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Sample records for adequate intakes

  1. Persistence of goiter despite adequate iodine intake

    To evaluate the state of iodine uptake and frequency of goiter in a previously endemic population after use of iodine salt for ten years. In an area in south of Iran following examination of randomly selected 1504, 8-10 year school children, 102 cases with grade 2 or larger goiter were found. One hundred normal cases regarding thyroid examination were also selected as controls. From all 202 children, random urine specimen was assayed for iodine as an indicator of iodide intake. Frequency of goiter grade 2 or larger was 6.8%. Median levels of urinary iodine in goiterous children and controls were 20.00 micro gram/dL and 24.50 micro gram/dL respectively. Values more than 10 micro g/dL indicate sufficient intake. Frequency of iodine deficiency in patients with goiter was 14.0% vs. 12.7% in control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.748). Iodized salt has been effective to provide acceptable iodide intake but other causes are supposed to be responsible as etiologic factors for persistence of endemic goiter. (author)

  2. Reduction of salt: will iodine intake remain adequate in The Netherlands?

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Veer, van 't, M Marcel; Ocke, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Salt is the main vehicle for iodine fortification in The Netherlands. A reduction in salt intake may reduce the supply of iodine. Our aim was to quantify the effect of salt reduction on the habitual iodine intake of the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate iodine intake. We used data of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997–8) and an update of the food composition database to estimate habitual salt and iodine intake. To take into account uncertainty about the use of iodised ...

  3. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-05-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet. PMID:26906103

  4. Evaluation of a Diet Quality Index Based on the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) Using National French and US Dietary Surveys

    Verger, Eric O.; François Mariotti; Holmes, Bridget A.; Damien Paineau; Jean-François Huneau

    2012-01-01

    Background: Existing diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation. [br/] Objective: To develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations. Material and Methods: The PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet score and energy intake...

  5. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  6. Evaluation of a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet using national French and US dietary surveys.

    Eric O Verger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Existing diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet score and energy intake were investigated. We evaluated the construct validity of the index by comparing scores for population sub-groups with 'a priori' differences in diet quality, according to smoking status, energy density, food intakes, plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations. French and US implementations of the PANDiet were developed and evaluated using national nutritional recommendations and dietary surveys. RESULTS: The PANDiet was not correlated with energy for the French implementation (r = -0.02, P>0.05 and correlated at a low level for the US implementation (r = -0.11, P<0.0001. In both implementations, a higher PANDiet score (i.e. a better diet quality was associated with not smoking, having a lower-energy-dense diet, consuming higher amounts of fruits, vegetables, fish, milk and other dairy products and lower amounts of cheese, pizza, eggs, meat and processed meat, and having higher plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations after controlling for appropriate factors (all P<0.05, carotenoid data for US not available. CONCLUSIONS: The PANDiet provides a single score that measures the adequacy of nutrient intake and reflects diet quality. This index is adaptable for use in different countries and relevant at the individual and population levels.

  7. Randomized comparison of the effects of the vitamin D3 adequate intake versus 100 mcg (4000 IU per day on biochemical responses and the wellbeing of patients

    Hu Amanda

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For adults, vitamin D intake of 100 mcg (4000 IU/day is physiologic and safe. The adequate intake (AI for older adults is 15 mcg (600 IU/day, but there has been no report focusing on use of this dose. Methods We compared effects of these doses on biochemical responses and sense of wellbeing in a blinded, randomized trial. In Study 1, 64 outpatients (recruited if summer 2001 25(OHD Results In Study 1, basal summer 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] averaged 48 ± 9 (SD nmol/L. Supplementation for more than 6 months produced mean 25(OHD levels of 79 ± 30 nmol/L for the 15 mcg/day group, and 112 ± 41 nmol/L for the 100 mcg/day group. Both doses lowered plasma parathyroid hormone with no effect on plasma calcium. Between December and February, wellbeing score improved more for the 100-mcg/day group than for the lower-dosed group (1-tail Mann-Whitney p = 0.036. In Study 2, 25(OHD averaged 39 ± 9 nmol/L, and winter wellbeing scores improved with both doses of vitamin D (two-tail p Conclusion The highest AI for vitamin D brought summertime 25(OHD to >40 nmol/L, lowered PTH, and its use was associated with improved wellbeing. The 100 mcg/day dose produced greater responses. Since it was ethically necessary to provide a meaningful dose of vitamin D to these insufficient patients, we cannot rule out a placebo wellbeing response, particularly for those on the lower dose. This work confirms the safety and efficacy of both 15 and 100 mcg/day vitamin D3 in patients who needed additional vitamin D.

  8. Food Groups Associated with a Composite Measure of Probability of Adequate Intake of 11 Micronutrients in the Diets of Women in Urban Mali

    Kennedy, G.L.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Seghieri, C.; Arimond, M.; Koreissi, Y.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Kok, F.J.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 pos

  9. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    Maaike J. Bruins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.

  10. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    Sarkis Karin S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD, such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA, greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3 years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX, which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04. In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including

  11. The Right to Adequate Nutrition

    Olivier de Schutter

    2014-01-01

    Four important conceptual shifts have occurred in our understanding of under- and malnutrition in recent years. Together, they have led to the emergence of the concept of ‘food and nutrition security’ and to a renewed emphasis not on calorie intake alone, but also on the adequacy of diets and care. Human rights provide a useful framework for ensuring food and nutrition security. However, only through more democracy in the food systems can change happen.

  12. Lands adequation in Antioquia Department

    The Colombian government programs concerning land management and adequation began since the fifties. When basic frameworks for irrigating, flood control and drainage were initially developed. Several entities have made huge investments in land adequation, that lead to the improvement of national agriculture in plain regions such as Tolima, Boyaca, Magdalena and Valle del Cauca. During the same period the region of Antioquia did not benefit from the projects, mainly due to the lack of government policies concerning land adequation. Finally, in 1983 the Himat launched the small irrigation national program, which gave solutions for water management in several countryside regions of Antioquia. Twenty-nine small water districts are now operating accounting for 3.759 ha which cover 1.510 households. Now days, thanks to the presence of more accurate policies, is the right time to improve irrigation, flood control and drainage towards to a substantial improvement in the Antioquia agricultural sector, that allows it to overcome the challenges of the next millennium. A project called Antioquia nos une 1998-2000 addresses the importance of promoting the right agricultural structure that ensures agricultural mechanization for sustainability and irrigation. On the other hand, it determines the main resources needed to promote the initiative and points out the importance of distributing them in the basis of the needs and problems of the communities

  13. Free left and right adequate semigroups

    Kambites, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Recent research of the author has given an explicit geometric description of free (two-sided) adequate semigroups and monoids, as sets of labelled directed trees under a natural combinatorial multiplication. In this paper we show that there are natural embeddings of each free right adequate and free left adequate semigroup or monoid into the corresponding free adequate semigroup or monoid. The corresponding classes of trees are easily described and the resulting geometric representation of fr...

  14. Real Time Investments with Adequate Portfolio Theory

    Alina Kvietkauskienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify investment decision makingschemes using the adequate portfolio model. This approach can be employed to project investment in stocks, using the opportunities offered by the markets and investor intelligence. It was decided to use adequate portfolio theory for investment decision making, simulation of financial markets, and optimisation of utility function. The main conclusion of article suggests investigating return on individual portfolio level. Real investment is a way to make sure of the soundness of applicable strategies.

  15. Volume and geometry of homogeneously adequate knots

    Bartholomew, Paige; McQuarrie, Shane; Purcell, Jessica S.; Weser, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We bound the hyperbolic volumes of a large class of knots and links, called homogeneously adequate knots and links, in terms of their diagrams. To do so, we use the decomposition of these links into ideal polyhedra, developed by Futer, Kalfagianni, and Purcell. We identify essential product disks in these polyhedra.

  16. Adequate supervision for children and adolescents.

    Anderst, James; Moffatt, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) have the opportunity to improve child health and well-being by addressing supervision issues before an injury or exposure has occurred and/or after an injury or exposure has occurred. Appropriate anticipatory guidance on supervision at well-child visits can improve supervision of children, and may prevent future harm. Adequate supervision varies based on the child's development and maturity, and the risks in the child's environment. Consideration should be given to issues as wide ranging as swimming pools, falls, dating violence, and social media. By considering the likelihood of harm and the severity of the potential harm, caregivers may provide adequate supervision by minimizing risks to the child while still allowing the child to take "small" risks as needed for healthy development. Caregivers should initially focus on direct (visual, auditory, and proximity) supervision of the young child. Gradually, supervision needs to be adjusted as the child develops, emphasizing a safe environment and safe social interactions, with graduated independence. PCPs may foster adequate supervision by providing concrete guidance to caregivers. In addition to preventing injury, supervision includes fostering a safe, stable, and nurturing relationship with every child. PCPs should be familiar with age/developmentally based supervision risks, adequate supervision based on those risks, characteristics of neglectful supervision based on age/development, and ways to encourage appropriate supervision throughout childhood. PMID:25369578

  17. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  18. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  19. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  20. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt

    Emma Jones

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC, a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415 was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100–199 μg/L. The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was <10 μg/L confirming adequate iodine status. There was a significant difference in UIC by sex (p = 0.001 and ethnicity (p = 0.006. The mean iodine intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate.

  1. A Better Diet Quality is Attributable to Adequate Energy Intake in Hemodialysis Patients

    Kim, Hyerang; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality is one of strong predictors of subsequent increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. To determine diet quality and to define major problems contributing to poor diet quality in hemodialysis patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and October 2010. Sixty-three hemodialysis patients (31 men, 32 women; aged 55.3 ± 11.9 years) in stable condition were recruited from the Artificial Kidney Center in Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. Three-day diet re...

  2. Estimation of micronutrient intake distributions: development of methods to support food and nutrition policy making

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Adequate and safe micronutrient intake is important. Both insufficient and excessive intakes should be prevented as these can be associated with negative health effects. Therefore, the population intake distribution will ideally lay between insufficient and excessive intakes. For the development and evaluation of nutrition and food policy a good estimation of dietary micronutrient intake is of great importance. Aim Three challenges were addressed to improve the estimation of pop...

  3. Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children.

    Hackett, A; Nathan, I; Burgess, L

    1998-01-01

    The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise. PMID:9670174

  4. Adequate Iodine Status in New Zealand School Children Post-Fortification of Bread with Iodised Salt.

    Jones, Emma; McLean, Rachael; Davies, Briar; Hawkins, Rochelle; Meiklejohn, Eva; Ma, Zheng Feei; Skeaff, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency re-emerged in New Zealand in the 1990s, prompting the mandatory fortification of bread with iodised salt from 2009. This study aimed to determine the iodine status of New Zealand children when the fortification of bread was well established. A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8-10 years was conducted in the cities of Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand, from March to May 2015. Children provided a spot urine sample for the determination of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), a fingerpick blood sample for Thyroglobulin (Tg) concentration, and completed a questionnaire ascertaining socio-demographic information that also included an iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake from all main food sources including bread and iodised salt. The median UIC for all children (n = 415) was 116 μg/L (females 106 μg/L, males 131 μg/L) indicative of adequate iodine status according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, i.e., median UIC of 100-199 μg/L). The median Tg concentration was 8.7 μg/L, which was intake from the food-only model was 65 μg/day. Bread contributed 51% of total iodine intake in the food-only model, providing a mean iodine intake of 35 μg/day. The mean iodine intake from the food-plus-iodised salt model was 101 μg/day. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that the iodine status in New Zealand school children is now adequate. PMID:27196925

  5. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  6. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  7. Food intake in patients on hemodialysis

    Inaiana Marques Filizola Vaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the intake of energy and nutrients by individuals on hemodialysis, following especific recommendations for this population and according to Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, 118 adult patients, considered stable from, ten dialysis centers in Goiânia, Goiás. Dietary intake was estimated by six 24-hour recalls, and classified as adequate or inadequate, according to specific recommendations for individuals undergoing dialysis and that recommended for a healthy diet. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Average dietary intake of 2022.40 ± 283.70 kcal/day; 31.18 kcal/kg/day; 55.03 ± 4.20% carbohydrate; 30.23 ± 3.71% lipid, 1.18 ± 0.23 g protein/kg/day. Important prevalences of inadequacy were observed for the intake of calories (39.0%, protein (39.0% and other nutrients such as retinol (94.9%, saturated fat (87.3%, cholesterol (61,9%, iron (61.0%, potassium (60.2% and zinc (45.0%. Patients had a low intake of fruit food group (1.22 ± 0.89 servings and vegetables (1.76 ± 1.01 servings, dairy products (0.57 ± 0.43 servings and high intake of food group of oils and fats (3.45 ± 0.95 servings, sugars and sweets (1.55 ± 0.77 servings. Conclusion: Observed food consumption imbalance, characterized by excess of oils and fats, especially saturated oils and cholesterol, sugars and sweets, parallel to low intake of fruits and vegetables and dairy products. A considerable percentage of patients did not intake the minimum recommended of calories, protein, retinol, iron, zinc and potassium.

  8. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    Caroline M. Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study (n = 991. We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements, along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  9. Food consumption pattern and nutrient intake of Indian obese males.

    Gera, T; Khetarpaul, N

    2000-01-01

    Mean daily intake of all foods except cereals i.e. pulses, green leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, fruits, milk and milk products, sugar and fats of Indian obese male respondents was higher than the values recommended by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, 1987). The consumption of fat and sugar was 18 and 8 percent more than the recommended intake values respectively. However, their non-obese counterparts consumed significantly (P vit B12, folacin, ascorbic acid and calcium by obese respondents was considerably higher than the recommended values (ICMR, 1990) and the control group. All the obese respondents were consuming adequate (100% and above) amounts of energy, protein and fats. Intake of carbohydrates was marginally adequate (75-99.9%) among 92 percent of the obese respondents whereas 8 percent were consuming adequate amount of carbohydrates. They had higher consumption of visible as well as invisible fat than the control group. PMID:11142609

  10. "Something Adequate"? In Memoriam Seamus Heaney, Sister Quinlan, Nirbhaya

    Parker, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Seamus Heaney talked of poetry's responsibility to represent the "bloody miracle", the "terrible beauty" of atrocity; to create "something adequate". This article asks, what is adequate to the burning and eating of a nun and the murderous gang rape and evisceration of a medical student? It considers Njabulo…

  11. 40 CFR 716.25 - Adequate file search.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adequate file search. 716.25 Section... ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.25 Adequate file search. The scope of a person's responsibility to search records is limited to records in the location(s) where the...

  12. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  13. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  14. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    Homero Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages) by a selective sample of Mexican population. Method...

  15. Folate intake, alcohol and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in Denmark

    Tjønneland, A; Christensen, J; Olsen, A;

    2006-01-01

    There is consistent evidence that alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that the increased risk associated with alcohol intake may be reduced by adequate intake of folate. Since many women consume alcohol, detection of a risk-reducing mechanism would have major public...

  16. Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: scope for improvement

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake is required to postpone and treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Insight into dietary protein intake in this heterogeneous population segment is needed to locate dietary inadequacies and to identify target populations and feeding strategies for dietary interventions. T

  17. Dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence and risk of multiple sclerosis

    Munger, Kassandra L; Chitnis, Tanuja; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Giovannucci, Edward; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence may be an important etiological period in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), and studies suggest that adequate vitamin D nutrition is protective. Here, the authors examined whether dietary intake of vitamin D during adolescence decreases the risk of MS in adulthood. In 1986 in the Nurses’ Health Study and in 1998 in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII), women completed a food frequency questionnaire regarding their dietary intake during adolescence. From this, daily intake...

  18. Essential minerals in milk and their daily intake through milk consumption

    Nada Vahčić; Mirjana Hruškar; Ksenija Marković; Mara Banović; Irena Colić Barić

    2010-01-01

    Minerals occur in all foodstuffs as well as in milk and dairy products. The mineral content in milk is influenced by many factors ranging from environmental conditions during pasture, feeding, breeding, stage of lactation and climate to post-milking handling, transportation and processing. The aim of the study was to assess whether the intakes comply with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AIs) or Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for essential elements. Milk samples fr...

  19. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  20. Diet, nutrition intake, and metabolism in populations at high and low risk for colon cancer. Nutrient intake.

    Calkins, B M; Whittaker, D J; Nair, P P; Rider, A A; Turjman, N

    1984-10-01

    A 3-day diary with portion sizes weighed by the subject and a 24-h recall were obtained on 50 sets of subjects: Seventh-day Adventist lacto-ovo-vegetarians and nonvegetarians, and general population nonvegetarians, matched on age (+/- 5 yr), sex, marital status, education, type of milk preferred, and an index of the frequency of dairy and egg product use. An additional 18 unmatched persons who follow a pure vegetarian dietary pattern (use no meat, fish, fowl, dairy, or egg products) were recruited into the study. The rational for the dietary methods used is presented and details of each of the methods used are given. The results of the nutrient analysis of the 24-h recall and 3-day diary are presented. The 3-day nutrient intake means for the four groups are compared to the sex-specific recommended daily allowance both with and without supplements. The contribution of nutritional supplements to the nutrient intake is discussed. All groups show adequate or excess intake levels of calories, protein, and fat when either the 24-h recall or the 3-day diary values are considered. The higher intake of calories noted among nonvegetarians can be explained by a higher intake of both fat and protein in these groups. A, B, and C vitamin levels (3-day dairy estimates) are adequate both with and without supplements. Calcium intake is much below recommended levels for pure vegetarian females. Iron intake is low for all females. A heme iron source does not improve the intake levels for nonvegetarian females. A comparison of these results with prior reports of nutrient intake among Seventh-day Adventists is presented. PMID:6486098

  1. 13 CFR 108.200 - Adequate capital for NMVC Companies.

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies. 108.200 Section 108.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.200 Adequate capital for NMVC Companies. You must meet the requirements of §§ 108.200-108.230 in order...

  2. Assessing Juvenile Sex Offenders to Determine Adequate Levels of Supervision.

    Gerdes, Karen E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzed the internal consistency of four inventories used by Utah probation officers to determine adequate and efficacious supervision levels and placement for juvenile sex offenders. Three factors accounted for 41.2 percent of variance (custodian's and juvenile's attitude toward intervention, offense characteristics, and historical…

  3. Is the Marketing Concept Adequate for Continuing Education?

    Rittenburg, Terri L.

    1984-01-01

    Because educators have a social responsibility to those they teach, the marketing concept may not be adequate as a philosophy for continuing education. In attempting to broaden the audience for continuing education, educators should consider a societal marketing concept to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged. (SK)

  4. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  5. Teaching children with diabetes about adequate dietary choices.

