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Sample records for adhd children perceive

  1. Children's Self-Reports on Perceived Effects on Taking Stimulant Medication for ADHD

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Dahlstrom, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates children's views on positive and negative effects of stimulant medication for ADHD and the children's willingness to stop taking medication. Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 79 children with ADHD and one of each child's parents. Results/Conclusion: Swedish children treated with stimulants generally…

  2. How do ADHD children perceive their cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects of anger expression in school setting?

    Haghighi Habib

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anger is an ignored research area in children and young adolescents with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in the school setting. This study compares school anger dimensions in children and young adolescents with ADHD and a control group. Methods The subjects were a clinical sample of 67 children and young adolescents with ADHD and their parents, with a sample of 91 children from the community of similar age and gender as control group. Anger was measured by the Farsi version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI. Results The scores of the two components of "Hostile Outlook" and "Positive Coping" were different between the groups. The mean scores for the Anger components did not statistically differ between the children with ADHD and ODD and ADHD without ODD, boys and girls, or different types of ADHD. Conclusion Children with ADHD do not report higher rates of experience of anger and they do not apply destructive strategies more than the control group. However, children with ADHD appear to have a more hostile outlook toward school and their coping strategy is weaker than that of the control group.

  3. ADHD in Young Children

    ... diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in young children. http://bit.ly/1nCUenn , http://bit.ly/1UYugZ8 Discuss with parents the benefits ... the country. Visit this page for more help: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/finding-therapy.html . ...

  4. ADHD in children and adolescents

    Keen, Daphne; Hadijikoumi, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Core symptoms of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness, although other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD, including developmental disorders (especially motor, language, social communication, and specific learning disabilities) and psychiatric disorders (especially oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, anxiety, and depressive disorders). Symptoms must be present for at least 6 months, are generally observed in children before the age of 7 years, and cause clinic...

  5. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  6. ADHD in Danish children and adolescents

    Jensen, Christina Mohr

    The most frequent reason for referral to the child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals in Denmark is the suspicion that a child or an adolescent may have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this dissertation was to assess how often ADHD has been diagnosed in Denmark, to...... assess the validity of the ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents, to describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Danish children and adolescents with ADHD, and to assess their long-term risk for crimes. In the years under investigation, the incidence rates of diagnosed ADHD...... had significantly increased and the majority of ADHD diagnoses given to children and adolescents could be confirmed and were given based on high-quality clinical assessments. Results supported that children and adolescents with ADHD constitute a heterogeneous group that often have comorbid psychiatric...

  7. Language Characteristics of Children with ADHD.

    Kim, Okmi H.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    2000-01-01

    Language characteristics of 11 children (ages 6-8) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 11 typically developing children were compared for semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language skills. Findings indicated no differences on receptive vocabulary, but children with ADHD performed worse on tests of expressive speech and…

  8. ADHD

    ... be overly active. What are some of the signs of ADHD? Many children have trouble focusing and behaving at ... it is very important to get help for ADHD as early as possible. Additional Information: http: / / www. cdc. gov/ ...

  9. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  10. Examining autistic traits in children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but n...

  11. Narratives of parents of children with ADHD: a sociological analysis

    Parer, Justine Penelope

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines and explores the issues around ADHD for parents of children with ADHD. Interviews with parents are analysed using qualitative methods, and supported by data from the Norwegian ADHD magazine. The first section gives a history of the development of ADHD, and an overview of the Norwegian ADHD Association. Next we consider sociological theories of medicalisation, deviance and the sick role; risk and expertise; and feminist work on ADHD. The method used is qualitative, ...

  12. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  13. Vigilance and Sustained Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Walitza, Susanne; Sontag, Thomas A.; Laufkotter, Rainer; Linder, Martin; Lange, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present article tests the hypothesis of a sustained attention deficit in children and adults suffering from ADHD. Method: Vigilance and sustained attention of 52 children with ADHD and 38 adults with ADHD were assessed using a computerized vigilance task. Furthermore, the attentional performance of healthy children (N = 52) and…

  14. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion…

  15. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  16. Longer Eye Contact Improves ADHD Children's Compliance with Parents' Commands

    Kapalka, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eye contact in reducing ADHD children's problems with compliance. Seventy-six parents of ADHD boys between ages 5 and 10 were randomized into two treatment groups and a control group. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that, as hypothesized, eye contact was effective in reducing ADHD children's problems with…

  17. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  18. Multitasking performance of Chinese children with ADHD.

    Chan, Raymond C K; Guo, Miaoyan; Zou, Xiaobing; Li, Dan; Hu, Zhouyi; Yang, Binrang

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese sample of 22 children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ. All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring. PMID:16981611

  19. Diagnosis and management of ADHD in children.

    Felt, Barbara T; Biermann, Bernard; Christner, Jennifer G; Kochhar, Param; Harrison, Richard Van

    2014-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder in children, and the prevalence is increasing. Physicians should evaluate for ADHD in children with behavioral concerns (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, oppositionality) or poor academic progress using validated assessment tools with observers from several settings (home, school, community) and self-observation, if possible. Physicians who inherit a patient with a previous ADHD diagnosis should review the diagnostic process, and current symptoms and treatment needs. Coexisting conditions (e.g., anxiety, learning, mood, or sleep disorders) should be identified and treated. Behavioral treatments are recommended for preschool-aged children and may be helpful at older ages. Effective behavioral therapies include parent training, classroom management, and peer interventions. Medications are recommended as first-line therapy for older children. Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are most effective for the treatment of core ADHD symptoms and have generally acceptable adverse effect profiles. There are fewer supporting studies for atomoxetine, guanfacine, and clonidine, and they are less effective than the psychostimulants. Height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms, mood, and treatment adherence should be recorded at follow-up visits. PMID:25369623

  20. Major Depression with ADHD: In Children and Adolescents

    Turgay, Atilla; Ansari, Rubaba

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review recent studies on comorbidity and treatment of major depression (MD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Both ADHD and MD are commonly associated with other DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders. ADHD is more commonly associated with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in children and adolescents. The literature on comorbidities of MD and ADHD suggests that when these two disorders occur togethe...

  1. Diet in the treatment of ADHD in children

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Houmann, Tine; Bilenberg, Niels; Hvolby, Allan; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions in childhood. Dietary changes have been suggested as a way of reducing ADHD symptoms. Aims: To provide an overview of the evidence available on dietary interventions in children with ADHD......, a systematic review was carried out of all dietary intervention studies in children with ADHD. Methods: Relevant databases were searched in October 2011, with an update search in March 2013. The studies included describe diet interventions in children with ADHD or equivalent diagnoses measuring...... possible changes in core ADHD symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Results: A total of 52 studies were identified, some investigating whether ADHD symptoms can improve by avoiding certain food elements (20 studies), and some whether certain food elements may reduce ADHD symptoms (32...

  2. Associations between Family Environment, Parenting Practices, and Executive Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between executive functioning, family environment, and parenting practices in children diagnosed with ADHD as compared to children without ADHD. Participants were parents (N = 134) of 6- to 12-year-old ADHD and non-ADHD-diagnosed children. Compared to the control group, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD reported…

  3. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas; Yegane Kohani; Hasan baniasadi; Fateme Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD child...

  4. Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children

    R. Gupta; Kar, B. R.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder. Typical development of attentional processes is rapid during early childhood. ADHD results in impairment in response inhibition, error monitoring, attentional disengagement, executive attention, and delay aversion and may effect the ongoing development of these processes during childhood. We examined the development of attentional processes in children with ADHD and normal children. Two hundred forty children (120 in...

  5. Perceived Effectiveness of Classroom Management Interventions with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Students

    Conforti, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers are concerned about their ability to work effectively with students who have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to determine the perceived efficacy of common interventions used to address negative ADHD behaviors in the elementary and middle school classrooms. The…

  6. Visual Search by Children with and without ADHD

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Klein, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the literature that has employed visual search tasks to assess automatic and effortful selective visual attention in children with and without ADHD. Method: Seven studies with a combined sample of 180 children with ADHD (M age = 10.9) and 193 normally developing children (M age = 10.8) are located. Results: Using a…

  7. Response inhibition in children with and without ADHD after traumatic brain injury

    Ornstein, Tisha J.; Psych, C.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Schachar, Russell; Dennis, Maureen; Barnes, Marcia; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) show deficient response inhibition. ADHD itself is a common consequence of TBI, known as secondary ADHD (S-ADHD). Similarity in inhibitory control in children with TBI, S-ADHD, and ADHD would implicate impaired frontostriatal systems; however, it is first necessary to delineate similarities and differences in inhibitory control in these conditions. We compared performance of children with ADHD and t...

  8. Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD?

    Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Zammit, Stanley; Thapar, Anita; Langley, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Although Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised to be a familial and heritable disorder, little is known about the broader family characteristics of having a parent with ADHD problems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parent ADHD problems, child clinical presentation and family functioning in a sample of children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 570 children with ADHD. Child psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured dia...

  9. Home environment: association with hyperactivity/impulsivity in children with ADHD and their non-ADHD siblings.

    Anney, Richard

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED We wished to ascertain if there is an association between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and home environment in children with ADHD and non-ADHD siblings, controlling for other environmental measures. METHODS: 96 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) and their siblings participated in the study. Parent and teacher Conners' rating scales were completed and home environment was assessed using the middle childhood and early adolescent Home Ob...

  10. Implementation Intentions Facilitate Response Inhibition in Children with ADHD

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with action control problems such as failure to inhibit inappropriate responses. Two studies investigated whether self-regulation by implementation intentions (if-then plans; Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493 503) facilitates response inhibition in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with ADHD who furnished a suppression goal with implementation ...

  11. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    Starck M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Martina Starck,1 Julia Grünwald,1 Angelika A Schlarb1,21Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty for Psychology and Sport Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, GermanyBackground: Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated.Method: In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested.Results: ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed.Conclusion: As nearly half of the parents

  12. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. Method In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children’s ADHD was tested. Results ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. Conclusion As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent–child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child’s therapy outcome. In the

  13. An Exploration into the Creative Abilities of Children with ADHD

    Healey, Dione; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether ADHD is associated with high creative ability. Sixty-seven children, ages 10 to 12 (33 ADHD and 34 controls) completed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT), Maier's Two-String Problem, and the Block Design and Vocabulary subsets of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).…

  14. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...

  15. Sport Participation and Anxiety in Children with ADHD

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Weden, Sarah; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined the psychological benefits of physical activity in children with ADHD who may be at higher risk for mood and anxiety problems. This study explores the relationship between participation in physical activity and emotional functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Scores on parent-reported measures of mood and…

  16. Clock Face Drawing Test Performance in Children with ADHD

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls.   Material & methods: 95 children with ADHD and 191 school children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the following four functions were assessed: Contour score, Numbers score, Hands setting score, and Center score    Results: All the subscales scores of the three clock drawing tests of the ADHD group were lower than that of the control group. In ADHD children, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were not related with free drawn clock test scores. When pre-drawn contour test was performed, inattentiveness score was statistically associated with Number score. None of the other variables of age, gender, intellectual functioning, and hand use preference were associated with Numbers score. In pre-drawn clock, no association of ADHD symptoms with any CDT subscales was significant. In addition, more errors are observed with free drawn clock and Pre-drawn contour than pre-drawn clock.    Conclusion: Putting Numbers and Hands setting are more sensitive measures to screen ADHD than Contour and Center drawing. Test performance, except Hands setting, may have already reached a developmental plateau. It is probable that Hand setting deficit in children with ADHD may not decrease from age 8 to 14 years. Performance of children with ADHD is associated with the complexity of CDT.

  17. Comorbidities in ADHD children treated with methylphenidate: a database study

    Kraut Angela A; Langner Ingo; Lindemann Christina; Banaschewski Tobias; Petermann Ulrike; Petermann Franz; Mikolajczyk Rafael T; Garbe Edeltraut

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most common drug treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Treatment with MPH is contraindicated in the presence of certain psychiatric, cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions. We assessed MPH treatment prevalence and incidence and the frequency of comorbid conditions related to these contraindications in new MPH users compared to a control group without ADHD and ADHD medication. Methods We used health care dat...

  18. Shared Genetic Influences Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Traits in Children and Clinical ADHD

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Owen, Michael J.; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objective Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Method Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < .5 from a genome-wide association study of ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Results Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08–1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04–0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. Conclusion This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. PMID:25791149

  19. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program interventions among 99 children diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4–6). Mother reported significant treatment effects for appropriate and harsh discipline, use o...

  20. Coexisting Disorders and Academic Achievement among Children with ADHD

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Sulak, Tracey N.; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to…

  1. Exploring Language Profiles for Children with ADHD and Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Helland, Wenche Andersen; Biringer, Eva; Helland, Turid; Heimann, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the present study was to investigate communication impairments in a Norwegian sample of children with ADHD and children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and to explore whether children with ADHD can be differentiated from children with AS in terms of their language profiles on the Norwegian adaptation of the Children's…

  2. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD.

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p parent-reported sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p < .01) even after controlling for total sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep. PMID:25765292

  3. Treatment of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Irritability: Results From the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA)

    Fernandez de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J.; Jeffrey M. Halperin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whe...

  4. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  5. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Rubin Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D. Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20 or ADHD+D (n = 36, aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV, Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA, Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C, and Life Participation Scale for ADHD-Child Version (LPS-C were assessed. Results Atomoxetine demonstrated significant improvement for both groups on the ADHDRS-IV, LPS-C, and K-TEA reading comprehension standard and composite scores. K-TEA spelling subtest improvement was significant for the ADHD group, whereas the ADHD+D group showed significant reading decoding improvements. Substantial K-TEA reading and spelling subtest age equivalence gains (in months were achieved for both groups. The WMTB-C central executive score change was significantly greater for the ADHD group. Conversely, the ADHD+D group showed significant phonological loop score enhancement by visit over the ADHD group. Atomoxetine was well tolerated, and commonly reported adverse events were similar to those previously reported. Conclusions Atomoxetine reduced ADHD symptoms and improved reading scores in both groups. Conversely, different patterns and magnitude of improvement in working memory component scores existed between ADHD and ADHD+D patients. Though limited by small sample size, group differences in relation to the comparable changes in improvement in ADHD symptoms could suggest that brain systems related to the therapeutic benefit of atomoxetine in reducing ADHD symptoms may be different in individuals with ADHD+D and ADHD without dyslexia. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00191048

  6. Postural Instability in Children with ADHD Is Improved by Methylphenidate.

    Bucci, Maria P; Stordeur, Coline; Acquaviva, Eric; Peyre, Hugo; Delorme, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Both spatial and temporal analyses of the Center of Pressure demonstrate that children with ADHD have poorer postural control than typically developing sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children.Poor sensory integration in postural control could partially explained the deficits in postural stability in children with ADHD.MPH treatment improves postural performance in both spatial and temporal domains in children with ADHD.MPH improves postural control specifically when visual and proprioceptive inputs are misleading.Such improvement could be due to MPH effects on neurons, facilitating cerebellar processing of postural control. The aim of this study was to examine postural control in children with ADHD and explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH), using spatial and temporal analyses of the center of pressure (CoP). Thirty-eight children with ADHD (mean age 9.82 ± 0.37 years) and 38 sex- age- and IQ-matched children with typically development were examined. Postural stability was evaluated using the Multitest Equilibre machine (Framiral®) at inclusion and after 1 month of MPH in children with ADHD. Postural stability was assessed by recording under several conditions: with eyes open and fixed on a target, with eyes closed and with vision perturbed by optokinetic stimulation, on stable and unstable platforms. At inclusion, we observed poor spatial and temporal postural stability in children with ADHD. The spectral power index was higher in children with ADHD than in controls. Canceling time was shorter at low and medium frequencies of oscillation and longer at higher frequencies in children with ADHD. After 1 month of MPH, the surface area and mean velocity of the CoP decreased significantly under the most complex conditions (unstable platform in the absence of proprioceptive and visual inputs). The spectral power index decreased significantly after MPH while the canceling time did not change. Poor postural control in children with ADHD supports the

  7. Substance Abuse Disorders in the Parents of ADHD Children, and Parents of Normal Children

    Ahmad Alipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children, the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL, Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  8. Strategy Selection in ADHD Characteristics Children: A Study in Arithmetic.

    Sella, Francesco; Re, Anna Maria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare; Lemaire, Patrick

    2012-03-26

    Objective: It has been argued that ADHD characteristics children have difficulties in selecting the best strategy when they accomplish cognitive tasks. The detrimental influence of these poor strategy skills may be crucial for several aspects of academic achievement such as mathematical learning. Method: Fourth- and fifth-grade children with ADHD symptoms and matched controls were asked to select the better of two rounding strategies in a computational estimation task (i.e., finding the best estimate of two-digit addition problems). Results: (a) Both control and ADHD children correctly executed a selected strategy, (b) ADHD children selected the best strategy less often than controls, (c) ADHD took more time to estimate sums of two-digit addition problems and provided poorer estimates, and (d) different factors predicted best strategy selections in each group. Conclusion: These findings have important implications for further understanding the sources of differences in cognitive performance between ADHD and control children. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22451509

  9. Conversational Profiles of Children with ADHD, SLI and Typical Development

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversational indices of language impairment were used to investigate similarities and differences among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and children with typical development (TD). Utterance formulation measures (per cent words mazed and average number of words per…

  10. Effects of Coexisting Disorders on Cognition and Behavior in Children with ADHD

    Crawford, Susan G.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Dewey, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the presence of coexisting disorders affects memory, visual-motor skills, and daily functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Eighty-four boys and 18 girls (8 to 16 years old) participate in this study. Twenty children meet criteria for ADHD alone, 42 children for ADHD plus one other disorder, and 40 children for…

  11. Effect of cognitive intervention on children with ADHD.

    Gharebaghy, Soraya; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Cameron, Debra

    2015-02-01

    Although not considered a diagnostic criterion in DSM-IV, motor difficulties in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are commonly reported. Prevalence of co-morbidity of ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder is as high as 50%. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a problem-solving approach originally developed for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. In this approach, therapists support children to use cognitive strategies in a process of guided discovery to solve occupational performance problems. A single case experimental design (multiple baselines) was used to examine the influence of a 12-week intervention using CO-OP with six children with ADHD. Outcome measures included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Goal Attainment Scaling and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency and Performance (BOTMP). The results of this study demonstrated improvements in both goals and motor performance in the participants due to the intervention. These results provide some support for the use of CO-OP with children with ADHD. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with ADHD is warranted based on these preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties. PMID:25246134

  12. Substance Abuse Disorders in the Parents of ADHD Children, and Parents of Normal Children

    Ahmad Alipour; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Farideh Farokhzadi; Reza Rostami; Mehdi Dehestani

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders an...

  13. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a rel...

  14. Accessible online neuroplasticity-targeted training for children with ADHD

    Mishra, Jyoti; Merzenich, Michael M; Sagar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a growing mental health concern worldwide. Effective, accessible and low-cost therapeutics for the disorder are urgently needed. Here we introduce a novel internet-based cognitive training intervention: Online Neuroplasticity-based Training for the Remediation of ADHD in Children (ONTRAC). The intervention is deployed in the home setting; it is customized to the cognitive capacities of each child and progressively improves performan...

  15. Accessible online neuroplasticity-targeted training for children with ADHD

    Mishra, Jyoti; Merzenich, Michael M; Sagar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a growing mental health concern worldwide. Effective, accessible and low-cost therapeutics for the disorder are urgently needed. Here we introduce a novel internet-based cognitive training intervention: Online Neuroplasticity-based Training for the Remediation of ADHD in Children (ONTRAC). The intervention is deployed in the home setting; it is customized to the cognitive capacities of each child and progressively im...

  16. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; Zhang,Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Meth...

  17. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...

  18. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  19. Intervening to Improve Communication between Parents, Teachers, and Primary Care Providers of Children with ADHD or at High Risk for ADHD

    Wolraich, Mark L.; Bickman, Leonard; Lambert, E. Warren; Simmons, Tonya; Doffing, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines interventions designed to improve communication between individuals who take care of children with ADHD. A teacher rating of 6,171 elementary school children identifies 1,573 children with ADHD or with high risk for ADHD. Parent interviews and information from teachers are collected on 243 children who are randomized into…

  20. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  1. Combining Parent and Child Training for Young Children with ADHD

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…

  2. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children. PMID:19820986

  3. Social inclusion of children with ADHD in primary school

    Remic, Erika

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with social inclusion of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in primary school, as most children with ADHD (52–82%) also have notable and hindering social difficulties, but the problems are usually not recognised appropriately. The quality of peer relationships and thus also social inclusion is largely bound to the effectiveness of pupils in making contact with their peers, which is reflected in the use of social skills (Košir Pečjak 2002). Children w...

  4. Language and executive functioning in children with ADHD

    Parigger, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines language abilities of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compares these abilities to those of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children. Executive functioning, an umbrella term for various higher order cognitive processes, and responsible for goal-directed behaviour, is also examined. Moreover, the study explores the possibility that executive dysfunctioning may be specifically linked to pragmatic lang...

  5. Classification of ADHD children through multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Jing Hua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common diseases in school-age children. To date, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly subjective and studies of objective diagnostic method are of great importance. Although many efforts have been made recently to investigate the use of structural and functional brain images for the diagnosis purpose, few of them are related to ADHD. In this paper, we introduce an automatic classification framework based on brain imaging features of ADHD patients, and present in detail the feature extraction, feature selection and classifier training methods. The effects of using different features are compared against each other. In addition, we integrate multimodal image features using multi-kernel learning (MKL. The performance of our framework has been validated in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, which is a world-wide classification contest on the ADHD-200 datasets. In this competition, our classification framework using features of resting-state functional connectivity was ranked the 6th out of 21 participants under the competition scoring policy, and performed the best in terms of sensitivity and J-statistic.

  6. Predictive Validity of Attentional Functions in Differentiating Children with and without ADHD: A Componential Analysis

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zieren, Nikola; Zotter, Sibylle; Karall, Daniela; Scholl-Burgi, Sabine; Haberlandt, Edda; Fimm, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate which attentional components are of predictive utility in differentiating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, combined type (ADHD-C) from their peers without ADHD. Methods: Thirty-four children participated in the study: 17 males with ADHD-C (mean age 10y 4mo, SD 1y 9mo) and…

  7. Children with ADHD and Depression: A Multisource, Multimethod Assessment of Clinical, Social, and Academic Functioning

    Blackman, Gabrielle L.; Ostrander, Rick; Herman, Keith C.

    2005-01-01

    Although ADHD and depression are common comorbidities in youth, few studies have examined this particular clinical presentation. To address method bias limitations of previous research, this study uses multiple informants to compare the academic, social, and clinical functioning of children with ADHD, children with ADHD and depression, and…

  8. Impaired Behavior Regulation under Conditions of Concurrent Variable Schedules of Reinforcement in Children with ADHD

    Taylor, David; Lincoln, Alan J.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To bridge theory of response inhibition and learning in children with ADHD. Method: Thirty ADHD and 30 non-ADHD children (ages 9-12) were compared under concurrent variable interval (VI-15 sec., VI-30 sec. and VI- 45 sec.) reinforcement schedules that required the child to switch between the three schedules under conditions of…

  9. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  10. The Reciprocal Relationship of ASD, ADHD, Depressive Symptoms and Stress in Parents of Children with ASD and/or ADHD

    van Steijn, Daphne J.; Oerlemans, Anoek M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parental Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depressive symptoms on parenting stress in 174 families with children with ASD and/or ADHD, using generalized linear models and structural equation models. Fathers and mothers reported more stress when parenting with…

  11. Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD: A comparison between subtypes.

    Nastaran Ahmadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the differences between ADHD subtypes in executive function tasks compared to themselves and normal controls.In this study, 45 school aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and 30 normal children who were matched based on age and IQ score in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R were compared in terms of executive function. We used Wisconsin Sorting Card Test to assess executive function in both groups. We also used children's scores in Children Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 for diagnosing ADHD and specifying ADHD subtypes. Data were entered in SPSS-17 and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA static tests to clarify the differences between ADHD and controls and between ADHD subtypes. Scheffe's test was also used to identify which groups were different from one another. The mean and standard divisions (SD were used for descriptive analysis.ADHD subtypes are significantly different in terms of perseverative responses (p≤ 0/01 and perseverative errors (p≤ 0/001. Based on Scheffe's test, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Hyperactive type (ADHD-H is not that different from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Inattention type (ADHD-I and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders-Combined type (ADHD-C, but there are significant responses and perseverative differences between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in terms of perseverative errors. ADHD-C shows more perseverative responses and perseverative errors than ADHD-I.The findings of this study revealed that executive function patterns are different in children with ADHD compared to normal children. In this study it was also found that ADHD subtypes are also different in terms of perseveration and response inhibition domains; ADHD-C has more deficits in these domains.

  12. Treating ADHD in Children and Teens: Choosing the Safest and Most Effective Drugs

    ... ADHD)? ADHD is one of the most common behavior problems in school-aged children. It stands for “ ... may have trouble paying attention or controlling their behavior. They may struggle in school, jobs, and relationships, ...

  13. Can the "Children's Communication Checklist" Differentiate between Children with Autism, Children with ADHD, and Normal Controls?

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Verte, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; Hartman, Catharina A.; Mulder, Erik J.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC; Bishop, 1998) is a questionnaire that was developed to measure pragmatic language use and may be completed by parents and teachers. Two studies are reported, which were designed to investigate: (1) whether children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) encounter pragmatic…

  14. Executive Dysfunction in Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Javad Alaghband-Rad; Reza Rad Goodarzi; Mehdi Tehrani-Doost

    2007-01-01

    "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to compare the executive functions children and adolescents who suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder "n(ADHD) with normal children. "nMethod: Twenty children with ADHD were compared to 19 healthy children terms of some executive functions using the computerized version of Tower London, Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and Stroop Color Test. "nResults: In "Tower of London", the performance of children with ADHD was "nworse than normal...

  15. What place for lisdexamfetamine in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the commonest behavioural disorder in the UK, affecting 2-5% of school-aged children and young people.(1) Guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) state that medication is not indicated as first-line treatment for school-age children and young people with ADHD, but should be reserved for those with severe symptoms and impairment, or those with moderate levels of impairment who have refused non-drug interventions, or those whose symptoms have not responded sufficiently to parent-training/education programmes or group psychological treatment.(2) Current drug options include methylphenidate (first-line), atomoxetine (first- or second-line) or dexamfetamine (second- or third-line).(2) Lisdexamfetamine (Elvanse-Shire Pharmaceuticals) is a prodrug of dexamfetamine, licensed as part of a comprehensive treatment programme for ADHD in children aged 6 years and over when response to previous methylphenidate treatment is considered clinically inadequate.(3,4) Here we review the place of lisdexamfetamine in the management of ADHD in children and adolescents. PMID:24113146

  16. Effect of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate on Sleep in Children with ADHD

    Giblin, John M.; Strobel, Aaron L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential effects of short-term treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on both subjective and objective sleep characteristics in children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 24) with ADHD. Method: Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraph measures as well as assessments of subjective sleep parameters were examined in…

  17. Heart rate variability and sustained attention in ADHD children

    Börger, N.A.; Van der Meere, J.J.; Ronner, A.; Alberts, E.; Geuze, R.H.; Bogte, H

    1999-01-01

    The major goal of the current study was to investigate the association between continuous performance tests (CPTs) and the heart rate variability (HRV) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. The HRV, specifically the 0.10-Hz component, may be considered to be a psychophysiologi

  18. Sleep and COMT Polymorphism in ADHD Children: Preliminary Actigraphic Data

    Gruber, Reut; Grizenko, Natalie; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Gauthier, Julie; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) polymorphism modulates aspects of sleep in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Nightly sleep actigraphic recordings during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical study (1 week of 0.5 mg/kg MPH; 1 week of placebo) were…

  19. Children with low working memory and children with ADHD: same or different?

    Holmes, Joni; Hilton, Kerry A; Place, Maurice; Alloway, Tracy P; Elliott, Julian G; Gathercole, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare working memory (WM), executive function, academic ability, and problem classroom behaviors in children aged 8-11 years who were either identified via routine screening as having low WM, or had been diagnosed with ADHD. Standardized assessments of WM, executive function and reading and mathematics were administered to 83 children with ADHD, 50 children with low WM and 50 typically developing children. Teachers rated problem behaviors on checklists measuring attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional behavior, and difficulties associated with executive function in the classroom. The ADHD and low WM groups had highly similar WM and executive function profiles, but were distinguished in two key respects: children with ADHD had higher levels of rated and observed impulsive behavior, and children with low WM had slower response times. Possible mechanisms for these common and distinct deficits are discussed. PMID:25538599

  20. Children with low working memory and children with ADHD: same or different?

    Joni Holmes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare working memory (WM, executive function, academic ability and problem classroom behaviors in children aged 8 to 11 years who were either identified via routine screening as having low WM, or had been diagnosed with ADHD. Standardised assessments of WM, executive function and reading and mathematics were administered to 83 children with ADHD, 50 children with low WM and 50 typically developing children. Teachers rated problem behaviors on checklists measuring attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional behavior, and difficulties associated with executive function in the classroom. The ADHD and low WM groups had highly similar WM and executive function profiles, but were distinguished in two key respects: children with ADHD had higher levels of rated and observed impulsive behavior, and children low WM had slower response times. Possible mechanisms for these common and distinct deficits are discussed.

  1. The Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Anxiety in Children

    Jarrett, Matthew Adam

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety. The experimental treatment involved a combination of parent management training for ADHD and family-based treatment for anxiety. Sessions lasted approximately 90 minutes, and the treatment consisted of 10 weekly sessions. 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C) and at least one of three anxiety disorders (separation anxiety disorder, gener...

  2. ADHD characteristics: I. Concurrent co-morbidity patterns in children & adolescents

    Ambrosini Paul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective 342 Caucasian subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were recruited from pediatric and behavioral health clinics for a genetic study. Concurrent comorbidity was assessed to characterize the clinical profile of this cohort. Methods Subjects 6 to 18 years were diagnosed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia for School aged Children (K-SADS-P IVR. Results The most prevalent diagnoses co-occurring with ADHD were Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD (40.6%, Minor Depression/Dysthymia (MDDD (21.6%, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD (15.2%. In Inattentive ADHD (n = 106, 20.8% had MDDD, 20.8% ODD, and 18.6% GAD; in Hyperactive ADHD (n = 31 41.9% had ODD, 22.2% GAD, and 19.4% MDDD. In Combined ADHD, (n = 203, 50.7% had ODD, 22.7% MDDD and 12.4% GAD. MDDD and GAD were equally prevalent in the ADHD subtypes but, ODD was significantly more common among Combined and Hyperactive ADHD compared to Inattentive ADHD. The data suggested a subsample of Irritable prepubertal children exhibiting a diagnostic triad of ODD, Combined ADHD, and MDDD may account for the over diagnosing of Bipolar Disorder. Conclusion Almost 2/3rd of ADHD children have impairing comorbid diagnoses; Hyperactive ADHD represents less than 10% of an ADHD sample; ODD is primarily associated with Hyperactive and Combined ADHD; and, MDDD may be a significant morbidity for ADHD youths from clinical samples.

  3. ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the...... possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a relaxed state similar to the one offered by traditional breathing exercises. Further, we analyze the opportunities and...

  4. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Aaron T. Piepmeier; Chia-Hao Shih; Margaret Whedon; Lauren M. Williams; Matthew E. Davis; David A. Henning; SeYun Park; Calkins, Susan D.; Jennifer L. Etnier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. ...

