cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of Akt and NF-κB pathway signaling contribute to molecular mechanism of HHT and Bortezomib. miR-3151 abundance is implicated in SKM-1 cell viability, cell

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Resources Early Career Psychiatrists Become a Member Advocacy Life Members International Maintenance of Certification Clinical Practice Center ... school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... level. Treatment may include medication, therapy, family support, educational support, or a combination of these. A major ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... AACAP Medical Students and Residents Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Member Resources ... Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Without treatment, a child ...

  13. ADHD & Down Syndrome

    ... at an accredited sleep center. What Types of Communication Difficulties Can Look Like ADHD? People with Down ... Down syndrome have a wide range of learning styles. A child's educational team may need to try ...

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Become a Member ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  15. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... children to share their experiences and concerns. Support groups may also share information and referrals to specialists, and invite experts to speak. Contents What is ADHD? How ... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child ...

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Become a Member Practice Parameters and Resource ... Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life ...

  17. What Is ADHD?

    ... disability. The most common learning problems affect reading ( dyslexia ) and handwriting . Although ADHD isn't categorized as ... child does well — whether it's sports, art, or music — can boost social skills and self-esteem. previous ...

  18. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources for Primary Care Become a Member ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... help a child with ADHD cope with daily problems, pay better attention, and learn to control aggression. A therapist may use one or more of the following approaches : Behavior therapy helps the family develop a plan to ...

  20. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  1. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... They also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news ... Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is important to confer with ...

  2. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Practice Center Award Opportunities CPT and Reimbursement Job Source Assembly of Regional Organizations Education Center Resources ... untreated ADHD have higher rates of divorce and job loss. They also have higher rates of cigarette ...

  3. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... child after each step is completed. Family support groups allow groups of parents with ADHD children to share their experiences and concerns. Support groups may also share information and referrals to specialists, ...

  4. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL), school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame ... and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel better about themselves. ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Resource Center Resource Centers Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Without treatment, a child with ADHD ... Together Resources Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... grow, learn, and feel better about themselves. The goal of any type of ADHD treatment is to ... Us | Disclaimer | Privacy Statement Developed by Armstrong Enterprise Communication {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... communicate with their child. The sense of losing control can be very frustrating. Untreated ADHD can have ... can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them ...

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... is to reduce symptoms and help the child function at a normal level. Treatment may include medication, ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  10. Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD in Incarcerated Adolescents.

    Jillani, Sarah; Patel, Prina; Trestman, Robert; Kamath, Jayesh

    2016-06-01

    Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that adolescents with ADHD have a higher risk of arrest and incarceration during adulthood. The present report examines evidence related to efficacy of atomoxetine, a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of adolescent ADHD, and presents data from a case series evaluating the effectiveness of atomoxetine for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the Connecticut correctional setting. The results from the case series suggest that atomoxetine is effective for the treatment of adolescent ADHD in the context of significant past substance use. In summary, adolescents with ADHD have an elevated risk of incarceration and developing substance use disorders. The present review and pilot case series suggest that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for adolescents with ADHD in the correctional setting. PMID:27236169

  11. Meds May Curb Risky Behaviors for Kids with ADHD

    ... suggests the medications are linked with less risky behaviors in teens. The research finds that ADHD medications are "effective ... it could not prove that ADHD medications caused teens to engage in fewer risky behaviors. One expert who reviewed the study said the ...

  12. Synergistic Radiation Protective Effect of Purified Auricularia auricular-judae Polysaccharide (AAP IV with Grape Seed Procyanidins

    Haina Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA (p < 0.005, reactive oxygen species (ROS (p < 0.01; cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD (p < 0.01, catalase (CAT (p < 0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX (p < 0.05, activity and glutathione (GSH (p < 0.01 levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. “GSP + AAP IV” treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of “GSP (0.3 μg/mL + AAP IV (50 μg/mL” displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001 concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05, CAT (p < 0.005, GSH-PX (p < 0.01 and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that “GSP + AAP IV” significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005 and spleen GSH (p < 0.005 levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005 levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  13. A Phytoanticipin Derivative, Sodium Houttuyfonate, Induces in Vitro Synergistic Effects with Levofloxacin against Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Jing Shao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become the main deadly factor in infections, as bacteria can protect themselves by hiding in a self-constructed biofilm. Consequently, more attention is being paid to the search for “non-antibiotic drugs” to solve this problem. Phytoanticipins, the natural antibiotics from plants, could be a suitable alternative, but few works on this aspect have been reported. In this study, a preliminary study on the synergy between sodium houttuyfonate (SH and levofloxacin (LFX against the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was performed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of LFX and SH, anti-biofilm formation and synergistic effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and quantification of alginate were determined by the microdilution method, crystal violet (CV assay, checkerboard method, and hydroxybiphenyl colorimetry. The biofilm morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed by fluorescence microscope and scanning electric microscope (SEM. The results showed that: (i LFX and SH had an obvious synergistic effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values of 0.25 μg/mL and 128 μg/mL, respectively; (ii ½ × MIC SH combined with 2 × MIC LFX could suppress the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa effectively, with up to 73% inhibition; (iii the concentration of alginate decreased dramatically by a maximum of 92% after treatment with the combination of antibiotics; and (iv more dead cells by fluorescence microscope and more removal of extracellular polymeric structure (EPS by SEM were observed after the combined treatment of LFX and SH. Our experiments demonstrate the promising future of this potent antimicrobial agent against biofilm-associated infections.