    Maffeis, Claudio; Pinelli, Leonardo

    2008-02-01

    Recent recommendations by the American Diabetes Association suggest that children with type 1 diabetes should follow the recommendations for age, sex and body size of the general population. In the case of being overweight or obese, weight-control strategies should be applied. Adherence to recommendations should be pursued by continuous nutritional education that should start at the onset of diabetes and maintained by means of nutritional counselling to the family. The second main target of nutritional intervention is to encourage a reproducible daily meal plan that can be maintained by acquiring good habits when making nutritional choices. Finally, children and parents should be taught how to count carbohydrates, which would help them manage exceptions in their daily meal plan. Specifically, nutritional recommendations for children with diabetes focus on limiting the intake of foods of animal origin (red meat, cheese, cold cuts), moderating fat intake and promoting the intake of foods that naturally contain fibre (mainly vegetables, legumes, fruit). There are two at-risk periods in the lives of children when nutritional education procedures as well as diabetes care in general are less likely to be effective: early years of life and adolescence. In the case of very young children, new behavioural-based intervention strategies to help parents improve mealtimes could be useful in teaching diabetic children to learn to follow a structured eating schedule, which is desirable for long-lasting efficacy in diabetes care. In adolescents, eating disorders and insulin misuse for weight control purposes are concrete and difficult problems to deal with. A good balance between eating for pleasure and maintaining one's health is a challenge for anyone. Appropriate nutritional education helps children with diabetes to find this balance and enjoy a better quality of life. PMID:18257950

  6. ACHIEVEMENT FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION USING ADEQUATE MLTI-THREDING ARCHITECTURES

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major role is played in the layout and evaluation of any empirical wireless structure to manifest is the goal of this paper that counterfeit mode architectures affect counterfeit conduct, regarding structure accomplishment metrics, essentially and therefore, the excellent architecture should be explored in order to accomplish the most accurate and reliable results. It is found that the most analytical factors it is found that that actuate counterfeit mode accomplishment are counterfeit time, structure event organizing and grade of adequate. It is, also, found that counterfeit time in relation to event existence in the real structure along with the usage of modern architectural concepts such as multi-interweave technology complement analytical issues too in the advancement of an adequate counterfeit organization for wireless communications. In order to evaluate the above findings an extensive empirical review has been demeanored analysising several distinct events counterfeit organizations towards presenting the relation between channel designing collections, counterfeit time and structure accomplishment.

  7. Arabidopsis: An Adequate Model for Dicot Root Systems?

    Zobel, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis root system is frequently considered to have only three classes of root: primary, lateral, and adventitious. Research with other plant species has suggested up to eight different developmental/functional classes of root for a given plant root system. If Arabidopsis has only three classes of root, it may not be an adequate model for eudicot plant root systems. Recent research, however, can be interpreted to suggest that pre-flowering Arabidopsis does have at least five (5) of t...

  8. Ensuring Adequate Early Childhood Development for Uganda’s Children

    Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Although Uganda has made significant progress in reducing child deaths in the past five years, the country still faces major challenges in ensuring adequate early childhood development. This briefing highlights some of the major challenges affecting children during the first five years of life with focus on: the low immunization coverage rates and vaccine availability; poor child nutritional health status; and the limited enrolment of children in Early Childhood Development Centres.

  9. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  10. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  11. [Abdominal cure procedures. Adequate use of Nobecutan Spray].

    López Soto, Rosa María

    2009-12-01

    Open abdominal wounds, complicated by infection and/or risk of eventration tend to become chronic and usually require frequent prolonged cure. Habitual changing of bandages develop into one of the clearest risk factors leading to the deterioration of perilesional cutaneous integrity. This brings with it new complications which draw out the evolution of the process, provoking an important deterioration in quality of life for the person who suffers this and a considerable increase in health costs. What is needed is a product and a procedure which control the risk of irritation, which protect the skin, which favor a patient's comfort and which shorten treatment requirements while lowering health care expenses. This report invites medical personnel to think seriously about the scientific rationale, and treatment practice, as to why and how to apply Nobecutan adequately, this reports concludes stating the benefits in the adequate use of this product. The objective of this report is to guarantee the adequate use of this product in treatment of complicated abdominal wounds. This product responds to the needs which are present in these clinical cases favoring skin care apt isolation and protection, while at the same time, facilitating the placement and stability of dressings and bandages used to cure wounds. In order for this to happen, the correct use of this product is essential; medical personnel must pay attention to precautions and recommendations for proper application. The author's experiences in habitual handling of this product during various years, included in the procedures for standardized cures for these wounds, corroborates its usefulness; the author considers use of this product to be highly effective while being simple to apply; furthermore, one succeeds in providing quality care and optimizes resources employed. PMID:20143738

  12. Obesity coexists with malnutrition?: adequacy of food consumption by severely obese patients to dietary reference intake recommendations

    Jaqueline Driemeyer Correia Horvath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the adequacy of food intake in severely obese patients and describe their main nutritional deficiencies on the basis of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. Patients on a waiting list for bariatric surgery were sequentially recruited from March 2010 to November 2011. All subjects underwent nutritional status assessment (anthropometry, dietary recall and semi-structured interview, socioeconomic evaluation (Brazilian Association of Research Companies criteria and laboratory testing (glucose/hormone/lipid panel. A total of 77 patients were assessed, 50 of whom (76.6% were female. Mean age was 44.48±12.55 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (72.4%, binge eating disorder (47.4%, type 2 diabetes mellitus (32.9%, sleep apnea (30.3% and dyslipidemia (18.4%. Macronutrient intake was largely adequate, in view of the high calorie intake. However, some micronutrient deficiencies were present. Only 19.5% of patients had an adequate intake of potassium, 26.0% of calcium, and 66.2% of iron. All subjects consumed more than the minimum recommended intake of sodium, with 98.7% reaching the upper limit. B-complex vitamin intake was satisfactory (adequate in >80% of subjects, but lipid-soluble vitamin (A, D, E intake often fell short of the RDI. The diet of severely obese patients is unbalanced, with high calorie intake paralleled by insufficient micronutrient intake. When these patients are assessed and managed, qualitative dietary changes should be considered in addition to routine caloric restriction.

  13. The radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in β-thalassaemia

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused β-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults. (orig.)

  14. Radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.

    1989-01-01

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused ..beta..-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults.

  15. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  16. Adequate drainage system design for heap leaching structures.

    Majdi, Abbas; Amini, Mehdi; Nasab, Saeed Karimi

    2007-08-17

    The paper describes an optimum design of a drainage system for a heap leaching structure which has positive impacts on both mine environment and mine economics. In order to properly design a drainage system the causes of an increase in the acid level of the heap which in turn produces severe problems in the hydrometallurgy processes must be evaluated. One of the most significant negative impacts induced by an increase in the acid level within a heap structure is the increase of pore acid pressure which in turn increases the potential of a heap-slide that may endanger the mine environment. In this paper, initially the thickness of gravelly drainage layer is determined via existing empirical equations. Then by assuming that the calculated thickness is constant throughout the heap structure, an approach has been proposed to calculate the required internal diameter of the slotted polyethylene pipes which are used for auxiliary drainage purposes. In order to adequately design this diameter, the pipe's cross-sectional deformation due to stepped heap structure overburden pressure is taken into account. Finally, a design of an adequate drainage system for the heap structure 2 at Sarcheshmeh copper mine is presented and the results are compared with those calculated by exiting equations. PMID:17321044

  17. Fluid intake in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    Homero Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. Objective: To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages by a selective sample of Mexican population. Methods: Cross-sectional sample of 1,492 male and female adults between 18-65 years of age, drawn from 16 cities throughout Mexico. Self-reported fluid intake data collected over a 7-day consecutive period, recording intake of water, milk and derivatives, hot beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB, alcoholic beverages and others. Results: We found that 87.5% of adult males and 65.4% of adult females reported drinking below their recommended daily fluid intake (3 L for males and 2 L for females, and in 80% of the population SSB, not including hot beverages or milk and derivatives, accounted for a larger amount and proportion of fluid intake than plain water. Sixty-five percent of adult males and 66% of adult females consumed more than 10% of their estimated daily caloric intake from fluids. Fluid intake did not differ significantly by gender, but showed a declining trend with age. Conclusion: Our findings may have important implications for policy recommendations, as part of comprehensive strategies to promote the adoption of healthy life styles, in this case, promoting consumption of plain water while discouraging excessive consumption of caloric beverages.

  18. Fruit and vegetable intake in a sample of 11-year-old children in 9 European countries: The Pro Children Cross-sectional Survey

    Yngve, Agneta; Wolf, Alexandra; Poortvliet, Eric;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: An adequate fruit and vegetable intake provides essential nutrients and nutritive compounds and is considered an important part of a healthy lifestyle. No simple instrument has been available for the assessment of fruit and vegetable intake as well as its determinants in school...... the fruit and vegetable intake in amounts and choice were highly diverse in the 9 participating countries. Vegetable intake was in general lower than fruit intake, boys consumed less fruit and vegetables than girls did. The highest total intake according to the 24-hour recall was found in Austria and...

  19. Intake to Production Ratio

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human...... span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di...

  20. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H;

    1998-01-01

    Fecundability has been defined as the ability to achieve a recognized pregnancy. Several studies on caffeine and fecundability have been conducted but have been inconclusive. This may be explained partly by lack of stratification by smoking. Furthermore, few researchers have tried to separate the...... effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking and...... caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience. At...

  1. Perceived Barriers and Support Strategies for Reducing Sodium Intake in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease : a Qualitative Study

    Meuleman, Yvette; ten Brinke, Lucia; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Vogt, Liffert; Rotmans, Joris I.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reducing sodium intake can prevent cardiovascular complications and further decline of kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the vast majority of patients fail to reach an adequate sodium intake, and little is known about why they do not succeed. This study aims to identi

  2. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  3. CAN A SINGLE SECURITY FRAMEWORK ADDRESS INFORMATION SECURITY RISKS ADEQUATELY?

    Walid Al-Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that modern society depends heavily on information technology in nearly every facet of human activity. Organizations of all kinds are increasingly exposed to various kinds of risks, including information technology risks. There are many security standards and frameworks available to help organizations manage these risks. The question which one is best and can address the information security risks adequately warrants further investigation and research. The purpose of this research work is to highlight the challenges facing enterprises in their efforts to properly manage information security risks when adopting international standards and frameworks. To assist in selecting the best framework to use in risk management, the article presents an overview of the most popular and widely used standards. It then identifies some selection criteria and suggests an approach to proper implementation. A case study is used to prove the usefulness of the new model for selecting an appropriate security model to manage information security risks.

  4. Salt intake in children and its consequences on blood pressure.

    Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2015-09-01

    Sodium is the most abundant extracellular cation and therefore pivotal in determining fluid balance. At the beginning of life, a positive sodium balance is needed to grow. Newborns and preterm infants tend to lose sodium via their kidneys and therefore need adequate sodium intake. Among older children and adults, however, excessive salt intake leads to volume expansion and arterial hypertension. Children who are overweight, born preterm, or small for gestational age and African American children are at increased risk of developing high blood pressure due to a high salt intake because they are more likely to be salt sensitive. In the developed world, salt intake is generally above the recommended intake also among children. Although a positive sodium balance is needed for growth during the first year of life, in older children, a sodium-poor diet seems to have the same cardiovascular protective effects as among adults. This is relevant, since: (1) a blood pressure tracking phenomenon was recognized; (2) the development of taste preferences is important during childhood; and (3) salt intake is often associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (predisposing children to weight gain). PMID:25127918

  5. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  6. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution if adequate micronutrient intake cannot be achieved through regular dietary intake alone. However, dietary analyses

  7. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  8. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice

    Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall’s W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001), a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible solution

  9. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Yannis Manios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05. Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients.

  10. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  11. Dose Limits for Man do not Adequately Protect the Ecosystem

    Higley, Kathryn A.; Alexakhin, Rudolf M.; McDonald, Joseph C.

    2004-08-01

    It has been known for quite some time that different organisms display differing degrees of sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiations. Some microorganisms such as the bacterium Micrococcus radiodurans, along with many species of invertebrates, are extremely radio-resistant. Humans might be categorized as being relatively sensitive to radiation, and are a bit more resistant than some pine trees. Therefore, it could be argued that maintaining the dose limits necessary to protect humans will also result in the protection of most other species of flora and fauna. This concept is usually referred to as the anthropocentric approach. In other words, if man is protected then the environment is also adequately protected. The ecocentric approach might be stated as; the health of humans is effectively protected only when the environment is not unduly exposed to radiation. The ICRP is working on new recommendations dealing with the protection of the environment, and this debate should help to highlight a number of relevant issues concerning that topic.

  12. Adequate peritoneal dialysis: theoretical model and patient treatment.

    Tast, C

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adequate PD with sufficient weekly Kt/V (2.0) and Creatinine clearance (CCR) (60l) and necessary daily dialysate volume. This recommended parameter was the result of a recent multi-centre study (CANUSA). For this there were 40 patients in our hospital examined and compared in 1996, who carried out PD for at least 8 weeks and up to 6 years. These goals (CANUSA) are easily attainable in the early treatment of many individuals with a low body surface area (BSA). With higher BSA or missing RRF (Residual Renal Function) the daily dose of dialysis must be adjusted. We found it difficult to obtain the recommended parameters and tried to find a solution to this problem. The simplest method is to increase the volume or exchange rate. The most expensive method is to change from CAPD to APD with the possibility of higher volume or exchange rates. Selection of therapy must take into consideration: 1. patient preference, 2. body mass, 3. peritoneal transport rates, 4. ability to perform therapy, 5. cost of therapy and 6. risk of peritonitis. With this information in mind, an individual prescription can be formulated and matched to the appropriate modality of PD. PMID:10392062

  13. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Behrens, R [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Dietze, G, E-mail: rolf.behrens@ptb.d [Paracelsusstrasse 7, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-21

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H{sub p}(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H{sub p}(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  14. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  15. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Practices of Elite Volleyball Athletes during the Competition Day

    Janaka Prasanna Gamage; Angela Silva

    2014-01-01

    Adequate quality and quantity of athletes’ competition day diet is critically important for better performance and optimum recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake and dietary practices of Sri Lankan national volleyball players during a day of a major competition. Dietary practices of 76 athletes (43 males and 33 females) were surveyed using 24-hour dietary recall method. Energy and macronutrient intakes were quantitatively assessed in relation to compet...

  16. Differences in food intake of tumour-bearing cachectic mice are associated with hypothalamic serotonin signalling

    Dwarkasing, Jvalini T; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Argilès, Joseph M; van Dijk, Miriam; Busquets, Silvia; Penna, Fabio; Toledo, Miriam; Laviano, Alessandro; Witkamp, R F; van Norren, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia is a common symptom among cancer patients and contributes to malnutrition and strongly impinges on quality of life. Cancer-induced anorexia is thought to be caused by an inability of food intake-regulating systems in the hypothalamus to respond adequately to negative energy balance during tumour growth. Here, we show that this impaired response of food-intake control is likely to be mediated by altered serotonin signalling and by failure in post-transcriptional neuropeptid...

  17. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (psupplemental intake of 500 mg daily but supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  18. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation. PMID:9177368

  19. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425 children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3% of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031 times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity.

  20. Job strain and alcohol intake

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  1. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  2. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes

  3. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake. PMID:26005740

  4. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  5. Differences in food intake of tumour-bearing cachectic mic are associated with hypothalamic serotonin signalling

    Dwarkasing, J.T.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Witkamp, R.F.; Norren, van K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia is a common symptom among cancer patients and contributes to malnutrition and strongly impinges on quality of life. Cancer-induced anorexia is thought to be caused by an inability of food intake-regulating systems in the hypothalamus to respond adequately to negative energy balan

  6. 21 CFR 801.5 - Medical devices; adequate directions for use.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; adequate directions for use. 801.5 Section 801.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 801.5 Medical devices; adequate directions for use. Adequate directions for...

  7. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  8. Radioactive iodine intake through foodstuff

    The transition of radioactive iodine to human bodies is affected by the amount of coexisting stable iodine. The intake of stable iodine through foodstuffs was studied from the stand point of I) discussion of the literature which states the approximate amounts of stable iodine contained in environmental materials, and II) the authors' research on the consumption of foodstuffs. For example, the amounts of iodine intake of fishermen living in Kuji-cho (Ibaragi Prefecture) was estimated from I and II, and was revealed as 2704p. The national average iodine intake was about 800p indicating that the former estimated value was remarkably high. Eighty Four per cent of the 2.7 mg iodine intake was taken from marine products, indicating that marine products are important sources of iodine supply. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  9. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI. PMID:21099058

  10. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Practices of Elite Volleyball Athletes during the Competition Day

    Janaka Prasanna Gamage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate quality and quantity of athletes’ competition day diet is critically important for better performance and optimum recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake and dietary practices of Sri Lankan national volleyball players during a day of a major competition. Dietary practices of 76 athletes (43 males and 33 females were surveyed using 24-hour dietary recall method. Energy and macronutrient intakes were quantitatively assessed in relation to competition using a computerized nutrition analysis software and local food database. Questionnaire was used to examine supplement intake and fluid intake strategies. The results were compared with current nutrition recommendations for these athletes. Mean daily energy intakes were 2309+365 kcal (30.9+5.7 kcal.kg-1.body weight in male and 1829+383 kcal (30.8+6.8 kcal.kg-1.body weight in female athletes. These intake values were 31% and 18% lower than recommended daily energy intake for active Sri Lankan male and female adults, respectively. Daily carbohydrate and protein intakes of all athletes were 5.6+1.0 g.kg-1.day-1 and 0.91+0.37 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively, lower than the recommendations. Total energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake of female athletes were significantly lower than those of males (p<0.05. Frequency of snack intake and calorie content of snacks and main meals in the pre-competition period was sub-optimal. Nutrient intake and dietary practices of national level volleyball players during competition days are sub-optimal and do not meet the current nutrition recommendations. According to the results, it is recommended that athletes use nutrition counselling and strategies for optimizing dietary practices during the competition days.

  11. Diet intake and endurance performance in Kenyan runners

    Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2004-01-01

    Training and competing at elite as well as sub-elite level requires an optimal functioning of the body. This review looks at the case of the Kenyan runners, who consume a relatively high-quality diet based on vegetable sources with maize and kidney beans as the staple foods. The diet is high in...... carbohydrate and total protein, but low to borderline in a few essential amino acids. The timing of diet intake – immediately after training sessions – is optimal for skeletal muscle glycogen resynthesis that is enhanced without the help of insulin up to 60 min after cessation of exercise. Whether the total...... energy intake of the Kenyan runners is adequate is debatable. However, chronic undernutrition is not possible for athletes who engage in daily high-quality and -quantity physical exercise throughout most of the year. It is suggested that Kenyan runners participate in well-controlled, laboratory studies...