  5. Influence of Anxiety on the Social Functioning of Children with and without ADHD

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Ransone, Megan L.; Calhoun, Casey D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined the contribution of anxiety to the social functioning of children with and without ADHD. Method: Participants were 62 children with ADHD (ages 6-10 years and 68% boys) and 62 age- and sex-matched comparison children. Children's social functioning was measured through parent and teacher reports, observations…

  6. Predicting Parenting Stress in Families of Children with ADHD: Parent and Contextual Factors

    Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria A.; Marton, Imola

    2011-01-01

    We examined parental ADHD symptoms and contextual (parental education, social support, marital status) predictors of parent domain parenting stress (parental distress) as a function of child ADHD symptoms in a sample of 95 parents of 8 to 12 year-old children with and without ADHD. Parents' perceptions of parental distress and social support were…

  7. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training for Children with ADHD and Mindful Parenting for their Parents

    van der Oord, Saskia; Bogels, Susan M.; Peijnenburg, Dorreke

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for children aged 8-12 with ADHD and parallel mindful parenting training for their parents. Parents (N = 22) completed questionnaires on their child's ADHD and ODD symptoms, their own ADHD symptoms, parenting stress, parental overreactivity, permissiveness and mindful…

  8. Gender Differences among Children with ADHD on Continuous Performance Tests: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…

  9. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study.

    Green, Jessica Leigh; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project. ADHD was assessed in two stages using the parent and teacher Conners' 3 ADHD index and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV). ASD symptoms were identified using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression examined continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Children with ADHD had more ASD symptoms than non-ADHD controls (adjusted mean difference=4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8; 5.3, pADHD had greater ASD symptom severity than girls with ADHD (adjusted mean difference=2.9, 95% CI 0.8; 5.2, p=0.01, effect size=0.4). Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity (regression co-efficient=1.6, 95% CI 1.2; 2.0, pADHD subtype. Greater hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with greater ASD symptoms (regression coefficient=1.0; 95% CI 0.0; 2.0, p=0.04) however, this finding attenuated in adjusted analyses (p=0.45). ASD symptoms are common in children with ADHD. It is important for clinicians to assess for ASD symptoms to ensure appropriate intervention. PMID:26433184

  10. ADHD

    ... been a problem. Schools can also play a part in helping students with ADHD. Most schools will develop a plan ... they head off to college or start a job. When the time comes for you to do this, you may ...

  11. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  12. Quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Juliana Barbosa Goulardins; Juliana Cristina Fernandes Bilhar Marques; Erasmo Barbante Casella

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of psychomotor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may help in defining therapeutic approaches in order to minimize losses in their quality of life. The study objectives were to evaluate the quality of life and psychomotor profile of children with ADHD and check your correlation. Fourteen children, from seven to ten years, with ADHD combined type were evaluate using the scales PedsQL™ and Motor Development Scale. Results showed adverse ef...

  13. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological benefits from white noise in children with and without ADHD

    Baijot, Simon; Slama, Hichem; Söderlund, Göran; Dan, Bernard; Deltenre, Paul; Colin, Cécile; Deconinck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimal stimulation theory and moderate brain arousal (MBA) model hypothesize that extra-task stimulation (e.g. white noise) could improve cognitive functions of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigate benefits of white noise on attention and inhibition in children with and without ADHD (7–12 years old), both at behavioral and at neurophysiological levels. Methods Thirty children with and without ADHD performed a visual cued Go/Nogo task in two...

  14. Triple P-Positive Parenting Program for Mothers of ADHD Children

    Aghebati, Asma; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Hakim Shoshtari, Mitra; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder which affects 9% of school-age children. Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is an evidence-based parenting program reported to be useful in the management of this disorder. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Triple P in mothers of ADHD children. Methods: In this study, 30 mothers with ADHD children aged between 6 to 10 were random...

  15. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and ADHD in Children

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Liew, Zeyan; Li, Jiong; Niclasen, Janni; Obel, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal smoking has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but the causal nature of this association is still under scrutiny. We examined the association with maternal smoking and nicotine replacement use during pregnancy, using...... association with paternal smoking as a marker of potential genetic or social confounding.METHODS: We included 84 803 singletons who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on parental smoking was reported by the mothers during pregnancy. Children with ADHD were identified from the Danish...... Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish National Patient Register, and the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnosis or medication. We also used hyperactivity/inattention score of the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties...

  16. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Allen, Elena A; Eichele, Heike;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We acquired...... functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8-12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions and...... higher RT variability, but no differences of interference control. Larger BOLD amplitude to error trials significantly predicted reduced RT variability across all participants. Neither group showed evidence of post-error response slowing; however, post-error adaptation in motor networks was significantly...

  17. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses...

  18. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... children is aggravated by comorbid anxiety. (J. of Att. Dis. 2010; XX(X) 1-XX)....

  19. Co-Occurrence of ODD and CD in Preschool Children With Symptoms of ADHD

    Bendiksen, Bothild; Svensson, Elisabeth; Aase, Heidi; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Friis, Svein; Myhre, Anne M; Zeiner, Pål

    2014-01-01

    characteristics were recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and clinically assessed, including a semi-structured psychiatric interview. RESULTS: In children with ADHD, concurrent ODD was present more often than CD (31% vs. 10%), but having ADHD gave higher increase in the odds of CD than of......OBJECTIVE: Patterns of co-occurrence between ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Conduct Disorder (CD) were examined in a sample of non-referred preschool children. ADHD subtypes and sex differences were also explored. METHOD: Children aged 3.5 years (n = 1,048) with high scores on ADHD...... ODD (ODD: odds ratio [OR] = 6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.2, 10.8]; CD: OR = 17.6, 95% CI = [5.9, 52.9]). We found a greater proportion of children having the combined ADHD subtype as well as more severe inattentiveness among children with co-occurring CD compared with ODD. Sex differences...

  20. Differentiating SLI from ADHD Using Children's Sentence Recall and Production of Past Tense Morphology

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    Measures of sentence recall and past tense marking were used to examine the similarities and differences between children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with specific language impairment (SLI), and typically developing (TD) children. Both SLI and ADHD group means for sentence recall tasks were significantly lower…

  1. Private Speech in Children with ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers during Problem-Solving and Inhibition Tasks

    Corkum, Penny; Humphries, Kelly; Mullane, Jennifer C.; Theriault, France

    2008-01-01

    This study compared private speech of children with ADHD and normal controls during problem solving and inhibition tasks. Thirty-two children (16 children with ADHD and 16 matched controls) aged 6-11 years participated. Consistent with previous studies, children with ADHD produced more task-irrelevant and task-relevant external private speech than…

  2. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison with Children with ADHD

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically referred children aged 7-18 years. DSM-IV…

  3. Children with ADHD Symptoms Are Less Susceptible to Gap-Filling Errors than Typically Developing Children

    Mirandola, C.; Paparella, G.; Re, A. M.; Ghetti, S.; Cornoldi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced semantic processing is associated with increased false recognition of items consistent with studied material, suggesting that children with poor semantic skills could produce fewer false memories. We examined whether memory errors differed in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and controls. Children viewed 18…

  4. Dissociable Response Inhibition in Children With Tourette's Syndrome Compared With Children With ADHD

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Skogli, Erik Winther;

    2013-01-01

    response did not distinguish between groups. A cautious tendency of response correlated positively with rates of tics in children with TS. Conclusion: Children with TS were superior in inhibiting a prepotent verbal response; however, comorbidity with ADHD in those children negatively influenced performance...

  5. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Rating Scales–Revised. Significant differences were found in Social, Competence and Academic areas of self-esteem between children with ADHD, with E and TD. Moreover, parents of children with ADHD showed a higher overall stress than both other groups. In conclusion, it seems important to evaluate the psychological aspects of ADHD con-dition, both in children and in parents, in order to suggest an individual multimodal treatment. PMID:25614755

  6. A Comparison between Children with ADHD and Children with Epilepsy in Self-Esteem and Parental Stress Level

    Gagliano, Antonella; Lamberti, Marco; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Ciuffo, Massimo; Boncoddo, Maria; Maggio, Roberta; Rosina, Simona; Cedro, Clemente; Germanò, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with negative psychological outcomes. This study explores the relationship between self-esteem, ADHD symptoms and parental stress. It compares children with ADHD, children with epilepsy (E) and typical developmental controls (TD). Participants included 65 children (aged 9-12 yrs) and their parents. The assessment was conducted by Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale (MSCS), Parent Stress Index (PSI) and Conners' Parent Ra...

  7. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention. PMID:26429569

  8. The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children.

    Abikoff, H; Courtney, M E; Szeibel, P J; Koplewicz, H S

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of extra-task stimulation on the academic task performance of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty boys with ADHD and 20 nondisabled boys worked on an arithmetic task during high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech), and no stimulation (silence). The music "distractors" were individualized for each child, and the arithmetic problems were at each child's ability level. A significant Group x Condition interaction was found for number of correct answers. Specifically, the nondisabled youngsters performed similarly under all three auditory conditions. In contrast, the children with ADHD did significantly better under the music condition than speech or silence conditions. However, a significant Group x Order interaction indicated that arithmetic performance was enhanced only for those children with ADHD who received music as the first condition. The facilitative effects of salient auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of the children with ADHD provide some support for the underarousal/optimal stimulation theory of ADHD. PMID:8732885

  9. Sleep problems and daily functioning in children with ADHD: An investigation of the role of impairment, ADHD presentations, and psychiatric comorbidity

    Sørensen, Anne Virring; Lambek, Rikke; Jennum, Poul; Møller, Lene Ruge; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little systematic information is available regarding how sleep problems influence daytime functioning in children with ADHD, as the role of ADHD presentations and comorbidity is unclear. METHOD: In total, 397 children were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the...... problem profile, but having a comorbid internalizing or autistic disorder lead to higher sleep problem score. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems and impaired daily functioning were more common in children with ADHD, but the overall association between sleep problems and impaired daily functioning was similar in...... Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, and the ADHD Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found a moderate, positive correlation between sleep problems and impaired functioning in both children with ADHD and in typically developed children. ADHD presentations did not differ significantly with respect to sleep...

  10. The study comparing parenting style of children with ADHD and normal children

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based on social learning models, is an effective and practical way for treatment of children with incongruent behavior. In this study, we evaluate parenting styles of ADHD children and normal children. Methods. This study was conducted in Zahedan in 2012. Subjects aged 7 to 12. They were divided into patient and normal groups. Parenting styles were evaluated with Baumrind’s questionnaire. The data were analyzed with SPSS ver.18. Results. The findings showed that the parents of ADHD children have lower permissive score than the normal group, but authoritarian score was lower in the normal group. The authoritative score has no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, age, gender, and parent’s education affected the parenting styles. Discussion. The present study indicates that parents with ADHD children have different parenting styles; and factors like gender and parents education are influential in parenting methods. This finding were also present in some past surveys. Many studies have shown that teaching-parenting styles to parents with ADHD children improves the inner family relationship. Conclusion . The results indicated that parents of children with ADHD are less permissive but more authoritarian in their parenting.

  11. Promoting Family and School Success for Children With ADHD: Strengthening Relationships While Building Skills

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with ADHD typically experience significant impairment at home and school, and their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers often are strained. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD generally focus on behavior change in one environment at a time (i.e., either home or school); however, unisystemic interventions generally are not sufficient. The purpose of this article is to describe a family–school intervention for children with ADHD. In addition, program strategies and theoreti...

  12. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour in South African children

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviour of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is characterized by low predictability of responding. Low behavioural predictability is one way of operationalizing intra-individual ADHD-related variability. ADHD-related variability may be caused by inefficient behavioural selection mechanisms linked to reinforcement and extinction, as suggested by the recently published dynamic developmental theory (DDT of ADHD. DDT argues that ADHD is a basic neurobehavioural disorder, caused by dysfunctioning dopamine systems. For establishing ADHD as a neurobehavioural disorder, findings from studies conducted in Western countries should be replicated in other cultural populations. The present study replicated the study conducted in Norway, with children from the Limpopo province in the Republic of South Africa. Methods Boys and girls, aged 6–9 yr, from seven ethnic groups participated. Scores by teachers on the Disruptive Behavior Disorders rating scale defined participation in either ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive (-HI, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (-PI, or ADHD-combined (-C groups. Children below the 86th percentile were matched on gender and age and comprised the non-ADHD group. The children completed a computerized game-like task where mouse clicks on one of two squares on the screen resulted in delivery of a reinforcer according to a variable interval schedule of reinforcement. Reinforcers were cartoon pictures presented on the screen together with a sound. Predictability of response location and timing were measured in terms of explained variance. Results Overall, the results replicated findings from Norway. Specifically, the ADHD-C group showed significantly lower predictability of responding than the non-ADHD group, while the ADHD-HI and the ADHD-PI groups were in-between. In accordance with the previous study, response location, but not response timing, was a sensitive behavioural measure. There were no

  13. Are GPs adequately equipped with the knowledge for educating and counseling of families with ADHD children?

    Zarei Nabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP, as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, the duration of practice as a GP, marital status, general knowledge about ADHD, and the management of ADHD. Results Less than half of them believed that they have adequate knowledge and information about this disorder. They usually do not like to be the primary care providers for children with ADHD. The majority of them prefer to refer the children to related specialists, mostly psychiatrists or psychologists. More than one third of them believed that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Only 6.6% of them reported that ADHD persists for the whole life. Their knowledge about methylphenidate is reasonable. Conclusions As many other countries worldwide, the knowledge of GPs about ADHD should be improved. They do not asses and manage children with probable ADHD by themselves without referring to related professionals. They do not opt for the use of methylphenidate.

  14. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression.

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna; Agha, Sharifah Shameem; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Anney, Richard J L; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Neale, Benjamin M; Franke, Barbara; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Merwood, Andrew; Kuntsi, Jonna; Medland, Sarah E; Ripke, Stephan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Freitag, Christine; Reif, Andreas; Renner, Tobias J; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Meyer, Jobst; Palmason, Haukur; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Lambregts-Rommelse, Nanda; Roeyers, Herbert; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rothenberger, Aribert; Banaschewski, Tobias; Oades, Robert D; McGough, James J; Kent, Lindsey; Williams, Nigel; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael C; Thapar, Anita

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher genetic loading and clinical severity. The authors examine whether common genetic variants considered en masse as polygenic scores for ADHD are especially enriched in children with comorbid conduct disorder. METHOD Polygenic scores derived from an ADHD GWAS meta-analysis were calculated in an independent ADHD sample (452 case subjects, 5,081 comparison subjects). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to compare polygenic scores in the ADHD and comparison groups and test for higher scores in ADHD case subjects with comorbid conduct disorder relative to comparison subjects and relative to those without comorbid conduct disorder. Association with symptom scores was tested using linear regression. RESULTS Polygenic risk for ADHD, derived from the meta-analysis, was higher in the independent ADHD group than in the comparison group. Polygenic score was significantly higher in ADHD case subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. CONCLUSIONS Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD indexes genetic as well as clinical severity. PMID:23599091

  15. What Do Primary and Secondary School Teachers Know About ADHD in Children?

    Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Steen-Jensen, T.; Bang-Schnack, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify what primary and secondary school teachers know about ADHD in children and, furthermore, to identify which factors predict their knowledge. METHOD: A 29-item questionnaire about ADHD was distributed to a random, nationwide, and representative sample of Danish primary and se...... knowledge about ADHD to successfully include and manage children with ADHD and, additionally, to ensure positive working environments for teachers and support constructive school-home working collaborations.......OBJECTIVE: To identify what primary and secondary school teachers know about ADHD in children and, furthermore, to identify which factors predict their knowledge. METHOD: A 29-item questionnaire about ADHD was distributed to a random, nationwide, and representative sample of Danish primary and...

  16. Validating neuropsychological subtypes of ADHD: how do children with and without an executive function deficit differ?

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD).......The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD)....

  17. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  18. Sleep Hygiene and Melatonin Treatment for Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Initial Insomnia

    Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for initial insomnia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Twenty-seven stimulant-treated children (6-14 years of age) with ADHD and initial insomnia (greater than 60 minutes) received sleep hygiene intervention. Nonresponders were…

  19. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  20. Time Perception, Phonological Skills and Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia and/or ADHD Symptoms

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method: Children…

  1. The Effect of Ritalin on Response to Reward and Punishment in Children with ADHD.

    Arnett, Peter A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Groups of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children taking a placebo, high dose, or low dose of Ritalin were compared in their responses to reward and punishment. Results suggest that Ritalin may improve the ability of ADHD children to withhold inappropriate responding by dampening their response to reward cues and, possibly, making…

  2. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  3. Examining the Language Skills of Children with ADHD Following a Play-Based Intervention

    Docking, Kimberley; Munro, Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Ellis, Prudence

    2013-01-01

    Communication and play skills are important aspects of development yet are largely uncharted in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This exploratory study examined whether changes in pragmatic skills and problem-solving skills were observed in children with ADHD pre- and post-participation in a play-based intervention…

  4. Time Course of Treatment Effect of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    Armstrong, Robert B.; Damaraju, C. V.; Ascher, Steve; Schwarzman, Lesley; O'Neill, James; Starr, H. Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the time course of the treatment effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS[R] MPH) HCl (Concerta[R], Raritan, NJ) CII in children with ADHD. Method: Data were combined from two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, analog classroom studies in children (9-12 years) with ADHD.…

  5. Parental Self-Confidence, Parenting Styles, and Corporal Punishment in Families of ADHD Children in Iran

    Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F.; Coolidge, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria…

  6. Early Literacy and Parental Writing Mediation in Young Children with and without ADHD

    Aram, Dorit; Bazelet, Idit; Goldman, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    The study compared early literacy of Israeli children aged five to six years with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), contrasted parental writing mediation in the two groups and tested the relations between parents' mediation characteristics and children's early literacy skills. Each of 62 parent-child dyads (32 with ADHD)…

  7. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...

  8. Suboptimal Decision Making by Children With ADHD in the Face of Risk

    Sørensen, Lin; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Eichele, Heike;

    2016-01-01

    . Based on previous research, we predicted that suboptimal performance on this task in children with ADHD would be primarily relate to problems with risk adjustment and delay aversion rather than general risk proneness. METHOD: Drug naïve children with ADHD (n = 36), 8 to 12 years, and an age...

  9. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  10. Treatment Response in CP/ADHD Children with Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.; Carrey, Normand J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the role of callous/unemotional (CU) traits in response to treatment among children with conduct problems (CP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty-four children with CP/ADHD and 16 controls (age = 9.48, SD = 1.58) took part in a summer treatment and research program. Simple correlations showed that…

  11. Mindfulness Training for Parents and Their Children with ADHD Increases the Children's Compliance

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Judy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Children with ADHD are often non-compliant with parental instructions. Various methods have been used to reduce problem behaviors in these children, with medication and manipulation of behavioral contingencies being the most prevalent. An objection often raised by parents is that these management strategies require them to impose external control…

  12. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Joseph Biederman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monotherapy for the treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder. Thirty-one children and adolescents 4–15 years of age (7.2 ± 2.8 years of both sexes (71%, N = 22 male with pediatric bipolar disorder (YMRS score = 32.9 ± 8.8 and ADHD (ADHD-RS score = 37.9 ± 8.9 were included in these analyses.Results: Improvement in ADHD symptoms was contingent on improvement in manic symptoms. Although both hyperactive/impulsive (−7.5 ± 5.5.6, p < 0.05 and inattentive (−6.8 ± 5.0, p < 0.05 ADHD symptoms were significantly improved with risperidone, improvement was modest, and only 29% of subjects (N = 6 showed a 30% reduction in ADHD rating scale scores and had a CGI-I ≤ 2.Conclusions: These results suggest that that treatment with risperidone is associated with tangible but generally modest improvement of symptoms of ADHD in children with bipolar disorder.Keywords: ADHD, bipolar disorder, children, risperidone

  13. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  14. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children. PMID:27338457

  15. Comorbidities in ADHD children treated with methylphenidate: a database study

    Kraut Angela A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylphenidate (MPH is the most common drug treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. Treatment with MPH is contraindicated in the presence of certain psychiatric, cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions. We assessed MPH treatment prevalence and incidence and the frequency of comorbid conditions related to these contraindications in new MPH users compared to a control group without ADHD and ADHD medication. Methods We used health care data for the years 2004 to 2006 from the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD which includes about 18% of the German population. MPH treatment prevalence and incidence was assessed based on at least one MPH prescription in the given year. In MPH users, the prevalence of psychiatric and other comorbidities was assessed in the quarter of the first MPH prescription and the three preceding quarters, whereas in controls it was assessed in the earliest four quarters of continuous insurance time starting at 01.01.2004 or the start of insurance if this was later. Differences in the presence of comorbid diagnoses between MPH users and controls were tested by logistic regression. Results In 2005, 1.5% of all children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years (2.3% of males and 0.6% of females received MPH in Germany. The proportion of children with a record of a psychiatric comorbidity in any of the nine ICD categories of diagnoses was substantially higher in new MPH users (83% compared to controls (20%. Cerebro- and cardiovascular comorbidities were rare in general. Still, among new MPH users, 2% of males and females had a diagnosis of a pre-existing cardiovascular disorder but only 1.2% of controls. Conclusions Besides MPH treatment prevalence we first publish age-specific incidence rates for Germany. A high proportion of children who were started on MPH had a record of a psychiatric comorbidity preceding the first prescription. Cerebro- and cardiovascular

  16. Facial mimicry in 6-7 year old children with disruptive behavior disorder and ADHD.

    Peter Deschamps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD. However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. METHODS: Electromyographic (EMG activity in response to emotional facial expressions was recorded in 47 children with DBD, 18 children with ADHD and 35 healthy developing children. RESULTS: All groups displayed significant facial mimicry to the emotional expressions of other children. No group differences between children with DBD, children with ADHD and healthy developing children were found. In addition, no differences in facial mimicry were found between the clinical group (i.e., all children with a diagnosis and the typically developing group in an analysis with ADHD symptoms as a covariate, and no differences were found between the clinical children and the typically developing children with DBD symptoms as a covariate. CONCLUSION: Facial mimicry in children with DBD and ADHD throughout the first primary school years was unimpaired, in line with studies on empathy using other paradigms.

  17. High loading of polygenic risk for ADHD in children with comorbid aggression

    Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Martin, Joanna;

    2013-01-01

    subjects with conduct disorder relative to ADHD case subjects without conduct disorder. ADHD polygenic score showed significant association with comorbid conduct disorder symptoms. This relationship was explained by the aggression items. CONCLUSIONS Common genetic variation is relevant to ADHD, especially......OBJECTIVE Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not yet identified any common genetic variants that contribute to risk. There is evidence that aggression or conduct disorder in children with ADHD indexes higher...... in individuals with comorbid aggression. The findings suggest that the previously published ADHD GWAS meta-analysis contains weak but true associations with common variants, support for which falls below genome-wide significance levels. The findings also highlight the fact that aggression in ADHD...

  18. Executive Function and Attention Profiles of Children with ADHD and / or Reading Disorder: Developmental Neuropsychology and Genetic Contributions

    Marzocchi,

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study was to analyze Attention and EF in children with ADHD and/or Reading Disability. Four groups of children aged between 7 and 12 years (38 ADHD-only, 39 RD-only, 17 ADHD+RD and 37 Normal Controls) were tested Energization Processing, Executive Functioning (Inhibition, Set-shifting, Strategy Application and Verbal Fluency) and Episodic Memory. Children with ADHD-only may present a double deficit of Energization and Strategy Application. Energization and Inhibition defici...

  19. Behavioural sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, E; Mensah, F K; Gulenc, A; Hiscock, H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly experience behavioural sleep problems, yet these difficulties are not routinely assessed and managed in this group. Presenting with similar symptoms to ADHD itself, sleep problems are complex in children with ADHD and their aetiology is likely to be multifactorial. Common internalising and externalising comorbidities have been associated with sleep problems in children with ADHD; however, this relationship is ...

  20. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Maria Fernanda Molina

    2015-01-01

    Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their selfperception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It ...

  1. ADHD in Young Children: What You Should Know PSA (:60)

    2016-05-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. For children ages two to five who have ADHD, behavior therapy is recommended before prescribing medicine. This therapy teaches parents ways to improve their child’s behavior and can work as well as medicine, without the risk of side effects.  Created: 5/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/3/2016.

  2. The Children’s Attention Project: a community-based longitudinal study of children with ADHD and non-ADHD controls

    Sciberras Emma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects approximately 5% of children worldwide and results in significant impairments in daily functioning. Few community-ascertained samples of children with ADHD have been studied prospectively to identify factors associated with differential outcomes. The Children’s Attention Project is the first such study in Australia, examining the mental health, social, academic and quality of life outcomes for children with diagnostically-confirmed ADHD compared to non-ADHD controls. The study aims to map the course of ADHD symptoms over time and to identify risk and protective factors associated with differential outcomes. Methods/design The sample for this prospective longitudinal study is being recruited across 43 socio-economically diverse primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. All children in Grade 1, the second year of formal schooling (6–8 years, are screened for ADHD symptoms using independent parent and teacher reports on the Conners’ 3 ADHD index (~N = 5260. Children screening positive for ADHD by both parent and teacher report, and a matched sample (gender, school screening negative, are invited to participate in the longitudinal study. At baseline this involves parent completion of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV to confirm likely ADHD diagnostic status and identify other mental health difficulties, direct child assessments (cognitive, academic, language and executive functioning; height and weight and questionnaires for parents and teachers assessing outcomes, as well as a broad range of risk and protective factors (child, parent/family, teacher/school, and socio-economic factors. Families will be initially followed up for 3 years. Discussion This study is the first Australian longitudinal study of children with ADHD and one of the first community-based longitudinal studies of diagnostically confirmed children with ADHD. The

  3. Decreased Serum Cu/Zn SOD Associated with High Copper in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Russo, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) concentration in children with ADHD and evaluate its possible relationship to Cu and Zn levels. Subjects and methods Serum from 22 children with ADHD and 20 healthy control children without ADHD and 19 autistic children without ADHD were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs and levels of serum Cu and Zn using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of ADHD children were significantly lower than age and gend...

  4. Characterizing heterogeneity in children with and without ADHD based on reward system connectivity

    Taciana G. Costa Dias

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One potential obstacle limiting our ability to clarify ADHD etiology is the heterogeneity within the disorder, as well as in typical samples. In this study, we utilized a community detection approach on 106 children with and without ADHD (aged 7–12 years, in order to identify potential subgroups of participants based on the connectivity of the reward system. Children with ADHD were compared to typically developing children within each identified community, aiming to find the community-specific ADHD characteristics. Furthermore, to assess how the organization in subgroups relates to behavior, we evaluated delay-discounting gradient and impulsivity-related temperament traits within each community. We found that discrete subgroups were identified that characterized distinct connectivity profiles in the reward system. Importantly, which connections were atypical in ADHD relative to the control children were specific to the community membership. Our findings showed that children with ADHD and typically developing children could be classified into distinct subgroups according to brain functional connectivity. Results also suggested that the differentiation in “functional” subgroups is related to specific behavioral characteristics, in this case impulsivity. Thus, combining neuroimaging data and community detection might be a valuable approach to elucidate heterogeneity in ADHD etiology and examine ADHD neurobiology.

  5. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed to...... treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. SEARCH METHODS: In February 2015 we...... methylphenidate to request published and unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing methylphenidate versus placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of ADHD. At least 75% of participants needed to have...

  6. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    Isabel Cubero-Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1 the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2 the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit.

  7. Children With Conduct Problems and Co-occurring ADHD: Behavioral Improvements Following Parent Management Training

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Kjøbli, John; Ogden, Terje

    2015-01-01

    To scale up evidence-based treatment of conduct problems, parent management training, Oregon model (PMTO) has been disseminated throughout Norway. This study examined whether Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) predicted the outcomes of PMTO. Of 253 children and families, 97 were reported to have an ADHD diagnosis. Although different at intake, the groups with and without ADHD had close to an equal change in behavioral status following treatment. Maternal depression and family inc...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ... for side effects. A majority of children who benefit from medication for ADHD will continue to benefit ...

  9. The study comparing parenting style of children with ADHD and normal children

    Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Firouzkouhi; Assareh,Marzeyeh; Heidaripoor, Amirahossein; Rad,Raheleh Eslami; Pishjoo, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is one of the most often diagnosed psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents based on hyperactivity, attention deficit and impulsivity criteria. This disorder causes a lot of problems at home, school and social situations. Considering the family and parenting factors in growth and development of ADHD children, the parenting interventions are consider as a primary intervention programs for this children. Parenting management training, based...

  10. Comparison of hearing of loudness between children with and without ADHD

    Jalili B

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated that comfortable listening and tolerance to loud speech, differs significantly between children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD judged speech to be comfortable of tolerable at loudness levels significantly below those levels chosen by the children without attentional problems. Results of the present study could be interpreted according to the hypothesis presented as indicating that a central auditory ptocessing deficit exists in ADHD children. Other investigators in related disciplines suppot this assumption by identifiying existing problems in the central nervous system for gating and processing of information in children with ADHD. At present, it is hoped that the results and conclusion of the present study will shed light on improved educational management for children with attention deficit disorders. Although this study is based on our clinical findings and measurements, we do not negate the need to verify this clinical based study with data obtained from other carefully controlled studies.

  11. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    Peter Deschamps; Nicolette Munsters; Leon Kenemans; Dennis Schutter; Walter Matthys

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age. Emotional deficits have also been shown in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). AIMS: To examine facial mimicry in younger, 6-7 year old children with DBD and with ADHD. M...

  12. Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method Children with dyslexia-only (n = 17), AS-only (n = 17), comorbid dyslexia+AS (n = 25), and typically developing controls (n = 42), matched for age and non-verb...

  13. Neurocognitive Profile of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD): A comparison between subtypes

    Nastaran Ahmadi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Seyed Mohsen Araghi; Hadi Zarafshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the differences between ADHD subtypes in executive function tasks compared to themselves and normal controls. Method In this study, 45 school aged children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and 30 normal children who were matched based on age and IQ score in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) were compared in terms of executive function. We used Wisconsin Sorting Card Test to assess executive function in ...

  14. Cognitive Deficits and Positively Biased Self-Perceptions in Children with ADHD

    McQuade, Julia D.; Tomb, Meghan; Hoza, Betsy; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Vaughn, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between cognitive deficits and positive bias in a sample of 272 children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; 7–12 years old). Results indicated that children with ADHD with and without biased self-perceptions exhibit differences in specific cognitive deficits (executive processes, working memory, broad attention, and cognitive fluency) compared to each other and to control children. Further, specific cognitive deficits emerged as p...

  15. School-based Multi-component Intervention. Symptoms of Iranian ADHD Children

    Sepideh Shaban; Maznah Baba; Sidek Mohd Noah; Wan Marzuki Wan Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based multi-component intervention that implemented for ADHD school-aged children specially. Participants were 64 school-aged ADHD children that randomly assigned in two study groups including one experimental and one control group. Teachers of these children were invited to participate in the teacher training. Teachers took part in 8 sessions teacher training that involved contingency management, cognitive behavioral strategies and clas...