  14. Synergistic effects of ascorbate and sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma: New insights into ascorbate cytotoxicity.

    Rouleau, Lauren; Antony, Anil Noronha; Bisetto, Sara; Newberg, Andrew; Doria, Cataldo; Levine, Mark; Monti, Daniel A; Hoek, Jan B

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the mechanism of selective ascorbate-induced cytotoxicity in tumor cells, including Hep G2 cells, compared to primary hepatocytes. H2O2 formation was required for ascorbate cytotoxicity, as extracellular catalase treatment protected tumor cells. H2O2 generated by glucose oxidase treatment also caused cell killing, but treatment with a pharmacologic dose (5-20mM) of ascorbate was significantly more cytotoxic at comparable rates of H2O2 production, suggesting that ascorbate enhanced H2O2 cytotoxicity. This was further supported by the finding that ascorbate at a non-cytotoxic dose (1mM) enhanced cell killing caused by glucose oxidase. Consistent with this conclusion, ascorbate treatment caused deregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis, resulting in massive mitochondrial calcium accumulation. Ascorbate acted synergistically with the chemotherapeutic sorafenib in killing Hep G2 cells, but not primary hepatocytes, suggesting adjuvant ascorbate treatment can broaden sorafenib's therapeutic range. Sorafenib caused mitochondrial depolarization and prevented mitochondrial calcium sequestration. Subsequent ascorbate addition further deregulated cellular calcium homeostasis promoting cell death. Additionally, we present the case of a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had prolonged regression of a rib metastasis upon combination treatment with ascorbate and sorafenib, indicating that these studies have direct clinical relevance. PMID:27036367

  15. Synergistic photothermal ablative effects of functionalizing carbon nanotubes with a POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer

    Tan Aaron

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of nanotechnology in biology and medicine represents a significant paradigm shift in the approach to the treatment of cancer. Evidence suggests that when exposed to near-infrared radiation (NIR, carbon nanotubes (CNTs dissipate a substantial amount of heat energy. We have developed a novel nanocomposite polymer, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly (carbonate-urea urethane (POSS-PCU. POSS-PCU displays excellent biocompatibility and has been used in making artificial organs as well as protective coatings for medical devices. Results Functionalizing (or “coating” CNTs with POSS-PCU confers biocompatibility and increase the amount of heat energy generated, by enhancing dispersion. Here we demonstrate that POSS-PCU-functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MWNTs act synergistically together when exposed to NIR to thermally ablate cancer cells. Conclusion Given that POSS-PCU has already been used in human in first-in-man studies as trachea, lacrimal duct, bypass graft and other organs, our long-term goal is to take POSS-PCU coated CNTs to clinical studies to address the treatment of cancer by optimizing its therapeutic index and increasing its specificity via antibody conjugation.

  16. Synergistic hepatotoxic effects of ethanol on cocaine metabolism and lipid peroxidation

    Odeleye, O.; Watson, R.R.; Eskelson, C.D.; Odeleye, A. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors evaluated the contribution of chronic ethanol (EtoH) consumption on cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity and the role lipid peroxidation (LP) plays as part of the toxic mechanisms in EtoH-cocaine induced liver damage. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected i.p. with 10-50 mg cocaine/kg body weight daily, and fed liquid diets containing 5 1/2% (w/v) EtoH for 5 or 9 weeks. Control mice received saline i.p. and an isocaloric diet without EtoH. EtoH and cocaine treatment increased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) 3.7 to 8.5 fold, while cocaine treatment during EtoH exposure increased MDA 11-20 fold over controls. Similarly, hepatic lipid fluorescence and conjugated dienes in the cocaine plus EtoH treated mice were 2-8 fold higher than in the cocaine or EtoH treated mice. Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) were higher in the cocaine plus EtoH treated group. Histologic changes including centrilobular necrosis and hepatic lipid infiltration were more pronounced in the EtoH plus cocaine treated mice. This study clearly shows that EtoH and cocaine synergistically enhanced hepatotoxicity and that increased LP is a participating mechanism is this hepatotoxicity.