  12. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J.; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C.; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J.; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (~35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8±5.2 years (mean age 52.7±...

  13. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-16

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  14. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  15. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other mechanisms might play a role in feed intake regulation. Under hypoxia feed intake and oxygen consumption are interrelated. In this thesis we proposed the ‘oxystatic’ concept of feed intake regulat...

  16. Numerical Simulation of a Hypersonic Air Intake

    Soumyajit Saha; Debasis Chakraborty

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations were carried out to study the unsteady flow in an intake of hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Unsteady RANS simulations were performed to examine started flow of the intake when cowl surface is parallel to the ramp surface. Though started, the flow was unsteady due to flow separation bubbles inside intake. Intake with larger cowl opening at which intake unstarted was also simulated. Simulations indicated unstarted flow, with large pressure oscillations. The numerically s...

  17. [Bone and Nutrition. The association of vitamin K intake and bone health].

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The association of vitamin K with bone mineral density has been reported in some previous cohort studies and intervention studies. In cohort studies, higher vitamin K1 intake was associated with lower fracture incidence. Some intervention studies have described that vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4 : MK-4) supplementation were modestly efficacious in preventing fracture, but not in preserving bone mass. Although dietary reference intake (adequate intake : AI) for vitamin K was increased from previous value, current AI was determined as the dose sufficient to maintain normal blood coagulation with little mentioning to bone. Vitamin K intake greater than the current AI would be required for the bone health. PMID:26119310

  18. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  19. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.;

    2013-01-01

    dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake...... distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations....... The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current...

  20. The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements?

    Draper, A; Lewis, J; Malhotra, N; Wheeler, E

    1993-01-01

    Vegetarians of three types were studied in Greater London: thirty-four meat-avoiders, fifty-two lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and thirty-eight vegans. Weighed dietary intake measures were made over 3 d. Cereals were the mainstay of the diet, supplemented by dairy products (demi-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians), vegetables and fruit, and soya-bean products (vegans). Many vegans progressed by stages to complete avoidance of animal foods; some had retreated, but most were highly committed. Demi-vegetarians were the least involved in a 'vegetarian lifestyle'. All groups had mean energy intakes close to the current dietary reference values (DRV), with adequate protein intakes. Only vegans had fat intakes close to current recommendations; all groups had high dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratios. Mean intakes of all micronutrients studied for demi- and lacto-ovo-vegetarians met the UK DRV. Intakes of iodine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 for vegans were below DRV; more than half considered their diets supplied all necessary vitamins. About 25% took some type of dietary supplement during the survey. The impact of low I intakes should be further studied, and it is recommended that 'new' vegetarians and vegans should use appropriate dietary supplements. PMID:8457537

  1. Adequate dietary vitamin D and calcium are both required to reduce bone turnover and increased bone mineral volume.

    Lee, Alice M C; Sawyer, Rebecca K; Moore, Alison J; Morris, Howard A; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Anderson, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    Clinical studies indicate that the combination of vitamin D and dietary calcium supplementation is more effective for reducing fracture risk than either supplement alone. Our previous dietary studies demonstrated that an adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) of 80nmol/L or more reduces bone RANKL expression, osteoclastogenesis and maintains the optimal levels of trabecular bone volume (BV/TV%) in young rats. The important clinical question of the interaction between vitamin D status, dietary calcium intake and age remains unclear. Hence, 9 month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5-6/group) were pair-fed a semi-synthetic diet containing varying levels of vitamin D (0, 2, 12 or 20IU/day) and dietary calcium (0.1% or 1%) for 6 months. At 15 months of age, animals were killed, for biochemical and skeletal analyses. While changes to serum 25D were determined by both dietary vitamin D and calcium levels, changes to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) were consistently raised in animals fed 0.1% Ca regardless of dietary vitamin D or vitamin D status. Importantly, serum cross-laps levels were significantly increased in animals fed 0.1% Ca only when combined with 0 or 2 IUD/day of vitamin D, suggesting a contribution of both dietary calcium and vitamin D in determining bone resorption activity. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were positively correlated with both femoral mid-diaphyseal cortical bone volume (R(2)=0.24, PTV% (R(2)=0.23, Pnegative determinant of CBV (R(2)=0.24, PTV% levels. These data support clinical data that reduced bone resorption and increased bone volume can only be achieved with adequate 25D levels in combination with high dietary calcium and low serum 1,25D levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:24309068

  2. Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities.

    Arendt, Bianca Maria; Aghdassi, Elaheh; Mohammed, Saira Saddia; Fung, Lillia Yan; Jalali, Pegah; Salit, Irving Elliot; Allard, Johane Pierette

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV and metabolic abnormalities and to compare the data to Canadian recommendations. Sixty-five HIV-infected men with at least one feature associated with the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, or lipodystrophy) were enrolled. Results from 7-day food records and activity logs were compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes and recommendations of Canada's Physical Activity Guide, respectively. Anthropometric data were also measured. Fifty-two percent of the subjects were overweight, another 15% were obese. However, energy intake (mean+/-SEM) (2153+/-99 kcal/d) was lower than the estimated requirement (2854+/-62 kcal/d; p<0.0001), and 84.5% of the patients reached the recommended minimum of 60 min of mild or 30 min of moderate daily exercise. Intake was adequate for protein, but high for fat and cholesterol in 40% of patients. No patient reached the recommendation for fiber. Intake from diet alone was suboptimal for most micronutrients. Prevalence was highest for low vitamin E (91% of patients) and magnesium (68%) intake, and high sodium intake (72%). In summary, a large proportion of HIV patients with metabolic abnormalities were overweight or obese. However, this was not associated with high energy intake, or reduced physical activity. High fat, low fiber and inadequate micronutrient intakes were prevalent. PMID:18288980

  3. Development and validation of an iodine-specific FFQ to estimate iodine intake in Australian pregnant women.

    Condo, Dominique; Makrides, Maria; Skeaff, Sheila; Zhou, Shao J

    2015-03-28

    Adequate iodine is important during pregnancy to ensure optimal growth and development of the offspring. We validated an iodine-specific FFQ (I-FFQ) for use in Australian pregnant women. A forty-four-item I-FFQ was developed to assess iodine intake from food and was administered to 122 pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation. Iodine supplement use was captured separately at 28 weeks gestation. Correlation between iodine intake from food estimated using the I-FFQ and a 4 d weighed food record as well as correlation between total iodine intake and 24 h urinary iodine excretion (UIE), 24 h urinary iodine concentration (UIC), spot UIC and thyroid function were assessed at 28 weeks gestation. A moderate correlation between the two dietary methods was shown (r 0·349, Piodine supplements (r 0·876, Piodine intake from food, but the limits of agreement from the Bland-Altman plot were large. Total iodine intake was associated with 24 h UIE (β = 0·488, PIodine intake from food using the I-FFQ was assessed at study entry (iodine intake at the two time points (r 0·622, Piodine intake in pregnant women and can be used to screen women who are at risk of inadequate intake. PMID:25744430

  4. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  5. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  6. Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension Is Adequately Controlled

    ... Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Percentage of Adults with High Blood Pressure Whose Hypertension is Adequately Controlled Heart disease and ... Examination Survey. Age Group Percentage of People with High Blood Pressure that is Controlled by Age Group f94q-uyye ...

  7. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The...

  8. 75 FR 69648 - Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers

    2010-11-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers... TO THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the... rule is designed to hold firmly in place. 10 CFR Part 830 imposes a requirement that a...

  9. Coanda hydro intake screen testing and evaluation

    Howarth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this project has been to evaluate the effectiveness, suitability and cost benefit of the Aquashear Coanda effect, maintenance free intake screen for use in small hydro system intakes. (author)

  10. Mapping to assess feasibility of using subsurface intakes for SWRO, Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2013-11-19

    were found to be favorable for the development of seabed gallery systems, but the shoreline geology was not adequate for the development of beach gallery intakes (low wave activity). Detailed field investigations were conducted at four sites located along the Red Sea coast at the King Abdullah Economic City, Shoaiba, Om Al Misk Island, and Shuqaiq City. Some of the environments are adequate to allow use of conventional wells, angle wells, radial collector wells, or horizontal wells. However, these intake types have some capacity limitation along the Red Sea coastline. There are several medium to small capacity SWRO facilities that utilize conventional shallow well systems (beach wells) as intakes along the Red Sea coastline. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium.

    Senterre, Christelle; Dramaix Wilmet, Michèle; Thiebaut, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A seco...

  12. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Lencova Erika; Ivancakova Romana; Oganessian Edgar; Broukal Zdenek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of...

  13. Food Group Intakes as Determinants of Iodine Status among US Adult Population

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate intake of iodine is essential for proper thyroid function. Although dietary reference intakes for iodine have been established, iodine intake cannot be estimated due to the lack of data on iodine contents in foods. We aimed to determine if food group intakes can predict iodine status assessed by urinary iodine concentration (UIC from spot urine samples of 5967 US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. From an in-person 24-h dietary recall, all foods consumed were aggregated into 12 main food groups using the individual food code of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA; dairy products, meat/poultry, fish/seaweed, eggs, legumes/nuts/seeds, breads, other grain products, fruits, vegetables, fats/oils, sugars/sweets, and beverages. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictability of food group intakes in iodine status assessed by UIC. From the multiple linear regressions, the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads, and iodine-containing supplement use were positively associated with UIC, whereas beverage consumption was negatively associated with UIC. Among various food group intakes, dairy product intake was the most important determinant of iodine status in both US men and women. Subpopulation groups with a high risk of iodine deficiency may need nutritional education regarding the consumption of dairy products, eggs, and breads to maintain an adequate iodine status. Efforts toward a better understanding of iodine content in each food and a continued monitoring of iodine status within US adults are both warranted.

  14. Biomarkers of isoflavone intake : validity at high intakes

    Mackinnon, L. Jay

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavones are biologically active plant chemicals (phytoestrogens) which are ordinarily present in human diets. There is considerable research interest in their potential to prevent or treat several chronic diseases. Biomarkers can demonstrate compliance during dietary interventions and validate associations between intake of isoflavones and health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to validate 24-hour urine collections, timed spot urine samples and timed plasma s...

  15. Metabolomics investigation of whey intake

    Stanstrup, Jan

    interest since it has been shown that it is possible to achieve greater weight loss on a high protein diet as oppose to a high carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that specifically milk-derived whey proteins have certain biological properties that might be beneficial in the treatment...... and prevention of the metabolic syndrome related to obesity and diabetes. In this thesis the effects of whey intake on the human metabolome was investigated using a metabolomics approach. We demonstrated that intake of whey causes a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to other protein sources....... This is in contrast to previous findings suggesting that whey is cleared faster than other proteins. Paradoxically, we also find disproportionately elevated levels of some amino acids (AAs) following the whey meal. This suggests that whey affects absorption of AAs in a way independent from, or at least...

  16. Cardiometabolic Effects of Cheese Intake

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev

    In several countries, the dietary guidelines for preventing CVD focus on reducing the intake of saturated fat. A high cheese intake in particular may however not be associated with CVD risk, despite a high content of saturated fat. This could be due to a reduced digestibility of fat in cheese. The...... aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate how the fat content of the cheese-matrix and the cheese ripening duration affect cardiometabolic risk markers and fecal fat excretion. The thesis is based on three intervention studies, two in pigs and one in humans. The results suggested that fat content of...... cheese-matrix may influence the HDL-cholesterol response, while the ripening duration may affect the level of free fatty acids and insulin in the blood. Furthermore the results showed that a diet with saturated fat in cheese or meat caused a higher HDL-cholesterol, but not LDL-cholesterol, compared to a...

  17. Intake inhibition by neuropeptide Y

    Ammar, Ahmed A.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to elucidate some neuroendocrine concomitants to Anorexia Nervosa (AN), an eating disorder that develops in women. In particular, the thesis has examined the effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on food intake under experimental conditions in male and female rats. We aimed at exploring the role of NPY in the two phases of ingestive behavior: appetitive ingestive behavior (approaching and handling of food) and consummatory ingestive behavior (chewing and s...

  18. -Acylethanolamines, anandamide and food intake

    Hansen, Harald S.; Diep, Thi Ai

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anandamide and the other N-acylethanolamines, e.g. oleoylethanolamide (OEA), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), may be formed by several enzymatic pathways from their precursors, which are the N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipids. The exact enzymatic pathways involved in their biosynthesis in specific tissues are not clarified. It has been suggested that endogenous anandamide could stimulate food intake by activation of cannabinoid receptors in ...

  19. An intake prior for the bayesian analysis of plutonium and uranium exposures in an epidemiology study

    In Bayesian inference, the initial knowledge regarding the value of a parameter, before additional data are considered, is represented as a prior probability distribution. This paper describes the derivation of a prior distribution of intake that was used for the Bayesian analysis of plutonium and uranium worker doses in a recent epidemiology study. The chosen distribution is log- normal with a geometric standard deviation of 6 and a median value that is derived for each worker based on the duration of the work history and the number of reported acute intakes. The median value is a function of the work history and a constant related to activity in air concentration, M, which is derived separately for uranium and plutonium. The value of M is based primarily on measurements of plutonium and uranium in air derived from historical personal air sampler (PAS) data. However, there is significant uncertainty on the value of M that results from paucity of PAS data and from extrapolating these measurements to actual intakes. This paper compares posterior and prior distributions of intake and investigates the sensitivity of the Bayesian analyses to the assumed value of M. It is found that varying M by a factor of 10 results in a much smaller factor of 2 variation in mean intake and lung dose for both plutonium and uranium. It is concluded that if a log-normal distribution is considered to adequately represent worker intakes, then the Bayesian posterior distribution of dose is relatively insensitive to the value assumed of M. (authors)

  20. Energy and Macronutrients Intake in Two Age Groups of Black South African Women

    O.O. Oguntibeju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a more westernized diets, became evident in the macronutrient intake of women in this study. The consumption of an energy-dense and diverse diet, typical of this transition, contributed to the high mean total energy and protein intakes. High mean total carbohydrate intakes, a staple diet of cereals and grains was also reported. The adequate intake of dietary fibre by the population group in this study was in contrast with international studies that reported that westernization leads to increased consumption of fibre-depleted carbohydrates. The high total fat intake observed in this study may be ascribed to the increasing preference for cheaper red meat, offal, eggs, full-cream milk, cheese, brick margarine and meat drippings used in food preparation. The inclusion of these foods in the diet could explain the high total cholesterol intake reported in this study. Although the food trends of the studied group of women tended to move towards a more westernized style, traditional foods have not been totally eliminated. It is thus clear that urbanisation in this study group has led to high consumption rates of carbonated drinks, cold drinks, coffee, tea and commercial beer. A cereal-based diet was still taken; unfortunately, many of these foods were consumed in the refined form.

  1. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  2. Dietary Intake, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Alcohol: Are College Women Following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

    Anding, Jenna D.; Suminski, Richard R.; Boss, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the diet, exercise, and health habits of female college students, calculating body mass index, assessing physical activity, and estimating food and nutrient intake. Overall, no participants had adopted all of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Diets were nutritionally adequate but exceeded national recommendations for fat, sugar, and…

  3. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  4. Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index

    C. Kerssens (Chantal); J. Klein (Jan); A. van der Woerd; B. Bonke (Benno)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMemory for intraoperative events may arise from inadequate anesthesia when the hypnotic state is not continuously monitored. Electroencephalogram bispectral index (BIS) enables monitoring of the hypnotic state and titration of anesthesia to an adequate level

  5. Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    Faheem Jehangir Khan; Yaser Javed

    2007-01-01

    Provision of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and personal hygiene are vital for the sustainable environmental conditions and reducing the incidence of diarrhoea, malaria, trachoma, hepatitis A & B and morbidity levels. Not having access to water and sanitation is a courteous expression for a form of deprivation that threatens life, destroys opportunity and undermines human dignity. Thus, investing in the provision of safe water supply and adequate sanitation is not only a development...

  6. Almost equal: Method of adequality from Diophantus to Fermat and beyond

    Katz, Mikhail G.; Schaps, David M.; Shnider, Steven

    2012-01-01

    We analyze some of the main approaches in the literature to the method of `adequality' with which Fermat approached the problems of the calculus, as well as its source in the parisotes of Diophantus, and propose a novel reading thereof. Adequality is a crucial step in Fermat's method of finding maxima, minima, tangents, and solving other problems that a modern mathematician would solve using infinitesimal calculus. The method is presented in a series of short articles in Fermat's collected wo...

  7. Narita Target Heart Rate Equation Underestimates the Predicted Adequate Exercise Level in Sedentary Young Boys

    Siahkouhian, Marefat; Khodadadi, Davar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Optimal training intensity and the adequate exercise level for physical fitness is one of the most important interests of coaches and sports physiologists. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Narita et al target heart rate equation for the adequate exercise training level in sedentary young boys. Methods Forty two sedentary young boys (19.07±1.16 years) undertook a blood lactate transition threshold maximal treadmill test to volitional exhaustion with continuo...

  8. Current strategies for the restoration of adequate lordosis during lumbar fusion

    Barrey, Cédric; Darnis, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Not restoring the adequate lumbar lordosis during lumbar fusion surgery may result in mechanical low back pain, sagittal unbalance and adjacent segment degeneration. The objective of this work is to describe the current strategies and concepts for restoration of adequate lordosis during fusion surgery. Theoretical lordosis can be evaluated from the measurement of the pelvic incidence and from the analysis of spatial organization of the lumbar spine with 2/3 of the lordosis given by the L4-S1 ...

  9. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence.