  16. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  17. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  18. Critique: Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Wright, Craig; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critique on K. Amon and A. Campbell's "Can children with AD/HD learn relaxation and breathing techniques through biofeedback video games?". Amon and Campbell reported a successful trial of a commercially available biofeedback program, "The Wild Divine", in reducing symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)…

  19. Ethnicity as a Moderator of Treatment Effects on Parent-Child Interaction for Children with ADHD

    Jones, Heather A.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Chi, Terry C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Hoza, Betsy; Wells, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine ethnic differences in observed parenting and child behavior and the moderating effects of ethnicity on the relationship between treatment and parent and child behavior. Method: Observations of 508 children with ADHD (ages 7-9) and their caregivers, collected during the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD, were analyzed using…

  20. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD

    Miranda, Ana; Tárraga, Raul; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla; Pastor, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the parenting stress experienced by parents of 121 children from 5 to 9 years old with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), comorbid ASD+ADHD, and typical development in different domains related to child and parent characteristics using the Parenting Stress…

  1. Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity among Children with AD/HD

    Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Smith, Taylor F.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Morrissey-Kane, Erin; Schatz, Nicole K.; Sommer, Jennifer L.; Kollins, Scott H.; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of self-regulation of emotion in relation to functional impairment and comorbidity among children with and without AD/HD. Method: A total of 358 probands and their siblings participated in the study, with 74% of the sample participants affected by AD/HD. Parent-rated levels of emotional lability served…

  2. Physical Activity as Reinforcement for Classroom Calmness of ADHD Children: A Preliminary Study

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Vinas, Veronica; Ehle, Christopher T.

    2007-01-01

    Contingent reward procedures have been found beneficial in improving classroom conduct of ADHD children. Based on the conceptualization of the Premack Principle, a previous single-subject study of an ADHD Autistic child suggested the novel use of physical activity availability as a reinforcer for attentive calmness of the Attention Deficit…

  3. A Comparison of Preferred Treatment Outcomes between Children with ADHD and Their Parents

    Traywick, Tracey B.; Lamson, Angela L.; Diamond, John M.; Carawan, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The newest guidelines for the treatment of ADHD call for the formation of an individualized treatment plan based on collaboration. Because the process of collaboration requires the communication of desired outcomes, the authors' goal is to examine the preferred outcomes of treatment for ADHD for children and parents. Method: A preferred…

  4. Parental perceptions of the effects of exercise on behavior in children and adolescents with ADHD

    Jennifer I. Gapin

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This is the first study to empirically document parents' perceptions of how PA influences ADHD and suggests that PA can be a viable strategy for reducing symptoms. PA may have greater benefits for specific symptoms of ADHD, providing critical information for developing PA interventions for children and adolescents.

  5. Enhancing Traditional Behavioral Parent Training for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle S.; Girio, Erin; Pirvics, Lauma; Herbst, Laura; Guzzo, Jamie; Phillips, Carlie; O'Connor, Briannon

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral parent training is an efficacious treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, single-mother households are at high risk for poor outcomes during and following behavioral parent training. This study randomly assigned cohorts of 120 single mothers of children (ages 5-12 years) with ADHD to a waitlist control…

  6. Attentional Functions in Children and Adolescents with ADHD, Depressive Disorders, and the Comorbid Condition

    Gunther, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; De Brito, Stephane A.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Vloet, Timo D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depressive disorders (DDs) often co-occur in children and adolescents, but evidence on the respective influence of these disorders on attention parameters is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of DDs on ADHD in a model-oriented approach that includes selectivity and…

  7. Parent-Child Interaction of Mothers with Depression and Their Children with ADHD

    Lee, Pei-chin; Lin, Keh-chung; Robson, Deborah; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Niew, Wern-ing

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that may have a chronic and pervasive impact on the child's function and cause long-term stress to parents. A higher rate of depression is associated with mothers of children with ADHD. This observational study aimed to investigate the effect of maternal depression and the…

  8. Promoting Family and School Success for Children with ADHD: Strengthening Relationships while Building Skills

    Mautone, Jennifer A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Children with ADHD typically experience significant impairment at home and school, and their relationships with parents, teachers, and peers often are strained. Psychosocial interventions for ADHD generally focus on behavior change in one environment at a time (i.e., either home or school); however, unisystemic interventions generally are not…

  9. Executive Dysfunction in Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Javad Alaghband-Rad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The purpose of this study is to compare the executive functions children and adolescents who suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder "n(ADHD with normal children. "nMethod: Twenty children with ADHD were compared to 19 healthy children terms of some executive functions using the computerized version of Tower London, Continuous Performance Test (CPT, and Stroop Color Test. "nResults: In "Tower of London", the performance of children with ADHD was "nworse than normal children (p<0.05. In Continuous Performance Test, the "ncommission errors in children with ADHD were significantly more than the "nnormal group (p<0.01. In Stroop Test, the time spent to name the colors was "nsignificantly higher in ADHD group. A significant correlation was also found "nbetween the performance of children on Tower of London and CPT (P<0.05. "nConclusions: This study demonstrates that children and adolescents who "nsuffer from ADHD have some impairment of executive functions, particularly "nplanning and inhibition to response, but not in attention.

  10. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary and social (positive facial expressions rewards differentially improve response inhibition accuracy in children and adolescents with ADHD, we applied an incentive go/no-go task with reward contingencies for successful inhibition and compared ADHD subjects with typically developing individuals. Results Both social and monetary contingencies improved inhibition accuracy in all participants. However, individuals with ADHD displayed a particularly higher profit from social reward than healthy controls, suggesting that cognitive control in ADHD patients can be specifically improved by social reinforcement. By contrast, self-rated motivation associated with task performance was significantly lower in ADHD patients. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in ADHD patients, which is accompanied by limited self-awareness. These data suggest that social reward procedures may be particularly useful in behavioral interventions in children with ADHD.

  11. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population. PMID:23870443

  12. Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Children with Comorbid Tourette Syndrome

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Sallee, F. Randy; Gilbert, Donald L.; Dunn, David W.; McCracken, James T.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Budman, Cathy L.; Ricardi, Randall K.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Allen, Albert J.; Milton, Denai R.; Feldman, Peter D.; Kelsey, Douglas K.; Geller, Daniel A.; Linder, Steven L.; Lewis, Donald W.; Winner, Paul K.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Mintz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: Subjects (7-17 years old) with ADHD ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV") and TS were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 56) or atomoxetine…

  13. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  14. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2012-06-19

    AbstractBackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care.MethodsThe Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD\\/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex.ResultsThe source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6); 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8); 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3); 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2.1 fold

  15. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    McCarthy Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. Methods The Health Improvement Network (THIN database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. Results The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male. A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1 to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6; 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9 to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8; 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3 to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3; 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03 to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10; >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01 to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03. Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2

  16. Comorbidity and correlates of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in 6-8-year-old children with ADHD.

    Mulraney, Melissa; Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Silk, Timothy J; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the nature and impact of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) including its co-occurrence with other comorbidities and its independent influence on daily functioning. Children with ADHD (6-8 years) were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case-confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Proxy DMDD diagnosis was confirmed via items from the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and major depressive disorder modules of the DISC-IV. Outcome domains included comorbid mental health disorders, academic functioning, social functioning, child and family quality of life, parent mental health, and parenting behaviors. Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare children with comorbid ADHD and DMDD and children with ADHD without DMDD. Thirty-nine out of 179 children (21.8 %) with ADHD had comorbid DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD had a high prevalence of ODD (89.7 %) and any anxiety disorder (41.0 %). Children with ADHD and DMDD had poorer self-control and elevated bullying behaviors than children with ADHD without DMDD. Children with ADHD and DMDD were similar to children with ADHD in the other domains measured when taking into account other comorbidities including ODD. One in five children with ADHD in their second year of formal schooling met criteria for DMDD. There was a very high diagnostic overlap with ODD; however, the use of a proxy DMDD diagnosis containing items from the ODD module of the DISC-IV may have artificially inflated the comorbidity rates. DMDD added to the burden of ADHD particularly in the area of social functioning. PMID:26122202

  17. Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with ADHD that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school.

  18. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Aaron T. Piepmeier

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: children with and without ADHD realize benefits in speed of processing and inhibitory control in response to a session of acute exercise, but do not experience benefits in planning or set shifting.

  19. The Children’s Attention Project: a community-based longitudinal study of children with ADHD and non-ADHD controls

    Sciberras Emma; Efron Daryl; Schilpzand Elizabeth J; Anderson Vicki; Jongeling Brad; Hazell Philip; Ukoumunne Obioha C; Nicholson Jan M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5% of children worldwide and results in significant impairments in daily functioning. Few community-ascertained samples of children with ADHD have been studied prospectively to identify factors associated with differential outcomes. The Children’s Attention Project is the first such study in Australia, examining the mental health, social, academic and quality of life outcomes for children with diagnostic...

  20. The effects of children's ADHD on parents' relationship dissolution and labor supply

    Kvist, Anette Primdal; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Danish register-based data for the population of children born in 1990-1997 to investigate the effects on parents of having a child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Ten years after birth, parents of children diagnosed with ADHD have a 75 % higher probability of having dissolved their relationship and a 7-13 % lower labor supply. Exploiting detailed information about documented risk factors behind ADHD, we find that roughly half of this gap is due to select...

  1. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2012-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation ap...

  2. Reduced Short Interval Cortical Inhibition Correlates with Atomoxetine Response in Children with ADHD

    Chen, Tina H.; Wu, Steve W.; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Stephan; Shahana, Nasrin; HUDDLESTON, DAVID A; Sarvis, Adam R.; Sallee, Floyd R.; Gilbert, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine (ATX). The objective of this study was to determine whether Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-evoked Short Interval Cortical Inhibition (SICI) might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical ATX response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of ATX treatment in 7–12 year old children with ADHD, TM...

  3. The Relations Between Temperament, Character, and Executive Functions in Children With ADHD and Clinical Controls

    Drechsler, Renate; Zulauf Logoz, Marina; Walitza, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the overlap between executive functions and temperament as measured by two questionnaires and to examine characteristic profiles in children with ADHD and clinical controls. METHOD: Parents of 111 clinically referred children, half of whom...... disorder (CD/ODD) but not ADHD accounted for problems in BRIEF Emotional Control and Self-Monitor and JTCI low Cooperativeness. CONCLUSION: The two instruments only partially overlap and may complement each other....

  4. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica;

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  5. Differentiating ADHD from oral language difficulties in children: role of movements and effects of stimulant medication

    Hughes, Carroll W.; Pickering, Joyce; Baker, Kristi; Bolanos, Gina; Silver, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to test if an objective measure of both attention and movement would differentiate children with Oral Language Disorders (OLD) from those with comorbid Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and if stimulant medication improved performance when both disorders were present. Methods The sample consisted of thirty-three children with an identified oral language disorder (of which 22 had comorbid ADHD) ages 6 to 13 who were enrolled in a yearlong...

  6. Risperidone treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Joseph Biederman; Paul Hammerness; Robert Doyle; Gagan Joshi; Megan Aleardi; Eric Mick

    2008-01-01

    Joseph Biederman, Paul Hammerness, Robert Doyle, Gagan Joshi, Megan Aleardi, Eric MickPediatric Psychopharmacology Research Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USAObjective: Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are also at high risk of having comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study was to estimate improvement in ADHD symptoms in children with bipolar disorder.Methods: This was an open-label, study of risperidone monot...

  7. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD a...

  8. Nonstimulant therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults.

    Waxmonsky, James G

    2005-01-01

    While stimulant medications are the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD across the lifespan, a subset of patients with ADHD do not experience significant symptom relief from stimulants or can not tolerate effective stimulant doses. Psychosocial therapies, particularly behavioral modification techniques, should be considered for children with ADHD and oppositional behaviors, while Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) may be a helpful adjunct for adolescents and adults with ADHD. Among the nonstimulant medications, atomoxetine (Strattera) is the only the FDA approved option. It has been found to be efficacious for the entire spectrum of ADHD symptoms in both children and adults. However, daily compliance is essential, and it may take several weeks to achieve full therapeutic effect. Other nonstimulants that have been used to treat ADHD include bupropion (Wellbutrin), the alpha-2 agonists guanfacine (Tenex) and clonidine (Catapres) as well as the tricylic antidepressants. Modafinil (Provigil) is actively being studied for the treatment of pediatric ADHD, and there has been some preliminary studies assessing the efficacy of cholinergic agents for ADHD. Recently, there has been increasing interest in combining nonstimulant therapies with stimulants to further enhance treatment effects. However, more controlled data on the safety and efficacy of combining pharmacological therapies are needed. PMID:16222911

  9. Effectiveness of a school-based multicomponent program for the treatment of children with ADHD.

    Miranda, Ana; Presentación, Maria Jesús; Soriano, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent program for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) carried out by teachers in a classroom context. Dependent measures included neuropsychological tasks, behavioral rating scales for parents and teachers, direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and academic records of children with ADHD. Fifty children with ADHD participated in the study. The teachers of 29 of the 50 students were trained in the use of behavior modification techniques, cognitive behavior strategies, and instructional management strategies. The other 21 students formed the control group. Parents' and teachers'ratings detected improvements in primary symptoms (inattention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity) and in behavioral difficulties usually associated with ADHD (e.g., antisocial behavior, psychopathological disorders, anxiety). Furthermore, the results showed increased academic scores, enhanced classroom behavioral observations, and improved teachers' knowledge about the strategies directed toward responding to the children's educational needs. PMID:15493252

  10. A research model for investigating the effects of artificial food colorings on children with ADHD.

    Kleinman, Ronald E; Brown, Ronald T; Cutter, Gary R; Dupaul, George J; Clydesdale, Fergus M

    2011-06-01

    The United Kingdom and European Union recently restricted the use of artificial food colorings (AFCs) to improve the health of children. These decisions provide an interesting case study of the role of scientific evidence in the assessment of food additives and risk to children's health and formulation of food policy. Although there continues to be uncertainty concerning the link between AFCs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), policy decisions have been made that have far-reaching implications. In addition, publicity surrounding the policy changes may shape public perceptions concerning effective management of ADHD. We believe that the balance of existing evidence neither refutes nor supports the link between AFCs and ADHD, which highlights the need for carefully designed studies to further investigate the link between AFCs and ADHD. In this article we describe a model for such studies. In developing our model, we drew from current investigative standards in ADHD research, such as those used in the landmark Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. These standards encompass methodologic considerations including sample selection, outcome assessment, and data analyses. It is our hope that this model research methodology may prove valuable in addressing design considerations in future studies of AFCs and ADHD with the goal of producing reliable data that will enable policy-makers to better formulate effective, evidence-based food-policy decisions. PMID:21576306

  11. Assessing Homework Problems in Children with ADHD: Validation of a Parent-Report Measure and Evaluation of Homework Performance Patterns

    Langberg, Joshua M; Arnold, L. Eugene; Flowers, Amanda M.; Altaye, Mekibib; Epstein, Jeff N.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of a parent-report measure of child homework problems, the Homework Problems Checklist, was examined in a geographically and ethnically diverse sample of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This measure was completed by the parents of 579 children ages 7.0-9.9 diagnosed with ADHD Combined Type as part of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). Results replicated previous work showing two salient factors that measure homework ...

  12. Cognitive control and motivation in children with ADHD: How reinforcement interacts with the assessment and training of executive functioning

    Dovis, S.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the interaction between two neuropsychological processes that are proposed to play a pivotal role in explaining the problems of children with ADHD: executive functioning (EF) and motivation. We examined the effects of reinforcement on assessment and training of EF in children with ADHD. Visuospatial working memory (WM) is considered the most impaired EF in children with ADHD, and is composed of short-term memory and a central executive. Conclusions: (1) both execu...

  13. WISC-IV Profiles Are Associated with Differences in Symptomatology and Outcome in Children with ADHD

    Thaler, Nicholas S.; Bello, Danielle T.; Etcoff, Lewis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Method: Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a…

  14. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% femal...

  15. Increased prefrontal oxygenation related to distractor-resistant working memory in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Yasumura, Akira; Yamashita, Yushiro; Torii, Miyuki; Kaga, Makiko; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of distraction on working memory and its underlying neural mechanisms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To this end, we studied hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy while 16 children with ADHD and 10 typically developing (TD) children performed a working memory task. This task had two conditions: one involved a distraction during the memory delay interval, whereas the other had no systematic distraction. The ADHD patients showed significantly poorer behavioral performance compared with the TD group, particularly under the distraction. The ADHD group exhibited significantly higher level of prefrontal activation than did TD children. The activity level was positively correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms. These results suggest that the impairment in the inhibition of distraction is responsible for the working memory deficits observed in ADHD children. Inefficient processing in the prefrontal cortex appears to underlie such deficits. PMID:23385518

  16. The Relationship between Working Memory, Inhibition, and Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Children with and without ADHD

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.

    2007-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has frequently been used to assess executive functions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We first compared the performance of 15 children with ADHD to 15 children of a control group (age range 6 to 11) on the WCST and then examined the relationship among working memory,…

  17. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  18. Narrative competence and internal state language of children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD.

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book produced by 31 children (11 with AS, 9 with ADHD, 11 HC, aged 8-12) were analyzed regarding the following linguistic variables: story length, sentence structure and sentence complexity, coherence and cohesion of the stories, verbalization of the narrator's perspective, as well as internal state language (verbal reference to mental states). Considerable similarities were noted between the two clinical groups, which deviate from HC children. Narratives of the children with AS and ADHD were shorter than the narratives produced by the HC children. The children of both clinical groups failed to point out the main aspects of the story. In particular, children with AS did not refer to cognitive states as often as the other groups. With respect to narrative coherence, they produced fewer pronominal references than HC children and children with ADHD. In conclusion, the two clinical groups differed from the HC group on a number of features, and a less frequent reference to cognitive states was identified for the children with AS. PMID:22522198

  19. Neuropsychological evaluation of deficits in executive functioning for ADHD children with or without learning disabilities.

    Wu, Kitty K; Anderson, Vicki; Castiello, Umberto

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates multiple aspects of executive functioning in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These areas include attentional components, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. The rationale of the study is based on neurophysiological studies that suggest frontal lobe dysfunction in ADHD. As frontal lobe functioning is related to abilities in executive control, ADHD is hypothesised to be associated with deficits in various areas of executive functioning. The specific effect of comorbidity of learning disability (LD) was also investigated. Eighty-three children with ADHD and 29 age-matched controls (age 7-13) participated in the study. A battery of neuropsychological tests was utilized to evaluate specific deficits in speed of processing, selective attention, switching attention, sustained attention, attentional capacity, impulsiveness, planning and problem solving. Findings indicated that children with ADHD have slower verbal responses and sustained attention deficit. Deficits in selective attention and attentional capacity observed were largely related to the presence of LD. No specific deficit associated with ADHD or the comorbidity of LD was identified in switching attention, impulsiveness, planning, and problem solving. These results revealed that ADHD is not associated with a general deficit in executive functioning. Instead, ADHD is related to a specific deficit in regulation for attentional resources. The importance of isolating the deficit related to LDs for examining the specific deficit associated with ADHD is highlighted. Results also emphasised the importance of isolating the effect of lower level of abilities (e.g., speed of processing) and the utilization of specific definition for the examination of executive functions. PMID:12537336

  20. Children Should Be Seen and Heard: Self-Report of Feelings and Behaviors in Primary-School-Age Children with ADHD

    Klimkeit, Ester; Graham, Claire; Lee, Paul; Morling, Megan; Russo, Diana; Tonge, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The belief that children with externalizing disorders have difficulties with self-awareness raises the question of whether children with externalizing disorders are good informants of their own behavior. Method: This study investigates how children with ADHD rate their behaviors compared to children without ADHD on a new rating scale…

  1. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD.

    Ziereis, Susanne; Jansen, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often show major deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Pharmacological treatment is commonly used to reduce ADHD symptoms. However, non-pharmacologic treatment methods would be preferred by parents, children and psychiatrists. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to improve cognitive functioning in healthy populations. It can be hypothesized that there are similar beneficial effects in children with ADHD, however, very little is known about this issue. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PA improves cognitive performance in children with ADHD. A total of 43 children with ADHD (32 boys and 11 girls) aged between seven and 12 years took part in the study. To investigate whether potential effects on executive functioning depend on the kind of PA, two different 12-week training programs were implemented. The study-design consisted of two experimental groups (EG1, n=13; EG2, n=14) and a wait-list control group (CG, n=16). Participants in EG1 took part in a training which focused on the abilities ball handling, balance and manual dexterity. Participants in EG2 group were trained in sports without a specific focus. The children in the CG group received no intervention. Participants completed assessments of working memory (WM) and motor performance before, immediately after the first training week and one week after the last session. After the 12-week intervention period, several measures of the EG1 and EG2s significantly improved over time. Furthermore, between group comparisons demonstrated significant improvements in both EG1 and EG2 compared to the CG in variables assessing WM performance and motor performance. These findings support the hypothesis that long-term PA has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD, regardless of the specificity of the PA. The outcomes indicated that regular PA can be used as a complementary or alternative non

  2. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use for children with ADHD with and without a co-occurring reading disorder: A retrospective cohort study

    Classi Peter M; Le Trong K; Ward Sarah; Johnston Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have a co-occurring reading disorder (RD). The purpose of this research was to assess differences between children with ADHD without RD (ADHD-only) and those with ADHD and co-occurring RD (ADHD+RD). Methods Using data from the U.S. Thomson Reuter Marketscan® Databases for the years 2005 through 2007, this analysis compared the medical records--including patient demographics, comorbidities, ...

  3. Neuropsychological Correlates of Emotional Lability in Children with ADHD

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Brandeis, Daniel; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Poustka, Luise; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Albrecht, Bjorn; Chen, Wai; Uebel, Henrik; Schlotz, Wolff; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Asherson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Emotional lability (EL) is commonly seen in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The reasons for this association remain currently unknown. To address this question, we examined the relationship between ADHD and EL symptoms, and performance on a range of neuropsychological tasks to clarify whether EL symptoms…

  4. School-based Multi-component Intervention. Symptoms of Iranian ADHD Children

    Sepideh Shaban

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based multi-component intervention that implemented for ADHD school-aged children specially. Participants were 64 school-aged ADHD children that randomly assigned in two study groups including one experimental and one control group. Teachers of these children were invited to participate in the teacher training. Teachers took part in 8 sessions teacher training that involved contingency management, cognitive behavioral strategies and class management instructions for managing of ADHD children. Members of the control group didn’t receive any program. Dependent measures included parent and teacher`s ratings of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. Information for the study achieved in three pre-test, post-test and follow-up levels. Parents and teachers in experimental group reported significantly less inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in children at home and school respectively rather than before conducting the program. Findings of the study showed similar effect of school-based multi-component intervention on all symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity across home and school. Results of the present study provided some supports for effectiveness of school-based multi-component program on symptoms of ADHD in school-aged children in Iran.

  5. Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review

    Yuk Wo Wong; Deog-gon Kim; Jin-yong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Oriental herbal medicines (TOHM) for children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods. Randomized clinical trials published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2010, in English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean language which evaluated the use of TOHM on ADHD subjects of 18 years old or below, diagnosed based on DSM-IV, were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Cochrane Library, and 10 other databases. Results. Twelve studies involving 1189 subje...

  6. [Update on Current Care guidelines: ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children and adolescents)].

    2012-01-01

    The updated Current Care guideline for children and adolescents with ADHD covers both diagnosis and treatment. Psychosocial support is provided when hyperactivity problems arise, even before specific diagnosis. While psychosocial interventions are effective in the treatment of ADHD, the core symptoms are best treated with medication, such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine or atomoxetine. Collaboration between families, primary health care services, specialist consultation services and day-care and school professionals is essential within the chain of care. PMID:22486070

  7. ADHD characteristics: I. Concurrent co-morbidity patterns in children & adolescents

    Ambrosini Paul; Elia Josephine; Berrettini Wade

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective 342 Caucasian subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were recruited from pediatric and behavioral health clinics for a genetic study. Concurrent comorbidity was assessed to characterize the clinical profile of this cohort. Methods Subjects 6 to 18 years were diagnosed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia for School aged Children (K-SADS-P IVR). Results The most prevalent diagnoses co-occurring with ADHD were Oppositional Defiant D...

  8. Autistic traits in children with ADHD index clinical and cognitive problems

    Cooper, Miriam; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Hamshere, Marian; Thapar, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Traits of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur frequently in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the significance of their presence in terms of phenotype and underlying neurobiology is not properly understood. This analysis aimed to determine whether higher levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), index a more severe presentation in a large, rigorously phenotyped sample of children with ADHD (N = 711). Regression analyses were...

  9. Executive functions in preschool children : assessment and relation to ADHD symptoms

    2010-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder is one of the most prevalent developmental disorders in childhood and adolescents. Individuals with ADHD is found to be at risk for social and academic impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Executive Functions (EF) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in preschool-aged children. Deficits in EFs are currently considered to represent an important weakness in this clinical group. To extend our knowledge ab...

  10. 注意缺陷多动障碍儿童智力水平分析%A Study on Intelligence of Children with ADHD

    庄思齐; 刘美娜; 张红宇

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate levels of intelligence in children with ADHD. Methods:A total of 129 children with ADHD and 87 normal children were evaluated with C-WISC. Results:Full-scale IQs of most children with ADHD varied between the normal and borderline range, showing incompatible scores on VIQ and PIQ. The overall levels of intelligence of children with ADHD were found be lower than normal controls. Conclusion:There was significant difference in intellectual abilities between ADHD children and normal children.

  11. Relationship between quality of life and psychopathological profile: data from an observational study in children with ADHD

    Becker, Andreas; Roessner, Veit; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-01-01

    Although ADHD significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, QoL in children with ADHD has rarely been investigated in association with psychopathological profile, and the relationship remains unclear. The open-label OBSEER study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of Equasym XL®, a modified-release methylphenidate, in routine care of children and adolescents (aged 6–17 years) with ADHD. At baseline, questionnaires assessing psychopathological profile...

  12. Preliminary Efficacy of a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Children With ADHD in Pakistan.

    Malik, Tamkeen Ashraf; Rooney, Mary; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Tariq, Naeem

    2014-03-12

    Objective: In an effort to address the lack of evidence-based interventions for ADHD in developing South Asian countries, we examined the preliminary efficacy of a behavioral parent training program in Pakistan. Method: A quasi-experimental design was utilized. Eighty-five 4- to 12-year-old children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms participated: 55 were recruited from hospital clinics (active treatment group) and 30 were recruited from schools (waitlist control group). Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and impairment were collected. Results: Using intent-to-treat analyses, the treatment group showed significant pre-post improvement on parent-reported ODD symptoms and ADHD-related impairment. Teacher ratings showed no improvement. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of behavioral parenting training for children with ADHD in Pakistan and represents a critical first step in identifying evidence-based treatments for Pakistani children with ADHD. PMID:24621459

  13. NEUROFEEDBACK AND EMG TRAINING COMBINING EFFICIENCY STUDY IN 6–9 YEARS OLD ADHD CHILDREN

    Ye. А. Sapina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to study neurofeedback and EMG combining training efficiency in ADHD children.To achieve the goal three groups were compared before and after training and six months later. Experimental group included ADHD children 6–9 years old. It was divided into two: group A trained thetabeta ratio and muscle tension decrease simultaneously while group B trained only theta-beta ratio decrease. Control group included healthy children. The results showed significant effect of combined EEG and EMG training for self-control improvement, anxiety and muscle tension decrease in comparison with standard EEG training.

  14. [The comorbidity of learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms in primary-school-age children].

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Fischbach, Anne; Balke-Melcher, Christina; Mähler, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Children having difficulties in acquiring early literacy and mathematical skills often show an increased rate of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This study provides data on the comorbidity rates of specific learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms. We analyzed the data of 273 children with learning difficulties despite an at least average IQ, 57 children with low IQ, and 270 children without learning difficulties and average IQ (comparison group). We assessed children’s IQ and school achievement using standardized achievement tests. ADHD symptoms were assessed via parents’ ratings. Our results showed that only 5 % of both the control group and the group with solely mathematical difficulties fulfilled the criteria of an ADHD subtype according to the DSM-IV based on parents’ ratings. In contrast, this was the case in even 20 % of the children with difficulties in reading/writing and of those with low IQ. Compared to girls, boys in the control group had a 150% higher risk for matching the criteria of one of the ADHD subtypes in parents’ ratings, whereas boys with learning difficulties and those with low IQ had an even 200% to 600% higher risk for it. The relationship between learning difficulties and ADHD symptoms can be found predominantly in the inattentive type. Possible reasons for the results are discussed. PMID:26098006

  15. Perceived TV Reality as a Predictor of Children's Social Behavior.

    Reeves, Byron

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with 721 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders were not supportive of the assumed role of children's perceived reality of television in determining the impact of exposure to television on children's social behavior. (GT)

  16. Relationship between weak central coherence and mental states understanding in children with Autism and in children with ADHD.

    Pina Filippello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.

  17. Contributions of circadian tendencies and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems of children with ADHD

    Gruber Reut

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are two to three times more likely to experience sleep problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative contributions of circadian preferences and behavioral problems to sleep onset problems experienced by children with ADHD and to test for a moderation effect of ADHD diagnosis on the impact of circadian preferences and externalizing problems on sleep onset problems. Methods After initial screening, parents of children meeting inclusion criteria documented child bedtime over 4 nights, using a sleep log, and completed questionnaires regarding sleep, ADHD and demographics to assess bedtime routine prior to PSG. On the fifth night of the study, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child’s natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Seventy-five children (26 with ADHD and 49 controls aged 7–11 years (mean age 8.61 years, SD 1.27 years participated in the present study. Results In both groups of children, externalizing problems yielded significant independent contributions to the explained variance in parental reports of bedtime resistance, whereas an evening circadian tendency contributed both to parental reports of sleep onset delay and to PSG-measured sleep-onset latency. No significant interaction effect of behavioral/circadian tendency with ADHD status was evident. Conclusions Sleep onset problems in ADHD are related to different etiologies that might require different interventional strategies and can be distinguished using the parental reports on the CSHQ.

  18. Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Amon, Krestina L.; Campbell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated "The Journey to Wild Divine" as a biofeedback management tool teaching breathing and relaxation skills to children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The children played the game by manipulating their heart rate using breathing techniques taught in the game, measured through three finger sensors. Parents…

  19. Narrative Competence and "Internal State Language" of Children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book…

  20. Relationship between Parenting Stress and Ratings of Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Joyner, Krystle B.; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning is important to assess in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report is used to obtain information about a child's executive functioning; however, parent report can be influenced by many factors. This study's hypothesis was that higher ratings of children's executive dysfunction are…

  1. Common Danish standards in prescribing medication for children and adolescents with ADHD

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Nielsen, Helena Skyt;

    2014-01-01

    Assessing whether symptoms of attention-deficity hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children are ageinappropriate is essential. Hence, comparing children within one school grade is problematic and the risk of applying relative standards is inherent. Being young-for-grade increases the likelihood of...