  17. Vibrio cholerae use pili and flagella synergistically to effect motility switching and conditional surface attachment

    Utada, Andrew S.; Bennett, Rachel R.; Fong, Jiunn C. N.; Gibiansky, Maxsim L.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.; Golestanian, Ramin; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2014-09-01

    We show that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, use their flagella and mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) type IV pili synergistically to switch between two complementary motility states that together facilitate surface selection and attachment. Flagellar rotation counter-rotates the cell body, causing MSHA pili to have periodic mechanical contact with the surface for surface-skimming cells. Using tracking algorithms at 5 ms resolution we observe two motility behaviours: ‘roaming', characterized by meandering trajectories, and ‘orbiting’, characterized by repetitive high-curvature orbits. We develop a hydrodynamic model showing that these phenotypes result from a nonlinear relationship between trajectory shape and frictional forces between pili and the surface: strong pili-surface interactions generate orbiting motion, increasing the local bacterial loiter time. Time-lapse imaging reveals how only orbiting mode cells can attach irreversibly and form microcolonies. These observations suggest that MSHA pili are crucial for surface selection, irreversible attachment, and ultimately microcolony formation.

  18. Synergistic effects of the chitosan addition and polysaccharides-EPS on the formation of anaerobic granules.

    Hudayah, N; Suraraksa, B; Chaiprasert, P

    2016-11-01

    Concomitant early granulation with chitosan addition under a syntroph-specific substrate and enhancement of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production were aimed at to build anaerobic granules with high syntrophic activities in a short period. Two laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors were operated as control (R1) and chitosan addition (R2) reactors during early granulation (phase 1). Chitosan decreased the negativity of microbial surface charges (zeta potential) to -10.5 mV on day 58 which led to increases in average diameter sizes, nuclei and granule ratio of approximately 115 µm, 55.1% and 8.2%, respectively. While zeta potential in R1 slightly changed, this resulted in less microbial aggregation. Although microbial aggregation in R2 was rapidly triggered by chitosan addition during phase 1, its structure was clumpy with rough surface due to lack of EPS. Substrate switching to glucose increased polysaccharides-EPS during phase 2 which was synergistically improved on the structural characteristics of microbial aggregate in R2, that is, more spherical and compact, with a smoother surface. Rapid-growth microorganism was also boosted, which then dominated the outer layer of the aggregate. The Archaea clumps were observed at a deeper layer and were surrounded by Eubacteria, presumably acetogens, indicating a syntrophic relationship due to substrate association between these microbial groups. PMID:27553457

  19. Synergistic effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in bioremediation of iron contaminated soils.

    Mishra, Vartika; Gupta, Antriksh; Kaur, Parvinder; Singh, Simranjeet; Singh, Nasib; Gehlot, Praveen; Singh, Joginder

    2016-07-01

    Three Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from Glomus, Acaulospora and Scutellospora, and four plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolates related to genera Streptomyces, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus were found to be effective in phytoremediation of Fe(3+) contaminated soil where Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor were growing as host plants. Co-inoculation of AMF and PGPR showed better results in comparison to either, AMF and PGPR under pot conditions. Both AMF and PGPR were able to produce siderophores. AMF and PGPR associated to P. glaucum and S. bicolor plants increased the extent of iron absorption. AMF and PGPR combination exhibited superior (p < 0.01) phytoremediation efficiency with P. glaucum compared to S. bicolor. These findings warrant further investigations of these synergistic interactions and large-scale in situ studies for bioremediation of iron-contaminated soils. PMID:26682583

  20. Largely improved tensile properties of chitosan film via unique synergistic reinforcing effect of carbon nanotube and clay.

    Tang, Changyu; Xiang, Lixue; Su, Juanxia; Wang, Ke; Yang, Changyue; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2008-04-01

    In this work, a great synergistic effect of 2D clay platelets and 1D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on reinforcing chitosan matrix has been observed for the first time. With incorporation of 3 wt % clay and 0.4 wt % CNTs, the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites are significantly improved by about 171 and 124%, respectively, compared with neat chitosan. This could be understood as due to the formation of much jammed fillers network with 1D CNTs and 2D clay platelets combined together, as indicated by rheological measurement. Our work demonstrates a good example for the preparation of high performance polymer nanocomposites by using nanofillers of different dimension together. PMID:18335921