    Premji, Zulfiqarali G; Abdulla, Salim; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ndong, Alice; Falade, Catherine O; Sagara, Issaka; Mulure, Nathan; Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem(R)) has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat.As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat) results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat). African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals) supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans) and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30-60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day). Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15-30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat) or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5-59 months have shown similar high cure rates to those observed in

  10. The content of African diets is adequate to achieve optimal efficacy with fixed-dose artemether-lumefantrine: a review of the evidence

    Sagara Issaka

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fixed-dose combination of artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem® has shown high efficacy, good tolerability and cost-effectiveness in adults and children with uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Lumefantrine bioavailability is enhanced by food, particularly fat. As the fat content of sub-Saharan African meals is approximately a third that of Western countries, it raises the question of whether fat consumption by African patients is sufficient for good efficacy. Data from healthy volunteers have indicated that drinking 36 mL soya milk (containing only 1.2 g of fat results in 90% of the lumefantrine absorption obtained with 500 mL milk (16 g fat. African diets are typically based on a carbohydrate staple (starchy root vegetables, fruit [plantain] or cereals supplemented by soups, relishes and sauces derived from vegetables, pulses, nuts or fish. The most important sources of dietary fat in African countries are oil crops (e.g. peanuts, soya beans and cooking oils as red palm, peanut, coconut and sesame oils. Total fat intake in the majority of subSaharan countries is estimated to be in the range 30–60 g/person/day across the whole population (average 43 g/person/day. Breast-feeding of infants up to two years of age is standard, with one study estimating a fat intake of 15–30 g fat/day from breast milk up to the age of 18 months. Weaning foods typically contain low levels of fat, and the transition from breast milk to complete weaning is associated with a marked reduction in dietary fat. Nevertheless, fat intake >10 g/day has been reported in young children post-weaning. A randomized trial in Uganda reported no difference in the efficacy of AL between patients receiving supervised meals with a fixed fat content (~23 g fat or taking AL unsupervised, suggesting that fat intake at home was sufficient for optimal efficacy. Moreover, randomized trials in African children aged 5–59 months have shown similar high cure

  11. Estimation of usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in New Zealand reproductive age women.

    Mygind, Vanessa L; Evans, Sophie E; Peddie, Meredith C; Miller, Jody C; Houghton, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Recently, choline has been associated with neurodevelopment, cognitive function and neural tube defect incidence. However, data on usual intakes are limited, and estimates of dietary intakes of choline and its metabolite betaine, are not available for New Zealanders. The objective of the present study was to determine usual intake and food sources of choline and betaine in a group of New Zealand reproductive age women. Dietary intake data were collected from a sample of 125 women, aged 18-40 years, by means of a 3-day weighed food record, and usual choline and betaine intake distributions were determined. The mean (SD) daily intakes of choline and betaine were 316 (66) mg and 178 (66) mg, respectively. The total choline intake relative to energy intake and body weight was 0.18 mg/kcal and 5.1 mg/kg, respectively. Only 16% of participants met or exceeded the Adequate Intake (AI) for adult women of 425 mg of choline. The top five major food contributors of choline were eggs, red meat, milk, bread and chicken; and of betaine were bread, breakfast cereal, pasta, grains and root vegetables (carrots, parsnips, beetroot, swedes). Our findings contribute towards the recent emergence of published reports on the range of dietary choline and betaine intakes consumed by free-living populations. In our sample of New Zealand women, few participants were meeting or exceeding the AI level. Given recent epidemiological evidence suggesting health benefits of increased choline and betaine intakes, recommendations should be made to encourage the consumption of choline and betaine-rich foods. PMID:23635379

  12. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group

    Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Bauer, Jurgen M.; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves,; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities...

  13. Dietary intakes of essential trace elements. Results from total diet studies supported by the IAEA

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has, for many years, supported research on human dietary intakes of trace elements taking advantage, for analysis, of the possibilities offered by nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). This paper summarizes the results obtained from studies in more than 20 countries in which special emphasis was placed on the application of reliable methodologies (written protocols, special equipment, analytical quality control, etc.). Considerable variation was observed among dietary intakes of essential minor and trace elements though most elements showed a pattern of adequate nutrition in most countries. However, for some elements such as calcium, iodine, iron and zinc, the intakes in many countries were lower than the dietary requirements. (author)

  14. A Study on the Intake and Expenditure of Calories among the Manufacturing Workers

    Ajeet Jaiswal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition and adequate diet plays an important role in the efficiency and welfare of the workers and non workers and in manufacturing work, the nutrient demand and energy expenditure are little high as compare to Non workers. Therefore, adequate nutrient and energy intake of manufacturing workers is of paramount importance. The interrelationship of physical activity, food intake and extremes of environmental temperature are important considerations influencing nutritional intake and physical performance in various activities of workers. Here, an attempt has been made to assess the Intake and Expenditure of Calories among the Manufacturing Worker of Uttar Pradesh.The present study assessed the nutritional status of 152 workers working in different working level under Varanasi district. The dietary status was determined by the food and nutrient intake using diet history and the energy expenditure was computed by a factorial method using activity level and time records of 7 days. Another object was to develop survey methods for assessing the proportions of the calorie intake spent by industrial workers on various activities. The opportunity was taken during the survey of collecting certain Anthropological, medical and physiological data for industrial workers. The energy expenditure during work was estimated from the energy costs of individual tasks and the time spent in those tasks. The objects of the study, which was a new development in the survey field, were in general successfully achieved. The study showed that the necessary information could be collected by survey methods, but that there are difficulties in interpretation and that, in particular, further study of job assessment and more data on standards of calorie expenditure for various activities are required

  15. From the Right of Adequate Housing to the Social Right of Adequate Housing%住宅自由权到住宅社会权之流变

    张震

    2015-01-01

    满足公民基本居住需要的住宅权是一项基本权利。面对因住宅价格和质量标准而制约公民住宅权实现的社会现实,有必要在理论上进行检视并提供解决思路。在自由权和社会权划分的理论基础上,我国《宪法》第39条规定的“住宅不受侵犯”具有社会权色彩。而且从权利社会基础和宪法解释功能的双重视角看,住宅社会权在实践中应被侧重。住宅社会权的权利功能以积极受益权为主,消极受益权为次,以国家给付义务的存在为前提。在此基础上,形成对国家权力的规范效力,并具特定内涵。%The right of adequate housing that satisfies the citizens’ basic living needs is a basic right. By the theory of division of freedom and social right, the 39th provision of our Constitution which provides that“the right of adequate housing is free from infringement”is immersed with color of social right. And from the duel perspective of the rights’social basis and the function of Constitu⁃tional interpretation, the social right of adequate housing should be emphasized in practice. The func⁃tion of social right of adequate housing is firstly the positive benefit right, and secondly the negative benefit right, in the premise of the existence of the national duty. On this basis, it forms the regula⁃tory effectiveness to the national power, and contains specific connotation.

  16. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations......-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food...

  17. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT...... in the foods the mean intake and intake distribution of the carotenoids were calculated. Carrots and tomatoes have both high contents of carotenoids (8,450 mu g/100 g alpha- + beta-carotene and 4,790 mu g/100 g lycopene, respectively) and high intakes (19 and 15 g/day, respectively) and were responsible for 47......% and 32%, respectively, of the mean intake of carotenoids of 4.8 mg/day A median value of 4.1 mg/day was found indicating skewed intake distributions. The difference between men and women was 0.4 mg/day (p carotenoids, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene, contributed...

  18. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  19. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

    Claire M. Marchetta; Devine, Owen J.; Krista S Crider; Tsang, Becky L.; Amy M. Cordero; Yan Ping Qi; Jing Guo; Berry, Robert J; Jorge Rosenthal; Joseph Mulinare; Patricia Mersereau; Hamner, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014) with both natural food folat...

  20. Minimal Adequate Model of Unemployment Duration in the Post-Crisis Czech Republic

    Adam Čabla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the leading economic problems in a developed world. The aim of this paper is to identify the differences in unemployment duration in different strata in the post-crisis Czech Republic via building a minimal adequate model, and to quantify the differences. Data from Labour Force Surveys are used and since they are interval censored in nature, proper metodology must be used. The minimal adequate model is built through the accelerated failure time modelling, maximum likelihood estimates and likelihood ratio tests. Variables at the beginning are sex, marital status, age, education, municipality size and number of persons in a household, containing altogether 29 model parameters. The minimal adequate model contains 5 parameters and differences are found between men and women, the youngest category and the rest and the university educated and the rest. The estimated expected values, variances, medians, modes and 90th percentiles are provided for all subgroups.

  1. Dietary intake in Swedish medical students

    Tengvall, Marja; Ellegård, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background A 3 day food record is a part of the medical curriculum in Göteborg, and the dietary intake of medical students from 1987 to 1993 has been reported previously. Objective To study dietary intake in medical students, detect changes over time and qualitative differences between men and women, and compare with nutrition recommendations, intake in the Swedish population in general and in medical students in other countries. Design A 3 day estimated food record of 1737 students during th...

  2. Dietary intake in Swedish medical students

    Tengvall, Marja; Ellegård, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background: A 3 day food record is a part of the medical curriculum in Göteborg, and the dietary intake of medical students from 1987 to 1993 has been reported previously. Objective: To study dietary intake in medical students, detect changes over time and qualitative differences between men and women, and compare with nutrition recommendations, intake in the Swedish population in general and in medical students in other countries. Design: A 3 day estimated food record of 1737 students d...

  3. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a better under...

  4. Quantification of Food Intake in Drosophila

    Richard Wong; Matthew D W Piper; Bregje Wertheim; Linda Partridge

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis-extension, validated by short-term measurements of food dye intake. We used the method to demonstrate that (a) female flies feed more ...

  5. Evaluation of feed intake by grazing animals

    After a nuclear incident, grazing animals will be exposed to both direct and indirect contamination, the latter in proportion to the quantity of herbage eaten and its degree of contamination. The evaluation of food intake is thus important in deciding the level of contamination. After a brief survey of intake control mechanisms and intake prediction models, the various methods for the measurement or estimation of herbage intake are presented, and their suitability for use in mediterranean and alpine countries discussed, together with some of the expected errors and problems associated with their use. (author)

  6. The intake of carotenoids in Denmark

    Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette; Andersen, N. L.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the intake of carotenoids in the Danish population Danish fruits and vegetables were screened with an HPLC method consisting of extraction with ethanol:tetrahydrofuran, separation by reversed phase HPLC with the mobile phase acetonitril:methanol:dichlormethan, triethylamin, BHT and...... detection at 450 nm. Food intakes were estimated by the national dietary surveys (1995) from 7 days' food registration (n = 1837 adults), which allows the whole diet to be described by the mean intake and intake distribution of 207 raw or semiprepared foods. By multiplication with the mean content in the...

  7. Bedside Calculation of Energy Expenditure Does Not Guarantee Adequate Caloric Prescription in Long-Term Mechanically Ventilated Critically Ill Patients: A Quality Control Study

    E. De Waele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is essential in critically ill patients, but translating caloric prescriptions into adequate caloric intake remains challenging. Caloric prescriptions (P, effective intake (I, and caloric needs (N, calculated with modified Harris-Benedict formulas, were recorded during seven consecutive days in ventilated patients. Adequacy of prescription was estimated by P/N ratio. I/P ratio assessed accuracy of translating a prescription into administered feeding. I/N ratio compared delivered calories with theoretical caloric needs. Fifty patients were prospectively studied in a mixed medicosurgical ICU in a teaching hospital. Basal and total energy expenditure were, respectively, 1361±171 kcal/d and 1649±233 kcal/d. P and I attained 1536±602 kcal/d and 1424±572 kcal/d, respectively. 24.6% prescriptions were accurate, and 24.3% calories were correctly administered. Excessive calories were prescribed in 35.4% of patients, 27.4% being overfed. Caloric needs were underestimated in 40% prescriptions, with 48.3% patients underfed. Calculating caloric requirements by a modified standard formula covered energy needs in only 25% of long-term mechanically ventilated patients, leaving many over- or underfed. Nutritional imbalance mainly resulted from incorrect prescription. Failure of “simple” calculations to direct caloric prescription in these patients suggests systematic use of more reliable methods, for example, indirect calorimetry.

  8. The justification of Chinese traditional thought on the right to adequate food

    Du, Gangjian; Sun, Juanjuan

    2010-01-01

    15 pages As declared by the Universal Declaration of Human right, the right to adequate food is one of fundamental contents embodying in the right to a standard of living adequate. However, the recognition of this right has developed progressively and its realization still has a long way to go. Undoubtedly, the guarantee of food supply is a fundamental way to ensure a standard living. In this aspect, early in the pre-Qin period, there have been a great number of schools of thought devoting...

  9. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results. PMID:26979049

  10. Beverage Consumption Patterns and Micronutrient and Caloric Intake from Beverages in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Venci, Brittany; Hodac, Nicole; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Shidler, Marcelle; Krikorian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine total water intake and patterns of beverage consumption, and its contribution to total daily micronutrients and calories in older adults with mild memory decline. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was used with 60 independent community-dwelling older adults (71.7 ± 5.4 years) with mild cognitive impairment, who were mostly female, well-educated, and white. Three-day food records were analyzed using the Nutrition Data Systems for Research. Descriptive statistics were conducted for a summary of demographics, the average intakes of beverages, and the contribution of beverages to total calorie and micronutrient intakes. Total daily water intake was 53.6 ± 26.7 fl oz and milk, plain water, and tea/coffee were beverages consumed most frequently. Beverage consumption contributed substantially to the intake of vitamin D (29.4%), calcium (26.4%), riboflavin (22.0%), magnesium (18.9%), and vitamin C (18.1%), but constituted only ∼12.5% of total energy. These findings suggest that nutrient-dense beverages play a fundamental role in overall micronutrient intake, despite comprising a small component of daily caloric intake. Incorporating adequate amounts of such beverages in meals and snacks may help older adults meet their nutrient recommendations. PMID:26571357

  11. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  12. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    R. Alexandra Goldbohm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight.

  13. Eating frequency, food intake, and weight: a systematic review of human and animal experimental studies

    Hollie eRaynor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating frequently during the day, or grazing, has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism, aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1 to 24 eating occasions per day, lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks, and sample sizes (3 to 56 participants/animals per condition. Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: 1 human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; 2 human studies conducted in field settings; 3 animal studies with experimental periods 1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5% found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7% finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics.

  14. Dietary trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian elderly women

    Energy, and selected trace intakes of a sample of 90 noninstitutionalized Canadian women (mean age 66.2 +/- 6.2 years) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were assessed by chemical analysis of one-day duplicate diets and via 1-day dietary records collected by the subjects. Mean gross energy intake (determined via bomb calorimetry was 6.0 +/- 2.4 MJ (1435 +/- 580 kcal) and mean intakes of Cu and Mn (determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry) were 1.2 +/- 0.6 mg and 3.8 +/- 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Cr - median = 77.4 μg/day; Se - median = 69.6 μg/day; Zn - mean + SD = 7.7 +/- 3.6 mg/day; Ag - median = 26.9 μg/day; Cs - median = 4.8 μg/day; Rb - median = 1.6 mg/day; Sb - median = 1.8 μg/day; Sc - median = 0.3 μg/day. Dietary intakes of Cr, Mn and Se for the majority of the subjects fell within the US safe and adequate range. In contrast, a high proportion of subjects had apparently low intakes of dietary Cu and Zn in relation to current US dietary recommendations

  15. Essential minerals in milk and their daily intake through milk consumption

    Nada Vahčić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Minerals occur in all foodstuffs as well as in milk and dairy products. The mineral content in milk is influenced by many factors ranging from environmental conditions during pasture, feeding, breeding, stage of lactation and climate to post-milking handling, transportation and processing. The aim of the study was to assess whether the intakes comply with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA, Adequate Intakes (AIs or Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs for essential elements. Milk samples from different producers and with different fat content were purchased from Zagreb’s market four times in year 2007 and analysed. Concentrations of ten minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, K and Na were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean values of mineral contents were in range with the literature data. The daily intakes of these minerals by school children selected in age-gender groups (school children 8-9 years old and adolescents 15-18 years old through milk consumption were also estimated. The average daily intake of essential minerals ranged from a minimum of 1.36 % of manganese up to 35.27 for phosphorus, irrespective of age and gender of children.

  16. Vegetarian diets across the lifecycle: impact on zinc intake and status.

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Optimal zinc status is an important consideration when evaluating the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets. In the absence of animal tissue sources of zinc and with increased intake of inhibitors of zinc absorption, phytic acid in particular, the bioavailability of zinc is thought to be lower from vegetarian as compared to omnivorous diets. The aim of this chapter is to review the research that examines the effects of vegetarian compared to omnivorous diets on zinc intake and zinc status in the elderly, adults, children, pregnancy, and lactation. A narrative review of the published literature was undertaken, focusing on observational studies in humans that reported zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status at various stages of the life cycle. Compared to their respective nonvegetarian control groups, adult male and female vegetarians have lower dietary zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations. However in the elderly, children, and in women during pregnancy and lactation, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether zinc intake and status are lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores. Inconsistencies in study findings reflect variations inherent in the definition of vegetarian diets, and in many instances compromised statistical power due to a small sample size. Improved methods for the assessment of zinc status are required to determine whether homeostatic responses are sufficient to maintain an adequate zinc status in vegetarians, particularly during times of increased requirement. Appropriate dietary advice to increase the zinc content and bioavailability of vegetarian diets throughout the life cycle is prudent. PMID:25624036

  17. 21 CFR 514.117 - Adequate and well-controlled studies.

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies of a new animal drug is to distinguish the effect of the new animal... conducted: (i) Placebo concurrent control. The new animal drug is compared with an inactive preparation... control is appropriate when the use of a placebo control or of an untreated concurrent control...

  18. The Relationship between Parental Involvement and Adequate Yearly Progress among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Schools

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Using national data from the 2007-08 School and Staffing Survey, we compared the relationships between parental involvement and school outcomes related to adequate yearly progress (AYP) in urban, suburban, and rural schools. Parent-initiated parental involvement demonstrated significantly positive relationships with both making AYP and staying off…

  19. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  20. 76 FR 51041 - Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in Blood Donors; Public Workshop

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Hemoglobin Standards and Maintaining Adequate Iron Stores in... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Hemoglobin... discuss blood donor hemoglobin and hematocrit qualification standards in the United States, its impact...

  1. The Unequal Effect of Adequate Yearly Progress: Evidence from School Visits

    Brown, Abigail B.; Clift, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report insights, based on annual site visits to elementary and middle schools in three states from 2004 to 2006, into the incentive effect of the No Child Left Behind Act's requirement that increasing percentages of students make Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in every public school. They develop a framework, drawing on the physics…

  2. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    2010-01-01

    ... on problems of animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  3. 9 CFR 2.33 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care.

    2010-01-01

    ... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  4. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Kateera, Fredrick; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Muvunyi, Claude; Mens, Petra; Koenraadt, Sander; Mutesa, Leon; Vugt, Van Michele; Borne, Van Den Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (

  5. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  6. Does the new conceptual framework provide adequate concepts for reporting relevant information about performance?