  2. Treatment Effects of Methylphenidate on Cognitive Functioning in Children with Mental Retardation and ADHD

    Pearson, Deborah A.; Santos, Cynthia W.; Casat, Charles D.; Lane, David M.; Jerger, Susan W.; Roache, John D.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Lachar, David; Faria, Laura P.; Payne, Christa D.; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive effects of stimulant medication were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Performance on tasks tapping sustained attention, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and immediate memory was assessed for 24 children (mean age 10.9 years)…

  3. A Developmental Examination of Story Recall and Coherence among Children with ADHD

    Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard; Flake, Rebecca A.; Ohlendorf, Joanna; Little, Summer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated developmental differences in story recall in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), N = 57 (77.2% male) and their comparison peers, N = 98 (61.2% male). Children at the ages of 4-6 or 7-9 completed a free recall immediately after viewing each of two televised stories, once in the presence of toys…

  4. Relationship between Response to Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD and Psychopathology in Their Families

    Grizenko, Natalie; Kovacina, Bojan; Amor, Leila Ben; Schwartz, George; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of familial aggregation of psychopathology in children who are good responders (GR) to methylphenidate (MPH) versus those who are poor responders (PR). Method: A total of 118 clinically referred children ages 6 to 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 2-week…

  5. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  6. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  7. Attention Training for School-Aged Children with ADHD: Results of an Open Trial

    Tamm, Leanne; Hughes, Carroll; Ames, Laure; Pickering, Joyce; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter; Castillo, Christine L.; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Foxwell, Aleksandra; Bolanos, S. Gina; Hines, Tabatha; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Emslie, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The article discusses a feasibility study conducted to examine whether Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, could be utilized in a clinical setting with children diagnosed with ADHD, and whether children who received the intervention made attention and executive functioning…

  8. Exploring the Gender Gap in Referrals for Children with ADHD and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Coles, Erika K.; Slavec, Janine; Bernstein, Melissa; Baroni, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the impact of the gender of children with ADHD on teachers' perceptions toward inattentive, hyperactive, or oppositional behaviors, and how these perceptions relate to teachers' ratings of children's impairment and referral recommendations. Method: Teachers read eight vignettes depicting boys and girls with…

  9. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of attention and ADHD comorbidity in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy

    Celia Regina Carvalho Machado da Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy present significant problems concerning attention and comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective To determine the prevalence of attention complaints, ADHD diagnosis and attention profile in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy. Method 36 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy and 37 genre and age matched healthy controls underwent several procedures to diagnose their neuropsychological profile and comorbidity with ADHD. Results The prevalence of ADHD was higher in patients with epilepsy [χ2= 4.1, p = 0.043, 6 (16.7% vs 1 (2.7%], with worse results in attention related WISC items and factors in patients with epilepsy comparing to the controls, but not between patients with and without ADHD. Clinical characteristics did not influence those results. Conclusion This study found a greater prevalence of problems wih attention in pediatric patients with idiopathic epilepsy, but not a distinct profile between those with or without ADHD.

  10. ADHD: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood and can profoundly affect the academic achievement, well-being, and social interactions of children; the American Academy of Pediatrics first published clinical recommendations for the diagnosis and evaluation of ADHD in children in 2000; recommendations for treatment followed in 2001.

  11. Social-Skills and Parental Training plus Standard Treatment versus Standard Treatment for Children with ADHD - The Randomised SOSTRA Trial

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).......To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)....

  12. One-Year Follow-Up of Combined Parent and Child Intervention for Young Children with ADHD

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacies of the Incredible Years (IY) interventions are well-established in children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) but not among those with a primary diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to evaluate 1-year follow-up outcomes among young children with ADHD who were treated with the IY interventions.…

  13. Effects of MPH-OROS on the Organizational, Time Management, and Planning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    Abikoff, Howard; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; Gallagher, Richard; Zambenedetti, Maurizio; Seyffert, Michael; Boorady, Roy; McCarthy, John

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study was done to evaluate the effects of methylphenidate-osmotic-release oral systems (MPH-OROS) on the organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results show significant improvements on the OTMP of children with ADHD in…

  14. Emotional Lability in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Clinical Correlates and Familial Prevalence

    Sobanski, Esther; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Chen, Wai; Franke, Barbara; Holtmann, Martin; Krumm, Bertram; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Stringaris, Argyris; Taylor, Eric; Anney, Richard; Ebstein, Richard P.; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence, severity and clinical correlates of emotional lability (EL) in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to examine factors contributing to EL and familiality of EL in youth with ADHD. Methods: One thousand, one hundred and eighty-six children with ADHD…

  15. Poverty and the Growth of Emotional and Conduct Problems in Children with Autism with and without Comorbid ADHD

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD-DHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK's…

  16. Two New Rating Scales for Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Italian Preschool Children: A Comparison between Parent and Teacher Ratings

    Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…

  17. Language Skills, Mathematical Thinking, and Achievement Motivation in Children with ADHD, Disruptive Behavior Disorders, and Normal Controls

    Gut, Janine; Heckmann, Carmen; Meyer, Christine Sandra; Schmid, Marc; Grob, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that the association between achievement motivation and school performance may be stronger in children with ADHD than in typically developing children. Therefore, the present study investigated associations between achievement motivation and performance on language skills and…

  18. Expectancies for Sexually Abused Children: Evidence of Perceiver Bias

    Saathoff-Wells, Tara; Culp, Rex E.; Yancey, Candace T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated perceiver bias in relation to children labeled as sexually abused. Building on recent research indicating that adults perceive children with such a label as having more behavioral problems and lower achievement, we replicated and expanded upon an earlier study. We tested undergraduate students (N = 699), who judged a six-year old…

  19. Child ADHD and ODD behavior interacts with parent ADHD symptoms to worsen parenting and interparental communication.

    Wymbs, Brian T; Wymbs, Frances A; Dawson, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults increases risk of parenting difficulties and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether disruptive child behavior and adult ADHD operate additively or synergistically to predict parenting and interparental relationship quality. As part of a larger study, 90 parent couples were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Before these interactions, parents reported their own ADHD symptoms. Afterwards, parents reported on their partner's parenting and interparental communication behavior. Observers coded the parenting and communication behavior of both partners during the tasks. Child ADHD/ODD-like behavior was found to predict less positive and more negative parenting and communication reported by partners and observers beyond adult ADHD symptoms and other covariates. Elevated adult ADHD symptoms only uniquely increased risk of observer-coded negative parenting. Child and adult ADHD behavior interacted synergistically to predict partner-reported negative parenting and interparental communication, such that parents reporting greater ADHD symptoms-especially inattentiveness-were rated by their partners as parenting and communicating more negatively when managing child ADHD/ODD-like behavior than parents with fewer ADHD symptoms or those managing typical child behavior. Child and adult ADHD behavior did not interact to predict observer-coded parenting or interparental communication, and patterns did not differ for mothers or fathers. Our results underscore the potential risk of parents with elevated ADHD symptoms parenting and communicating negatively, at least as perceived by their partners, during interactions with children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior. PMID:24882503

  20. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    Ruaa Osama Hariri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005. Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who demonstrate signs of phonological disorders in their native Arabic language are lacking. The purpose of this study is to provide a description of Arabic language deficits and to present a theoretical model of potential associations between phonological language deficits and ADHD. Dodd and McCormack’s (1995 four subgroups classification of speech disorder and the phonological disorders pertaining to the Arabic language provided by a Saudi Institute for Speech and Hearing are examined within the theoretical framework. Since intervention may improve articulation and focuses a child’s attention on the sound structure of words, findings in this study are based on the assumption that children with ADHD may acquire phonology for their Arabic language in the same way, and following the same developmental stages as intelligible children. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses have proven that the ADHD group analyzed in this study had indeed failed to acquire most of their Arabic consonants as they should have.Keywords: speech sound disorder, attention-deficiency/hyperactive, developmental disorder, phonological disorder, language disorder/delay, language impairment

  1. Behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of auditory distractibility in children with ADHD and comorbid ODD.

    Oja, L; Huotilainen, M; Nikkanen, E; Oksanen-Hennah, H; Laasonen, M; Voutilainen, A; von Wendt, L; Alho, K

    2016-02-01

    Involuntary switching of attention to distracting sounds was studied by measuring effects of these events on auditory discrimination performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in 6-11-year-old boys with Attention Deficit - Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and in age-matched controls. The children were instructed to differentiate between two animal calls by pressing one response button, for example, to a dog bark and another button to a cat mew. These task-relevant sounds were presented from one of two loudspeakers in front of the child, and there were occasional task-irrelevant changes in the sound location, that is, the loudspeaker. In addition, novel sounds (e.g., a sound of hammer, rain, or car horn) unrelated to the task were presented from a loudspeaker behind the child. The percentage of correct responses was lower for target sounds preceded by a novel sound than for targets not preceded by such sound in the ADHD group, but not in the control group. In both groups, a biphasic positive P3a response was observed in ERPs to the novel sounds. The later part of the P3a appeared to continue longer over the frontal scalp areas in the ADHD group than in the controls presumably because a reorienting negativity (RON) ERP response following the P3a was smaller in the ADHD group than in the control group. This suggests that the children with ADHD had problems in reorienting their attention to the current task after a distracting novel sound leading to deterioration of performance in this task. The present study also indicates that children with ADHD and comorbid ODD show same kind of distractibility as found in previous studies for children with ADHD without systematic comorbid ODD. PMID:26688114

  2. Working memory-related functional brain patterns in never medicated children with ADHD.

    Isabelle Massat

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by 3 clusters of age-inappropriate cardinal symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These clinical/behavioural symptoms are assumed to result from disturbances within brain systems supporting executive functions including working memory (WM, which refers to the ability to transiently store and flexibly manipulate task-relevant information. Ongoing or past medications, co-morbidity and differences in task performance are potential, independent confounds in assessing the integrity of cerebral patterns in ADHD. In the present study, we recorded WM-related cerebral activity during a memory updating N-back task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in control children and never medicated, prepubescent children with ADHD but without comorbid symptoms. Despite similar updating performance than controls, children with ADHD exhibited decreased, below baseline WM-related activation levels in a widespread cortico-subcortical network encompassing bilateral occipital and inferior parietal areas, caudate nucleus, cerebellum and functionally connected brainstem nuclei. Distinctive functional connectivity patterns were also found in the ADHD in these regions, with a tighter coupling in the updating than in the control condition with a distributed WM-related cerebral network. Especially, cerebellum showed tighter coupling with activity in an area compatible with the brainstem red nucleus. These results in children with clinical core symptoms of ADHD but without comorbid affections and never treated with medication yield evidence for a core functional neuroanatomical network subtending WM-related processes in ADHD, which may participate to the pathophysiology and expression of clinical symptoms.

  3. Changing Family Practices with Assistive Technology: MOBERO Improves Morning and Bedtime Routines for Children with ADHD

    Sonne, Tobias

    Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in establis......Families of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often report morning and bedtime routines to be stressful and frustrating. Through a design process involving domain professionals and families we designed MOBERO, a smartphone-based system that assists families in...... establishing healthy morning and bedtime routines with the aim to assist the child in becoming independent and lowering the parents’ frustration levels. In a two-week intervention with 13 children with ADHD and their families, MOBERO significantly improved children’s independence and reduced parents...

  4. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD are...... generally modest, with the mean influence on IQ probably amounting to 2 to 5 IQ points. This may serve as a benchmark when clinicians interpret the validity of IQ in this clinical population....

  5. [Summary of the Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) practice guideline 'ADHD in children'].

    van Avendonk, Mariëlle J P; Hassink-Franke, Lieke J A; Stijntjes, Freek; Wiersma, Tjerk; Burgers, Jako S

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of ADHD may be considered if a child is hyperactive, impulsive or inattentive, and if this behaviour results in evidently impaired functioning in multiple settings. Children with behavioural problems and slightly impaired functioning may benefit from patient information, education and parenting advice. From the age of 6 years, children can be offered diagnostic testing and professional support within the primary care setting, provided sufficient knowledge and expertise is available and there is collaboration with other health care providers. Management of a child with ADHD but no comorbid psychiatric disorder, consists of a step-by-step plan including education, parent and teacher guidance and, optionally, behavioural therapy for the child. In consultation with parents, child and other therapists, methylphenidate can be prescribed if behavioural interventions are not sufficiently effective. Children taking medication for ADHD should be monitored periodically, including assessment of the effectiveness and side effects. PMID:25654685

  6. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task.

    Rosetti, Marcos F; Ulloa, Rosa E; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; de la Peña, Francisco; Larralde, Hernán; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologically based ball-search field task (BSFT), which required them to locate and collect golf balls in a large outdoor area. Children of both groups enjoyed the task and were motivated to participate in it. However, performance showed that ADHD-diagnosed subjects were significantly less efficient in their searching. We suggest that the BSFT provides a promising basis for developing more complex ecologically-derived tests that might help to better identify particular cognitive processes and impairments associated with ADHD. PMID:26805450

  7. Premarket safety and efficacy studies for ADHD medications in children.

    Florence T Bourgeois

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing.We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug's clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials.A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419. Eleven drugs (55% were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70% after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9, with 5 (38% drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77% after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed.Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

  8. ADHD and Emotion Dysregulation Among Children and Adolescents.

    Bunford, Nora; Evans, Steven W; Wymbs, Frances

    2015-09-01

    Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience impairments in a number of functional domains. Although current evidence-based treatments for ADHD reduce symptoms and improve academic and behavioral functioning, they have minimal impact on social functioning or on risky behaviors (see Evans et al. in J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, 43:527-551, 2014 for review). Preliminary evidence indicates that emotion dysregulation (ED) is associated with impairments across the developmental spectrum, such as social impairment and risky behaviors, and that its relative absence/presence is differentially associated with treatment response. It thus stands to reason that by incorporating a focus on ED in interventions targeting social impairment and risky behaviors, we may be able to increase the number of youth who respond to such interventions and decrease the prevalence or degree of these impairments and behaviors among youth and adults with ADHD. However, a number of questions remain unaddressed about the association between ADHD and ED, such as the portion of individuals with ADHD who experience ED, the extent to which ED is associated with the above impairments and behaviors, and whether or not ED is malleable. To begin addressing these questions, we summarize and critically evaluate the literature on the association between ADHD and ED and make recommendations for future basic, translational, and treatment outcome research. PMID:26243645

  9. Poverty and the Growth of Emotional and Conduct Problems in Children with Autism With and Without Comorbid ADHD

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD − ADHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK’s Millennium Cohort Study. Trajectories of problems across ages 3, 5 and 7 years were analyzed using growth curve models. The ASD − ADHD group decre...

  10. Reinforcement enhances vigilance among children with ADHD: comparisons to typically developing children and to the effects of methylphenidate.

    Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri S

    2015-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n = 25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n = 33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n = 19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  11. The responsibilities of speech-language pathologists toward children with ADHD.

    Heyer, J L

    1995-11-01

    The speech-language pathologist has the skills needed to be an active participant in both the diagnostic and intervention phases of the treatment of children with ADHD. Many of the behaviors that define ADHD are directly linked to communication. Westby and Cutler (1994) assert that "the strong association between language disorders and ADHD suggests the possibility of a common antecedent to both disorders, perhaps a temperamental or neurological characteristic linked to deficits in behavioral regulation" (p. 61). Although the speech-language pathologist may not have the security of standardized test scores to support his or her diagnosis, behaviors that cannot be tested (e.g., pragmatics and social interactions) may be keys to a child's classroom difficulties. As discussed, many of the criteria found in the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD are characteristics of pragmatic skills. Supported by Barkley's (1993) new theory of ADHD which is based on poor response inhibition or inability to delay responses, the speech-language pathologist can be an important resource to both the teacher and parents by helping them understand the behaviors exhibited by an ADHD child. The impulsivity that is so disruptive in the classroom is directly linked to the inability to delay responses. It is agreed that continued research into the behavioral characteristics associated with ADHD as well as their long-term implications for learning is needed. ADHD is a multifaceted developmental disorder. There is no known cure for ADHD, and we are dependent on early diagnosis and ongoing intervention to reduce its lifelong effects. Effective treatment must be multi-modal and involve the coordination of a professional team as well as the child's family. It is vital that we help children with ADHD develop positive self-esteem, effective social skills, and good pragmatic language skills that will eventually have a positive impact on their functioning in all aspects of their interactions with their

  12. Parent-Reported Health Consequences and Relationship to Expenditures in Children with ADHD.

    deJong, Neal A; Williams, Christianna S; Thomas, Kathleen C

    2016-04-01

    Objectives (1) To describe parents' report of special needs for children with ADHD on the Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN) Screener; and (2) to assess the association between responses to Screener items and annual mental health and total health expenditures per child. Methods In pooled 2002-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, we identify children ages 4-17 years with ADHD. We use OLS and two-part regressions to model the relationship between CSHCN Screener items and mental health and total health expenditures. Based on these models we estimate adjusted, average total health expenditures for children with ADHD-both with and without a co-morbid mental health condition-and different combinations of endorsed Screener items. This research was conducted in accordance with prevailing ethical principles. Results There were 3883 observations on 2591 children with ADHD. Without a co-morbid mental health condition, average total expenditures per year from adjusted, model-based estimates were $865 for those meeting no Screener items, $2664 for those meeting only the medication item, $3595 for those meeting the medication and counseling items, and $4203 for those meeting the medication, counseling, and use of more health services items. Children with a co-morbid mental health condition had greater total health expenditures for each combination of Screener items. The associations between Screener items and mental health expenditures were similar, but with a slightly lower marginal effect of the medication item (p population health management. PMID:26754346

  13. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  14. ORGANIZATION AND PLANNING IN CHILDREN WITH ADHD: EVALUATION AND PROPOSAL OF A STIMULATION PROGRAM

    Josefina Rubiales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a neurobiological disorder of a complex and heterogeneous origin characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity and / or impulsivity. Is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence, and one of the main reasons for consultation because of difficulties in school performance, behavior problems, difficulties of living at home and with peers, involvement in self-esteem and aggressiveness. The primary deficit is associated with executive dysfunction, among which is the organization and planning. The aim of this study was to compare the performance in organization and planning of children with and without a diagnosis of ADHD and submit a stimulation proposal according to their needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical sample comprised 16 children diagnosed with ADHD and the control sample of 32 children without a diagnosis, in both cases 8 to 14 years old and from the city of Mar del Plata (Argentina. The instruments used to evaluate the organization and planning has been the subtest Torres of Mexico Child Neuropsychological Battery (ENI, and cubes subtests Construction, Completion and Management Object Test Story Weschler Intelligence for children and adolescents. The proposed treatment includes 8 sessions of stimulation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Children with ADHD have greater difficulty in planning and organizational skills than the children of the control sample, from which it establishes a estimulation proposal, whose originality and advantage is accentuated in the ecological validity the process.

  15. Stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in referred preschool children.

    Bunte, Tessa L; Schoemaker, Kim; Hessen, David J; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Matthys, Walter

    2014-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both stability and change of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis in children aged 3.5-5.5 years. For diagnosing these disorders, a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), was used at the first assessment and at follow-up assessments (9 and 18 months). Five diagnostic stability groups (chronic, partial remission, full remission, new onset, no diagnosis) were compared with regard to impairment and number of symptoms. Participants were referred preschool children with externalizing behavioral problems (N = 193; 83% male) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 58; 71% male). Follow-up assessments allowed to distinguish children belonging to the chronic group of ODD, CD or ADHD from those belonging to one of the remission groups. In addition, there was a substantial number of children with a new onset diagnosis. In conclusion, as a complement to studies showing stability of ODD, CD and ADHD diagnosis into school age, present findings point to changes of diagnosis in the preschool and early school period. Diagnostic reassessments therefore are needed in this age group. PMID:24781411

  16. Relationship satisfaction and mental health of parents of children with autism: A comparison of autism, ADHD, and normative children

    Tarabek, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This research compares the relationship satisfaction and mental health of parents of children diagnosed with Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to parents of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and parents of normative children. The analytical sample was obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Childrenâ s Health, and ANOVA statistical procedures were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that significant difference...

  17. Parental Interaction Patterns in Children with Adhd and Controls; a Comparative Study

    M Afkhami -Aghda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Communicational patterns of the parents can either positively or negatively influence children's personality. Parenting manner has long-term effects on behavior, function, expectations and eventually people's future personality. This study investigates parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit- hyperactive disorder. Methods :In this study, 50 male children aged 7-12 years were selected in two groups including 1 25 students with ADHD referring to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan according to the diagnostic scale of DSM- IV and 2 25 healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan from Septamber 2005 until March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them. Results: In "Communication" interaction pattern, the mean score of healthy children was 15.08, while the mean score of ADHD children was 13.42. In "admission" interactional pattern; the mean of the first group was 14.76, while the second group was 11.76. In "control" interactional pattern, mean of group one was 13.28 and the second group was 11.76. In "aggression control" interactional pattern, the mean of group one was 13 and the second group was 14.68. In "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional pattern, mean of the first group was 13.36 and the second group was 16.67. The mean scores of parental interactional pattern in healthy children were all higher than ADHD children except for "aggression control" and "lack of aggressive attachment" interactional patterns. Conclusion: The more the parental "admission" interactional pattern score, the lower the signs of ADHD in children. The signs of severity are lower in cases with more positive parental "control" interactional patterns. If the scores of "lack of aggressive/ attachment" and "aggressive/ control" interactional patterns are higher, ADHD signs are more severe.

  18. Internal Consistency and Concurrent Validity of the Questionnaire for Limitations and Restrictions Assessment in Children with ADHD

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca-Duque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common diagnoses in child psychiatry, its early diagnosis is of great importance for intervention at family, school and social environment. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, a questionnaire was designed to assess activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD. The questionnaire was called “CLARP-ADHD Parent and Teacher Version”. Objective: To determine the degree of internal consistency of the CLARP-ADHD questionnaire, and its concurrent validity with the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ parent and teacher version”. Material and Methods: A sample of 203 children aged 6 to 12 with ADHD, currently attending school in five Colombian cities. The questionnaires were applied to parents and teachers. The internal consistency analysis was performed through Cronbach coefficient and concurrent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient utilizing multiple and unique predictors through multiple linear regression as well as simple regression models. Results: A high internal consistency was found for global questionnaires for each of its domains. The CLARP-ADHD for parents gave as result an internal consistency of 0.83, and the CLARP-ADHD for teachers one of 0.93. Concurrent validity was found between the CLARP-ADHD and the SDQ Parent and Teacher version; also, concurrence between the CLARPADHD for Teachers and the SDQ Teachers was found, as well as between CLARP ADHD for Parents and CLARP ADHD Teachers, given by p values of p < 0.001.

  19. Executive Functions in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD: Assessment, Development and Role of Environment

    Schoemaker, K.

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), i.e., oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are diagnosed earlier in development, yet knowledge about impairments in clinically diagnosed preschool children and the role of co-morbidity is limited. The aims of this ...

  20. Motor coordination problems in children and adolescents with ADHD rated by parents and teachers: effects of age and gender

    Fliers, E.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Vermeulen, S. H.; Altink, M.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Faraone, S. V.; Sergeant, J.A.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. Objective. ADHD is frequently accompanied by motor coordination problems. However, the co-occurrence of poor motor performance has received less attention in research than other coexisting problems in ADHD. The underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of motor coordination problems in a large sample of children with ADHD, and the relationship between motor coordination problems and inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive sympto...

  1. Internal Consistency and Concurrent Validity of the Questionnaire for Limitations and Restrictions Assessment in Children with ADHD

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca-Duque; María Mercedes del Carmen Naranjo-Aristizábal; Mónica Méndez-Narváez; Diana Patricia Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common diagnoses in child psychiatry, its early diagnosis is of great importance for intervention at family, school and social environment. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a questionnaire was designed to assess activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD. The questionnaire was called “CLARP-ADHD Parent and Teacher Version”. Objective: To determine the degree of internal c...

  2. Validating the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning for Children With ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers.

    Davidson, Fiona; Cherry, Kathlyn; Corkum, Penny

    2016-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) has been widely used both clinically and in research for measuring executive functioning (EF) in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the concurrent validity of the BRIEF (both parent and teacher ratings) compared to performance-based measures of EF in children with ADHD compared to typically developing (TD) children. The authors assessed 20 children with ADHD and 20 TD controls on 4 EF domains-working memory, planning, inhibition, and set shifting-using the BRIEF and performance-based measures of EF. Children (aged 8-12 years old) with ADHD demonstrated more EF impairment than their TD peers on both questionnaire- and performance-based measures. Ratings on questionnaire- and performance-based measures did not uniquely correlate with each other. Questionnaire-based measures were better at discriminating between children with ADHD and TD children, specifically BRIEF parent ratings, and discrimination depended mostly on the Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Inhibit subscales. The BRIEF has clinical utility for discriminating between children with ADHD and their TD peers; however, some limitations exist for interpretation of the BRIEF, and it should be used with caution in the assessment and diagnosis of ADHD. PMID:26110907

  3. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, James F; Lindschou, Jane;

    2015-01-01

    of cognitive dysfunctions may prove particularly important because of the impact of these dysfunctions on the ability to cope with everyday life. Lately, several trials have shown promising results for cognitive computer training, often referred to as cognitive training, which focuses on particular...... parts of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions....... METHODS/DESIGN: This multicenter randomized clinical superiority trial aims to investigate the effect of "ACTIVATE™," a computer program designed to improve a range of cognitive skills and ADHD symptoms. A total of 122 children with ADHD, aged 6 to 13 years, will be randomized to an intervention or a...

  4. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups. PMID:19381995

  5. Effects of a summer treatment program on functional sports outcomes in young children with ADHD.

    O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N

    2014-08-01

    Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766

  6. Brief Report: Children with ADHD without Co-Morbid Autism Do Not Have Impaired Motor Proficiency on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; Rinehart, Nicole; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Motor proficiency was investigated in a sample of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined type (ADHD-CT) without autism. Accounting for the influence of co-morbid autistic symptoms in ADHD motor studies is vital given that motor impairment has been linked to social-communication symptoms in children who have co-morbid ADHD…

  7. Atomoxetine for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with ADHD and dyslexia

    Rubin Richard; Greenbaum Michael; Gathercole Susan; Sumner Calvin R; Williams David; Hollandbeck Millie; Wietecha Linda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the effects of atomoxetine on treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), on reading performance, and on neurocognitive function in youth with ADHD and dyslexia (ADHD+D). Methods Patients with ADHD (n = 20) or ADHD+D (n = 36), aged 10-16 years, received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. Data from the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA), Working Memory Test Battery for C...

  8. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Parent Training for Preschool Children With or at Risk of ADHD

    Rimestad, Marie Louise; Lambek, Rikke; Zacher Christiansen, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to synthesize the evidence of parent training (PT) as an early intervention for preschool children aged 2.5 to 6 years with ADHD or ADHD symptoms. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Sixteen studies including 1,003 children were...... analyzed. Parent-rated outcomes revealed moderate effect sizes (ESs; Hedges' g) of 0.51 for ADHD symptoms, 0.40 for conduct problems, and 0.64 for negative parenting. Based on independent assessment, results were only significant for negative parenting. Parent-rated outcomes were sustained at follow-ups of...... 3 to 12 months. Program type, intervention modality, and child diagnostic status did not moderate the effect. CONCLUSION: PT was partially supported as an efficacious intervention for preschool children with ADHD or ADHD symptoms with moderate ESs on parent-rated outcomes, but no significant results...

  9. Societal costs and quality of life of children suffering from attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Hakkaart-van Roijen, L.; Zwirs, B.W.; Bouwmans, C.; Tan, S.S.; Schulpen, T.W.; Vlasveld, L.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in the Netherlands on health care utilisation, costs and quality of life of these children, as well as of their parents is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the direct medical costs of patients suffering fr

  10. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramirez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegria, Margarita; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chavez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; Garcia, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic…

  11. Mothers of Children with LD and ADHD: Empowerment through Online Communication

    Margalit, Malka; Raskind, Marshall H.

    2009-01-01

    Mothers of children with learning disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were notified of the possibility that their online community was going to be closed. They immediately responded with messages about the significance of the community to their lives and distress that the site would not continue to be available.…

  12. Referential Communication in Children with ADHD: Challenges in the Role of a Listener

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Mangal, Leilani; MacDonald, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Successful communication requires that listeners accurately interpret the meaning of speakers' statements. The present work examined whether children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ in their ability to interpret referential statements (i.e., phrasesthat denote objects or events) from speakers.…

  13. Socially ADDept: Teaching Social Skills to Children with ADHD, LD, and Asperger's, Revised Edition

    Giler, Janet Z.

    2011-01-01

    "Socially ADDept" helps educators and parents teach the hidden rules of social behavior to children with limited social skills, notably those with special needs like ADHD, learning disabilities, Asperger's and high-functioning autism, Tourette Syndrome, and nonverbal learning disabilities. The author provides all the information parents and…

  14. Self-Regulation of Visual Attention and Facial Expression of Emotions in ADHD Children

    Kuhle, Hans J.; Kinkelbur, Jorg; Andes, Kerstin; Heidorn, Fridjof M.; Zeyer, Solveigh; Rautzenberg, Petra; Jansen, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test if visual focusing and mimic display as features of self-regulation in ADHD children show a curvilinear relation to rising methylphenidate (MPH) doses. To test if small dose steps of 2.5mg MPH cause significant changes in behavior. And to test the relation of these features to intellectual performance, parents' ratings, and…

  15. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...

  16. The Role of Multidimensional Attentional Abilities in Academic Skills of Children with ADHD

    Preston, Andrew S.; Heaton, Shelley C.; McCann, Sarah J.; Watson, William D.; Selke, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Despite reports of academic difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the relationship between performance on tests of academic achievement and measures of attention. The current study assessed intellectual ability, parent-reported inattention, academic achievement, and attention in 45…

  17. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The mean age…

  18. The Comorbidity of ADHD in the General Population of Saudi Arabian School-Age Children

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, and depression and to investigate the impaired social and academic developments among children with ADHD in primary school settings in Saudi Arabia. Method: Data for the purpose of this study are obtained from parent and teachers of 652…

  19. Social Functioning in Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Children with ADHD

    Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…

  20. Multi-Method Assessment of ADHD Characteristics in Preschool Children: Relations between Measures

    Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Several forms of assessment tools, including behavioral rating scales and objective tests such as the Continuous Performance Test (CPT), can be used to measure inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, research with school-age children has shown that the correlations…

  1. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  2. A Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School…

  3. The Alliance in a Friendship Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children with ADHD

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; McLeod, Bryce D.

    2011-01-01

    The alliance between parent and therapist was observed in a group-based parent-training intervention to improve social competency among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The intervention, called Parental Friendship Coaching (PFC), was delivered to 32 parents in small groups as part of a randomized clinical trial. PFC…

  4. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD.

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years) execute a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%), an unrepeated novel sound (33%) or no auditory stimulation (33%). Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control. PMID:26779082

  5. Examining Alternative Explanations of the Covariation of ADHD and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Community Study

    Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…

  6. The Validity of the ADHD Section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children

    McGrath, Ann M.; Handwerk, Michael L.; Armstrong, Kevin J.; Lucas, Cristopher P.; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent criterion validity of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) portion of the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (NIMHDISC-IV). Fifty-seven adolescent participants were divided into three groups on the basis of whether participants met…

  7. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  8. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  9. A Waitlist-Controlled Trial of Behavioral Parent Training for Fathers of Children with ADHD

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gangloff, Brian; Buck, Melina; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha

    2012-01-01

    Fathers, in general, have been underrepresented in studies of parent training outcome for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a behavioral parent training program developed expressly for fathers. The present investigation randomly assigned 55 fathers of children…

  10. Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention

    Gallagher, Louise; Gill, Michael; JOHNSON, KATHERINE ANNE; Robertson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    (242) PMID: 17433378 ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism are two neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prominent executive dysfunction, which may be underpinned by disruption within fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuits. We probed executive function in these disorders using a sustained attention task with a validated brain-behaviour basis. Twenty-three children with ADHD, 21 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 18 control children were...

  11. Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and CNS Stimulant Medication Use in Children with and without ADHD: Analysis of NHANES Data

    Susan M. Hailpern; Egan, Brent M.; Lewis, Kimberly D.; Wagner, Carol; Ghassan F Shattat; Al Qaoud, Doaa I.; Shatat, Ibrahim F.

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that 2–3% of children in the US have hypertension (HTN) and 8% of children ages 4–17 carry the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The prevalence of HTN and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in children with ADHD on CNS stimulant treatment (stimulants) compared to no treatment and compared to their healthy counterparts is not well described. Using National Health and Nutrition Survey data, we examined demographic, blood pressure (BP) and CV risk factor...

  12. Using Conjoint Behavioral Consultation To Enhance the Generalization of Behavioral Parent Training Effects to School Settings for Children with ADHD.

    Johnson, Tracey L.

    Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder among children in the United States. A frequently used and effective intervention for ADHD involves parent training for behavioral management. While parent training improves child compliance, parent-child interactions, and parenting skills, the effects…

  13. Parental Functioning in Families of Children with ADHD: Evidence for Behavioral Parent Training and Importance of Clinically Meaningful Change

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Schneider, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective/Method: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful effects of behavioral parent training on parental functioning were examined for 20 children with ADHD and their parents who had successfully completed a psychosocial treatment for ADHD. Results/Conclusion: Findings suggest that behavioral parent training resulted in…

  14. Impairment in Children with and without ADHD: Contributions from Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Brammer, Whitney A.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the association of childhood ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) on functional impairment and to test the moderating influence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Method: Ethnically diverse 6- to 9-year-old children with (n = 59) and without (n = 47) ADHD were ascertained using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales…

  15. Neurocognitive Performance in Children with ADHD and OCD

    Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berrak; Zepf, Florian D.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have both been linked to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry (CSTCC). However, the exact nature of neurocognitive deficits remains to be investigated in both disorders. We applied two neuropsychological tasks that tap into different…

  16. Technology Applications for Children with ADHD: Assessing the Empirical Support.

    Xu, Chunzhen; Reid, Robert; Steckelberg, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews technology research (n=20) with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five categories: computer-assisted instruction, computer-based cognitive training, biofeedback training, assessment, and behavior modification. Analysis of available research suggests there is little well controlled experimental…

  17. Perceived parenting style and self-perception in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Maria Fernanda Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: there is a growing interest in the study of the self-perceptions of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the bias in their self-concept. Goal: to explore how ADHD children’s perception of parenting style predicts their selfperception and the bias in self-concept. Method: Participants: children between 7 and 13 years old diagnosed with ADHD, children assisting to psychotherapy without an ADHD diagnose, and children not assisting to psychotherapy. It also participated one of their parents. Data analysis: It was used simple logistic regressions. Groups were studied separately. Results: maternal pathological control was the main predictor of ADHD children’s positive self-perceptions and bias. In the comparison groups it predicts negative self-perceptions. Results are discussed in the light of self-protection hypothesis.

  18. Teaching Physics in the first years of Elementary School to children with ADHD

    Capossoli, Eduardo Folco; Fernandes, Sandro Soares

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on a Science Fair activity developed at Colegio Pedro II, a traditional Brazilian school, with a group of eight 8-12 years old Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) students. ADHD is usually a condition associated with underachievement at school. As part of working toward scientific literacy for students, we explored the idea of conservation of energy based on STS paradigm. At the same time, the learning experience was designed to stimulate children's poor executive function, or, more specifically, their ability to manage time and planning future tasks.

  19. Perceived credibility and eyewitness testimony of children with intellectual disabilities

    Henry, L.; Ridley, A. M.; Perry, J; Crane, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although children with intellectual disabilities (ID) often provide accurate witness testimony, jurors tend to perceive their witness statements to be inherently unreliable. Method: The current study explored the free recall transcripts of child witnesses with ID who had watched a video clip, relative to those of typically developing (TD) age-matched children, and assessed how mock jurors perceived these transcripts in the absence of knowledge of group (ID or TD) membership. A...

  20. The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children.

    Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Rózańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    In most children with ADHD the cause of the disease is not exactly known, and its etiology is multifactorial. The conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioral and psychological therapy and the pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, but it is often associated with undesirable side effects, such as: loss of appetite and weight, growth inhibition, abdominal pain, headaches, sleeping problems and increased blood pressure. In the recent years, much attention was devoted to the issue of an appropriate diet in this disease, especially when the standard pharmacotherapy is not effective. The diet of pregnant and lactating woman, and child may have an impact on the development and deepening of the hyperkinetic syndrome. There is much evidence to indicate that it is linked to nutritional factors. Chronic deficiencies of certain minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium and iodine and insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a significant impact on the development and deepening of the symptoms of ADHD in children. A crucial role in the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and child plays also polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, mainly DHA, which are necessary for proper development and function of brain. Their chronic deficiency may contribute to increase risk of ADHD in children. The authors of several studies also demonstrated the positive impact of the elimination food products containing synthetic food additives, like artificial food dyes and preservatives on the behavior of children with ADHD. The beneficial effects brought also the elimination of food products, that are rich in salicylates. It was found that the intake of food products with a low glycemic index helps to reduce symptoms in some hyperactive children. Providing an appropriate supply of nutrients and minerals and elimination of certain food products from diet is especially important during intensive growth and

  1. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    Bauermeister, José J.; Shrout, Patrick E; Ramírez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegría, Margarita; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chávez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; García, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, (version IV), measures of global impairment, and a battery of potential correlates. In the community (N=1,896) and t...

  2. Motor problems in children with ADHD and clinical effects of Methylphenidate as assessed with the MFNU

    Stray, Liv Larsen

    2009-01-01

    The Motor Function Neurological Assessment (MFNU) has been developed over a 25 year period based on clinical observations and assessments of children referred for evaluation of possible Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic disorder (HKD). The sub-tests of the MFNU were constructed to demonstrate these motor problems to parents and teachers of these children, and to make changes in motor performance observable when the child was medicated with Methylphenidate (...

  3. Evaluation of children with ADHD on the Ball-Search Field Task

    Marcos F. Rosetti; Ulloa, Rosa E.; Vargas-Vargas, Ilse L.; Ernesto Reyes-Zamorano; Lino Palacios-Cruz; Francisco de la Peña; Hernán Larralde; Robyn Hudson

    2016-01-01

    Searching, defined for the purpose of the present study as the displacement of an individual to locate resources, is a fundamental behavior of all mobile organisms. In humans this behavior underlies many aspects of everyday life, involving cognitive processes such as sustained attention, memory and inhibition. We explored the performance of 36 treatment-free children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 132 children from a control school sample on the ecologicall...

  4. An efficacy study of a combined parent and teacher management training programme for children with ADHD

    Östberg, Monica; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several parent training programmes and behavioural teacher training programmes built on learning theory have been developed for problem prevention and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) during the last few decades. Group format has often been used for parent training but single-subject designs are more common in teacher training. More studies have focussed on pre-school children than on older children, and a mino...

  5. Task-Irrelevant Novel Sounds Improve Attentional Performance in Children With and Without ADHD

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Schares, Laura; Lederer, Annette; Bonath, Bjoern; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADH...

  6. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with ADHD

    Pastura, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.pastura@terra.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Pediatria; Mattos, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Psiquiatria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Radiologia; Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagao Gesteira. Dept. de Neuropediatria

    2011-04-15

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects about 5% of school-aged child. Previous published works using different techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have demonstrated that there may be some differences between the brain of people with and without this condition. This review aims at providing neurologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists an update on the differences between the brain of children with and without ADHD using advanced techniques of magnetic resonance imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging, brain volumetry and cortical thickness, spectroscopy and functional MRI. Data was obtained by a comprehensive, non-systematic review of medical literature. The regions with a greater number of abnormalities are splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulated gyrus, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. The brain regions where abnormalities are observed in studies of diffusion tensor, volumetry, spectroscopy and cortical thickness are the same involved in neurobiological theories of ADHD coming from studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  7. Cognitive computer training in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus no intervention

    Bikic, Aida; Leckman, J. F.; Lindschou, Jane; Ø. Christensen, Torben; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and impulsivity and/or hyperactivity and a range of cognitive dysfunctions. Pharmacological treatment may be beneficial; however, many affected individuals...... continue to have difficulties with cognitive functions despite medical treatment, and up to 30 % do not respond to pharmacological treatment. Inadequate medical compliance and the long-term effects of treatment make it necessary to explore nonpharmacological and supplementary treatments for ADHD. Treatment...... parts of cognition, mostly on the working memory or attention but with poor generalization of training on other cognitive functions and functional outcome. Children with ADHD have a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is important that cognitive training target multiple cognitive functions...

  8. Advanced techniques in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with ADHD

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects about 5% of school-aged child. Previous published works using different techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have demonstrated that there may be some differences between the brain of people with and without this condition. This review aims at providing neurologists, pediatricians and psychiatrists an update on the differences between the brain of children with and without ADHD using advanced techniques of magnetic resonance imaging such as diffusion tensor imaging, brain volumetry and cortical thickness, spectroscopy and functional MRI. Data was obtained by a comprehensive, non-systematic review of medical literature. The regions with a greater number of abnormalities are splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulated gyrus, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, striatum, frontal and temporal cortices. The brain regions where abnormalities are observed in studies of diffusion tensor, volumetry, spectroscopy and cortical thickness are the same involved in neurobiological theories of ADHD coming from studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  9. Dietary Patterns in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Hae Dong Woo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of diet in the behavior of children has been controversial, but the association of several nutritional factors with childhood behavioral disorders has been continually suggested. We conducted a case-control study to identify dietary patterns associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The study included 192 elementary school students aged seven to 12 years. Three non-consecutive 24-h recall (HR interviews were employed to assess dietary intake, and 32 predefined food groups were considered in a principal components analysis (PCA. PCA identified four major dietary patterns: the “traditional” pattern, the “seaweed-egg” pattern, the “traditional-healthy” pattern, and the “snack” pattern. The traditional-healthy pattern is characterized by a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrates as well as high intakes of fatty acids and minerals. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR of ADHD for the highest tertile of the traditional-healthy pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.12–0.79. The score of the snack pattern was positively associated with the risk of ADHD, but a significant association was observed only in the second tertile. A significant association between ADHD and the dietary pattern score was not found for the other two dietary patterns. In conclusion, the traditional-healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds having ADHD.

  10. EEG Neurofeedback treatments in children with ADHD: An updated meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Jean-Arthur eMicoulaud Franchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We undertook a meta-analysis of published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT with semi-active control and sham-NF groups to determine whether EEG-NF significantly improves the overall symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions for probably unblinded assessment (parent assessment and probably blinded assessment (teacher assessment in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.Data Sources A systematic review identified independent studies that were eligible for inclusion in a random effects meta-analysis.Data Extraction Effect sizes for ADHD symptoms were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD with 95% confidence intervals.ResultsFive identified studies met eligibility criteria, 263 patients with ADHD were included, 146 patients were trained with EEG-NF. On parent assessment (probably unblinded assessment, the overall ADHD score (SMD=-0.49 [-0.74, -0.24], the inattention score (SMD=-0.46 [-0.76, -0.15] and the hyperactivity/impulsivity score (SMD=-0.34 [-0.59, -0.09] were significantly improved in patients receiving EEG-NF compared to controls. On teacher assessment (probably blinded assessment, only the inattention score was significantly improved in patients receiving EEG-NF compared to controls (SMD=-0.30 [-0.58, -0.03]. ConclusionsThis meta-analysis of EEG-NF in children with ADHD highlights improvement in the inattention dimension of ADHD symptoms. Future investigations should pay greater attention to adequately blinded studies and EEG-NF protocols that carefully control the implementation and embedding of training.

  11. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  12. The Moderating Role of Verbal Aggression on the Relationship between Parental Feedback and Peer Status among Children with ADHD

    Jack, Allison; Mikami, Amori Lee; Calhoun, Casey D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between children's sociometric status and (a) observed parental feedback as well as (b) child aggression. Participants were 94 children ages 6-10 (64 male; 44 with ADHD) and their parents. Children's peer status, parental feedback to their children, and child aggression were all assessed during lab-based playgroups of four…

  13. Improvement of Vergence Movements by Vision Therapy Decreases K-ARS Scores of Symptomatic ADHD Children

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the improvement of vergence movements by vision therapy can decrease the K-ARS scores of symptomatic ADHD children. [Methods] Eighty-one out of 1,123 children surveyed using the K-ARS, a parents’-reported questionnaire, led to 16 of these 81 children being showed scores of ≥19, and measurement of binocular function diagnosed as having convergence insufficiency. The 16 children were divided equally into a control group and a vision therapy group. [Results] After ...

  14. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Kjell Tore Hovik

    Full Text Available This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C.19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later.All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities.This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies.

  15. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Skogli, Erik Winther; Andersen, Per Normann; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating forms at baseline and two-years later. Results All three groups improved likewise in measures of cognitive control over time, whereas only the TDC improved in focused attention. The group of children with TS with comorbidities performed more similar to the children with ADHD-C in cognitive control at T1 and T2, whereas the children with TS without comorbidities performed more similar to the TDC in cognitive control at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger for the TS subgroup without comorbidities. Conclusion This study emphasizes the importance of addressing symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with TS or ADHD-C, identifying the effect of comorbidities in children with TS, and that children with TS or ADHD-C likely differ in their sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. PMID:26673612

  16. What Teachers Perceive--Children Receive?

    Algozzine, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Reports a study designed to ascertain the relationship between teacher perceived attractiveness and classroom interactions and suggests that "main effects" such as facial attractiveness of youngsters acts to determine individual potential for interactions with others. (MH)

  17. Comparison between QEEG as a Neurofeedback Tool to Diagnose AD/HD Disorder and Hematological-biochemical Para-clinical Indicators on Children with AD/HD Disorder and Children without Such Symptoms

    Fatemeh Nimrouzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted to achieve two objectives. First, study of clinical suitability and diagnostic precision in paraclinical experiments and study of biochemical factors in the diagnosis of AD/HD and second, study of the effectiveness of blood tests in identification of iron panel factors, study of blood mercury level, study of SE in AD/HD and comparing it with control group (normal children. At the first stage of the study, after analysis by QEEG, all factors to be tested underwent paraclinical experiments. The diagnostic precision of QEEG is estimated at 94%. The results of the first stage demonstrated that the paraclinical experiments are an effective tool with a high diagnostic precision for the diagnosis of AD/HD. The results of the second stage of study demonstrated that both groups suffer from iron deficiency anemia and there is no significant relationship between development of AD/HD symptoms and the iron deficiency anemia. Also the blood Ferritin in the tested group was higher than that of control group. Statistically, no significant relationship was noted between the CBC and development of AD/HD symptoms, yet a significant relationship was observed between reduction of Hb level and development of AD/HD symptoms. It was also concluded that SE stool infection in AD/HD children was higher than that of normal children. In children with AD/HD, vitamin B was less than that of normal children and there was significant relationship between increase in the mercury level of blood and development of attention and concentration deficit disorder (AD/HD.

  18. [Evidence-based treatment of ADHD/DAMP in children and adolescents with central stimulants].

    Dalsgaard, S; Thomsen, P H

    2001-02-19

    The use of stimulants in the treatment of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, and Deficit in Attention, Motor Control and Perception, DAMP, is often considered somewhat controversial. It was first used in 1937, and since the 1960s, 3000 published studies and 250 reviews have demonstrated the positive, short-term effect of stimulants on children and adolescents with ADHD/DAMP. More than 160 randomised, controlled trials (RCT) have studied the effect of attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Furthermore, stimulants have proved effective on the social relation of such children, both in their families and in with their peers. Side effects are often mild, transient and dose-related. The short-term effectiveness of stimulants is thus well-documented and their prescription evidence-based, whereas further studies on the long-term effect are needed. PMID:11242674

  19. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  20. The role of divided attention and selective attention in time perception deficit of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Choi, Poi-ki; 蔡博麒

    2012-01-01

    Time deficit in people with ADHD has been consistently found, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether divided attention and selective attention are the causes for the deficit; and whether duration judgment performance was related to everyday temporal behaviour. 20 children with ADHD and 23 control children (mean age = 9 years 5 months) matched on age and IQ with no significant difference in working memory were tested. Experiment 1 used retr...

  1. Comparative Study of Sustained Attentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking

    Pishyareh, Ebrahim; Mehdi EHRANI-DOOST; Javad MAHMOODI-GHARAIE; Khorrami, Anahita; Saeid Reza RAHMDAR

    2015-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Pishyareh E, Tehrani-doost M, Mahmoodi-gharaie J, Khorrami A, Rahmdar SR. A Comparative Study of SustainedAttentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1):64-70.AbstractObjectiveADHD children have anomalous and negative behavior especially in emotionally related fields when compared to other. Evidence indicates that attention has an impact on emotional processing. The present study evaluate...

  2. Efficacy of Multimodal Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—An Indian Study

    Malavika Kapur; Shoba Srinath; Anna Oommen; Thudalikunnil Gopalan Rejani

    2012-01-01

    Background: To find the efficacy of multimodal intervention on attention deficit and hyperactivity, behavioral problems in home and school situations and on academic achievement of children with ADHD and the impact of family stress and coping on the outcome of multi-modal intervention. Method: A sample (N = 40) of children aged 5 - 10 years registered in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit (CAMHU) with a diagnosis of ADHD (on the ICD-10) with or without comorbidity were randomly alloc...

  3. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  4. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children.

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10-40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89-98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  5. Slow sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms are associated with poorer academic performance in children with ADHD.

    Tamm, Leanne; Garner, Annie A; Loren, Richard E A; Epstein, Jeffery N; Vaughn, Aaron J; Ciesielski, Heather A; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-30

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms may confer risk for academic impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated SCT in relation to academic performance and impairment in 252 children (ages 6-12, 67% boys) with ADHD. Parents and teachers completed SCT and academic impairment ratings, and achievement in reading, math, and spelling was assessed. Simultaneous regressions controlling for IQ, ADHD, and comorbidities were conducted. Total SCT predicted parent-rated impairments in writing, mathematics, and overall school but not reading. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer reading and spelling, but not math achievement. Teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted poorer spelling and math, but not reading achievement. Parent-rated SCT Slow predicted greater academic impairment ratings across all domains, whereas teacher-rated SCT Slow predicted greater impairment in writing only. Age and gender did not moderate these relationships with the exception of math impairment; SCT slow predicted math impairment for younger but not older children. Parent and teacher SCT Sleepy and Daydreamy ratings were not significant predictors. SCT Slow appears to be uniquely related to academic problems in ADHD, and may be important to assess and potentially target in intervention. More work is needed to better understand the nature of SCT Slow symptoms in relation to inattention and amotivation. PMID:27294799

  6. Neural Biomarkers for Dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD in the Auditory Cortex of Children

    Serrallach, Bettina; Groß, Christine; Bernhofs, Valdis; Engelmann, Dorte; Benner, Jan; Gündert, Nadine; Blatow, Maria; Wengenroth, Martina; Seitz, Angelika; Brunner, Monika; Seither, Stefan; Parncutt, Richard; Schneider, Peter; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD) show distinct clinical profiles that may include auditory and language-related impairments. Currently, an objective brain-based diagnosis of these developmental disorders is still unavailable. We investigated the neuro-auditory systems of dyslexic, ADHD, ADD, and age-matched control children (N = 147) using neuroimaging, magnetencephalography and psychoacoustics. All disorder subgroups exhibited an oversized left planum temporale and an abnormal interhemispheric asynchrony (10–40 ms) of the primary auditory evoked P1-response. Considering right auditory cortex morphology, bilateral P1 source waveform shapes, and auditory performance, the three disorder subgroups could be reliably differentiated with outstanding accuracies of 89–98%. We therefore for the first time provide differential biomarkers for a brain-based diagnosis of dyslexia, ADHD, and ADD. The method allowed not only allowed for clear discrimination between two subtypes of attentional disorders (ADHD and ADD), a topic controversially discussed for decades in the scientific community, but also revealed the potential for objectively identifying comorbid cases. Noteworthy, in children playing a musical instrument, after three and a half years of training the observed interhemispheric asynchronies were reduced by about 2/3, thus suggesting a strong beneficial influence of music experience on brain development. These findings might have far-reaching implications for both research and practice and enable a profound understanding of the brain-related etiology, diagnosis, and musically based therapy of common auditory-related developmental disorders and learning disabilities. PMID:27471442

  7. Children's Perceived Competence Scale: Reference values in Japan.

    Nagai, Yukiyo; Nomura, Kayo; Nagata, Masako; Ohgi, Shohei; Iwasa, Mitsuji

    2015-12-01

    To support children with chronic diseases, reference values to measure developmental changes in self-perception and self-esteem are considered a useful yardstick. To develop reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children, the Children's Perceived Competence Scale (CPCS) was administered to 768 children of elementary school grade 1 (6 years) to grade 6 (11 years) at four public schools in Japan, from November to December 2012. After excluding 74 with chronic diseases and/or incomplete responses, 694 children were included. CPCS measures children's self-perceived competence in cognitive, social, physical domains, and general self-worth, namely self-esteem. There was a tendency for scores of cognitive and general self-worth to decrease with increasing grade. Scores among grade 5 respondents were significantly lower than those among grade 4 respondents for both social and physical domains. Scores among boys and girls differed significantly, with boys scoring higher for physical domain in grades 3 and 6 and for general self-worth domain in grade 6. The CPCS reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children were developed in this study. These reference values are useful to inform practitioners supporting children with psychological or psychiatric problems or those with chronic diseases. PMID:24500846

  8. ADHD AND LONELINESS SOCIAL DISSATISFACTION IN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL FROM AN INDIVIDUAL-CONTEXT PARADIGM

    Viviana LANGHER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ADHD children can experience severe relational problems with peers, and individual treatments are not likely to eradicate peer problems. The school is the main arena in which peer difficulties develop and can be faced.Present study is aimed to explore the hypothesis that even in a fully inclusive educational system, like the Italian one, ADHD children would still experience peer difficulties if compared with children with other special needs, given the relational implications of the disturb. 31 ADHD children, 31 children with other special needs, 31 children with no special needs, matched by gender and age, were recruited from primary and low secondary State mainstream schools. The "Children's Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Rating Scale was administered to all children during class time. A single ANOVA test between the three groups and three planned comparisons were performed on the perceived loneliness and social dissatisfaction scores. The results showed low levels of perceived loneliness and social dissatisfaction for all groups. However, 30% of ADHD children showed a perceived loneliness and social dissatisfaction level twice than the other children, confirming the hypothesis that children with ADHD are at risk of isolation even within a fully inclusive environment.The authors interpretated the results according to a relational perspective, in which ADHD symptoms are not seen as totally dependant on the disorder in itself, but also a specific result of the relational system in which the child is part of. Implications regarding educational strategies and intervention strategies are discussed.

  9. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame themselves when they ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... 62nd Annual Meeting 2017 Psychopharmacology Update Institute Annual Review Course Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules ... for your child. Medications Most children with ADHD benefit from taking medication. Medications do not cure ADHD. ...

  11. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability to pay attention and control their behavior. The ... become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop new drugs for ADHD. It is ...

  12. Self-regulation strategies support children with ADHD to overcome symptom-related behavior in the classroom.

    Guderjahn, Lena; Gold, Andreas; Stadler, Gertraud; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2013-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from self-regulation deficits that cause inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Self-regulation interventions may address these deficits, but to date, only few empirical studies have examined their benefits for children with ADHD in everyday life. The present study investigated three classroom interventions to promote self-regulation and tested their benefit on self-regulatory competencies (assessed with an ADHD questionnaire) in children with ADHD. Students of a special education school for children with ADHD participated in the intervention study that included three sessions (Session 1: Goal Intention or Goal Intention + If-Then Plan; Session 2: Goal Intention + If-Then Plan; Session 3: Goal Intention + If-Then Plan + Self-Monitoring). Teacher-rated self-regulatory competencies were assessed both before and after the intervention sessions. Children with ADHD had better self-regulatory competencies after their first Goal Intention + If-Then Plan Session, but lasting intervention effects were found only when children started with a mere goal intention session. PMID:24062181

  13. Morning and evening behavior in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine once daily for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD: Findings from two 24-week, open-label studies

    Schacht Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of once daily atomoxetine treatment on symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD may vary over the day. In order to capture such variations, two studies were undertaken in children and adolescents with ADHD using two instruments that capture morning and evening behavior and ADHD-related difficulties over the day. This secondary measure analysis builds on two primary analyses that were conducted separately for children and adolescents and also published separately. Methods In two open-label studies, ADHD patients aged 6–17 years (n = 421, received atomoxetine in the morning (target-dose 0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day for up to 24 weeks. Morning and evening behavior was assessed using the investigator-rated Weekly Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior (WREMB-R scale. ADHD-related difficulties at various times of the day (morning, during school, during homework, evening were assessed using the Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD scale, rated by patients, parents and physicians. Data from both studies were combined for this secondary measure analysis. Results Both WREMB-R subscores decreased significantly over time, the evening subscore from 13.7 (95% CI 13.2;14.2 at baseline to 8.0 (7.4;8.5 at week 2, the morning subscore from 4.3 (4.0;4.5 to 2.4 (2.2;2.6. Scores then remained stable until week 24. All GIPD items improved correspondingly. At all times of the day, patients rated ADHD-related difficulties as less severe than parents and physicians. Conclusion These findings from two open-label studies suggest that morning and evening behavior and ADHD-related difficulties in the mornings and evenings improve over time with once daily atomoxetine treatment.

  14. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette’s Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype—A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    2015-01-01

    Objective This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Combined subtype (ADHD-C). Method 19 children with TS, 33 with ADHD-C, and 50 typically developing children (TDC) were examined with a battery of psychometric measures and rating fo...

  15. The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Jae-Won; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depressi...

  16. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad.Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Elham Ranjar; Seyed. Mohammad-Ali Kooshesh; Seyed-Ali Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: on...

  17. Clinical Case Rounds in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Enuresis and ADHD in Older Children and an Adolescent Treated with Stimulant Medication: A Case Series

    Williamson, Lloyda B.; Gower, Michael; Ulzen, Thaddeus

    2011-01-01

    Uncommonly, older children and adolescents can present with a history of enuresis. Resolution of enuresis followed the diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in each child in this case series. Subjects were three children with DSM-IV-TR ADHD, who presented with a history of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE). Our results reveal that a subgroup of children with ADHD plus enuresis, when treated with stimulant medication, demonstrated resolution of enuresis as w...

  18. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication: An ERP Study

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. Methods 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback condition...

  19. Processing of Continuously Provided Punishment and Reward in Children with ADHD and the Modulating Effects of Stimulant Medication: An ERP Study

    Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Oliver; Wijers, Albertus A.; Althaus, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Current models of ADHD suggest abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, but the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of continuous reward and punishment on the processing of performance feedback in children with ADHD and the modulating effects of stimulant medication. Methods: 15 Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and 15 Mph-free children of the ADHD-combined type and 17 control children performed a selective attention task with three feedback conditi...

  20. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  1. Global impression of perceived difficulties in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Reliability and validity of a new instrument assessing perceived difficulties from a patient, parent and physician perspective over the day

    Dittmann Ralf W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a brief scale developed to assess the degree of difficulties in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD scale reflects overall impairment, psychosocial functioning and Quality of Life (QoL as rated by patient, parents and physician at various times of the day. Methods In two open-label studies, ADHD-patients aged 6–17 years were treated with atomoxetine (target-dose 0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day. ADHD-related difficulties were assessed up to week 24 using the GIPD. Data from both studies were combined to validate the scale. Results Overall, 421 patients received atomoxetine. GIPD scores improved over time. All three GIPD-versions (patient, parent, physician were internally consistent; all items showed at least moderate item-total correlation. The scale showed good test-retest reliability over a two-week period from all three perspectives. Good convergent and discriminant validity was shown. Conclusion GIPD is an internally consistent, reliable and valid measure to assess difficulties in children with ADHD at various times of the day and can be used as indicator for psychosocial impairment and QoL. The scale is sensitive to treatment-related change.

  2. Relationship between quality of life and psychopathological profile: data from an observational study in children with ADHD.

    Becker, Andreas; Roessner, Veit; Breuer, Dieter; Döpfner, Manfred; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2011-10-01

    Although ADHD significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, QoL in children with ADHD has rarely been investigated in association with psychopathological profile, and the relationship remains unclear. The open-label OBSEER study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of Equasym XL(®), a modified-release methylphenidate, in routine care of children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with ADHD. At baseline, questionnaires assessing psychopathological profile (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ; parental ratings) and QoL (KINDL; parent, child or adolescent versions) were completed; QoL was reassessed at final visit. We analysed the relationship between psychopathology and parent/patient-rated QoL in ADHD at baseline. Data from 721 consecutively referred children and adolescents were analysed. QoL was similarly low from parent and self-ratings and independent of severity on the SDQ subscale hyperactivity/inattention. Self-ratings indicated that additional conduct disorder was associated with further reduction in QoL. Similarly, children with high scores from parent and adolescent ratings on the SDQ subscale conduct problems had reduced QoL on some KINDL subscales. Adolescents with ADHD not receiving medication at baseline reported lower QoL than those already on medication. Results show that children and adolescents with ADHD have low QoL, independent of core symptom severity. Additional conduct problems may further impact QoL negatively, while ADHD medication use may show a trend towards improved QoL. Not all psychopathological problems associated with ADHD affect QoL similarly. As parents appear to have a less critical view of QoL compared with children's self-ratings, both parent and child ratings should be included in clinical assessments. PMID:21901415

  3. Music and Sound Elements in Time Estimation and Production of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Luiz Rogerio Jorgensen Carrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ADHD involves cognitive and behavioral aspects with impairments in many environments of children and their families’ lives. Music, with its playful, spontaneous, affective, motivational, temporal and rhythmic dimensions can be of great help for studying the aspects of time processing in ADHD. In this article we studied time processing with simple sounds and music in children with ADHD with the hypothesis that children with ADHD have a different performance when compared with children with normal development in tasks of time estimation and production. The main objective was to develop sound and musical tasks to evaluate and correlate the performance of children with ADHD, with and without methylphenidate, compared to a control group with typical development. The study involved 36 participants age 6 to 14 years, recruited at NANI-Unifesp/SP, sub-divided into three groups with 12 children in each. Data was collected through a musical keyboard using Logic Audio Software 9.0 on the computer that recorded the participant's performance in the tasks. Tasks were divided into sections: spontaneous time production, time estimation with simple sounds and time estimation with music. Results: 1. Performance of ADHD groups in temporal estimation of simple sounds in short time intervals (30 ms were statistically lower than control group (p<0,05; 2. In the task comparing musical excerpts of the same duration (7s, ADHD groups considered the tracks longer when the musical notes had longer durations, while in the control group, the duration was related to the density of musical notes in the track. The positive average performance observed in the three groups in most tasks perhaps indicates the possibility that music can, in some way, positively modulate the symptoms of inattention in ADHD.