    A. Brouwer; A Faramarzi; M. Hoogendoorn

    2014-01-01

    The basic question we raise in this paper is whether the 2013 Discussion Paper (DP 2013) on the Conceptual Framework provides adequate principles for reporting an entity’s performance and what improvements could be made in light of both user needs and evidence from academic literature. DP 2013 propo

  7. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to failure to…

  8. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  9. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third-Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third-graders residing in three rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved their dietary intake. METHODS Dietary intake was measured for 238 third-graders at the beginning of the 2007-2008 school year and for 224 third-graders at the end of that year. The FoodMASTER curriculum was delivered to 204 students (test group). Intake was measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2004. The final analysis included 138 students. RESUTS The FoodMASTER curriculum did not significantly affect the diets of the students in the test group, as no significant differences in intake of macronutrients, specific nutrients, or food groups were found between the test and control groups. Majorities of students did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intakes for fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The students as a whole did not meet the MyPyramid recommendations for any food group, and nearly one-fifth of their calories came from sweets. Significant differences in percentages of kilocalories from protein and sweets and in servings of fats, oils, and sweets were seen between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Energy-dense foods are replacing healthy foods in the diets of Ohio children living in rural Appalachia. The prevalence of poor dietary intake in Appalachia warrants further nutrition interventions involving programming for nutrition, such as future FoodMASTER curricula. PMID:21039552

  10. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan.

    Yen, Chin-En; Yen, Chi-Hua; Huang, Men-Chung; Cheng, Chien-Hsiang; Huang, Yi-Chia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage. PMID:19083442

  11. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes.

    Parnell, Jill A; Wiens, Kristin P; Erdman, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187) aged 11-18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range) varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717-2437) in 11-13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291-3483) in 14-18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1-10.5); 2.4 (1.6-3.4) in males 11-13 years, 5.7 (4.5-7.9); 2.0 (1.4-2.6) in females 11-13 years, 5.3 (4.3-7.4); 2.0 (1.5-2.4) in males 14-18 y and 4.9 (4.4-6.2); 1.7 (1.3-2.0) in females 14-18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI) for all athlete groups. Females 14-18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72-112), folate 89% (61-114) and calcium 84% (48-106). Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary. PMID:27571101

  12. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  13. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  14. Calculation of the Cost of an Adequate Education in Kentucky: A Professional Judgment Approach

    Deborah A. Verstegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available What is an adequate education and how much does it cost? In 1989, Kentucky’s State Supreme Court found the entire system of education unconstitutional-“all of its parts and parcels”. The Court called for all children to have access to an adequate education, one that is uniform and has as its goal the development of seven capacities, including: (i “sufficient oral and written communication skills to enable students to function in a complex and rapidly changing civilization . . . .and (vii sufficient levels of academic or vocational skills to enable public school students to compete favorably with their counterparts in surrounding states, in academics or in the job market”. Now, over a decade later, key questions remain regarding whether these objectives have been fulfilled. This research is designed to calculate the cost of an adequate education by aligning resources to State standards, laws and objectives, using a professional judgment approach. Seven focus groups were convened for this purpose and the scholarly literature was reviewed to provide multiple inputs into study findings. The study produced a per pupil base cost for each of three prototype school districts and an total statewide cost, with the funding gap between existing revenue and the revenue needed for current operations of $1.097 billion per year (2001-02. Additional key resource requirements needed to achieve an adequate education, identified by professional judgment panels, include: (1 extending the school year for students and teachers, (2 adding voluntary half-day preschool for three and four year olds, and (3 raising teacher salaries. This increases the funding gap to $1.23 billion and suggests that significant new funding is required over time if the Commonwealth of Kentucky is to provide an adequate and equitable education of high quality for all children and youth as directed by the State Supreme Court.

  15. Reducing Cholesterol Intake: Are the recommendations valid?

    Chan, Joanna K.; McDonald, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors question dietary recommendations for the general public calling for reduced cholesterol intake. Metabolic studies have shown that dietary cholesterol normally induces only small increases in blood cholesterol level. There is evidence that only a portion of the population responds to a change in cholesterol intake; hence lowering dietary cholesterol will be effective for only some.

  16. Fat intake, diet variety and health promotion.

    Elmadfa, I; Freisling, H

    2005-01-01

    Different epidemiological studies indicated that the optimization of diet and nutrition combined with healthy life style can decrease the risk and even lead to amelioration of various noncommunicable diseases. Promising food-based dietary guidelines have been recommended in order to improve the nutritional and health status. One of the most popular recommendations is related to the amount (less fat and fat-rich foods) and type of the dietary fat component (less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower n-6:n-3 ratio). An overview on the nutrient intake among different age groups in Austria shows that the general consumption of some food groups--especially those rich in carbohydrates--is too low and that the intake of fat is far beyond the recommended amount of 30% of total energy (E%). The results of the 24-hour recall made among Austrian adults (n = 2,585) showed that about 18% of this population group had a fat intake of 30-35 E%, whereas 60% had an intake higher than 35 E%. Only 24% of the female and male adults had a fat intake lower than 30 E%. A result of this high proportion of fat--in the form of foods rich in fat--in the average total energy consumption is a too low intake of carbohydrates, and foods rich in carbohydrates, respectively. An increasing fat intake is associated with an increasing intake of some nutrients such as vitamin A, E, calcium and zinc, but a decreasing intake of other nutrients like vitamin C, folate, carotenoids and others. The diversity of foods consumed during a day increases with decreasing amount of fat in the diet of adults. People with a high amount of fat in their daily diet show a lower intake of vegetables and fruit, cereal products, carotenoids, folates and dietary fibers, but a higher intake of meat and meat products, milk and milk products, sweets and flummeries as well as saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol. Of course, a higher variety of food items in the daily diet should not be associated with a

  17. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...... in the prevalence of obesity is unknown but it is most probably due to two lifestyle factors: an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and increased availability of palatable foods with high energy density. Even small changes in energy intake, leading to a positive energy balance can lead to weight gain over time....... Therefore, slight modifications in food intake, such as the substitution by energy-reduced foods or foods that affect appetite and thereby reduce energy intake, may prevent weight gain and even facilitate weight loss. The overall aim of this PhD project was to investigate whether substitution...

  18. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  19. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  20. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  1. Personal, Social and Environmental Factors regarding Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Schoolchildren in Nine European Countries

    Sandvik, Camilla; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Due, Pernille;

    2005-01-01

    European schoolchildren, psychosocial correlates, environmental correlates, fruit intake, vegetable intake, pro children study......European schoolchildren, psychosocial correlates, environmental correlates, fruit intake, vegetable intake, pro children study...

  2. Diet intake trends among pregnant women in rural area of rawalpindi, pakistan

    Abstract: Background: Adequate and healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for the health of both mother and new-born. This study was designed to know the health status of pregnant women and new-born by determining food taking habits of pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester in a rural area of district Rawalpindi. Food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary recall methods were used to identify their food consumption practices. Analysis was done by SPSS, while Nutrisurvey software was used to check the presence of Vitamin A, C, and Iron in specific fruits or vegetables. Results: A total of 110 pregnant women participated in the study. Most of them were illiterate, had low household income, and unemployed. Intake of meal frequency was according to the standards of Institute of Medicine (IOM), but food group consumption was not according to the recommendations of the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA). Most participants 102 (93.2%) knew that food is important during pregnancy. However a increase in frequency intake was observed in 63 (57.3%); while, 19 (17.3%) reported no change in food intake practices. About 67 (61%) were taking some sort of dietary supplements. Avoidance of any food 24 (22%), intake of additional food 51 (46%), craving 86 (78%), and aversion to any sort of food 42 (38%) was also identified in the study sample. No significant association was found between food group consumption, food availability and accessibility. Dietary diversity score, calculated according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines, indicated that about half study participants were not consuming adequate food. Conclusion: Study results show that food intake practices of pregnant women in the study area were not satisfactory. (author)

  3. Effect of Low Dietary Zinc Intake and Experimental Diabetes on the Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rats

    KECHRID, Zine

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake and experimental diabetes (IDDM) on the zinc and carbohydrate metabolism, 8-week-old male wealing normal albino (Wistar) rats were fed diets containing either adequate (54mg/kg) or low zinc (1mg/kg) quantities for one week. Ten rats from each group (n=20) were then intraperitoneally injected with alloxan to induce diabetes. The rats were sacrificed after a further three weeks. Body weight gain and food intake were recorded regularly. On day...

  4. High sodium and low potassium intake among Italian children: relationship with age, body mass and blood pressure.

    Angelo Campanozzi

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the leading cause of death in developed countries and reduction of salt intake is recommended as a key preventive measure.To assess the dietary sodium and potassium intakes in a national sample of Italian children and adolescents and to examine their relationships with BMI and blood pressure (BP in the framework of the MINISAL survey, a program supported by the Italian Ministry of Health.The study population included 1424 healthy subjects (766 boys, 658 girls aged 6-18 years (mean age: 10.1±2.9 who were consecutively recruited in participating National Health Service centers in 10 Italian regions. Electrolyte intake was estimated from 24 hour urine collections tested for completeness by the concomitant measurement of creatinine content. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured with standardized procedures.The average estimated sodium intake was 129 mmol (7.4 g of salt per day among boys and 117 mmol (6.7 g of salt among girls. Ninety-three percent of the boys and 89% of the girls had a consumption higher than the recommended age-specific standard dietary target. The estimated average daily potassium intakes were 39 mmol (1.53 g and 36 mmol (1.40 g, respectively, over 96% of the boys and 98% of the girls having a potassium intake lower than the recommended adequate intake. The mean sodium/potassium ratio was similar among boys and girls (3.5 and 3.4, respectively and over 3-fold greater than the desirable level. Sodium intake was directly related to age, body mass and BP in the whole population.The Italian pediatric population is characterized by excessive sodium and deficient potassium intake. These data suggest that future campaigns should focus on children and adolescents as a major target in the framework of a population strategy of cardiovascular prevention.

  5. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  6. Enhancing entrepreneurship development in Bosnia and Herzegovina through adequate governmental financial support

    Umihanić, Bahrija; Đonlagić, Sabina; Piplica, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and SME sector is extremely important for general economic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to enhance further development of the SME sector adequate sources of financing for businesses need to be available and accessible. Entrepreneurs and owners of small and medium businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina are facing certain challenges in obtaining finances. The issue of accessing sources of finance for SMEs in this country has remained problematic for years. Many...

  7. Impact of adequate empirical combination therapy on mortality from bacteremic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia

    Park So-Youn; Park Hyun; Moon Song; Park Ki-Ho; Chong Yong; Kim Mi-Na; Kim Sung-Han; Lee Sang-Oh; Kim Yang; Woo Jun; Choi Sang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained an increasing amount of attention in the treatment of patients with pneumonia. However, the benefit of empirical combination therapy for pneumonia remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of adequate empirical combination therapy and multidrug-resistance in bacteremic Pseudomonas pneumonia on the mortality. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed at the 2,700-bed tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed the medical record...

  8. Evaluation of lymph node numbers for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer

    Bumpers Harvey L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evaluation of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs is recommended as the minimum number of nodes required for accurate staging of colon cancer patients, there is disagreement on what constitutes an adequate identification of such LNs. Methods To evaluate the minimum number of LNs for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer, 490 patients were categorized into groups based on 1-6, 7-11, 12-19, and ≥ 20 LNs collected. Results For patients with Stage II or III disease, examination of 12 LNs was not significantly associated with recurrence or mortality. For Stage II (HR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.91, but not for Stage III patients (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.54-4.64, examination of ≥20 LNs was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence within 2 years. However, examination of ≥20 LNs had a 55% (Stage II, HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.87 and a 31% (Stage III, HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.38-1.26 decreased risk of mortality, respectively. For each six additional LNs examined from Stage III patients, there was a 19% increased probability of finding a positive LN (parameter estimate = 0.18510, p Conclusions Thus, the 12 LN cut-off point cannot be supported as requisite in determining adequate staging of colon cancer based on current data. However, a minimum of 6 LNs should be examined for adequate staging of Stage II and III colon cancer patients.

  9. The definition of rural area as a primary solution of its adequate development

    Ivana Faltová Leitmanová; Eva Cudlínová; Milan Jílek; Renata Klufová; Ladislav Rolínek

    2009-01-01

    The realistic approach to the rural development requires primarily a consensual definition of a rural area. The selection of tools to be applied and measures to be taken to influence rural areas as well as the setting up the institutional framework would be difficult without defining the object of interest. The adequate definition of rural areas is therefore one of essential prerequisites for the effective resource allocation within the rural development policy.

  10. Towards the Full Realization of the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition*

    Flavio Luiz Schieck Valente

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual evolution of the right to food into its current denomination as human right to adequate food and nutrition in the broader context of the indivisibility of human rights, women’s rights and food sovereignty. It also explores the challenges and opportunities provided by the Second International Conference on Nutrition and describes the political foundations of civil society’s engagement in the preparation and planned follow-up of the conference.

  11. Evaluating Random Mutant Selection at Class-Level in Projects with Non-Adequate Test Suites

    Parsai, Ali; Murgia, Alessandro; Demeyer, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Mutation testing is a standard technique to evaluate the quality of a test suite. Due to its computationally intensive nature, many approaches have been proposed to make this technique feasible in real case scenarios. Among these approaches, uniform random mutant selection has been demonstrated to be simple and promising. However, works on this area analyze mutant samples at project level mainly on projects with adequate test suites. In this paper, we fill this lack of empirical validation by...

  12. Ensuring adequate orientation for a new employee : case company Nestlé

    Ashtiani, Shilan

    2015-01-01

    The following thesis will concentrate on the importance of ensuring adequate orientation throughout the recruitment process and after. A new employee orientation (NEO) plan is consisted of different areas and stages to be recognized, analyzed and implemented at the factory of Nestlé. The goal for every company nowadays is to make a new employee a valued resource for their profitability. This research was commissioned by Nestlé Oy, Turku factory. The concept of new employee orientation (NE...

  13. Self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction differences in women with adequate and inadequate prenatal care.

    Higgins, P; Murray, M L; Williams, E M

    1994-03-01

    This descriptive, retrospective study examined levels of self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction with prenatal care in 193 low-risk postpartal women who obtained adequate and inadequate care. The participants were drawn from a regional medical center and university teaching hospital in New Mexico. A demographic questionnaire, the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory, the personal resource questionnaire part 2, and the prenatal care satisfaction inventory were used for data collection. Significant differences were found in the level of education, income, insurance, and ethnicity between women who received adequate prenatal care and those who received inadequate care. Women who were likely to seek either adequate or inadequate prenatal care were those whose total family income was $10,000 to $19,999 per year and high school graduates. Statistically significant differences were found in self-esteem, social support, and satisfaction between the two groups of women. Strategies to enhance self-esteem and social support have to be developed to reach women at risk for receiving inadequate prenatal care. PMID:8155221

  14. Quantification of food intake in Drosophila.

    Richard Wong

    Full Text Available Measurement of food intake in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is often necessary for studies of behaviour, nutrition and drug administration. There is no reliable and agreed method for measuring food intake of flies in undisturbed, steady state, and normal culture conditions. We report such a method, based on measurement of feeding frequency by proboscis-extension, validated by short-term measurements of food dye intake. We used the method to demonstrate that (a female flies feed more frequently than males, (b flies feed more often when housed in larger groups and (c fly feeding varies at different times of the day. We also show that alterations in food intake are not induced by dietary restriction or by a null mutation of the fly insulin receptor substrate chico. In contrast, mutation of takeout increases food intake by increasing feeding frequency while mutation of ovo(D increases food intake by increasing the volume of food consumed per proboscis-extension. This approach provides a practical and reliable method for quantification of food intake in Drosophila under normal, undisturbed culture conditions.

  15. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  16. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    Coomes Margerie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90 of all foods; meats 12% (11/90; and grains 11% (10/90. Sauces (6%, 5/90, sweets (4%, 4/90, and desserts (4%, 4/90 were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal.

  17. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    Lencova Erika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054 mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084 mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010 and 0.018 (SD 0.008 mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake

  18. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  19. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Numerous studies support the protective effect of high fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption on chronic disease risk, mainly against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Compared with younger adults, older people experience additional health, social, and environmental conditions that affect dietary intake. To identify those additional dimensions and examine them in association with FV intake, data on 3,840 participants in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) in South Africa were analyzed. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study in 2008 with a sample of 3,840 participants, aged 50 years or older, in South Africa. The questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometry, and blood pressure measurements. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between socio-demographic factors, health variables, and inadequate FV consumption. Results Overall prevalence rates of insufficient FV intake were 68.5%, 64.8% among men and 71.4% among women, with a mean intake of 4.0 servings of FV among older adults (50 years and older). In multivariable analysis, coming from the Black African or Colored population group, lower educational level and daily tobacco use were associated with inadequate FV intake. Conclusions The amount of fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumed by older South African participants was considerably lower than current recommendations (daily intake of at least five servings; 400 g). Public education and campaigns on adequate consumption of FVs should be promoted targeting lower educated and Black African and Colored population groups. PMID:23195518

  1. Poor food and nutrient intake among Indigenous and non-Indigenous rural Australian children

    Gwynn Josephine D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to describe the food and nutrient intake of a population of rural Australian children particularly Indigenous children. Participants were aged 10 to 12 years, and living in areas of relative socio-economic disadvantage on the north coast of New South Wales. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study 215 children with a mean age of 11.30 (SD 0.04 years (including 82 Indigenous children and 93 boys completed three 24-hour food recalls (including 1 weekend day, over an average of two weeks in the Australian summer of late 2005. Results A high proportion of children consumed less than the Australian Nutrient Reference Values for fibre (74-84% less than Adequate Intake (AI, calcium (54-86% less than Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, folate and magnesium (36% and 28% respectively less than EAR among girls, and the majority of children exceeded the upper limit for sodium (68-76% greater than Upper Limit (UL. Energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP food consumption contributed between 45% and 49% to energy. Hot chips, sugary drinks, high-fat processed meats, salty snacks and white bread were the highest contributors to key nutrients and sugary drinks were the greatest per capita contributor to daily food intake for all. Per capita intake differences were apparent by Indigenous status. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was low for all children. Indigenous boys had a higher intake of energy, macronutrients and sodium than non-Indigenous boys. Conclusions The nutrient intake and excessive EDNP food consumption levels of Australian rural children from disadvantaged areas are cause for concern regarding their future health and wellbeing, particularly for Indigenous boys. Targeted intervention strategies should address the high consumption of these foods.