  4. Measuring perceived mental workload in children.

    Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Frey, Meredith; Ennis, Aristi; Zamary, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the mental workload, or psychological costs, associated with information processing tasks in children. We adapted the highly regarded NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) multidimensional workload scale (Hart & Staveland, 1988) to test its efficacy for use with elementary school children. We developed 2 types of tasks, each with 2 levels of demand, to draw differentially on resources from the separate subscales of workload. In Experiment 1, our participants were both typical and school-labeled gifted children recruited from 4th and 5th grades. Results revealed that task type elicited different workload profiles, and task demand directly affected the children's experience of workload. In general, gifted children experienced less workload than typical children. Objective response time and accuracy measures provide evidence for the criterion validity of the workload ratings. In Experiment 2, we applied the same method with 1st- and 2nd-grade children. Findings from Experiment 2 paralleled those of Experiment 1 and support the use of NASA-TLX with even the youngest elementary school children. These findings contribute to the fledgling field of educational ergonomics and attest to the innovative application of workload research. Such research may optimize instructional techniques and identify children at risk for experiencing overload. PMID:24720100

  5. COMT Val[superscript 108/158] Met Gene Variant, Birth Weight, and Conduct Disorder in Children with ADHD

    Sengupta, Sarojini M.; Grizenko, Natalie; Schmitz, Norbert; Schwartz, George; Amor, Leila Ben; Bellingham, Johanne; de Guzman, Rosherrie; Polotskaia, Anna; Stepanian, Marina Ter; Thakur, Geeta; Joober, Ridha

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In a recent study, Thapar and colleagues reported that COMT "gene variant and birth weight predict early-onset antisocial behavior in children" with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have attempted to replicate these findings in a group of ADHD children using a similar research design. Method: Children (n = 191) between 6 and…

  6. Dopamine Transporter Gene Moderates Response to Behavioral Parent Training in Children With ADHD: A Pilot Study

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Nauta, Maaike H.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2012-01-01

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects were a subsample (n = 50, for whom DAT1 genotypes were available) of a randomized controlled BPT effectiveness study (N = 94) comparing BPT plus ongoing routine clinical care (RCC) versus RCC alone ...

  7. Developing a model of occupational therapy practice for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Chu, Sidney Kin Hoi

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 15/06/2005. This three-stage study led to the development of a delineation model of occupational therapy practice for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Stage one explored the current practice of occupational therapy in the United Kingdom (UK) by conducting a national survey of 282 paediatric occupational therapists. Results indicated that there were only a small n...

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder in Children of Drug Dependent Parents

    Parvaresh, Nooshin; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Bayati, Hamidreza

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder are amongrelatively prevalent disorders during childhood and adolescence.Considering the negative impact of the parents' drug dependency andbipolar disorder, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence ofADHD and conduct disorder in children of drug-dependent and bipolar parents. Methods In this case-control study, the case group included two groups ofpatients with drug dependency and bipolar disorder hospitalize...

  9. CDC Vital Signs-ADHD in Young Children: What You Should Know

    2016-05-03

    This podcast is based on the May 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. For children ages two to five who have ADHD, behavior therapy is recommended before prescribing medicine. This therapy teaches parents ways to improve their child’s behavior and can work as well as medicine, without the risk of side effects.  Created: 5/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/3/2016.

  10. The Alliance in a Friendship Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children With ADHD

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; McLeod, Bryce D.

    2011-01-01

    The alliance between parent and therapist was observed in a group-based parent-training intervention to improve social competency among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The intervention, called Parental Friendship Coaching (PFC), was delivered to 32 parents in small groups as part of a randomized clinical trial. PFC was delivered in eight, 90-minute sessions to parents; there was no child treatment component. Observed parent–therapist alliance recorded among 27 o...

  11. Association between Diagnosed ADHD and Selected Characteristics among Children Aged 4-17 Years: United States, 2011-2013. NCHS Data Brief. Number 201

    Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.; Duran, Catherine R.; Hawkins, LaJeana D.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder diagnosed in U.S. children (1). While this disorder is most often diagnosed in children when they are in elementary school, it is increasingly being identified in preschool children (2-5). This report describes the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD among…

  12. Children and the Perceived Reality of Television.

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Reeves, Byron

    Based on previous research findings and original data from school children in grades 3-6, this study examines children's perceptions of reality in television as an intervening variable between exposure to the medium and the effect of television messages. The specific focus of the current research was to isolate and identify factors which have…

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Health-Related Quality of Life and Family Impact between Children with ADHD Treated in a General Pediatric Clinic and a Psychiatric Clinic Utilizing the PedsQL

    Limbers, Christine A.; Ripperger-Suhler, Jane; Boutton, Kelly; Ransom, Daniel; Varni, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the perspective of children with ADHD and their parents being seen in a Pediatric Clinic in comparison to healthy children and children with ADHD being seen in a Psychiatric Clinic. Method: Participants were children with a physician diagnosis of ADHD ages 5-18 years and their…

  14. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  15. Misdiagnosis of ADHD/ASD in gifted children

    Jamison Rundkvist, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Gifted children in Sweden are largely an unidentified group in spite of their needs for special adaptations in the home and at school to thrive. Without these adaptations, gifted children can develop behavioral and social difficulties. Some personality characteristics common in gifted children can also mimic symptoms of neurodevelopmental disorders. This review investigates the literature on diagnostic procedures and outcomes for gifted children. Nineteen studies and review art...

  16. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  17. Maternal Depression History Moderates Parenting Responses to Compliant and Noncompliant Behaviors of Children with ADHD.

    Thomas, Sharon R; O'Brien, Kelly A; Clarke, Tana L; Liu, Yihao; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Maternal depression and parenting are robust predictors of developmental outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, methods commonly used to examine parent-child interactions in these families do not account for temporal associations between child and parent behavior that have been theorized to maintain negative child behavior. Moreover, studies examining associations between maternal depression and parenting in families of children with ADHD have not compared mothers who were currently depressed, remitted, and never clinically depressed. This study utilized sequential analysis to examine how maternal reinforcement of compliant and noncompliant child behavior differs as a function of maternal depression history. Within the 82 participating mother-child dyads, 21 mothers were currently depressed, 29 mothers had a lifetime history of depression but were in remission for at least 1 month, and 32 mothers had never been clinically depressed. 24 girls (29.6 %) and 57 boys (70.4 %) between the ages of 6-12 years old (M = 8.7, SD = 2.0) and were diagnosed with ADHD. Results indicated that all mothers were less likely to respond optimally than non-optimally to child compliant and noncompliant behaviors during observed parent-child interactions; however, currently depressed mothers were least likely to reinforce child compliance and responded most coercively to child noncompliance relative to the other groups. Remitted mothers in this sample were more coercive than never clinically depressed mothers, but were more likely to follow through with commands than never clinically depressed mothers. Implications for behavioral parent training programs aimed at skill development for depressed mothers of children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:25413021

  18. Clinical utility of guanfacine extended release in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents

    Bello NT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas T Bello Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common psychiatric illness in children and adolescents. Several stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives, are available to treat ADHD in pediatric patients. Nonstimulant medications are more preferred by some parents, other caregivers, and patients because they lack the abuse potential of stimulant medications. In the US, one available nonstimulant option is guanfacine extended release (XR. As a selective α2A adrenergic receptor, guanfacine acts on the central noradrenergic pathways and cortical noradrenergic targets to improve working memory and attention. The XR formulation of guanfacine, compared with the immediate-release formulation, is more effective for the long-term management of ADHD and is associated with fewer adverse effects. Available data also indicate that guanfacine XR is superior to atomoxetine and is as effective as the nonselective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine XR. The most common adverse effects associated with guanfacine XR are somnolence, fatigue, bradycardia, and hypotension. Somnolence is the most often cited reason for discontinuation. Guanfacine XR is also labeled for use as an adjuvant to stimulant treatment for ADHD. A similar profile of adverse effects as reported with monotherapy is reported when guanfacine XR is “added on” to stimulant therapy with somnolence as the most commonly reported adverse event. This review discusses the clinical efficacy and patient preference of guanfacine XR based on available published data on the safety, relative effectiveness, and tolerance of this medication to treat ADHD. Keywords: Intuniv, norepinephrine, prefrontal cortex, locus coeruleus, impulsivity, inattentive

  19. Parenting Mediates Symptoms and Impairment in Children With ADHD-Inattentive Type.

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel T; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates potential pathways between inattentive symptom severity, positive and negative parenting practices, and functional impairment (i.e., academic, social, and home impairment) in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type (ADHD-I). Participants included 199 children and their parents and teachers enrolled in a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated psychosocial intervention for children with ADHD-I. Boys constituted slightly more than half the sample; children averaged 8.6 years of age (range = 7-11) and were from varied ethnic/racial backgrounds. As part of the initial screening and assessment procedures, parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing child behavior and parent/family functioning. Results supported both main effects of symptoms and parenting on impairment, as well as a mediational path between symptoms and impairment via parenting, as observed by parents in the home setting. Specifically, higher severity of inattention was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Negative parenting contributed to homework and home impairment, and positive and negative parenting contributed to social impairment, incrementally above and beyond the impact of inattention symptom severity alone. Negative parenting partially mediated the relationship between inattentive symptom severity and impairment, such that higher rates of inattention were associated with higher rates of negative parenting, which in turn was associated with higher rates of homework, social, and home impairment. Results provide support for underlying mechanisms for associations between symptoms and impairment in children with ADHD-I and identify potential intervention targets to improve impairment experienced by these children. PMID:25411896

  20. ADHD inattentive symptoms mediate the relationship between intelligence and academic performance in children aged 6-14

    Danielle de S. Costa; Jonas J. de Paula; Antônio M. Alvim-Soares Júnior; Diniz, Breno S.; Marco A Romano-Silva; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.; Miranda, Débora M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fluid intelligence and the behavioral problems of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to academic performance, but how this association occurs is unclear. This study aimed to assess mediation and moderation models that test possible pathways of influence between these factors. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and 33 age-matched, typically developing students were evaluated with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and the spelling and arithmetic subtest...

  1. 1Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Heinrich Hartmut; Doehnert Mirko; Straub Marc; Drechsler Renate; Steinhausen Hans-Christoph; Brandeis Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although several promising studies on neurofeedback training in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been performed in recent years, the specificity of positive treatment effects continues to be challenged. Methods To evaluate the specificity of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials, a twofold strategy was pursued: First, the efficacy of neurofeedback training was compared to a group training program for children with ADHD. Secondly, the exte...

  2. Barkley’s Parent Training Program, Working Memory Training and their Combination for Children with ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Zahra Hosainzadeh Maleki; Ali Mashhadi; Atefeh Soltanifar; Fatemeh Moharreri; Ali Ghanaei Ghamanabad

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Barkley’s parent training program, working memory training and the combination of these two interventions for children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods In this study, 36 participants with ADHD (aged 6 to 12 years) were selected by convenience sampling. Revision of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP) questionnaire (SNAP–IV), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and clinical interviews were emplo...

  3. Development and User Satisfaction of "Plan-It Commander," a Serious Game for Children with ADHD.

    Bul, Kim C M; Franken, Ingmar H A; Van der Oord, Saskia; Kato, Pamela M; Danckaerts, Marina; Vreeke, Leonie J; Willems, Annik; van Oers, Helga J J; van den Heuvel, Ria; van Slagmaat, Rens; Maras, Athanasios

    2015-12-01

    The need for engaging treatment approaches within mental health care has led to the application of gaming approaches to existing behavioral training programs (i.e., gamification). Because children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to have fewer problems with concentration and engagement when playing digital games, applying game technologies and design approaches to complement treatment may be a useful means to engage this population in their treatment. Unfortunately, gamified training programs currently available for ADHD have been limited in their ability to demonstrate in-game behavior skills that generalize to daily life situations. Therefore, we developed a new serious game (called "Plan-It Commander") that was specifically designed to promote behavioral learning and promotes strategy use in domains of daily life functioning such as time management, planning/organizing, and prosocial skills that are known to be problematic for children with ADHD. An interdisciplinary team contributed to the development of the game. The game's content and approach are based on psychological principles from the Self-Regulation Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Learning Theory. In this article, game development and the scientific background of the behavioral approach are described, as well as results of a survey (n = 42) to gather user feedback on the first prototype of the game. The findings suggest that participants were satisfied with this game and provided the basis for further development and research to the game. Implications for developing serious games and applying user feedback in game development are discussed. PMID:26325247

  4. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    Rockstroh Brigitte; Kissler Johanna; Goepel Johanna; Paul-Jordanov Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without) ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ±...

  5. Impact of comorbidity on three month follow-up outcome of children with ADHD in a child guidance clinic: Preliminary report

    Rangan Srinivasaraghavan; Subramanian Mahadevan; Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the common neurodevelopmental disorders. Aims: Study objective is to report impact of comorbidities on short-term outcome in children with ADHD followed in a child guidance clinic. Settings and Design: This was done in a child guidance clinic run jointly by the pediatric and psychiatry department at a tertiary teaching hospital. This is a 3 month prospective follow-up study to assess the outcome in ADHD children. Materials and...

  6. Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports

    Duric Nezla S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized and controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the use of neurofeedback (NF to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents. Methods The ADHD population was selected from an outpatient clinic for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in Norway. Ninety-one of the 275 children and adolescents ranging in age from 6 to 18 years (10.5 years participated in 30 sessions of an intensive NF program. The reinforcement contingency was based on the subjects’ production of cortical beta1 activity (15–18 Hz. The ADHD participants were randomized into three groups, with 30 in the NF group, 31 controls in a group that was given methylphenidate, and 30 in a group that received NF and methylphenidate. ADHD core symptoms were reported by parents using the parent form of the Clinician’s Manual for Assessment by Russell A. Barkley. Results Ninety-one children and adolescents were effectively randomized by age, sex, intelligence and distribution of ADHD core symptoms. The parents reported significant effects of the treatments, but no significant differences between the treatment groups were observed. Conclusions NF was as effective as methylphenidate at treating the attentional and hyperactivity symptoms of ADHD, based on parental reports. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01252446

  7. Epilepsy in Children With ADHD: A Population-Based Study

    Davis, Shanlee M.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Barbaresi, William J.; Killian, Jill; Weaver, Amy L.; Ottman, Ruth; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies suggest a higher incidence of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with epilepsy, but few have investigated epilepsy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Our objective was to compare the incidence and characteristics of epilepsy among population-based, research identified cohorts of children with (N=358) and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N=728), based on medical record review to age 20. Data abstracted include...

  8. Perceived Credibility and Eyewitness Testimony of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Henry, L.; Ridley, A.; Perry, J.; Crane, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although children with intellectual disabilities (ID) often provide accurate witness testimony, jurors tend to perceive their witness statements to be inherently unreliable. Method: The current study explored the free recall transcripts of child witnesses with ID who had watched a video clip, relative to those of typically developing…

  9. Children and the Perceived Reality of Television

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Reeves, Byron

    1976-01-01

    Childrens' perceptions of reality in television are examined as an intervening variable between exposure to the medium and the effect of TV messages. Among the findings of this study are that perceptions of the reality of TV increase as the specificity of content increases. (Author/AM)

  10. difficulties in children with ADHD - like symptoms ” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    is a diseased population (i.e. children with ADHD). The Panel concludes that the claimed effect relates to the treatment of a disease, and that therefore the health claim does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...... a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the...... subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by...

  11. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 ∼ 15 ys, mean age: 8 ± 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 ∼ 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 ± 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe

  12. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  13. The impact of ADHD on the health and well-being of ADHD children and their siblings.

    Peasgood, T.; Bhardwaj, A.; Biggs, K.; Brazier, J E; Coghill, D.; Cooper, C.L.; Daley, D; Silva, C.; Harpin, V; Hodgkins, P.; Nadkarni, A.; Setyawan, J; Sonuga-Barke, E J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with reduced health and well-being of patients and their families. The authors undertook a large UK survey-based observational study of the burden associated with childhood ADHD. The impact of ADHD on both the patient (N = 476) and their siblings (N = 337) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and happiness was quantified using multiple standard measures [e.g. child health utility-9D (CHU-9D), EuroQol-5D-Youth]....

  14. The impact of ADHD on the health and well-being of ADHD children and their siblings

    Peasgood, Tessa; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Biggs, Katie; Brazier, John E.; Coghill, David; Cooper, Cindy L.; Daley, David; De Silva, Cyril; Harpin, Val; Hodgkins, Paul; Nadkarni, Amulya; Setyawan, Juliana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with reduced health and well-being of patients and their families. The authors undertook a large UK survey-based observational study of the burden associated with childhood ADHD. The impact of ADHD on both the patient (N = 476) and their siblings (N = 337) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and happiness was quantified using multiple standard measures [e.g. child health utility-9D (CHU-9D), EuroQol-5D-Youth]....

  15. PSYCHOMOTOR PROFILE OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD-A SCHOOL IN THE CITY OF PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE

    Camila Rodrigues Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder which is common in the population of children at school age and the psychomotor activity in these children can be substantially lower than that expected in 30% to 50% of the cases. Thus, this study aims at describing the psychomotor profile of children diagnosed with ADHD. Initially, the research was assessed and authorized by the Education Department of Presidente Prudente-SP. Five children with the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness isorder took part in the study, none of them carrying comorbidities, aging between six and nine years, of both sexes, regularly enrolled in a public school in President Prudente-SP and participating in an extension project developed by the school. For the collection of data, the Motor Development Scale was used, as described by Rosa Neto (2002,in which all the tests proposed were used: fine motor skills, global motor skills, balance, body schema/ speed, spatial and temporal organization. The test was individually applied, in a single session, lasting 35 minutes on average. The data were analyzed according to the criteria established by the author. By analyzing the data, the motor performance of the children was between lower normal and medium.

  16. Perceived Stress, Perceived Social Support, and Wellbeing among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Skok, Anita; Harvey, David; Reddihough, Dinah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The study considers how severity of disability, perceived stress, and perceived social support impact on the well-being of a group of mothers caring for school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Method: Forty-three mothers attending clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia were interviewed and completed the…

  17. Cognition, Emotion and Behavior in Children with Tourette's Syndrome and Children with ADHD-Combined Subtype-A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    Hovik, Kjell Tore; Plessen, Kerstin J; Cavanna, Andrea E;

    2015-01-01

    more problems with emotional control compared with TDC at both time points. Finally, children with ADHD-C self-reported more depression symptoms than those with TS at both assessments. For the TS group, safer decision-making was related to better emotional control, and this relationship was stronger......OBJECTIVE: This two-year follow-up study investigates the course of and association among measures of cognitive control, focused attention, decision-making and symptom severity (anxiety, depression and behavior) in children and adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome (TS) or Attention...... at T1 and T2. In the decision-making task, the children with TS (with or without comorbidities) preferred a safer strategy in selecting advantageous choices than the children with ADHD-C and the TDC at T2. Children with TS and children with ADHD-C showed higher symptoms of anxiety and depression and...

  18. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  19. A Pilot Study of the Feasibility and Efficacy of the Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) Program for Single Mothers of Children with ADHD

    Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Flammer-Rivera, Lizette M.; Pelham, William E.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran W.; Visweswaraiah, Hema; Swanger-Gagne, Michelle; Girio, Erin L.; Pirvics, Lauma L.; Herbst, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) program was developed to address putative factors related to poor engagement in and outcomes following traditional behavioral parent training (BPT) for single mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Twelve single mothers of children with ADHD were enrolled in an initial…

  20. Improvement of Vergence Movements by Vision Therapy Decreases K-ARS Scores of Symptomatic ADHD Children.

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] To determine whether the improvement of vergence movements by vision therapy can decrease the K-ARS scores of symptomatic ADHD children. [Methods] Eighty-one out of 1,123 children surveyed using the K-ARS, a parents'-reported questionnaire, led to 16 of these 81 children being showed scores of ≥19, and measurement of binocular function diagnosed as having convergence insufficiency. The 16 children were divided equally into a control group and a vision therapy group. [Results] After vision therapy for 12 weeks, near point convergence (4.38±0.69 cm) significantly neared compared to the near point convergence before vision therapy (11.50±2.28 cm), and both the break point (32.38±2.53 Δ) and recovery point (19.75±2.11 Δ) of near positive fusional vergence significantly improved compared to their values before vision therapy (15.88±2.64 Δ, 6.38±6.70 Δ, respectively). Near exophoria after vision therapy (7.81±2.00 Δ BI) significantly decreased compared to its value before vision therapy (12.00±1.16 Δ BI). The K-ARS scores referring to symptomatic ADHD significantly decreased after vision therapy (17.13±2.84) compared to before vision therapy (23.25±1.49). [Conclusions] Convergence insufficiency symptoms are closely related to symptoms screened for ADHD, and vision therapy to improve vergence movements is an effective method of decreasing the K-ARS scores. PMID:24648636

  1. Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD

    Rubi Hammer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback. While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory.

  2. Feedback associated with expectation for larger-reward improves visuospatial working memory performances in children with ADHD.

    Hammer, Rubi; Tennekoon, Michael; Cooke, Gillian E; Gayda, Jessica; Stein, Mark A; Booth, James R

    2015-08-01

    We tested the interactive effect of feedback and reward on visuospatial working memory in children with ADHD. Seventeen boys with ADHD and 17 Normal Control (NC) boys underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing four visuospatial 2-back tasks that required monitoring the spatial location of letters presented on a display. Tasks varied in reward size (large; small) and feedback availability (no-feedback; feedback). While the performance of NC boys was high in all conditions, boys with ADHD exhibited higher performance (similar to those of NC boys) only when they received feedback associated with large-reward. Performance pattern in both groups was mirrored by neural activity in an executive function neural network comprised of few distinct frontal brain regions. Specifically, neural activity in the left and right middle frontal gyri of boys with ADHD became normal-like only when feedback was available, mainly when feedback was associated with large-reward. When feedback was associated with small-reward, or when large-reward was expected but feedback was not available, boys with ADHD exhibited altered neural activity in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula. This suggests that contextual support normalizes activity in executive brain regions in children with ADHD, which results in improved working memory. PMID:26142072

  3. Acute atomoxetine treatment of younger and older children with ADHD: A meta-analysis of tolerability and efficacy

    Vaughan Brigette S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atomoxetine is FDA-approved as a treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in patients aged 6 years to adult. Among pediatric clinical trials of atomoxetine to date, six with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design were used in this meta-analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and compare the treatment response and tolerability of atomoxetine between younger children (6–7 years and older children (8–12 years with ADHD, as reported in these six acute treatment trials. Methods Data from six clinical trials of 6–9 weeks duration were pooled, yielding 280 subjects, ages 6–7 years, and 860 subjects, ages 8–12 years with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-diagnosed ADHD. Efficacy was analyzed using the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-revised (CPRS-R:S, and the Clinical Global Impression of ADHD Severity (CGI-ADHD-S. Results Atomoxetine was superior to placebo in both age categories for mean (SD change in ADHD-RS total, total T, and subscale scores; 3 CPRS-R:S subscales; and CGI-ADHD-S from baseline. Although there were no significant treatment differentials between the age groups for these efficacy measures, the age groups themselves, regardless of treatment, were significantly different for ADHD-RS total (younger: ATX = -14.2 [13.8], PBO = -4.6 [10.4]; older: ATX = -15.4 [13.2], PBO = -7.3 [12.0]; p = .001, total T (younger: ATX = -15.2 [14.8], PBO = -4.9 [11.2]; older: ATX = -16.4 [14.6], PBO = -7.9 [13.1]; p = .003, and subscale scores (Inattentive: younger: ATX = -7.2 [7.5], PBO = -2.4 [5.7]; older: ATX = -8.0 [7.4], PBO = -3.9 [6.7]; p = .043; Hyperactive/Impulsive: younger: ATX = -7.0 [7.2], PBO = -2.1 [5.4]; older: ATX = -7.3 [7.0], PBO = -3.4 [6.3]; p Conclusion Atomoxetine is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment of ADHD in both younger and older children as assessed by three

  4. Training sensory signal-to-noise resolution in children with ADHD in a global mental health setting.

    Mishra, J; Sagar, R; Joseph, A A; Gazzaley, A; Merzenich, M M

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired focus on goal-relevant signals and fail to suppress goal-irrelevant distractions. To address both these issues, we developed a novel neuroplasticity-based training program that adaptively trains the resolution of challenging sensory signals and the suppression of progressively more challenging distractions. We evaluated this sensory signal-to-noise resolution training in a small sample, global mental health study in Indian children with ADHD. The children trained for 30 h over 6 months in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Training completers showed steady and significant improvements in ADHD-associated behaviors from baseline to post training relative to controls, and benefits sustained in a 6-month follow-up. Post-training cognitive assessments showed significant positive results for response inhibition and Stroop interference tests in training completers vs controls, while measures of sustained attention and short-term memory showed nonsignificant improvement trends. Further, training-driven improvements in distractor suppression correlated with the improved ADHD symptoms. This initial study suggests utility of signal-to-noise resolution training for children with ADHD; it emphasizes the need for further research on this intervention and substantially informs the design of a larger trial. PMID:27070409

  5. Training sensory signal-to-noise resolution in children with ADHD in a global mental health setting

    Mishra, J; Sagar, R; Joseph, A A; Gazzaley, A; Merzenich, M M

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired focus on goal-relevant signals and fail to suppress goal-irrelevant distractions. To address both these issues, we developed a novel neuroplasticity-based training program that adaptively trains the resolution of challenging sensory signals and the suppression of progressively more challenging distractions. We evaluated this sensory signal-to-noise resolution training in a small sample, global mental health study in Indian children with ADHD. The children trained for 30 h over 6 months in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Training completers showed steady and significant improvements in ADHD-associated behaviors from baseline to post training relative to controls, and benefits sustained in a 6-month follow-up. Post-training cognitive assessments showed significant positive results for response inhibition and Stroop interference tests in training completers vs controls, while measures of sustained attention and short-term memory showed nonsignificant improvement trends. Further, training-driven improvements in distractor suppression correlated with the improved ADHD symptoms. This initial study suggests utility of signal-to-noise resolution training for children with ADHD; it emphasizes the need for further research on this intervention and substantially informs the design of a larger trial. PMID:27070409

  6. Using a Brief Parent-Report Measure to Track Outcomes for Children and Teens with ADHD.

    McCarthy, Alyssa; Asghar, Sunna; Wilens, Timothy; Romo, Stephanie; Kamin, Hayley; Jellinek, Michael; Murphy, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) is a widely used, parent-completed measure of children's emotional and behavioral functioning. Previous research has shown that the PSC and its subscales are responsive to patient progress over the course of psychiatric treatment. In this naturalistic study, parents and clinicians of 1736 patients aged 17 or younger completed standardized measures at intake and 3-month follow-up appointments. We assessed the 5-item PSC Attention Subscale (PSC-AS) as a longitudinal measure of attention-related symptoms in routine outpatient psychiatry treatment. Secondarily, we compared PSC-AS scores with clinician-reported diagnoses, psychomotor excitation symptoms, and overall functioning. Change scores on the PSC-AS were larger among patients with ADHD diagnoses than those with non-ADHD diagnoses. Comparisons between PSC-AS scores and clinician reports also showed acceptable levels of agreement. Given its effectiveness in tracking attention-related symptoms, the PSC may be particularly useful as a quality assurance or treatment outcome measure for clinicians treating ADHD. PMID:26271346

  7. Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine for Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Systematic Review.

    Wong, Yuk Wo; Kim, Deog-Gon; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of traditional Oriental herbal medicines (TOHM) for children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods. Randomized clinical trials published from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2010, in English, Chinese, Japanese, or Korean language which evaluated the use of TOHM on ADHD subjects of 18 years old or below, diagnosed based on DSM-IV, were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Cochrane Library, and 10 other databases. Results. Twelve studies involving 1189 subjects met the inclusion criteria. In general, the included studies claimed that TOHM has similar efficacy to methylphenidate and at the same time has fewer side effects compared to methylphenidate. Some studies also suggested that the effect of TOHM sustained better than methylphenidate. However, solid conclusions could not be drawn because the included studies were not of high quality. Risk of bias issues such as randomization, allocation, concealment and blinding were not addressed in most of the studies, and the risk of publication bias could not be ruled out. Conclusion. Currently, there is not strong evidence to say that TOHM is effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD. PMID:23346205

  8. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Most children get restless, rowdy, or distracted at ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common brain condition ...

  9. Transdermal methylphenidate, behavioral, and combined treatment for children with ADHD.

    Pelham, William E; Burrows-Maclean, Lisa; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Coles, Erika K; Tresco, Katy E; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T; Wienke, Amber L; Walker, Kathryn S; Hoffman, Martin T

    2005-05-01

    Stimulant medication and behavioral treatments are evidence-based for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but the combination of the 2 treatments has been understudied. In this investigation, methylphenidate (MPH) was crossed with 2 levels of behavior modification (BMOD) in a summer treatment program. Twenty-seven children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aged 6-12, participated. Children received placebo and 3 doses of transdermal MPH (12.5 cm(2), 25.0 cm(2), and 37.5 cm(2)). BMOD was implemented on alternating weeks. Both treatments produced large and significant effects. Combined treatment was superior to either treatment alone. The effects of transdermal MPH were comparable to those found in this setting in previous studies with multiple stimulant medications and formulations. Consistent with other research, low doses of MPH--even lower than in previous studies--yielded enhanced effects in combination with behavior modification. PMID:15943544

  10. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

    Gal Dubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, "natural", therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period. Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  11. KAPEAN: Understanding Affective States of Children with ADHD

    Martínez, Fernando; Barraza, Claudia; González, Nimrod; González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing seeks to create computational systems that adapt content and resources according to the affective states of the users. However, the detection of the user's affection such as motivation and emotion is challenging especially when an attention problem is present. An approach to convey learning resources to children with learning…

  12. Effects of essential fatty acids in iron deficient and sleep-disturbed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children.

    Yehuda, S; Rabinovitz-Shenkar, S; Carasso, R L

    2011-10-01

    Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity constitute the core diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Patients generally suffer from sleep disturbance and malnutrition that can account for tiredness during the day, poor concentration, poor eating and depressed mood, along with anemia and an n-3 polyunsaturated acid deficiency. The change of ADHD behavior in children (9-12) was studied, following 10 weeks of treatment with a polyunsaturated acid mixture on six variables: cooperation, mood, concentration, homework preparation, fatigue and sleep quality. Iron status was also examined. Polyunsaturated acid administration was associated with significant improvement in quality of life, ability to concentrate, sleep quality and hemoglobin levels. PMID:21587279

  13. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Review of Recent Findings.

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80 % have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  14. PERCEIVING THE CONTENT OF TELEVISION PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Husejn Musić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous research, daily occurrences and an information perceived through the mass media indicate the complexity and topicality of problems considered in this paper, as well as the need of its' examination from several aspects, with the aim of identifying, preventing and overcoming the very frequent displays of unacceptable behavioural patterns in children and adolescents in their environment. More precisely stated, the television with its program content, information and messages, in addition to the family, educational institutions, and other factors has a large and responsible part, influencing both positively and negatively the quality of an entire educational process and development of children and adolescents.

  15. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Val108/158 Met polymorphism does not modulate executive function in children with ADHD

    Stepanian Marina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association has been observed between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene, the predominant means of catecholamine catabolism within the prefrontal cortex (PFC, and neuropsychological task performance in healthy and schizophrenic adults. Since several of the cognitive functions typically deficient in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD are mediated by prefrontal dopamine (DA mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between a functional polymorphism of the COMT gene and neuropsychological task performance in these children. Methods The Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene was genotyped in 118 children with ADHD (DSM-IV. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Tower of London (TOL, and Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT were employed to evaluate executive functions. Neuropsychological task performance was compared across genotype groups using analysis of variance. Results ADHD children with the Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes were similar with regard to demographic and clinical characteristics. No genotype effects were observed for WCST standardized perseverative error scores [F2,97 = 0.67; p > 0.05], TOL standardized scores [F2,99 = 0.97; p > 0.05], and SOPT error scores [F2,108 = 0.62; p > 0.05]. Conclusions Contrary to the observed association between WCST performance and the Val108/158 Met polymorphism of the COMT gene in both healthy and schizophrenic adults, this polymorphism does not appear to modulate executive functions in children with ADHD.

  16. Maternal and Child Attributions in ADHD versus Non-ADHD Populations

    Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study explores child and maternal attributions in ADHD and non-ADHD populations. Participants included children with ADHD (N = 26) and without ADHD (N = 24) and their mothers. Method: Children completed the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R; Kaslow & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) and mothers completed the Written…

  17. [Psychosocial intervention follow-up in children with ADHD: effects on academic, emotional and social functioning].

    Presentación Herrero, M Jesús; Siegenthaler Hierro, Rebeca; Jara Jiménez, Pilar; Miranda Casas, Ana

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the maintenance of the effects, one year after its conclusion, of an intervention that integrated three coordinated programs, implemented with 27 children with ADHD, aged between 7 and 10 years, their parents and teachers. The intervention lasted 10 weeks and included behavior-modification and cognitive-behavioral techniques, academic adaptations and social skills. We evaluated the effects on academic, emotional and social adjustment from the information provided by parents, teachers and classmates. The results confirm the maintenance in the follow-up evaluation of the improvements experienced after the treatment, especially in the academic and social areas, in which these children displayed the greatest difficulties. PMID:21044513

  18. Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with ADHD in Routine Clinical Practice: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Van Den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Van Der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to routine clinical care (RCC). Method: After a first phase of RCC, 94 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ages 4-12, all referred to a Dutch outpatient mental health clinic, were randomly assigned to 5 months of BPT plus concurrent…

  19. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one. PMID:26879095

  20. Methodological Issues in the Assessment of Medication Effects in Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Kollins, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders in school-aged children and is usually treated with stimulant medications, including methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin[R], Ritalin-LA[R], Concerta[R], Metadate[R], or Focalin[R]) and other drug compounds (e.g., Adderall[R], Adderall-XR[R], or Dexedrine).…

  1. Behavioral parent training as an adjunct to routine care in children with ADHD: moderators of treatment response

    B.J. van den Hoofdakker; M.H. Nauta; L. van der Veen-Mulders; S. Sytema; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; R.B. Minderaa; P.J. Hoekstra

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate predictors and moderators of outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT) as adjunct to ongoing routine clinical care (RCC), versus RCC alone. Methods We randomly assigned 94 referred children (4-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to BPT plus RCC o

  2. Variability in Post-Error Behavioral Adjustment Is Associated with Functional Abnormalities in the Temporal Cortex in Children with ADHD

    Spinelli, Simona; Vasa, Roma A.; Joel, Suresh; Nelson, Tess E.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Error processing is reflected, behaviorally, by slower reaction times (RT) on trials immediately following an error (post-error). Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) fail to show RT slowing and demonstrate increased intra-subject variability (ISV) on post-error trials. The neural correlates of these behavioral…

  3. Does computerized working memory training with game elements enhance motivation and training efficacy in children with ADHD?

    P.J.M. Prins; S. Dovis; A. Ponsioen; E. ten Brink; S. van der Oord

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of adding game elements to standard computerized working memory (WM) training. Specifically, it examined whether game elements would enhance motivation and training performance of children with ADHD, and whether it would improve training efficacy. A total of 51 child

  4. Does computerized working memory training with game elements enhance motivation and training efficacy in children with ADHD?

    P.J.M. Prins; S. Dovis; A. Ponsioen; E. ten Brink; S. van der Oord

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the benefits of adding game elements to standard computerized working memory (WM) training. Specifically, it examined whether game elements would enhance motivation and training performance of children with ADHD, and whether it would improve training efficacy. A total of 51 child

  5. Baseline values from the electrocardiograms of children and adolescents with ADHD

    Zhang Shuyu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important issue in pediatric pharmacology is the determination of whether medications affect cardiac rhythm parameters, in particular the QT interval, which is a surrogate marker for the risk of adverse cardiac events and sudden death. To evaluate changes while on medication, it is useful to have a comparison of age appropriate values while off medication. The present meta-analysis provides baseline ECG values (i.e., off medication from approximately 6000 children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Subjects were aged 6–18 years and participated in global trials within the atomoxetine registration program. Patients were administered a 12-lead ECG at study screening and cardiac rhythm parameters were recorded. Baseline QT intervals were corrected for heart rate using 3 different methods: Bazett's, Fridericia's, and a population data-derived formula. Results ECG data were obtained from 5289 North American and 641 non-North American children and adolescents. Means and percentiles are presented for each ECG measure and QTc interval based on pubertal status as defined by age and sex. Prior treatment history with stimulants and racial origin (Caucasian were each associated with significantly longer mean QTc values. Conclusion Baseline ECG and QTc data from almost 6000 children and adolescents presenting with ADHD are provided to contribute to the knowledge base regarding mean values for pediatric cardiac parameters. Consistent with other studies of QT interval in children and adolescents, Bazett correction formula appears to overestimate the prevalence of prolonged QTc in the pediatric population.

  6. The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined-Type ADHD in a Multisite Study

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James W.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter S.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Hoza, Betsy; Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard B.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wells, Karen C.; Wigal, Timothy; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Houck, Patricia R.

    2009-01-01

    Participants of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) eight years earlier do not differ significantly in repeated measures or newly analyzed variables that include school grades and psychiatric hospitalization. The treatment of childhood ADHD does not predict functioning six to eight…

  7. A Systematic Review of Parenting in Relation to the Development of Comorbidities and Functional Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Deault, Louise C.

    2010-01-01

    This review synthesizes recent research evidence regarding the parenting characteristics associated with families with children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with a range of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to its behavioral expression and different developmental…

  8. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use for children with ADHD with and without a co-occurring reading disorder: A retrospective cohort study

    Classi Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often have a co-occurring reading disorder (RD. The purpose of this research was to assess differences between children with ADHD without RD (ADHD-only and those with ADHD and co-occurring RD (ADHD+RD. Methods Using data from the U.S. Thomson Reuter Marketscan® Databases for the years 2005 through 2007, this analysis compared the medical records--including patient demographics, comorbidities, and medication use--of children (age Results Patients with ADHD+RD were significantly younger, more likely to have received a procedure code associated with formal psychological or non-psychological testing, and more likely to have been diagnosed with comorbid bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, or depression. They were no more likely to have received an antidepressant, anti-manic (bipolar, or antipsychotic, and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for a stimulant medication. Conclusions Relying on a claims database, there appear to be differences in the patient characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use when comparing children with ADHD-only to those with ADHD+RD.

  9. Who Is He? Children with ASD and ADHD Take the Listener into Account in Their Production of Ambiguous Pronouns.

    Sanne J M Kuijper

    Full Text Available During conversation, speakers constantly make choices about how specific they wish to be in their use of referring expressions. In the present study we investigate whether speakers take the listener into account or whether they base their referential choices solely on their own representation of the discourse. We do this by examining the cognitive mechanisms that underlie the choice of referring expression at different discourse moments. Furthermore, we provide insights into how children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD use referring expressions and whether their use differs from that of typically developing (TD children. Children between 6 and 12 years old (ASD: n=46; ADHD: n=37; TD: n=38 were tested on their production of referring expressions and on Theory of Mind, response inhibition and working memory. We found support for the view that speakers take the listener into account when choosing a referring expression: Theory of Mind was related to referential choice only at those moments when speakers could not solely base their choice on their own discourse representation to be understood. Working memory appeared to be involved in keeping track of the different referents in the discourse. Furthermore, we found that TD children as well as children with ASD and children with ADHD took the listener into account in their choice of referring expression. In addition, children with ADHD were less specific than TD children in contexts with more than one referent. The previously observed problems with referential choice in children with ASD may lie in difficulties in keeping track of longer and more complex discourses, rather than in problems with taking into account the listener.

  10. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL), school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  11. Attachment Competences in Children With ADHD During the Social-Skills Training and Attachment (SOSTRA) Randomized Clinical Trial

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria Annette Annelie; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and a parental training program on children with ADHD as measured by the children's attachment competences. Method: The SOSTRA trial is a randomized, parallel-group, outcome-assessor-blinded, superiority trial evaluating 8 weeks social......-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for 8- to 12-year old children with ADHD. Results: There were no significant differences in attachment competences at 6 months between the experimental (n = 25) and the control (n = 22) groups (odds ratio = 1.06, 95......% confidence interval = [0.31, 3.58], p = .91). In total, 17 children (36%) changed their entry status, 1 (2%) from secure to insecure attachment, while 16 (34%) changed from insecure to secure attachment. Conclusion: The experimental treatment does not seem to affect attachment competences compared with...

  12. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD

    Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Rebecca M.C. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task k...

  13. ADHD Medications

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD Medicines Print A ... Medicación para el tratamiento del TDAH (ADHD) Managing ADHD With Medicine Just about everyone has trouble concentrating ...

  14. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    Rockstroh Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls while an electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. Results When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency. When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Conclusion Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children.

  15. The influence of methylphenidate on the power spectrum of ADHD children – an MEG study

    Bauer Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was dedicated to investigate the influence of Methylphenidate (MPH on cortical processing of children who were diagnosed with different subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. As all of the previous studies investigating power differences in different frequency bands have been using EEG, mostly with a relatively small number of electrodes our aim was to obtain new aspects using high density magnetoencephalography (MEG. Methods 35 children (6 female, 29 male participated in this study. Mean age was 11.7 years (± 1.92 years. 17 children were diagnosed of having an Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder of the combined type (ADHDcom, DSM IV code 314.01; the other 18 were diagnosed for ADHD of the predominantly inattentive type (ADHDin, DSM IV code 314.0. We measured the MEG during a 5 minute resting period with a 148-channel magnetometer system (MAGNES™ 2500 WH, 4D Neuroimaging, San Diego, USA. Power values were averaged for 5 bands: Delta (D, 1.5–3.5 Hz, Theta (T, 3.5–7.5 Hz, Alpha (A, 7.5–12.5 Hz, Beta (B, 12.5–25 Hz and Global (GL, 1.5–25 Hz.. Additionally, attention was measured behaviourally using the D2 test of attention with and without medication. Results The global power of the frequency band from 1.5 to 25 Hz increased with MPH. Relative Theta was found to be higher in the left hemisphere after administration of MPH than before. A positive correlation was found between D2 test improvement and MPH-induced power changes in the Theta band over the left frontal region. A linear regression was computed and confirmed that the larger the improvement in D2 test performance, the larger the increase in Theta after MPH application. Conclusion Main effects induced by medication were found in frontal regions. Theta band activity increased over the left hemisphere after MPH application. This finding contradicts EEG results of several groups who found lower levels of Theta power

  16. Media Use and ADHD-Related Behaviors in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Nikkelen, Sanne W. C.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons to believe that media use might be related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-related behaviors (i.e., attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity). Although studies into the media--ADHD relationship have accumulated, they have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we still do…

  17. Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-Existing ADHD: Additive Effects

    Roessner, Veit; Becker, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the co-occurrence of chronic tic disorders (CTD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unclear. Especially in the field of psychopathology, the relationship of CTD and ADHD remains to be clarified. Thus, the aim of the present chart review study was to specify the contribution of CTD and/or ADHD to the…

  18. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. PMID:24942100

  19. A four-year follow-up controlled study of stress response and symptom persistence in Brazilian children and adolescents with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD).

    Palma, Sonia Maria Motta; Natale, Ana Carolina Motta Palma; Calil, Helena Maria

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Disorder andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), reassessing them at a four-year follow-up. Their cortisol response to a stress stimulus was measured twice. ADHD symptom persistence, development of comorbidities, and psychostimulant usage were also reassessed. The initial sample consisted of 38 ADHD patients and 38 healthy controls, age ranging 6-14. At the follow-up, there were 37 ADHD patients and 22 healthy controls, age ranging 10-18. ADHD was classified as persistent if the patients fulfilled all DSM IV criteria for syndromic or subthreshold or had functional impairment. Salivary cortisol samples were collected prior to the application of a cognitive stressor (Continuous Performance Test - CPT), and at three time intervals afterwards at baseline and at the follow-up. Their reassessment showed that 75% had persistent symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities (oppositional defiant and behavioral disorders), functional and academic impairement. Only seven patients were on medication. The ADHD group's cortisol levels were lower than those measured four years earlier, but cortisol concentrations were similar for both ADHD and control groups at the four-year follow-up. The cortisol results suggest that HPA axis reactivity could be a marker differentiating ADHD from ADHD with comorbidities. PMID:26365689

  20. Assessment of Methylphenidate and Propranolol Combination Treatment in Comparison with Methylphenidate and Placebo Among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Ghafari M; Riahi F; Ghaderi H; Tashakori A.; Sepandi M

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Due to significance of this disorder in children and its complications, this study was done to determinate efficacy of propran- olol and methylphenidate combination in treatment of ADHD and in control of adverse effects of methylphenidate. Subjects and Methods: This study is a double blind–placebo control clinical trial which was conducted to c...

  1. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  2. Effectiveness of a focused, brief psychoeducation program for parents of ADHD children: improvement of medication adherence and symptoms

    Bai GN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guan-nan Bai,1 Yu-feng Wang,2,3 Li Yang,2,3 Wen-yi Niu1 1Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a psychoeducation program for parents of children with ADHD in enhancing adherence to pharmacological treatment and improving clinical symptoms. Methods: We developed a psychoeducation program based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Eighty-nine children with ADHD were cluster randomly assigned for their families to receive 3 months of well-structured psychoeducation (intervention group, n=44 or only general clinical counseling (control group, n=45. Parents in the intervention group were given an expert lecture (with slides and a parent manual, attended two expert-guided parent group sessions, and were invited to join a professional-guided online community. Measurement of parents’ knowledge about ADHD, components of the TPB model, and child ADHD symptoms were taken before and after intervention. Medication adherence was assessed thoroughly at the end of the first and third months. Satisfaction with the psychoeducation program was assessed only in the intervention group. Two-independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square test were employed to compare differences between groups. Results: Compared to the control group, medication adherence in the intervention group was significantly higher after 1 and 3 months (97.7% intervention vs 75.6% control, P=0.002, and 86.4% intervention vs 53.3% control, P=0.001, respectively. Accordingly, the ADHD rating scale scores were lower in the intervention group than the control group after

  3. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8–12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test whether ADHD+ODD is a more severe from of ADHD in terms of neurocognitive performance. In Experiment 1, inhibition abilities were measured using the ...

  4. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  5. Barkley's Parent Training Program, Working Memory Training and their Combination for Children with ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Zahra Hosainzadeh Maleki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Barkley's parent training program, working memory training and the combination of these two interventions for children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.In this study, 36 participants with ADHD (aged 6 to 12 years were selected by convenience sampling. Revision of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP questionnaire (SNAP-IV, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and clinical interviews were employed to diagnose ADHD. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition was also implemented. The participants were randomly assigned to the three intervention groups of Barkley's parent training program, working memory training and the combined group. SNAP-IV and CBCL were used as pre-tests and post-tests across all three groups. Data were analyzed using MANCOVA (SPSS version18.There was a significant difference (p< 0.05 in the decline of attention deficit and hyperactivity /impulsivity symptoms between the combined treatment group and working memory training group and also between the combined treatment group and the parent training group in SNAP. In terms of attention problems (experience-based subscales of CBCL, there was a significant difference (p< 0.001 between the combined treatment group and working memory training group. Furthermore, compared to the working memory training and parent training groups, the combined group demonstrated a significant decline (p< 0.01 in clinical symptoms of ADHD (based on DSM.It was revealed that combined treatment in comparison with the other two methods suppressed the clinical symptoms of ADHD more significantly.

  6. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  7. Self-reported efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in a clinical randomized controlled study of ADHD children and adolescents

    Duric NS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nezla S Duric,1–3 Jörg Aßmus,4 Irene B Elgen1,5 1Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 2Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Helse Fonna Haugesund Hospital, Haugesund, Norway; 4Center for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway Background: Many non-pharmacological treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have been attempted, but reports indicate that most are ineffective. Although neurofeedback (NF is a treatment approach for children with ADHD that remains promising, a variety of appropriate measures have been used in reporting and evaluating its effect. Objective: To report the self-evaluations of NF treatment by children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Randomized controlled trial in 91 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged less than 18 years (mean, 11.2 years participated in a 30-session program of intensive NF treatment. Participants were randomized and allocated by sequentially numbered sealed envelopes into three groups: methylphenidate (MPH as an active control group, and two trial groups NF with MPH, and NF alone. ADHD core symptoms and school performance were given on a scale of 1 to 10 using a self-reporting questionnaire, and the changes in these scores after treatment were used as the self-reported evaluation. Basic statistical methods (descriptive, analyses of variance, exact χ2 test, and paired t-test were used to investigate the baseline data. Changes in ADHD core symptoms and treatment effects were investigated using a general linear model for repeated measures. Results: Eighty participants completed the treatment study and 73 (91% responded sufficiently on the self-reporting questionnaires. The treatment groups were

  8. Development and user satisfaction of “Plan-It Commander,” a serious game for children with ADHD

    Bul, Kim; Franken, Ingmar; Van der Oord, Saskia; Kato, Pam; Danckaerts, Marina; Vreeke, L.J.; Willems, Annik; Van Oers, Helga; Van den Heuvel, Ria; Van Slagmaat, Rens; Maras, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    The need for engaging treatment approaches within mental health care has led to the application of gaming approaches to existing behavioral training programs (i.e., gamification). Because children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to have fewer problems with concentration and engagement when playing digital games, applying game technologies and design approaches to complement treatment may be a useful means to engage this population in their treatment. Unfortunately, g...

  9. STUDY THE GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ADHD CHILDREN: IS THE RESPONSE TO CNS STIMULANTS A CASE OF ONE FITS BOTH?

    Mohamed R. El-Fiky; Gihan M. El-Nahas; Heba H. El-Shahawy; Mohamed F. Abdel Aziz; Dalia H. Ali; Nawal M. Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in school children worldwide, with social and academic functioning impairments and persistence into adulthood that appears to be more in boys than in girls (3:1). While CNS stimulants are the first line of treatment, improving up to 70-90% cases, their use had created controversies questioning their risks. Gender mind treatment criteria to test differences in response, side effects profile, ...

  10. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Classi Peter; Milton Denái; Ward Sarah; Sarsour Khaled; Johnston Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional...

  11. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val 108/158 Met polymorphism does not modulate executive function in children with ADHD

    Stepanian Marina; Torkaman-Zehi Adam; Deguzman Rosherie; Mbekou Valentin; Lageix Philippe; Amor Leila; Grizenko Natalie; Taerk Evan; Baron Chantal; Joober Ridha

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background An association has been observed between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the predominant means of catecholamine catabolism within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and neuropsychological task performance in healthy and schizophrenic adults. Since several of the cognitive functions typically deficient in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are mediated by prefrontal dopamine (DA) mechanisms, we investigated the relationship between a funct...

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS neurofeedback as a treatment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD – a pilot study

    Anna-Maria eMarx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS neurofeedback was investigated as a new method for the treatment of ADHD. Oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex of children with ADHD was measured and fed back. 12 sessions of NIRS-neurofeedback were compared to the intermediate outcome after 12 sessions of EEG-neurofeedback (slow cortical potentials, SCP and 12 sessions of EMG-feedback (muscular activity of left and right musculus supraspinatus. The task was either to increase or decrease hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex (NIRS, to produce positive or negative shifts of SCP (EEG or to increase or decrease muscular activity (EMG. In each group nine children with ADHD, aged 7 to 10 years, took part. Changes in parents’ ratings of ADHD symptoms were assessed before and after the 12 sessions and compared within and between groups. For the NIRS-group additional teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms, parents’ and teachers’ ratings of associated behavioral symptoms, childrens’ self reports on quality of life and a computer based attention task were conducted before, 4 weeks and 6 months after training. As primary outcome, ADHD symptoms decreased significantly 4 weeks and 6 months after the NIRS training, according to parents’ ratings. In teachers’ ratings of ADHD symptoms there was a significant reduction 4 weeks after the training. The performance in the computer based attention test improved significantly. Within-group comparisons after 12 sessions of NIRS-, EEG- and EMG-training revealed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms in the NIRS-group and a trend for EEG- and EMG-groups. No significant differences for symptom reduction were found between the groups. Despite the limitations of small groups and the comparison of a completed with two uncompleted interventions, the results of this pilot study are promising. NIRS-neurofeedback could be a time-effective treatment for ADHD and an interesting new option to

  13. ADHD inattentive symptoms mediate the relationship between intelligence and academic performance in children aged 6-14

    Danielle de S. Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fluid intelligence and the behavioral problems of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are related to academic performance, but how this association occurs is unclear. This study aimed to assess mediation and moderation models that test possible pathways of influence between these factors. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and 33 age-matched, typically developing students were evaluated with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices and the spelling and arithmetic subtests of the Brazilian School Achievement Test. Dimensional ADHD symptomatology was reported by parents. Results: Our findings suggest that fluid intelligence has a significant impact on academic tests through inattention. The inattentive dimension was the principal behavioral source of influence, also accounting for the association of hyperactive-impulsive manifestations with school achievement. This cognitive-to-behavioral influence path seems to be independent of diagnosis related group, and gender, but lower socioeconomic status might increase its strength. Conclusion: Fluid intelligence is a relevant factor in the influence of ADHD behavioral symptoms on academic performance, but its impact is indirect. Therefore, early identification of both fluid intelligence and inattentive symptoms is of the utmost importance to prevent impaired academic performance and future difficulties in functioning.

  14. Individual classification of ADHD children by right prefrontal hemodynamic responses during a go/no-go task as assessed by fNIRS

    Yukifumi Monden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While a growing body of neurocognitive research has explored the neural substrates associated with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD, an objective biomarker for diagnosis has not been established. The advent of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, which is a noninvasive and unrestrictive method of functional neuroimaging, raised the possibility of introducing functional neuroimaging diagnosis in young ADHD children. Previously, our fNIRS-based measurements successfully visualized the hypoactivation pattern in the right prefrontal cortex during a go/no-go task in ADHD children compared with typically developing control children at a group level. The current study aimed to explore a method of individual differentiation between ADHD and typically developing control children using multichannel fNIRS, emphasizing how spatial distribution and amplitude of hemodynamic response are associated with inhibition-related right prefrontal dysfunction. Thirty ADHD and thirty typically developing control children underwent a go/no-go task, and their cortical hemodynamics were assessed using fNIRS. We explored specific regions of interest (ROIs and cut-off amplitudes for cortical activation to distinguish ADHD children from control children. The ROI located on the border of inferior and middle frontal gyri yielded the most accurate discrimination. Furthermore, we adapted well-formed formulae for the constituent channels of the optimized ROI, leading to improved classification accuracy with an area under the curve value of 85% and with 90% sensitivity. Thus, the right prefrontal hypoactivation assessed by fNIRS would serve as a potentially effective biomarker for classifying ADHD children at the individual level.

  15. Impact of long-term treatment of methylphenidate on height and weight of school age children with ADHD.

    Zhang, H; Du, M; Zhuang, S

    2010-08-01

    Stimulant-associated growth deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have long been a concern. We chose 146 school age children diagnosed with ADHD being treated with methylphenidate (MPH) and 29 drug-free ADHD children, and followed them up for 2-4 years. We recorded the changes in height and weight after long-term methylphenidate treatment and analyzed the influence of confounding factors to growth in height, weight, and height velocity. The change of the gap between patients' height and mean height in the methylphenidate group was -1.86+/-0.82 cm ( Pmethylphenidate group and controls were -0.14+/-0.23 SD ( Pmethylphenidate was -0.14+/-1.25 kg ( P>0.05). From this study, a small but significant deceleration of height velocity has been identified as a long-term side effect of methylphenidate, the magnitude of the height deficit is related to the duration of treatment. Methylphenidate had no significant influence on weight and BMI values. PMID:20799150

  16. Effects of Sensory Integration Training on the Behaviors and Intelligence in Children with ADHD.%感觉统合训练对多动症儿童的行为及智力的疗效研究

    许晶莹; 刘新民

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨感觉统合训练对ADHD儿童的行为与智力的疗效.方法 将30例ADHD儿童作为实验组给予感觉统合训练,将30名正常儿童志愿者为对照组不予任何干预.在干预前后主要采用Conners父母评定量表(Conners Parents SymPtom Questionnaire,PSQ)和瑞文智力测验联合型(Combined Raven's Test,CRT)评定.结果 实验组训练后PSQ各项指标得分均低于训练前(t=10.49,10.7,5.14,7.05,5.9,8.7;P0.05).结论 感觉统合训练能有效提高ADHD儿童注意力,改善其多动、冲动行为,对儿童的智商及空间知觉和比较推理能力有一定程度的提高.%Objective To explore the effects of sensory integration training on the behaviors and intelligence in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD).Methods Thirty children with ADHD were undergone sensory integration training and their behaviors were evaluated with the Conners Parents Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ), and the cognition function was determined with the Combined Raven's Test (CRT).Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited as controls and given the corresponding tests described above for comparison of the results.Results All scores of Conners Parents Symptom Questionnaire in children with ADHD were decreased than those of control after training (t = 10.49,10.7,5.14,7.05,5.9,8.7 ;P<0.001 ) ; the score of learning problems , compulsion, hyperactivity and hyperactivity index in children with ADHD were decreased than those of compared with the controls (t = 2.12,2.35,2.75 ; P< 0.05).In addition, the improvement of CRT was found in IQ, perceived discrimination, compare reasoning ability, series relations ability after the training(t=-6.6,-2.72,-3.81 ,P<0.01); but no significant difference was fourd compared with the controls(P>0.05).Conclusion The sensory integration training can improve the behaviors and intelligence in children with ADHD.

  17. Phenotypic psychiatric characterization of children with Williams syndrome and response of those with ADHD to methylphenidate treatment.

    Green, Tamar; Avda, Sarit; Dotan, Inbar; Zarchi, Omer; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Zalsman, Gil; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with cognitive deficits, special behavioral phenotype, and high rates of psychiatric disorders. The aims of the present study were: (1) To compare the rates of psychiatric disorders and repetitive behaviors in children with WS to children with idiopathic developmental disability (DDs); (2) To longitudinally assess the change in psychiatric disorders during adolescence in WS; (3) To assess retrospectively the effectiveness and safety of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in WS children with ADHD. The study consisted of a cohort of 38 children and adolescents (age 13.1 ± 5.2 years) with WS and a sample of age-matched DDs (age 15.0 ± 3.1 years). A current follow-up evaluation was conducted after 5.6 ± 1.6 years for 25 subjects (65.8%) of the WS cohort. The rate of most psychiatric disorders was found similar in children with WS and DD controls. Specific phobia, especially from noises, obsessive-compulsive symptoms (e.g., aggressive obsessions and repetitive questions), and stereotypic behaviors (e.g., glancing), were more common in WS than DDs. In a longitudinal follow-up of the WS children, we found a decrease in the rate of anxiety disorders. In addition, a clinically significant improvement was reported in 72.2% of WS children with ADHD following MPH treatment. Sadness/unhappiness was the most common side effect associated with MPH treatment in WS, occurring in 2/3 of treated individuals. The present study further elucidates the neuropsychiatric phenotype of WS. Our results also suggest that MPH treatment for ADHD in WS warrants future prospective controlled trials. PMID:22052570

  18. New marker using bioimpedance technology in screening for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children as an adjunct to conventional diagnostic methods

    Caudal F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Frederique CaudalPediatrics/Referral ADHD children from CHU of Dijon Department of Psychiatry of Children, Dijon, FranceBackground: Diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children is not straightforward and misdiagnosis may occur, which leads to the possibility of errors in treatment, with numerous possible side effects that could be especially damaging in view of the age of the population. For this reason, a tool that is easy to use, fast, and cost-effective, which provides an addition to conventional diagnosis and treatment monitoring of ADHD children, is needed. In this study, electro interstitial scans (EIS were used to perform bioimpedance measurements. The results of conductivity measurements taken using forehead electrodes in a group of children conventionally diagnosed with ADHD and in a control group not showing any symptoms of ADHD were compared.Method: Sixty children without any ADHD symptoms (group 1 and 52 children diagnosed with ADHD following psychiatric examination (group 2 underwent an examination with the EIS system. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the conductivity measurements at the level of the forehead electrodes, using independent t-tests and a receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the test.Results: The mean of the conductivity measurements of two pathways between the forehead electrodes (from left forehead to right forehead and from right forehead to left forehead in the ADHD group was 33.11 micro Siemens (mS (range 2–113 mS. This was significantly higher (P < 0.001 than mean of the conductivity measurements of two pathways between the forehead electrodes of the control group (2.75 mS, range 1.75–27.4 mS. In terms of the ROC results, comparing the two groups using the reference of the mean of conductivity measurements of the two pathways between the forehead electrodes, the test showed a specificity of 98% and sensitivity of

  19. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Causes of ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Scientists ... research discounts this theory than supports it. Diagnosing ADHD Children mature at different rates and have different ...

  20. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  1. Evaluation of the Family Intervention Service for Children Presenting with Characteristics Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Rogers, Helen; Cameron, Daisy; Cann, Warren; Littlefield, Lyn; Lagioia, Vince

    2003-01-01

    Reports on an evaluation of a parenting skills intervention specifically with children exhibiting ADHD characteristics. Results reveal a reduction in problem behavior scores of children perceived to have a high frequency of behaviors typical of ADHD. Findings are consistent with those of controlled investigations of the impact of behavioral family…

  2. Parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment for the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and for parents themselves.

    Kim, J-W; Park, S; Kim, B-N; Shin, M-S; Cho, S-C; Kim, J-H; Son, J-W; Shin, Y-M; Chung, U-S; Han, D-H

    2013-06-01

    Given the shortage of studies on parental perceived benefits of OROS-methylphenidate treatment in Asian populations, we assessed parental response to OROS-methylphenidate treatment of Korean children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in relation to children's academic performance and behavioral symptoms as well as parental rearing stress and depressive symptoms.We enrolled 132 medication-naïve children with ADHD into a multicenter, open-label, 12-week trial of OROS-MPH. The outcome measures were the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS), the comprehensive attention test and academic performance rating scale, and the clinical global impression (CGI)-severity/improvement instrument (for the children) and Beck depression inventory and parenting stress index (for their parents).We found parent-perceived improvements in children's ADHD-related behavioral symptoms and academic function and their parents' depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Investigator-rated ADHD symptoms and subjects' neuropsychological function were also improved (pParents of Korean children with ADHD perceive that OROS-methylphenidate treatment improves their children's academic function and behavior as well as their own child-rearing stress and emotional state. These findings must be interpreted with caution, due to a non-comparative open-label trial. PMID:23364873

  3. Designing Assistive Technologies for the ADHD Domain

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    (ADHD). In this paper, we identify a set of challenges that children with ADHD typically experience, which provides an empirical foundation for pervasive health researchers to address the ADHD domain. The work is grounded in extensive empirical studies and it is contextualized using literature on ADHD....... Based on these studies, we also present lessons learned that are relevant to consider when designing assistive technology to support children with ADHD. Finally, we provide an example (CASTT) of our own work to illustrate how the presented findings can frame research activities and be used to develop...... novel assistive technology to empower children with ADHD and improve their wellbeing....

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... children to share their experiences and concerns. Support groups may also share information and referrals to specialists, and invite experts to speak. Contents What is ADHD? How ... Copyright ©2016 - American Academy of Child ...