  2. An intake prior for the Bayesian analysis of plutonium and uranium exposures in an epidemiology study.

    Puncher, M; Birchall, A; Bull, R K

    2014-12-01

    In Bayesian inference, the initial knowledge regarding the value of a parameter, before additional data are considered, is represented as a prior probability distribution. This paper describes the derivation of a prior distribution of intake that was used for the Bayesian analysis of plutonium and uranium worker doses in a recent epidemiology study. The chosen distribution is log-normal with a geometric standard deviation of 6 and a median value that is derived for each worker based on the duration of the work history and the number of reported acute intakes. The median value is a function of the work history and a constant related to activity in air concentration, M, which is derived separately for uranium and plutonium. The value of M is based primarily on measurements of plutonium and uranium in air derived from historical personal air sampler (PAS) data. However, there is significant uncertainty on the value of M that results from paucity of PAS data and from extrapolating these measurements to actual intakes. This paper compares posterior and prior distributions of intake and investigates the sensitivity of the Bayesian analyses to the assumed value of M. It is found that varying M by a factor of 10 results in a much smaller factor of 2 variation in mean intake and lung dose for both plutonium and uranium. It is concluded that if a log-normal distribution is considered to adequately represent worker intakes, then the Bayesian posterior distribution of dose is relatively insensitive to the value assumed of M. PMID:24191121

  3. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  4. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R;

    2004-01-01

    SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...... dose of 300 mg INH was administered on 2 separate days, 14 days apart, with or without alcohol to a serum alcohol of about 21 mmol/l (1 g/l) maintained for 12 h. RESULTS: Neither the metabolism of INH nor that of acetylisoniazid was changed by acute alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Acute alcohol intake has...... no impact on the conversion of INH to its metabolite acetylisoniazid, which is catalysed by the enzyme N-acetyltranferase. Accordingly, a metabolic effect of acute alcohol intake on INH metabolism probably contributes little to the therapeutic failure of anti-tuberculosis treatment among alcoholics....

  5. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  6. Aging, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake Regulation

    Van Walleghen, Emily Lynn

    2006-01-01

    More than seventy percent of Americans over the age of sixty are classified as overweight or obese, and the future incidence of these conditions is expected to rise. Although it is unclear why older adults are predisposed to weight gain, decreased total energy expenditure may contribute to positive energy balance. It is also possible that age-related impairments in energy intake regulation result in the inability to appropriately adjust food intake to meet energy requirements with advancing a...

  7. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C;

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  8. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Ning LI; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for...

  9. Energy intake and adiponectin gene expression

    Qiao, Liping; Lee, Bonggi; Kinney, Brice; Yoo, Hyung sun; Shao, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia and decreased adiponectin gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been well observed in obese subjects and animal models. However, the mechanism for obesity-associated hypoadiponectinemia is still largely unknown. To investigate the regulatory role of energy intake, dietary fat, and adiposity in adiponectin gene expression and blood adiponectin level, a series of feeding regimens was employed to manipulate energy intake and dietary fat in obese-prone C57BL/6, ge...

  10. Determining Adequate Margins in Head and Neck Cancers: Practice and Continued Challenges.

    Williams, Michelle D

    2016-09-01

    Margin assessment remains a critical component of oncologic care for head and neck cancer patients. As an integrated team, both surgeons and pathologists work together to assess margins in these complex patients. Differences in method of margin sampling can impact obtainable information and effect outcomes. Additionally, what distance is an "adequate or clear" margin for patient care continues to be debated. Ultimately, future studies and potentially secondary modalities to augment pathologic assessment of margin assessment (i.e., in situ imaging or molecular assessment) may enhance local control in head and neck cancer patients. PMID:27469263

  11. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  12. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one.METHODS:Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal.RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal, protein (18.2g and calcium (207.6mg consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g.CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers.

  13. Palm kernel cake for lactating cows in pasture: intake, digestibility, and blood parameters

    Raimundo Luiz N.V. Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiparous dairy cows (n=16 of the Holstein x Gir crossbreed, with an average weight of 436.6 kg (±59.7, were tested to determine the best level of Palm kernel cake in a dietary supplement for lactating cows at pasture. The experiment utilized a Latin square design, with the cows distributed in four Latin squares. Intake, digestibility of nutritional fractions, and the metabolic profile, as determined from blood parameters, were analyzed for grazing cattle with a dietary supplement containing 0, 25, 50, and 75% of palm kernel cake. Intake of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, nonfibrous carbohydrates, total carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients within the supplement, as well as the intake of total crude protein, total ether extract, and total nonfibrous carbohydrates, were negatively influenced by level of Palm kernel cake supplementation. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, nonfibrous carbohydrate, and total carbohydrates was significantly reduced with an increased percentage of Palm kernel cake in the supplement. The concentration of blood glucose was not affected by the amount of Palm kernel cake (P>0.05. However, these averages of ureic nitrogen are still considered to be physiological norms. A decrease in intake, digestibility of crude protein and nonfibrous carbohydrates indicates that Palm kernel cake is not an adequate ingredient in nutritional supplements for dairy cows at pasture.

  14. Ingestion intake of fallout Pu in Japan

    Ingestion intakes of fallout Pu throughout Japan in the 1959-1962 and 1978-1980 periods were measured by analyzing composite samples of each foodstuff or duplicate composite food samples consumed by five persons for a period of 1 d. Cumulative ingestion intake in Tokyo for the period from 1954-1980 was estimated by regression analysis. The cumulative ingestion intake, calculated by simple regression analysis between the natural log of the intake and that of annual fallout deposition of Pu, was estimated to be 450 pCi. Calculated by a multiple regression analysis, including the natural log of annual fallout deposition rates for a previous year as an additional independent variable, it was estimated to be 600 pCi. Considering in combination an ingestion intake, the value of which is calculated by the multiple regression analysis; an absorption ratio from the gastrointestinal tract of 0.001 (a recently reported value for low-level soluble Pu independent of chemical form); and the metabolic model in ICRP Publication 30, it is possible to estimate that the contribution of ingestion intake to liver and bone burden would be approximately 30%

  15. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    Rumpler William V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO, protein (Hi-PRO, or fat (Hi-FAT. Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs. Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05. In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.

  16. Obtaining an unbiased estimate of intake in routine monitoring when the time of intake is unknown

    A common problem in internal dosimetry occurs in routine monitoring, when it is required to estimate an intake from a measurement made at the end of a monitoring interval, and the time of intake is unknown. ICRP suggests that, in these cases, it should be assumed that the intake occurred in the middle of the monitoring period. However, it has been shown that this will, in the long term, lead to biased estimates of a worker's intake and dose. In order to overcome this biasing, the United States Dept. of Energy (US-DOE) recommends a different method based on calculating the intakes for all possible intake-times in the interval, and then taking an arithmetic average. In this paper, it is shown that both the ICRP and US-DOE methods are biased. An alternative method is suggested, which assumes a constant chronic intake throughout the monitoring interval. Monte Carlo simulations are used to estimate the magnitude of bias for two realistic monitoring programmes using all three methods. It is shown that the proposed method is unbiased and also yields estimates of intake that are generally closer to the actual intake, than the other two. The Monte Carlo conclusions are backed up by a theoretical analysis of bias. Finally, the source of bias in the apparently intuitive approach of the US-DOE method is revealed by viewing the problem from a Bayesian perspective. (authors)

  17. Adequate weight gain in pregnancy: An analysis of its determinants in a cross-sectional study

    Popa Alina Delia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prenatal care is considered an important tool for promoting a healthy lifestyle, but has not been studied as a predictor for maternal weight gain during pregnancy, especially in Romania, where evidence about pregnancy and nutrition is scarce. Objective. This study has aimed to explore the relationship between pre-gestational body mass index (BMI, adequacy of prenatal care and weight gain during pregnancy. Methods. We carried a cross-sectional study on a sample of 400 pregnant women admitted at the “Cuza Voda” Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital in Iasi. Information regarding demographic characteristics, number of prenatal visits, date of the initial hospital record, nutritional education during pregnancy were registered throughout a questionnaire filled out by means of a direct interview. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were the pre-gestational BMI and the pregnancy weight gain. Data on caloric intake were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Results. Weight gain within the limits of the Institute of Medicine recommendations was noticed at 44.35% of the women who declared that they received nutritional advice compared to 40.7% of those who did not receive advice regarding diet during pregnancy. Overweight (53.1% and obese women (66.7% had a larger weight gain than those with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI (29.8% (p<0.001. The variables that were identified with an effect on weight gain in this sample of pregnant women were: inadequate prenatal care, pre-gestational BMI and energy intake. Conclusion. Identifying the pre-gestational BMI and diet changes as predictors of weight gain underline the importance of an individualized prenatal care.

  18. Improving food and fluid intake for older adults living in long-term care

    Keller, Heather; Beck, Anne Marie; Namasivayam, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Poor food and fluid intake and malnutrition are endemic among older adults in long-term care (LTC), yet feasible and sustainable interventions that target key determinants and improve person-centered outcomes remain elusive. Without a comprehensive study addressing a range of determinants...... to identify those that are of greatest importance for targeting with interventions, expert consensus can be used to develop a research agenda. International experts and stakeholders convened for a 2-day meeting to participate in a nominal group process to identify and prioritize determinants of food and fluid...... intake for persons living in LTC. Top determinants to address with intervention research included social interactions of residents at mealtime; self-feeding ability; the dining environment; the attitudes, knowledge, and skills of staff; adequate time to eat/availability of staff to provide assistance...

  19. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    Domellöf, Magnus; Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorstensen, Ketil

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004.Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation), in order to estimate the requirement for adequate ...

  20. Response of cotton genotypes to boron under-b-adequate conditions

    Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as efficient-responsive, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were highly-efficient and remaining all genotypes were medium-efficient. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as low-efficient. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application. (author)

  1. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  2. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  3. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    Oney, Stephen K. [OTE Corporation; Hogan, Timothy [Alden Research Laboratory; Steinbeck, John [Tenera Environmental

    2013-08-31

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  4. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  5. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intakeof water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and...... which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  6. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  7. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  8. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day-1, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day-1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  9. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  10. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along ...

  11. Cassava Intake and Vitamin A Status among Women and Preschool Children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria.

    Fabiana F De Moura

    Full Text Available As part of the HarvestPlus provitamin A-biofortified cassava program in Nigeria we conducted a survey to determine the cassava intake and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children 6-59 months and women of childbearing age in the state of Akwa Ibom.A cluster-randomized cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. The usual food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a multi-pass 24-hour recall with repeated recall on a subsample. Blood samples of children and women were collected to analyze for serum retinol, serum ferritin, and acute phase proteins as indicators of infection. Vitamin A deficiency was defined as serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L adjusted for infection.A total of 587 households of a mother-child dyad participated in the dietary intake assessment. Cassava was very widely consumed in Akwa Ibom, mainly as gari or foofoo. Daily cassava consumption frequency was 92% and 95% among children and women, respectively. Mean (±SD cassava intake (expressed as raw fresh weight was 348 ± 317 grams/day among children and 940 ± 777 grams/day among women. Intakes of most micronutrients appeared to be adequate with the exception of calcium. Median vitamin A intake was very high both for children (1038 μg RAE/day and women (2441 μg RAE/day. Red palm oil and dark green leafy vegetables were the main sources of vitamin A in the diet, with red palm oil alone contributing almost 60% of vitamin A intake in women and children. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranged from moderate (16.9 % among children to virtually non-existent (3.4 % among women.Consumption of cassava and vitamin A intake was high among women and children in Akwa Ibom with a prevalence of vitamin A deficiency ranging from moderate in children to non-existent among women. The provitamin A biofortified cassava and other vitamin A interventions should focus dissemination in states where red palm oil is not widely consumed.

  12. Dietary intakes of expeditioners during prolonged sunlight deprivation in polar enviroments do not support bone health

    Sandra Iuliano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Antarctic expeditions were plagued by nutrient deficiencies, due to lack of fresh food and reliance on preserved foods. Modern Antarctic expeditioners also require provisions to be shipped in, but improved knowledge and storage options ensure foods are nutritionally sound. Despite this, nutritional imbalances are observed. Objectives: To determine the adequacy of dietary intake of Antarctic expeditioners, with reference to bone health. Design: Dietary intake was determined on 225 adults (mean age 42±11 years, 16% female during 12-month deployments at Australian Antarctic stations from 2004 to 2010, using weighed 3-day food records. Nutrient intake was analysed using FoodWorks. Foods were divided into the 5 food groups according to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Results: Men consumed below the recommended levels [recommended daily intake (RDI/adequate intakes (AI] of calcium (79±42% of RDI, p<0.001, magnesium (83±34% of RDI, p<0.001, potassium (86±29% of AI, p<0.001 and fibre (75±30% of AI, p<0.001, and above the upper limit (UL for sodium (125±48% of UL p<0.001, whereas women consumed below the recommended levels of calcium (68±21% of RDI, p<0.001 and iron (73±37% of RDI, p<0.001. Vitamin D intake is not substantial (<150 IU/d. Men consumed more alcohol than women (18±24 g/d vs. 10±13 g/d, p<0.05, nearer the guideline of ≤20 g/d. Men and women consumed approximately 1 serving of dairy food per day, and 3 of 5 recommended vegetable servings. Discretionary foods were consumed in excess of recommended. Conclusions: Improving consumption of calcium-rich (dairy foods better supports bone health during sunlight deprivation. Increasing vegetable intake to recommended levels will increase fibre, potassium and magnesium intakes. The challenge is the logistics of providing these foods throughout the year.

  13. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  14. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  15. Coping with shortage of adequate food by livestock in the extreme desert

    Goats, camels and donkeys are the traditional livestock of man in the extreme deserts of the Middle East. In the harsh environment where these animals are raised precipitation is sparse. Following a short rainy season, pasture in this area dries out and its quality deteriorates. To meet their energy requirements, livestock graze unselectively and consume mostly dry plant material that is high in fibre and low in protein. This behaviour allows for high stocking rates. In the present study the energy and nitrogen metabolism of livestock characteristic of the extreme desert were studied in the laboratory under mid-summer conditions (maximum daily temperature: 35 deg. C; RH: 60 to 80%; maximum solar radiation: 0.959 W/cm2). Experiments were conducted on eight Bedouin goats, four camels and five donkeys. Throughout the study the animals were maintained in unshaded metabolism cages and were tested in sequence under two different diets: high quality roughage (alfalfa hay, 25% crude fibre, 18% crude protein) and low quality roughage (wheat straw, 35% crude fibre, 5% crude protein). The gross energy intake, dry matter digestibility, resting oxygen consumption and urea nitrogen kinetics were assessed. When on alfalfa hay, all three species gained virtually the same amount of digestible energy on a mass specific basis. When on wheat straw, the gross energy intake in the goat, camel and donkey was lower by 64, 76 and 25%, respectively, than on alfalfa hay. Oxygen consumption on alfalfa hay was lowest in the Bedouin goat and highest in the donkey. When tested on wheat straw, the oxygen consumption amounted to 66, 52 and 43% of the values recorded when on alfalfa hay in the goat, donkey and camel, respectively. Urea recycling, as a percentage of urea entry rate in animals fed alfalfa hay, amounted to 40.3, 16.8 and 59.0% in goats, donkeys and camels, respectively, and when on wheat straw 69.3, 85.3 and 90.6%, respectively. It is concluded that livestock indigenous to the desert

  16. An adequate approach to image retrieval based on local level feature extraction

    Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors) and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval) techniques. (author)

  17. Adequate bases of phase space master integrals for $gg \\to h$ at NNLO and beyond

    Höschele, Maik; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    We study master integrals needed to compute the Higgs boson production cross section via gluon fusion in the infinite top quark mass limit, using a canonical form of differential equations for master integrals, recently identified by Henn, which makes their solution possible in a straightforward algebraic way. We apply the known criteria to derive such a suitable basis for all the phase space master integrals in afore mentioned process at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD and demonstrate that the method is applicable to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order as well by solving a non-planar topology. Furthermore, we discuss in great detail how to find an adequate basis using practical examples. Special emphasis is devoted to master integrals which are coupled by their differential equations.

  18. Providing for decommissioning funds: minimum conditions for adequate funding and comparative analysis

    The present contribution analyses the minimum criteria that need to be applied for adequate financial arrangements for decommissioning, as well as the possible financing mechanisms and the recommended investment policy for decommissioning funds. Furthermore, practical examples of decommissioning mechanisms in the United States of America, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Spain and Belgium will be studied. A question frequently asked about nuclear energy is how to deal with its impact on the environment. The issue of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and in particular the funding of such decommissioning, is part of this discussion. The IAEA fundamental safety principles and safety requirements already make clear that radioactive waste must be managed in such a way as to avoid imposing an undue burden on future generations. The government shall make provision for the safe decommissioning of facilities, the safe management and disposal of radioactive waste arising from facilities and activities, and the safe management of spent fuel. (author)

  19. An Adequate Approach to Image Retrieval Based on Local Level Feature Extraction

    Sumaira Muhammad Hayat Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval techniques.

  20. Calculation of intake fraction in the whole-body, an organ and excreta after inhalation intake

    Predicted values in bioassay compartments following unit intake by inhalation are given in ICRP publication 78 from 1 to 10 days after intake. However, it is necessary to have the time course of predicted values over a period of 10 days depending on the situation. Accordingly, system for calculation of predicted values unit intake of activity in bioassay compartments at time t after intake was established, and caculations were carried out in this study. For the validation of the calculations, results from this study were compared with results from other researcher. As a result, it was shown that there were good agreements each other. Therefore, our results can be used for not only assessment of intake, but also design and implementation of internal monitoring program, and data module for internal dose assessment code

  1. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake.

    Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2014-05-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  2. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  3. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    Muscariello E

    2016-02-01

    HPI sarcopenic group (NPI 6.98±0.1 vs 7.10±0.2 kg/m2, HPI 7.13±0.4 vs 6.96±0.1 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline.  Conclusion: A diet moderately rich in proteins was able to preserve MM in sarcopenic women. Therefore, adequate protein intake could contribute to the prevention of lean-mass loss associated with weight reduction in obese older people. Keywords: lean body mass, aging, obesity, protein intake, sarcopenia

  4. 40 CFR 141.522 - How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate?

    2010-07-01

    ... my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? 141.522 Section 141.522 Protection of... Additional Watershed Control Requirements for Unfiltered Systems § 141.522 How does the State determine whether my system's watershed control requirements are adequate? During an onsite inspection...

  5. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    Merkiel, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macro...

  6. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

    Claire M. Marchetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014 with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12–49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI: 4%, 9% increase in red blood cell (RBC folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12% increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~1050 nmol/L associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births.

  7. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    validation, while calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used...... intervention and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid...... biomarker of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was...

  8. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the...... complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in...

  9. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (p<0.001. There was registered signifi cant correlation between intake of dietary calcium and mineral bone density in examination (p<0.01 and in control group (p<0.01.Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  10. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  11. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  12. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  13. Productivity of Bedouin goats: Coping with shortages of water and adequate food

    The study was carried out under outdoor summer conditions on goats that were watered only once every four days and goats that were watered once daily. Under each of the watering regimes the goats were fed on alfalfa hay (a high quality roughage), and Rhodes grass and wheat straw, medium and low quality feed respectively. In all trials except one, the goats maintained constant body weights. When goats were watered infrequently they gulped down volumes of water that often caused the osmolarity of the rumen fluid to drop from 360 mosm/kg to about 80 mosm/kg. Over this entire range of osmotic concentration the bacterial populations in the goats' rumen maintained their viability. By reducing the fluid flow through the gut, infrequent drinking helped to extend the time the digesta were retained along the digestive tract. As a result, digestibility of the roughage, particularly that of the low quality feed, was improved. Infrequent drinking was found to reduce the animals' demand for metabolizable energy and, as a result, enabled the goat to balance its energy metabolism on a low energy intake. It also improved the balance in the utilization of dietary protein while not interfering with the ability to recycle urea. It is concluded that the effects of the two deficiencies dealt with in this study are by no means additive. Frequent watering of ruminants in the desert is likely to increase their demand for food, lower their gain in digestible energy, increase their demand for metabolizable energy and make it more difficult for them to balance their energy budget. Improving feed quality for animals grazing in the desert, when water availability declines, is also not advantageous. It may only increase the animals' needs for water, render them dependent on frequent drinking and restrict their grazing area to the close vicinity of water sources. 30 refs, 10 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  15. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of...... only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans....

  16. Dose reduction and adequate image quality in digital radiography: a contradiction?

    Dose reduction and adequate image quality in digital radiography - a contradiction ?Digital radiography has already replaced traditional screen-film systems. Substantial improvements in both dose efficiency and spatial resolution demonstrate the rapid developments in digital radiography. Needle-detector systems have shown up to a 50% dose reduction compared to traditional screen-film systems. There is also a dose reduction capability of up to 50% comparing direct radiography (DR) systems to computed radiography (CR) systems for chest X-rays. However, despite the most recent achievements of CR technology, the dose efficiency of DR systems (caesium iodide flat-panel detector) is unparalleled. The progress in detector technology has contributed to dose reduction and improved image quality, while saving time and providing a higher examination rate. The use of dose indicators and longitudinal dose control are important to avoid substantial accidental dose increase. The dose applied to patients should fall markedly below the defined diagnostic reference levels within the European Union. Regular quality control, as well as continuous education and training of medical and technical personnel, contribute to ensure that the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is consistently followed. (orig.)

  17. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  18. The rat adequately reflects human responses to exercise in blood biochemical profile: a comparative study.

    Goutianos, Georgios; Tzioura, Aikaterini; Kyparos, Antonios; Paschalis, Vassilis; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Dipla, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2015-02-01

    Animal models are widely used in biology and the findings of animal research are traditionally projected to humans. However, recent publications have raised concerns with regard to what extent animals and humans respond similar to physiological stimuli. Original data on direct in vivo comparison between animals and humans are scarce and no study has addressed this issue after exercise. We aimed to compare side by side in the same experimental setup rat and human responses to an acute exercise bout of matched intensity and duration. Rats and humans ran on a treadmill at 86% of maximal velocity until exhaustion. Pre and post exercise we measured 30 blood chemistry parameters, which evaluate iron status, lipid profile, glucose regulation, protein metabolism, liver, and renal function. ANOVA indicated that almost all biochemical parameters followed a similar alteration pattern post exercise in rats and humans. In fact, there were only 2/30 significant species × exercise interactions (in testosterone and globulins), indicating different responses to exercise between rats and humans. On the contrary, the main effect of exercise was significant in 15/30 parameters and marginally nonsignificant in other two parameters (copper, P = 0.060 and apolipoprotein B, P = 0.058). Our major finding is that the rat adequately mimics human responses to exercise in those basic blood biochemical parameters reported here. The physiological resemblance of rat and human blood responses after exercise to exhaustion on a treadmill indicates that the use of blood chemistry in rats for exercise physiology research is justified. PMID:25677548

  19. A test of the cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia in adequate and inadequate responders to reading intervention.

    Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon

    2010-05-01

    The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties. PMID:20298639

  20. Are GPs adequately equipped with the knowledge for educating and counseling of families with ADHD children?

    Zarei Nabi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common child psychiatry disorders. General physicians (GP, as primary care providers, can have an important role in screening and treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to survey GPs' knowledge, attitude, and their views of their role in the screening, diagnosing and managing children with ADHD. Methods Six hundred and sixty five general physicians in Shiraz, Iran, answered a self-reported questionnaire on ADHD. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics such as age, the duration of practice as a GP, marital status, general knowledge about ADHD, and the management of ADHD. Results Less than half of them believed that they have adequate knowledge and information about this disorder. They usually do not like to be the primary care providers for children with ADHD. The majority of them prefer to refer the children to related specialists, mostly psychiatrists or psychologists. More than one third of them believed that sugar is a cause of ADHD. Only 6.6% of them reported that ADHD persists for the whole life. Their knowledge about methylphenidate is reasonable. Conclusions As many other countries worldwide, the knowledge of GPs about ADHD should be improved. They do not asses and manage children with probable ADHD by themselves without referring to related professionals. They do not opt for the use of methylphenidate.

  1. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  2. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    Imamura Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards, which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1 to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2 to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. Methods The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses, as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%, five backs (31%, and three controls (12% had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes

  3. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...

  4. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  5. Selection of methodology to assess food intake

    Biró, G.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Ovesen, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the EFCOSUM project was to develop a method to estimate both acute and usual consumption levels in European countries and for the sake of comparison, a common basic method for dietary assessment was needed. The method should allow a reliable comparison of the intake of relevant

  6. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  7. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane;

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait. In Fe...

  8. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two ...

  9. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  10. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  11. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  12. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry

  13. Exercise and the regulation of energy intake

    Scheurink, AJW; Ammar, AA; Benthem, B; van Dijk, G; Sodersten, PAT; Södersten, Per A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Energy balance is the resultant of ingested calories and energy expenditure and is generally maintained within narrow limits over prolonged periods. Exercise leads to an increase in energy expenditure which is, in the long-term, counteracted by increased energy intake. Evidence for this comes from a

  14. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  15. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  16. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  17. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  18. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    .Conclusion: Red beans intake and adequate quantity of intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Education on nutrition and health promotion programs are needed to encourage people to eat vegetables and fruit.Keywords: red beans, cataract extraction, socioeconomic status, public health implications

  19. Memory facilitation educed by food intake.

    Oomura, Y; Sasaki, K; Li, A J

    1993-09-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF in response to increased glucose in the CSF caused by food intake. Released aFGF diffused into the brain parenchyma and was taken up into neurons in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, etc. IP injection of glucose 2 h before a task that combined acquisition with passive avoidance significantly increased retention of avoidance by mice tested 24 h later. In a Morris water maze task, IP glucose injection 2 h before a first trial block reduced time to find and climb onto a platform hidden just below the water surface. The glucose facilitation of these affective and spatial memory were abolished by pretreatment with anti-aFGF antibody applied ICV. Continuous ICV infusion of aFGF into rats also significantly increased the reliability of passive avoidance for several days. After food intake, centrally released aFGF reaches the hippocampus and facilitates memory; peripherally released cholecystokinin reaches the endings of the afferent vagal nerves in the portal vein and changes their activity, which modulates hippocampal activity, to lead to memory facilitation. This, however, is blocked by vagotomy below the diaphragm. The results indicate the importance of food intake, not only to maintain homeostasis, but also to prepare a readiness state for memory facilitation. PMID:7692459

  20. Determinants of prompt and adequate care among presumed malaria cases in a community in eastern Rwanda: A cross sectional study

    Ingabire, C.M.; Kateera, F.; Hakizimana, E.; Rulisa, A.; Muvunyi, C.; Mens, P.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Mutesa, L.; Vugt, M. van; Borne, B. van den; Alaii, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In order to understand factors influencing fever/malaria management practices among community-based individuals, the study evaluated psychosocial, socio-demographic and environmental determinants of prompt and adequate healthcare-seeking behaviours. Methods: A quantitative household (HH)

  1. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  2. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  3. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    Catherine H. Thurling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT.There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation.The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training.A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation.The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted.The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  4. Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection.

    Roos, V; Gunnarsson, L; Fick, J; Larsson, D G J; Rudén, C

    2012-04-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly; some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. PMID:22361586

  5. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  6. Do Foley catheters adequately drain the bladder? Evidence from CT imaging studies

    Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube:V=(π/6)⁎L⁎W⁎H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. (author)

  7. Do Foley catheters adequately drain the bladder? Evidence from CT imaging studies

    Avulova, Svetlana; Li, Valery J.; Khusid, Johnathan A. [Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Choi, Woo S. [Radiology, SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Weiss, Jeffrey P., E-mail: johnathan.khusid@downstate.edu [Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Introduction: The Foley catheter has been widely assumed to be an effective means of draining the bladder. However, recent studies have brought into question its efficacy. The objective of our study is to further assess the adequacy of Foley catheter for complete drainage of the bladder. Materials and Methods: Consecutive catheterized patients were identified from a retrospective review of contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) abdomen and pelvis studies completed from 7/1/2011-6/30/2012. Residual urine volume (RUV) was measured using 5mm axial CT sections as follows: The length (L) and width (W) of the bladder in the section with the greatest cross sectional area was combined with bladder height (H) as determined by multiplanar reformatted images in order to calculate RUV by applying the formula for the volume (V) of a sphere in a cube:V=(π/6)⁎L⁎W⁎H). Results: RUVs of 167 (mean age 67) consecutively catheterized men (n=72) and women (n=95) identified by CT abdomen and pelvis studies were calculated. The mean RUV was 13.2 mL (range: 0.0 mL-859.1 mL, standard deviation: 75.9 mL, margin of error at 95% confidence:11.6 mL). Four (2.4%) catheterized patients had RUVs of >50 mL, two of whom had an improperly placed catheter tip noted on their CT-reports. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that up to 43% of catheterized patients had a RUV greater than 50 mL, suggesting inadequacy of bladder drainage via the Foley catheter. Our study indicated that the vast majority of patients with Foley catheters (97.6%), had adequately drained bladders with volumes of <50 mL. (author)

  8. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  9. Development of adequate meteorological monitoring standards for safety analysis of nuclear facilities

    The aim of this report is to identify what constitutes adequate meteorological information for airborne dispersion calculations in case of releases from nuclear facilities during 'normal operation', 'design postulated accidents', and 'emergency situations'. The models used for estimating downwind dispersion are reviewed, including short-range simple terrain, short-range complex terrain and medium to long range models with emphasis on Lagrangian models. The meteorogolical input parameters required for running these models are identified. The methods by which these parameters may be obtained from raw meteorological data are then considered. Emphasis is placed on well-tried and recommended methods rather than those which are currently being developed and lack long-term field tests. The meteorological data required to calculate the parameters that are in turn input to dispersion calculation methods can be obtained mainly from tower measurements. Recommended tower height is 50 m, with two levels of instruments (10 and 50 m) for wind speed, wind direction and temperature. Data for precipitation and solar radiation, that may be required under certain conditions and for special calculations, may be estimated from nearby representative weather stations (if available). For simple terrain, a single tower is sufficient. For complex terrain, such as coastal regions, two towers are desirable for accurate characterization of the turbulence regime in the vicinity of a release site. The report provides the necessary accuracy specifications for instruments required for the meteorological measurements. Data monitoring and recording, maintenance, quality control and assurance are also discussed. Error propagation analyses are recommended to determine the full implications of instrument accuracies on the accuracy of dispersion model predictions. 82 refs

  10. Is the standardized helmet technique adequate for irradiation of the brain and the cranial meninges?

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the standardized helmet technique is adequate to reliably cover the clinical target volume (whole brain including cranial meninges) during treatment planning and treatment delivery. Methods and Materials: In 21 patients undergoing irradiation of the brain in acute lymphoblastic leukemia or primary cerebral lymphoma, the coverage of the clinical target volume was checked with a repeat computed tomography (CT) in the treatment position (head fixation with face mask). The accuracy of field alignment was quantitatively assessed with sequential verification films. For each patient, linear and rotational discrepancies were measured between the simulation and first check film, and between five consecutive verification films. Results: Coverage of clinical target volume. In 11 cases (52%), the CT examinations showed that parts of the subfrontal region and midcranial fossa were not included by the field assigned under simulation. Accuracy of field alignment. For the total group of patients, all deviations were normally distributed with mean values between -1.2 mm and 1.5 mm and standard deviations of 2.9 mm to 3.7 mm for linear discrepancies, and 0.3 degrees ± 3.2 degrees for rotational discrepancies. For all patients, deviations were similar for the transition from simulation to the treatment machine and for subsequent treatment delivery, with 50% and 95% of absolute differences being less than 2.0 mm and 6.5 mm, respectively. Maximum linear deviations were less than 9.5 mm. Conclusions: The currently used helmet technique is inadequate to cover the clinical target volume. Repeat CT examinations are a useful method to delineate the clinical target volume on an individual patient basis. In addition, statistical fluctuations of field displacements up to 1.0 cm have to be considered when prescribing safety margins for reliable coverage of the clinical target volume during treatment planning and delivery

  11. Offering Adequate Pedagogical Progression via Mobile Equipments-Experiment of a French Engineering School

    Jean-Luc Koning

    2006-01-01

    Students may enter our 5-year engineering school in France at two levels: first and third year.However, due to their quite different backgrounds (this is especially true for third year students), we need to provide newcomers with a 6-week training period during which they follow classes in the fields where they particularly feel weak. Unfortunately, depending on the student' s background, this is not always possible to bring him/her to the expected level. Another aspect one needs to mention is that these students may not have the same weaknesses in a given field. However, for economical reasons, those classes follow a uniform program as it is not feasible to provide a customized progression. In this paper we discuss how to redesign a mathematics course so as to offer tailored exercise sequencing.Groups of 20 students could then draw their exercises from an intranet database according to their previously completed work, try to solve it by themselves, request additional hints and even ask for some direct help from the teacher. Such a database is currently under development. If it turns out several students stumble against the same difficulty the teacher could show the whole class room how to solve it using the digital projector.This project goes one step further than our initial mobile education project ( 2003 ~ 2004 ). Until recently,we had used the equipment in a unique direction, from the instructor toward the students. Here, in this new project we are focusing on the whole loop in order to offer a more adequate (personalized) pedagogical progression: from the student to the teacher (when the tablet PCs are monitored by the teacher) , and back to-ward the students (when a direct help is proded by the teacher)

  12. Access to Adequate Outpatient Depression Care for Mothers in the US: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Witt, Whitney P.; Keller, Abiola; Gottlieb, Carissa; Litzelman, Kristin; Hampton, John; Maguire, Jonathan; Hagen, Erika W.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression is often untreated, resulting in serious consequences for mothers and their children. Factors associated with receipt of adequate treatment for depression were examined in a population-based sample of 2,130 mothers in the USA with depression using data from the 1996-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Chi-squared analyses were used to evaluate differences in sociodemographic and health characteristics by maternal depression treatment status (none, some, adequate). Multi...

  13. A Rapid Beverage Intake Questionnaire Can Detect Changes in Beverage Intake

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Ferguson, Katherine E.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Dietrich, Andrea M.; Serrano, Elena; Davy, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Attention on beverage intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), has increased in recent years. A brief valid, reliable and sensitive assessment tool for quantifying beverage consumption and determining its influence on weight status could help to advance research on this topic. The valid and reliable 15-item beverage questionnaire (BEVQ-15) estimates mean daily intake of water, SSB and total beverages (g, kcal) across multiple beverage categories. Objective: to determine the abili...

  14. Intake, digestibility and intake behaviour in cattle fed different levels of palm kernel cake

    Ana Carolina Fereira; Ronaldo Lopes O.; Adriana Regina B.; Gleidson Giordano Pinto de C.; Raimundo Nunes Vaz S.; Paulo Andrade O.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The potential use of palm kernel cake was evaluated as a replacement for soybean and corn meal in cattle feed, by investigating their intake, digestibility levels and the intake behaviour of cattle fed diets containing different levels of palm kernel cake concentrate. Materials and methods. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Bahia, between August and October 2009. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu adults, were used. A 5 × 5 Latin...

  15. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    Andrade Ana M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2 who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL. Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation.

  16. Rehabilitation of spillway and intake guides and gates

    Operating problems are fairly common at some of the ageing vertical lift intake and spillway gates at many of the older hydroelectric generating stations (GS) in Canada. The problems result from deteriorated or corroded gate guides and roller assemblies. In 1989, the KGS Group reviewed several viable, cost-effective options for rehabilitation. The remedial measures have since been used by several Canadian utilities including Manitoba Hydro, Hydro-Quebec, Ontario Hydro, SaskPower and Winnipeg Hydro. Projects currently underway include: Beauharnois GS intake, Kelsey GS spillway, McArthur GS spillway, Slave Falls GS intake, Island Falls GS intake, Chenaux GS intake, Abitibi Canyon GS intake and Des Joachims GS intake. This paper presents the results of the inspection/assessment of gates and guides and provides details of the overall concepts and rehabilitation methods for the gate and intake guide repairs being implemented at each of these stations. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  17. Nutrient intake of endurance runners with ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet and regular western diet.

    Eisinger, M; Plath, M; Jung, K; Leitzmann, C

    1994-09-01

    During an endurance run (1,000 km in 20 days) it was investigated whether an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (OLVD) could cover the nutritional requirements of endurance athletes. A regular western diet (RWD) was used as reference. Both diets were offered with an energy content of 4,500 kcal per day and an energy percentage of carbohydrate:fat:protein of 60:30:10. The runners were divided into two dietary groups according to their usual dietary habits. The results of the 55 participants who completed the race show that runners from both groups had the same intake of energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein. Runners of the OLVD group consumed more dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as less cholesterol. With the exception of sodium chloride and cobalamin, the intake of the calculated minerals and vitamins was higher in the OLVD and exceeded the official recommendations. This study shows that an OLVD with a high nutrient density is adequate to cover the nutritional requirements of endurance-athletes. The intake and absorption of iron should be monitored closely in all diet groups. PMID:7810180

  18. [Nutrient intake with low-fat diets in rehabilitation of patients with coronary heart disease].