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... child after each step is completed. Family support groups allow groups of parents with ADHD children to share their experiences and concerns. Support groups may also share information and referrals to specialists, ...

  7. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Full Text Available ... Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between parents and children. Parents often blame ... and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel better about themselves. ...

  9. Parenting Stress in Families of Children with ADHD: A Meta-Analysis

    Theule, Jennifer; Wiener, Judith; Tannock, Rosemary; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to examine findings on the association between parenting stress and ADHD. Predictors comprising child, parent, and contextual factors, and methodological and demographic moderators of the relationship between parenting stress and ADHD, were examined. Findings from 22 published and 22 unpublished studies were included.…

  10. Methylphenidate and Play Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability and ADHD

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Sagady, Amie E.; McAuliffe-Bellin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 9-12% of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Although psychostimulant medication is often the primary treatment modality, little is known regarding the effects of such agents on social interactions and play in this population. Additionally, the role of ADHD symptoms in social and…

  11. Aggression among Children with ADHD, Anxiety, or Co-Occurring Symptoms: Competing Exacerbation and Attenuation Hypotheses

    Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…

  12. The OutSMARTers program for children with ADHD: A pilot study on the effects of social skills, self-regulation and executive functioning training

    Ester Ingvarsdóttir 1978

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of the OutSMARTers program on social skills, self-regulation and executive functions compared to a Waitlist group and an ADHD parent training program. Participants consisted of 41 children with ADHD, aged 8-11. All groups were assessed with behavioral checklists and neuropsychological measures at baseline and post-treatment and the two active treatment groups were reasessed with behavioral checklists in a 3-month follow-up. The results showed decreased ...

  13. Time Course Analysis of Motor Excitability in a Response Inhibition Task According to the Level of Hyperactivity and Impulsivity in Children with ADHD

    Hoegl, Thomas; Heinrich, Hartmut; Barth, Wolfgang; Lösel, Friedrich (Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c.); Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of motor cortex, measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a passive (resting) condition, has been suggested as a neurophysiological marker of hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to determine motor excitability in a go/nogo task at stages of response preparation, activation and suppression in children with ADHD, depending on the level of hyperactivity and impulsivity. Motor evok...

  14. Comparative Study of Sustained Attentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking

    Ebrahim PISHYAREH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Pishyareh E, Tehrani-doost M, Mahmoodi-gharaie J, Khorrami A, Rahmdar SR. A Comparative Study of SustainedAttentional Bias on Emotional Processing in ADHD Children to Pictures with Eye-Tracking. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:64-70.AbstractObjectiveADHD children have anomalous and negative behavior especially in emotionally related fields when compared to other. Evidence indicates that attention has an impact on emotional processing. The present study evaluates the effect of emotional processing on the sustained attention of children with ADHD type C.Materials & Methods Sixty participants form two equal groups (each with 30 children of normal and ADHD children and each subject met the required selected criterion as either a normal or an ADHD child. Both groups were aged from 6–11-years-old. All pictures were chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS and presented paired emotional and neutral scenes in the following categories: pleasant-neutral; pleasant-unpleasant; unpleasant-neutral; and neutral–neutral. Sustained attention was evaluated based on the number and duration of total fixation and was compared between the groups with MANOVA analysis.ResultsThe duration of sustained attention on pleasant in the pleasant-unpleasant pair was significant. Bias in duration of sustained attention on pleasant scenes in pleasant-neutral pairs is significantly different between the groups.ConclusionSuch significant differences might be indicative of ADHD children deficiencies in emotional processing. It seems that the highly deep effect of emotionally unpleasant scenes to gain the focus of ADHD children’s attention is responsible for impulsiveness and abnormal processing of emotional stimuli. References1. Sadock, B.J., H.I. Kaplan, and V.A. Sadock, Kaplan & Sadcok’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry. Lippincott; Williams & Wilkins. 2003.2. Cormier, E., Attention deficit

  15. Impact of comorbidity on three month follow-up outcome of children with ADHD in a child guidance clinic: Preliminary report

    Rangan Srinivasaraghavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the common neurodevelopmental disorders. Aims: Study objective is to report impact of comorbidities on short-term outcome in children with ADHD followed in a child guidance clinic. Settings and Design: This was done in a child guidance clinic run jointly by the pediatric and psychiatry department at a tertiary teaching hospital. This is a 3 month prospective follow-up study to assess the outcome in ADHD children. Materials and Methods: Children attending pediatric department with behavioral problems or poor scholastic performance were screened for ADHD and further confirmation of diagnosis was done by semistructured interview of the child and parent. Children functional assessment and ADHD symptom profile was compared at baseline and at follow-up. We screened for and excluded those showing autistic spectrum disorder and having worse than mild mental retardation. Baseline variables were compared between improved and not improved subgroups and impact of these variables on outcome at 3-month follow-up was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 25 children completing the study, at the end of 3 months, 15 improved (not fulfilling criteria for ADHD and 10 did not improve. Applying Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS for diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidities, six had associated psychiatric comorbidities. This was significantly higher in those who did not improve. Conclusions: Presence of comorbidities at baseline was found to affect outcome at 3 month assessment in this preliminary study. Future studies with larger sample and longer follow-up are needed for finding the predictors of outcome in ADHD children in developing nations.

  16. Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

    Darina Czamara

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.80, p = 6.59×10⁻¹³ as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10⁻⁰⁴. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based.

  17. ADHD : from childhood into adulthood

    Camilleri, Nigel; Makhoul, Samer

    2013-01-01

    This is an overview of the some of the most recent and seminal research done on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD). ADHD is currently one of the most common reasons for referral to child mental health services and still is under-recognised both in children (5.29%) and adults (2.5%). ADHD is a highly heritable disorder with a mulitifactorial pattern of inheritance. Parents, siblings and parents of a child with ADHD are 4-5 times more likely to have ADHD. Environmental factors als...

  18. A multi-methodological MR resting state network analysis to assess the changes in brain physiology of children with ADHD.

    Benito de Celis Alonso

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to highlight the neurological differences between the MR resting state networks of a group of children with ADHD (pre-treatment and an age-matched healthy group. Results were obtained using different image analysis techniques. A sample of n = 46 children with ages between 6 and 12 years were included in this study (23 per cohort. Resting state image analysis was performed using ReHo, ALFF and ICA techniques. ReHo and ICA represent connectivity analyses calculated with different mathematical approaches. ALFF represents an indirect measurement of brain activity. The ReHo and ICA analyses suggested differences between the two groups, while the ALFF analysis did not. The ReHo and ALFF analyses presented differences with respect to the results previously reported in the literature. ICA analysis showed that the same resting state networks that appear in healthy volunteers of adult age were obtained for both groups. In contrast, these networks were not identical when comparing the healthy and ADHD groups. These differences affected areas for all the networks except the Right Memory Function network. All techniques employed in this study were used to monitor different cerebral regions which participate in the phenomenological characterization of ADHD patients when compared to healthy controls. Results from our three analyses indicated that the cerebellum and mid-frontal lobe bilaterally for ReHo, the executive function regions in ICA, and the precuneus, cuneus and the clacarine fissure for ALFF, were the "hubs" in which the main inter-group differences were found. These results do not just help to explain the physiology underlying the disorder but open the door to future uses of these methodologies to monitor and evaluate patients with ADHD.

  19. New and extended-action treatments in the management of ADHD: a critical appraisal of lisdexamfetamine in adults and children

    Diana Domnitei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diana Domnitei, Vishal MadaanDepartment of Psychiatry, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Treatment guidelines from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the American Academy of Pediatrics state that stimulant medications have the most evidence for safety and efficacy in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Longer-acting stimulants are thus considered as first-line for management of ADHD symptoms. Over the years, concerns about the abuse potential of stimulants have led to the development of alternative formulations of these agents. One such recent development, lisdexamfetamine (LDX was FDA approved for treating ADHD in children in early 2007 and in adults in early 2008. LDX is a prodrug, which when orally ingested, is converted to l-lysine and active d-amphetamine, which is responsible for its therapeutic activity. This unique formulation may lead to a possible reduction of the abuse potential, by bypassing the first-pass metabolism. In fact, a statistically significant difference for the ‘liking’ effects on the Drug Questionnaire Response has been reported with intravenous LDX compared to d-amphetamine. LDX appears to have an efficacy and tolerability profile comparable to other extended-release stimulant formulations used to treat ADHD, but reduced potential for abuse-related liking effects when compared to equivalent amounts of immediate-release d-amphetamine. The most common adverse events include decreased appetite, insomnia, upper abdominal pain, headache, irritability, weight loss, and nausea.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, adults, children

  20. Perceived Racism and Discrimination in Children and Youths: An Exploratory Study

    Pachter, Lee M.; Bernstein, Bruce A.; Szalacha, Laura A.; Garcia Coll, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Racism may be a factor contributing to poor health and health care disparities in minority children through multiple mechanisms, including effects on psychological and physical well-being. Little is known about the experiences of racism that children encounter in their lives. This study describes the occurrences of perceived racism in children,…

  1. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  2. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done

  3. Difference between healthy children and ADHD based on wavelet spectral analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance images

    González Gómez Dulce, I., E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Moreno Barbosa, E., E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Hernández, Mario Iván Martínez, E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com; Méndez, José Ramos, E-mail: isabeldgg@hotmail.com, E-mail: emoreno@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: mim@fcfm.buap.mx, E-mail: joserm84@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Silvia, Hidalgo Tobón [Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. Mexico and Physics Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Pilar, Dies Suarez, E-mail: pilydies@yahoo.com, E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx; Eduardo, Barragán Pérez, E-mail: pilydies@yahoo.com, E-mail: neurodoc@prodigy.net.mx [Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Mexico DF. (Mexico); Benito, De Celis Alonso, E-mail: benileon@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. Mexico and Fundación para el Desarrollo Carlos Sigüenza. Puebla, Pue (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    The main goal of this project was to create a computer algorithm based on wavelet analysis of region of homogeneity images obtained during resting state studies. Ideally it would automatically diagnose ADHD. Because the cerebellum is an area known to be affected by ADHD, this study specifically analysed this region. Male right handed volunteers (infants with ages between 7 and 11 years old) were studied and compared with age matched controls. Statistical differences between the values of the absolute integrated wavelet spectrum were found and showed significant differences (p<0.0015) between groups. This difference might help in the future to distinguish healthy from ADHD patients and therefore diagnose ADHD. Even if results were statistically significant, the small size of the sample limits the applicability of this methods as it is presented here, and further work with larger samples and using freely available datasets must be done.

  4. Perceived Difficulty with Physical Tasks, Lifestyle, and Physical Performance in Obese Children

    2014-01-01

    We estimated perceived difficulty with physical tasks, lifestyle, and physical performance in 382 children and adolescents (163 obese, 54 overweight, and 165 normal-weight subjects) and the relationship between perceived physical difficulties and sports participation, sedentary behaviors, or physical performance. Perceived difficulty with physical tasks and lifestyle habits was assessed by interview using a structured questionnaire, while physical performance was assessed through the six-minu...

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    Ougrin, Dennis; Chatterton, Sandie; Banarsee, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1

  6. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate; Kohls Gregor; Konrad Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary) and social (positive facial expressions) rewards differentially improv...

  7. Accuracy of self-perceptions in children and adults with ADHD

    P. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is associated with a wide range of social, emotional and cognitive sequelae. This accumulation of negative experiences has an impact on various factors, such as the individual’s selfperceptions of competence and self-esteem, which in turn may advocate maladaptive coping strategies and interfere with treatment. Therefore, early assessment and intervention promoting accurate self-perception and meta-cognitive skills are crucial. Since ADHD is a disorder that persists in up t...

  8. Time-of-day effects in arousal: disrupted diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ADHD

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study with multiple measurements to take into account interday and intraday variability. Methods: Salivary cortisol was sampled five times a day (awakenin...

  9. Development and evaluation of video game for learning capabilities improvement of ADHD children

    Saso KOCESKI; Koceska, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Persistent and severe impairment of psychological development resulting from a high level of inattentive, restless and impulsive behavior is classified according to the fourth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and according to the Tenth International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) as hyperkinetic disorder (HD). ADHD is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased g...

  10. Importance of perceived similarity in improving children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers.

    Siperstein, G N; Chatillon, A C

    1982-03-01

    Effects of perceived similarity on fifth- and sixth-grade children's attitudes toward mentally retarded peers were examined. Children were selected from schools that contained segregated classes of retarded pupils (exposed setting) and schools that had no retarded pupils enrolled (nonexposed). Attitudes were defined in terms of children's affective feelings and behavioral intentions. Results showed that children responded more positively toward a retarded target who was depicted as similar to them than toward one who was not. Unexpectedly, the positive effects of perceived similarity were observed only among children in the exposed schools. Also, girls were more positive toward a female target than boys were to a male target, regardless of whether the target was perceived as similar. The importance of developing strategies based on theories of interpersonal attraction to improve children's attitudes toward their retarded peers was discussed. PMID:7124799

  11. Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy? A graph theoretical approach to neocortex neuronal network of ADHD.

    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Rostami, Reza; Sadeghi, Vahid

    2012-05-10

    Neurofeedback training is increasingly used for ADHD treatment. However some ADHD patients are not treated through the long-time neurofeedback trainings with common protocols. In this paper a new graph theoretical approach is presented for EEG-based prediction of ADHD patients' responses to a common neurofeedback training: rewarding SMR activity (12-15 Hz) with inhibiting theta activity (4-8 Hz) and beta2 activity (18-25 Hz). Eyes closed EEGs of two groups before and after neurofeedback training were studied: ADHD patients with (15 children) and without (15 children) positive response to neurofeedback training. Employing a recent method to measure synchronization, fuzzy synchronization likelihood, functional connectivity graphs of the patients' brains were constructed in the full-band EEGs and 6 common EEG sub-bands produced by wavelet decomposition. Then, efficiencies of the brain networks in synchronizability and high speed information transmission were computed based on mean path length of the graphs, before and after neurofeedback training. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and showed synchronizability of the neocortex activity network at beta band in ADHDs with positive response is obviously less than that of ADHDs resistant to neurofeedback therapy, before treatment. The accuracy of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in distinguishing these patients based on this feature is so high (84.2%) that this feature can be considered as reliable characteristics for prediction of responses of ADHDs to the neurofeedback trainings. Also difference between flexibility of the neocortex in beta band before and after treatment is obviously larger in the ADHDs with positive response in comparison to those with negative response which may be a neurophysiologic reason for dissatisfaction of the last group to the neurofeedback therapy. PMID:22503723

  12. Perceived Social Support and Domain-Specific Adjustment of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    Popliger, Mina; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived availability of social support has been documented as a protective mechanism among adults and adolescents. However, little research has explored the role of social support among children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (E/BD). The current study sought to investigate the effects of perceived social support from family,…

  13. The Relationship Between Attractiveness and Credibility of Television Commercials as Perceived by Children

    Breen, Myles P.; Powell, Jon T.

    1973-01-01

    This study tested whether children like commercials they believe or believe commercials they like. Results indicated a moderate correlation between the perceived attractiveness and the credibility of the commercials. (CH)

  14. Obesity Bias in Children: The Role of Actual and Perceived Body Size

    Kornilaki, Ekaterina N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how children perceive their body size and whether their actual or perceived body size can explain their anti-fat views. Four hundred and fourteen 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10-year-old children were read short vignettes depicting two characters, one possessing a positive and the other a negative quality. Following each…

  15. A longitudinal study of children's outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

    Remmers, Teun; Broeren, Suzanne; Renders, Carry; Hirasing, Remy; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A natural and cheap way of increasing children's physical activity is stimulating unstructured outside play.Purpose: This study examined whether characteristics of the family and perceived physical environment were associated with the duration of children's outside play.Methods: Parents participating in the " Be Active, Eat Right" cluster RCT control group (N = 2007) provided information on potential predictors of outside play (i.e. family and perceived physical enviro...

  16. Perceived Stigmatization of Children with Speech-Language Impairment and Their Parents

    Macharey, Georg; Suchodoletz, Waldemar von

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Developmental disorders in childhood are generally assumed to have stigmatizing effects. The goal of the present study was to assess whether parents of children with speech-language impairment perceive stigmatization of their child or themselves and which variables influence the degree of negative labeling. Subjects and Methods: The study was based on 362 questionnaires completed by parents of children with speech-language impairment. The questionnaires concerned perceived stigmati...

  17. Self-Perceived Stability and Change in Children's Competence

    Vandenplas-Holper, Christiane; Roskam, Isabelle; Fontaine, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Using Harter's ("Child Dev" 53(1):87-97, 1982) perceived competence scale, this study integrates several paradigms related to the issues of self-perceived competence, stability or change and attributional theory. It examines how 268 Belgian and Portuguese fifth graders consider their scholastic, social and physical competence at present and in a…

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of the 'Incredible Years parent training' to parents of young children with ADHD symptoms

    Trillingsgaard, Tea; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Webster-Stratton, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based parent training program in a real-world Scandinavian setting. Parents of 36 young children with or at risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) self-referred to participate in the Incredible Years® Parent Training Program (IYPT......) through a Danish early intervention clinic. Using a benchmarking approach, we compared self-report data with data from a recent efficacy study. Eight out of nine outcome measures showed comparable or higher magnitude of effect from pretest to posttest. Effects were maintained or improved across six months...

  19. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Bhat Venkataramana; Grizenko Natalie; Lee James; Sengupta Sarojini; Polotskaia Anna; Joober Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic) and undesired (side) effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years) were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose), each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' ...

  20. Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind and social adjustment in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Fiasse, Catherine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Perceived social acceptance, theory of mind (ToM) and social adjustment were investigated in 45 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) compared with 45 typically developing (TD) preschoolers, matched for developmental age assessed by means of the Differential Scales of Intellectual Efficiency-Revised edition (EDEI-R, Perron-Borelli, 1996). Children's understanding of beliefs and emotions was assessed by means of ToM belief tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011) and ToM emotion tasks (Nader-Grosbois & Thirion-Marissiaux, 2011). Seven items from the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for children (PSPCSA, Harter & Pike, 1980) assessed children's perceived social acceptance. Their teachers completed the Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hughes, Soares-Boucaud, Hochmann, & Frith, 1997). For both groups together, the results showed that perceived social acceptance mediates the relation between ToM skills and social adjustment. The presence or absence of intellectual disabilities does not moderate the relations either between ToM skills and perceived social acceptance, or between perceived social acceptance and social adjustment. The study did not confirm the difference hypothesis of structural and relational patterns between these three processes in children with ID, but instead supported the hypothesis of a similar structure that develops in a delayed manner. PMID:22705455

  1. Time course analysis of motor excitability in a response inhibition task according to the level of hyperactivity and impulsivity in children with ADHD.

    Thomas Hoegl

    Full Text Available Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI of motor cortex, measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in a passive (resting condition, has been suggested as a neurophysiological marker of hyperactivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of this study was to determine motor excitability in a go/nogo task at stages of response preparation, activation and suppression in children with ADHD, depending on the level of hyperactivity and impulsivity. Motor evoked potentials were recorded in 29 typically developing children and 43 children with ADHD (subdivided in two groups with higher and lower levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity; H/I-high and H/I-low. In the H/I-high group, SICI was markedly reduced in the resting condition and during response preparation. Though these children were able to increase SICI when inhibiting a response, SICI was still reduced compared to typically developing children. Interestingly, SICI at rest and during response activation were comparable, which may be associated with their hypermotoric behaviour. In the H/I-low group, response activation was accompanied by a pronounced decrease of SICI, indicating reduced motor control in the context of a fast motor response. In summary, different excitability patterns were obtained for the three groups allowing a better understanding of dysfunctional response activation and inhibition processes within the motor cortex in children with ADHD.

  2. Comparison of Sensorimotor Rhythm (SMR and Beta Training on Selective Attention and Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD: A Trend Report

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the effect of two neurofeedback protocols (SMR/theta and beta/theta on ADHD symptoms, selective attention and EEG (electroencephalogram parameters in children with ADHD.  Method:The sample consisted of 16 children (9-15 year old: 13 boys; 3 girls with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C. All of children used methylphenidate (MPH during the study. The neurofeedback training consisted of two phases of 15 sessions, each lasting 45 minutes. In the first phase, participants were trained to enhance sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz and reduce theta activity (4-8 Hz at C4 and in the second phase; they had to increase beta (15-18 Hz and reduce theta activity at C3. Assessments consisted of d2 attention endurance test, ADHD rating scale (parent form at three time periods: before, middle and the end of the training. EEG signals were recorded just before and after the training . Result:Based on parents’ reports, inattention after beta/theta training, and hyperactivity/impulsivity were improved after the end of the training. All subscales of d2 test were improved except for the difference between maximum and minimum responses. However, EEG analysis showed no significant differences . Conclusion:Neurofeedback in conjunction with Methylphenidate may cause further improvement in ADHD symptoms reported by parents and selective attention without long-term impact on EEG patterns. However, determining the exact relationship between EEG parameters, neurofeedback protocols and ADHD symptoms remain unclear.

  3. Comparison of spatial working memory in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and those diagnosed with ADHD; A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Malisza Krisztina L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND falls under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, but individuals do not demonstrate the facial characteristics associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, making diagnosis difficult. While attentional problems in ARND are similar to those found in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, the underlying impairment in attention pathways may be different. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of a working memory (1-back task of 63 children, 10 to 14 years old, diagnosed with ARND and ADHD, as well as typically developing (TD controls, was conducted at 3 T. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data were also acquired. Results Activations were observed in posterior parietal and occipital regions in the TD group and in dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal regions in the ARND group, whereas the ADHD group activated only dorsolateral prefrontal regions, during the working memory component of the task (1-back minus 0-back contrast. The increases in frontal and parietal activity were significantly greater in the ARND group compared to the other groups. This increased activity was associated with reduced accuracy and increased response time variability, suggesting that ARND subjects exert greater effort to manage short-term memory load. Significantly greater intra-subject variability, demonstrated by fMRI region-of-interest analysis, in the ADHD and ARND groups compared to the TD group suggests that moment-to-moment lapses in attention contributed to their poorer task performance. Differences in functional activity in ARND subjects with and without a diagnosis of ADHD resulted primarily from reduced activation by the ARND/ADHD + group during the 0-back task. In contrast, children with ADHD alone clearly showed reduced activations during the 1-back task. DTI analysis revealed that the TD group had significantly higher total tract volume

  4. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children Against HPV Among African American Parents.

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2016-07-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one's child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents' intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193) in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  5. Linguistic analysis of the Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample: what the parents of preschool children with early signs of ADHD say and how they say it?

    Elvira Perez

    Full Text Available A linguistic analysis was performed on the Preschool Five Minute Speech Sample (PFMSS of 42 parents. PFMSS is a validated measure for Expressed Emotion (EE to assess parent-child relationship. Half of these parents (n = 21, clinical group had preschool children with early symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, the rest had typically developing children. Early symptoms of ADHD were identified with the Werry-Weiss Peters Rating Scale. The linguistic component of the PFMSS was analysed with keyword and linguistic pattern identification. The results of these two complementary analyses (i.e., EE and linguistic analysis provided relevant recommendations that may improve the efficacy of psychological treatment for ADHD such as parenting interventions. We discuss the practical implications of these findings.

  6. Guanfacine Use in Children With Down Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) With Disruptive Behaviors.

    Capone, George T; Brecher, Liza; Bay, Mihee

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize children with Down syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with disruptive behaviors using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and to measure the treatment effects of guanfacine on maladaptive behaviors. Subjects were enrolled from a group of outpatients who visited our clinic between 2002 and 2007. Subjects (N = 23) were children with Down syndrome ages 4 to 12 years (mean 7.4 ± 4.1), who met criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales each showed a significant decrease (P < .0001) at follow-up. The mean decline on Hyperactivity was 25% (-7.8 points), and for Irritability, 25% (-3.5 points). The mean composite score also declined by 24% (-12 points). Effect size differences on Irritability were moderate, whereas differences on Hyperactivity and composite score appeared large. Clinically important target behaviors were reduced. Medication was generally well tolerated and the incidence of treatment emergent side effects remained low. PMID:26936058

  7. Prospective observational study protocol to investigate long-term adverse effects of methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD: the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) study

    Inglis, S K; Carucci, S; Garas, P; Häge, A; Banaschewski, T; Buitelaar, J K; Dittmann, R W; Falissard, B; Hollis, C; Kovshoff, H; Liddle, E; McCarthy, S; Nagy, P; Neubert, A; Rosenthal, E; Sonuga-Barke, E; Wong, I; Zuddas, A; Coghill, D C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Following concerns about its safety, the European Commission called for research into the long-term effects of methylphenidate on children and adolescents with ADHD. The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Use Chronic Effects (ADDUCE) research programme was designed to address this call. At the heart of this programme is a 2-year longitudinal naturalistic pharmacovigilance study being conducted in 27 European sites. Methods and analysis 3 cohorts of children and adolescents (aged 6–17) living in the UK, Germany, Italy and Hungary are being recruited: Group 1 (Medicated ADHD): 800 ADHD medication-naive children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD about to start methylphenidate treatment for the first time. Group 2 (Unmedicated ADHD): 400 children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD who have never been treated with ADHD medication and have no intention of beginning medication. Group 3 (Non-ADHD): 400 children and adolescents without ADHD who are siblings of individuals in either group 1 or 2. All participants will be assessed 5 times during their 2-year follow-up period for growth and development, psychiatric, neurological and cardiovascular health. The primary outcome measure will be the height velocity SD score. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for the study has been granted by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Following this approval, patient information leaflets and consent forms were translated as necessary and submissions made by lead sites in each of the other 3 countries to their own ethics committees. Following ethical approval in each country, local ethical permissions at each site were sought and obtained as needed. The study's website (http://www.adhd-adduce.org/page/view/2/Home) provides information for researchers, participants and the general

  8. How Early Childhood Teachers Perceive the Educational Needs of Military Dependent Children

    Stites, Michele L.

    2016-01-01

    Military dependent children remain a largely unexplored subject, particularly in early childhood education. In an effort to fill the gap in the current literature, this research study focuses on how early childhood teachers perceive the educational needs of military dependent children. Previous research in the areas of geographic mobility,…

  9. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  10. Exploring Children's Perceptions of the Perceived Seriousness of Disruptive Classroom Behaviours

    Dursley, Louise; Betts, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Children's reports of the perceived seriousness of disruptive classroom behaviours were examined from their own perspective and from their perceptions of their peers' beliefs about the same behaviour. Two hundred and seventy-six (116 female and 161 male, M[subscript age]?=?11.00?years, SD[subscript age]?=?1.29) children recruited from a primary…

  11. A longitudinal study of children's outside play using family environment and perceived physical environment as predictors

    T. Remmers (Teun); S.M.L. Broeren (Suzanne); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); A. van Grieken (Amy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A natural and cheap way of increasing children's physical activity is stimulating unstructured outside play.Purpose: This study examined whether characteristics of the family and perceived physical environment were associated with the duration of children's outside play.Metho

  12. Children's Perceived Cost for Exercise: Application of an Expectancy-Value Paradigm

    Chiang, Evelyn S.; Byrd, Sandra P.; Molin, Ashley J.

    2011-01-01

    Expectancy-value models of motivation have been applied to understanding children's choices in areas such as academics and sports. Here, an expectancy-value paradigm is applied to exercising (defined as engaging in physical activity). The notion of perceived cost is highlighted in particular. Two hundred twenty children in third, fourth, and fifth…

  13. Reboxetine for ADHD in children non-responders or with poor tolerance to methylphenidate: a prospective long-term open-label study.

    Quintero, Javier; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio; Loro, Mercedes; García-Campos, Natalia

    2010-11-01

    Up to 30% of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with psychostimulants discontinue the treatment because of intolerance or lack of therapeutic response. Therapeutic alternatives are needed for such patients. In the present case series, we study the effectiveness of reboxetine over a period of 6 months in a sample of 14 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, who had responded only partially or had presented poor tolerance to conventional treatment with methylphenidate. Clinical efficacy was evaluated through the application of the 18-item Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Global Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Percentages of responders (ADHD-RS ≥ 25%) and improvers (CGI-I absolute value side-effects were observed during treatment, the most frequent effects being headaches and insomnia. The initial findings of our study show that reboxetine may constitute an effective tool for long-term treatment of children with ADHD who present poor response or poor tolerance to initial treatment with methylphenidate. PMID:21432596

  14. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  15. How Do Children With Mild Intellectual Disabilities Perceive Loneliness?

    Kalliopi Papoutsaki; Angeliki Gena; Efrosini Kalyva

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined 154 children with mild intellectual disability (MID) attending special schools with regard to their reports of loneliness. Semi-structured interviews revealed that more than half of the students with MID reported feelings of loneliness. They tend to have as friends children from their neighborhood, friends of their siblings, children of their parents’ friends and from their school. Lonely children with MID tend to attribute their isolation to interpersonal deficits,...

  16. Social-skills and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment for children with ADHD--the randomised SOSTRA trial.

    Ole Jakob Storebø

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODS: We conducted a randomized two-armed, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority trial consisting of social-skills training plus parental training and standard treatment versus standard treatment alone. A sample size calculation showed at least 52 children should be included for the trial with follow up three and six months after randomization. The primary outcome measure was ADHD symptoms and secondary outcomes were social skills and emotional competences. RESULTS 56: children (39 boys, 17 girls, mean age 10.4 years, SD 1.31 with ADHD were randomized, 28 to the experimental group and 27 to the control group. Mixed-model analyses with repeated measures showed that the time course (y  =  a + bt + ct(2 of ADHD symptoms (p = 0.40, social skills (p = 0.80, and emotional competences (p = 0.14 were not significantly influenced by the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Social skills training plus parental training did not show any significant benefit for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when compared with standard treatment. More and larger randomized trials are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00937469.

  17. Stimulant Treatment Reduces Lapses in Attention among Children with ADHD: The Effects of Methylphenidate on Intra-Individual Response Time Distributions

    Spencer, Sarah V.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Richards, Jerry B.; Shiels, Keri; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Waxmonsky, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that intra-individual variability in reaction time (RT) distributions of children with ADHD is characterized by a particularly large rightward skew that may reflect lapses in attention. The purpose of the study was to provide the first randomized, placebo-controlled test of the effects of the stimulant methylphenidate…

  18. Personal FM Systems for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Initial Investigation

    Schafer, Erin C.; Mathews, Lauren; Mehta, Smita; Hill, Margaret; Munoz, Ashley; Bishop, Rachel; Moloney, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and…

  19. The Relation Between Parental Coping Styles and Parent-Child Interactions Before and After Treatment for Children With ADHD and Oppositional Behavior

    McKee, Tara Eberhardt; Harvey, Elizabeth; Danforth, Jeffrey S.; Ulaszek, Wendy R.; Friedman, Julie L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parental coping styles, discipline, and child behavior before and after participating in a parent training program for parents of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and oppositional behavior. For mothers, use of more maladaptive and less adaptive coping styles was related to more…

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cogmed Working Memory Training in School-Age Children with ADHD: A Replication in a Diverse Sample Using a Control Condition

    Chacko, A.; Bedard, A. C.; Marks, D. J.; Feirsen, N.; Uderman, J. Z.; Chimiklis, A.; Rajwan, E.; Cornwell, M.; Anderson, L.; Zwilling, A.; Ramon, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) has received considerable attention as a promising intervention for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. At the same time, methodological weaknesses in previous clinical trials call into question reported efficacy of CWMT. In particular, lack of equivalence…