    Müller, M J; Wiechmann, M; Helms, C; Wulff, C; Kolenda, K D

    2000-05-01

    We investigated the nutritional value of a very low fat diet (diet I) adapted to nutritional habits in Germany. Data were compared to a low fat diet (diet II) according to the American Heart Association. The study was performed in 37 patients with coronary heart disease (30 males and 7 females, age 45-83 yrs) stratified to the 2 dietary treatments. Daily fat intake was 38 g (24% of energy intake of 6.5 MJ/d) in diet I and 60 g (31% of 7.3 MJ/d) in diet II (p Vit. A, Vit. D and Vit. B12 were all reduced (p Vit. C was increased p < 0.01. The intake of folic acid was low in both groups. Both diets resulted in a decrease in BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Concomitantly plasma triglycerides only decreased in response to diet I but HDL cholesterol levels remained unchanged. Reduction of BMI and cholesterol levels were dependent on baseline BMI and cholesterol concentrations, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effect of diet I is in part attributed to the weight lowering effect of the diet. Taking into account the nutritional habits in Germany, very low fat diets seem to be adequate with respect to their nutritional value. Both diets are effective in lowering body weight, plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels without affecting HDL cholesterol. These effects are most pronounced in overweight and hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:10900676

  19. Water intake: validity of population assessment and recommendations

    Gandy, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Good hydration is vital for good health and well-being. Until recently, there was little interest in collecting data on water and drink and beverage intake. However, there is increasing evidence that a low water intake or mild dehydration may be linked with the risk of chronic diseases. Accurate estimates of intake in populations are essential to explore these relationships. This will enable the identification of specific populations at the risk of low water intake and allow exposure assessme...

  20. Models for estimating feed intake in small ruminants

    Giuseppe Pulina; Marcella Avondo; Giovanni Molle; Ana Helena Dias Francesconi; Alberto Stanislao Atzori; Antonello Cannas

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the most relevant limits and developments of the modeling of intake of sheep and goats reared intensively and extensively. Because small ruminants are normally fed ad libitum, voluntary feed intake is crucial in feeding tactics and strategies aimed at optimal animal production. The effects of genetic, neuroendocrine, hormonal, feed and environmental factors on voluntary feed intake were discussed. Then, several mathematical models to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) wer...

  1. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children.

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; Nowson, Caryl A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278

  2. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    O’Halloran, Siobhan A.; Grimes, Carley A.; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Campbell, Karen J.; Nowson, Caryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K) ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial). The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male), mean age 3.5 (0.19) (SD) years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267) mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5) and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI) of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%), fruit (19%), and vegetable (14%) products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8), white bread/rolls (6.0), and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4). Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75) serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72) dairy, and 0.52 (0.32) serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits. PMID:27529278

  3. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  4. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  5. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  7. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  8. 40 CFR 1065.325 - Intake-flow calibration.

    2010-07-01

    ... recommend using a calibration subsonic venturi, ultrasonic flow meter or laminar flow element. We recommend... within 0.5% uncertainty. (c) If you use a subsonic venturi or ultrasonic flow meter for intake flow... Intake-flow calibration. (a) Calibrate intake-air flow meters upon initial installation. Follow...

  9. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  10. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  11. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  12. Men with Low Vitamin A Stores Respond Adequately to Primary Yellow Fever and Secondary Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination

    Current recommendations for vitamin A intake and liver stores (20 mg/g) are based on maintaining normal vision. Higher levels may be required for maintaining normal immune function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an 8 wk residential study among 36 healthy Bangladeshi men with low serum retino...

  13. Global Uranium And Thorium Resources: Are They Adequate To Satisfy Demand Over The Next Half Century?

    Lambert, I. B.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will consider the adequacy of global uranium and thorium resources to meet realistic nuclear power demand scenarios over the next half century. It is presented on behalf of, and based on evaluations by, the Uranium Group - a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, of which the author is a Vice Chair. The Uranium Group produces a biennial report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand based on information from some 40 countries involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, which also briefly reviews thorium resources. Uranium: In 2008, world production of uranium amounted to almost 44,000 tonnes (tU). This supplied approximately three-quarters of world reactor requirements (approx. 59,000 tU), the remainder being met by previously mined uranium (so-called secondary sources). Information on availability of secondary sources - which include uranium from excess inventories, dismantling nuclear warheads, tails and spent fuel reprocessing - is incomplete, but such sources are expected to decrease in market importance after 2013. In 2008, the total world Reasonably Assured plus Inferred Resources of uranium (recoverable at less than 130/kgU) amounted to 5.4 million tonnes. In addition, it is clear that there are vast amounts of uranium recoverable at higher costs in known deposits, plus many as yet undiscovered deposits. The Uranium Group has concluded that the uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet projected high-case requirements for nuclear power for at least half a century. This conclusion does not assume increasing replacement of uranium by fuels from reprocessing current reactor wastes, or by thorium, nor greater reactor efficiencies, which are likely to ameliorate future uranium demand. However, progressively increasing quantities of uranium will need to be mined, against a backdrop of the relatively small number of producing facilities around the world, geopolitical uncertainties and

  14. Is Serum or Sputum Eosinophil Cationic Protein Level Adequate for Diagnosis of Mild Asthma?

    Mohammad Reza Khakzad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Spirometry has been used as a common diagnostic test in asthma. Most of the patients with a mild asthma have a FEV1 within normal range. Hence, other diagnostic methods are usually used. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP could be an accurate diagnostic marker of mild asthma.In this study diagnosis of asthma was made according to internationally accepted criteria. Asthma severity was evaluated according to frequency of symptoms and FEV1. Adequate sputum samples were obtained in 50 untreated subjects. A control group of 12 normal subjects that showed PC20 more than 8 mg/dl was also examined. Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline. Inflammatory cells in sputum smears were assessed semi-quantitatively. ECP and IgE concentrations, eosinophil (EO percentage and ECP/EO ratio in serum and sputum were also determined. The results revealed that Cough and dyspnea were the most frequent clinical findings. Dyspnea and wheezing were the symptoms that correlated with staging of asthma. FEV1 was within normal range (more than 80% of predicted in 22 (44% subjects.Asthmatic patients showed significantly higher numbers of blood eosinophils (4.5± 3.1% vs. 1.2±0.2%, P=0.009, and higher levels of serum ECP than control group (3.1± 2.6 % and 22.6± 15.8 ng/ml, respectively. Sputum ECP level in asthmatics was significantly higher than non- asthmatics (55.3±29.8ng/mL vs. 25.0±24.7ng/mL, P=0.045. Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between spirometric parameters and biomarkers, the only exception was significant correlation between FEF25-75 and serum ECP (r= 0.28, P 0.041. Regarding clinical symptoms, wheezing was significantly correlated with elevation of most of biomarkers. Since, serum and sputum ECP levels are elevated in untreated asthmatics, the ECP level could be used for accurate diagnosis of mild form of asthma in which spirometry is unremarkable.

  15. Is the Health of Irish Workers adequately protected from the effects Radon Gas?

    prosecuted for failing to comply with this legislation. Hence, the health of Irish workers is not being adequately protected from the effects of this silent killer, radon gas

  16. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - i.e., households without children...... children also gain the most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households with the...... lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...

  17. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... children also gain most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households with the lowest...... initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average...

  18. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    Under the coordinated research programme we plan to carry out a systematic study on the intake of mercury through fish consumption. This will be the first of such a project to be carried out in Malaysia. The objectives are to carry out a systematic study on the analysis of mercury in head hair samples from population groups in selected fishing villages located within industrial zones, and a survey on the daily intake of fish and fishery products by the population group, to carry out a systematic study on the analysis of mercury in fish and fishery products samples available to and consumed by the population group and analyze mercury in riverine, estuarine and marine sediments in the vicinity of the selected fishing villages. 2 tabs, 1 map

  19. Numerical simulation of pump-intake vortices

    Rudolf Pavel; Klas Roman

    2015-01-01

    Pump pre-swirl or uneven flow distribution in front of the pump can induce pump-intake vortices. These phenomena result in blockage of the impeller suction space, deterioration of efficiency, drop of head curve and earlier onset of cavitation. Real problematic case, where head curve drop was documented, is simulated using commercial CFD software. Computational simulation was carried out for three flow rates, which correspond to three operating regimes of the vertical pump. The domain consists...

  20. Non-caloric regulation of food intake

    Klockars, Anica

    2014-01-01

    Food intake is shaped by environmental, endocrine, metabolic, and reward-related signals. A change in appetite is an outcome of integration of the relevant external and internal stimuli. While the main purpose of eating is to reverse a negative energy balance, mechanisms protecting homeostasis change appetite for other reasons. This thesis examines the role of select brain mechanisms in regulating consumption driven by aspects other than energy. In paper I, an increased percentage of c-Fos po...

  1. Obesity: Interactions of Genome and Nutrients Intake

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the major public health problems all over the world. Recent novel eras of research are opening for the effective management of obesity though gene and nutrient intake interactions because the causes of obesity are complex and multifactorial. Through GWASs (genome-wide association studies) and genetic variations (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms), as the genetic factors are likely to determine individuals’ obesity predisposition. The understanding of genetic appr...

  2. Chronic THC intake modifies fundamental cerebellar functions

    Stella, Nephi

    2013-01-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal bioactive component in the Cannabis plant, is truly a captivating drug. Acute and chronic THC intake produces a spectrum of biological effects ranging from transient psychotropic effects to prolonged medicinal benefits, many of which have been fostered for centuries by our society. In the July 2013 issue of the JCI, Cutando et al. combined mouse genetics with classic mouse behavioral analysis to deepen our understanding of the...

  3. Swiss survey on salt intake: main results

    Chappuis Aline; Bochud Murielle; Glatz Nicolas; Vuistiner Philippe; Paccaud Fred; Burnier Michel

    2011-01-01

    [Contents] 1. Executive summary. 2. Introduction. 3. Methods. 4. Main results. 4.1. Participants. 4.2. Estimation of dietary salt intake using 24-hour urine collection. 4.3. Blood pressure and hypertension. 4.4. Anthropometric data (Body weight, height and body mass index BMI; prevalence of overweight and obesity; waist circumference;...). 4.5. Knowledge and behaviors towards salt. 5. Discussion.

  4. Food Intake Is Influenced by Sensory Sensitivity

    Naish, Katherine R.; Gillian Harris

    2012-01-01

    Wide availability of highly palatable foods is often blamed for the rising incidence of obesity. As palatability is largely determined by the sensory properties of food, this study investigated how sensitivity to these properties affects how much we eat. Forty females were classified as either high or low in sensory sensitivity based on their scores on a self-report measure of sensory processing (the Adult Sensory Profile), and their intake of chocolate during the experiment was measured. Foo...

  5. Case study: Findings and lessons learned from investigating a uranium intake and the corresponding dose calculations

    bioassay methods not adequate for monitoring intake of S-type uranium. (author)

  6. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  7. Reproducibility and relative validity of a FFQ to estimate the intake of fatty acids.

    Praagman, Jaike; Adolphs, Anda P J; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Sluijs, Ivonne; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Dutch European Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in order to rank subjects according to intakes of fatty acid classes and individual fatty acids. In total, 121 men and women (23-72 years) filled out three FFQ at 6-month intervals between 1991 and 1992. As a reference method, they filled out twelve monthly 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) during the same year. Intra-class correlation coefficients for the FFQ showed moderate to good reproducibility across all fatty acids (classes and individual) in men (0·56-0·81) and women (0·57-0·83). In men, Spearman's correlation coefficients (r s) for the FFQ compared with the 24HDR indicated moderate to good relative validity (r s=0·45-0·71) for all fatty acids, except for arachidonic acid and marine PUFA (r sTFA) and the majority of SFA (r s=0·40-0·66), was fair for the short-chain SFA and lauric acid (r s=0·30-0·33) and was fair to moderate for PUFA (r s=0·22-0·47). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the FFQ and 24HDR, and proportional bias for fatty acids with very low intakes. In conclusion, the FFQ showed good reproducibility for subject ranking based on intakes of fatty acids (classes and individual). The relative validity measures indicated that the FFQ is an adequate tool to rank subjects according to intakes of high-abundant fatty acids, but less for low-abundant fatty acids. PMID:27080748

  8. Dietary calcium intake and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area

    Amila Kapetanović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease of which the genetic determinants are modulated by hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Identifi cation of the risk factors for osteoporosisrelated to nutrition is important in the prevention and treatment of this disease, considering that these factors can be modifi ed. The aim of this study was to examine infl uence of dietary calcium intake on bonemineral density in postmenopausal women who hadn’t a deficit of estrogen in their menstrual history.Methods: A total of 100 postmenopausal women living in Sarajevo area, aged 50-65 years, without estrogen deficiency in menstrual history were included in the study. Mineral bone density was measured at the lumbarspine and proximal femur by Dual–Energy X–ray Absorptiometry using Hologic QDR-4000 scanner. Examination and control group were formed based on mineral bone density values. The women in the examinationgroup had osteoporosis. The women in the control group had osteopenia or normal mineral bone density. Estimates of daily dietary calcium intake were performed based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire.Results: The average daily intake of dietary calcium among women who had osteoporosis was 967.32 mg, and in women who hadn’t osteoporosis 1195.12 mg. The difference between two groups was statistically significant (pConclusion: The results of this study have shown that adequate daily intake of dietary calcium in postmenopausal women aged 50-65 years living in Sarajevo area, which hadn’t estrogen defi ciency in their menstrualhistory (in the group of women without osteoporosis amounted to 1195.12 mg has a positive impact on bone mineral density.

  9. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue;

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was...... assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1 257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and...

  10. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  11. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  12. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  13. Television and eating: Repetition enhances food intake

    Utsa eMathur

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content. To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the ‘Different’ session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the ‘Same’ session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the ‘Same’ and ‘Different’ sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the ‘Different’ session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect.

  14. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship...... between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and...... bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and...

  15. Critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes

    KEREM TASTAN

    2016-04-01

    This study examined critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes. It is shown that the critical submergence for an isolated intake can be predicted by disregarding whole boundary blockages on the complete imaginary critical sink surface that is the combination of imaginary complete critical cylindrical and hemi-spherical sink surfaces. It is proposed that this theory can be applied to the rectangular intakes located in general geometrical and flow conditions (i.e., intake in still water, circulation imposed flow, non-developedcross-flow, multiple intakes, etc.) and that it does not require computation of blockages caused from flow boundaries. The concept of complete sink surface (disregarding whole boundary blockages) developed for an isolated intake was also applied to dual rectangular intakes. The agreement between available test data and theoretical results was found to be satisfactory.

  16. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    Gibson Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI, yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI. Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001 to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86 for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71 for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting, replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. Conclusions TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Compensation for energy from beverages may occur but is partial. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.

  17. Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? A systematic review.

    Joseph E Donnelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. OBJECTIVE: TO ADDRESS THE QUESTION: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-January 2013 for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies were included. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete adults (mean age 18-64 years. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17, 69% of acute (n = 40, 50% of short-term (n = 10, 92% of non-randomized (n = 12 and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24. Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. LIMITATIONS: The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure, or

  18. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  19. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  20. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix de; Santos, Marize Melo Dos; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  1. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  2. Total and Differential Phylloquinone (Vitamin K1 Intakes of Preterm Infants from All Sources during the Neonatal Period

    Paul Clarke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All newborns require phylloquinone after birth to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Babies born prematurely may be at particular risk of deficiency without adequate supplementation during infancy. The main sources of phylloquinone in preterm babies during the neonatal period are the prophylactic dose of phylloquinone given at birth, and that derived from parenteral and/or enteral feeding. This observational study formed part of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial that examined the vitamin K status of preterm infants after random allocation to one of three phylloquinone prophylactic regimens at birth (0.5 or 0.2 mg intramuscularly or 0.2 mg intravenously. In this nutritional sub-study we quantified the proportional and total phylloquinone intakes of preterm infants within the neonatal period from all sources. Almost all infants had average daily phylloquinone intakes that were in excess of the currently recommended amounts. In infants who did not receive parenteral nutrition, the bolus dose of phylloquinone given at birth was the major source of phylloquinone intake, whereas in infants who received parenteral nutrition, the intake from the parenteral preparation exceeded that from the bolus dose by a ratio of approximately 3:1. Our study supports the concern of others that preterm infants who receive current parenteral nutrition formulations may be receiving excessive vitamin K.

  3. Partitioning of feed intake into maintenance and gain in growing beef cattle: Evaluation of conventional and Bayesian analyses.

    Old, C A; Rossow, H A; Famula, T R

    2015-10-01

    The robustness of efficiency estimates depends on theoretical consistency of models from which those estimates are developed; functional forms of the variables must be globally consistent with theoretical properties regarding feed utilization for maintenance and gain in growing and finishing cattle. Model parameter estimates and their dimensions must be unique or estimates of feed utilization and gain will not reflect reality. A linear equation commonly used to estimate daily DMI by the th individual animal (ADFI), based on mean weight and gain during a feeding period, was evaluated to determine if that model was correctly specified and if the vector predicted ADFI differed from the vector observed ADFI. Three independently gathered data sets were evaluated using a multiple linear regression model; variability described by that model failed to capture observed variability in the data (lack of fit, 0.90. The linear model and, to a lesser degree, the first nonlinear model lacked theoretical and global consistency. A second nonlinear model, which described retained energy as a function of ME intake, best fit the data, and functional forms of variables describing ME intake at maintenance and the efficiency of ME utilization for gain were consistent with theoretical estimates found in the literature. Changes in feed intake and live BW in linear and nonlinear models failed to adequately describe efficiencies of metabolic processes, which are better characterized by changes in retained energy as a function of ME intake in nonlinear models. PMID:26523576

  4. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  5. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  6. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  7. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  8. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  9. No effect on oxidative stress biomarkers by modified intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids or vegetables and fruit

    Freese, R; Dragsted, L O; Loft, S;

    2007-01-01

    Diet may both increase and decrease oxidative stress in the body. We compared the effects of four strictly controlled isocaloric diets with different intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 11 or 3% of energy) and vegetables and fruit (total amount of vegetables and fruit 516 or 1059 g/10 MJ......) on markers associated with oxidative stress in 77 healthy volunteers (19-52 years). Plasma protein carbonyls (2-aminoadipic semialdehyde residues) and whole-body DNA and nucleotide oxidation (urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion) tended to decrease in all treatment groups with no differences...... between the diets. The diets did not differ in their effects on red blood cell antioxidative enzyme activities, either. The results suggest that in healthy volunteers with adequate nutrient intakes, 6-week diets differing markedly in the amount of PUFA or vegetables and fruit do not differ...

  10. Joint estimation for curves for weight, feed intake, rate of gain, and residual feed intake

    Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    Rate of gain and feed efficiency are very important traits in most breeding programs for growing farm animals. Rate of gain (GAIN) is usually expressed over a certain age period and feed efficiency is often expressed as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as observed feed intake (FI) minus expected...... and RFI defined both longitudinally or integrated over (parts of) of the test period can be obtained from a joint analysis of the basic records which consists of WGT and FI. The resulting covariance functions for WGT, FI, GAIN and RFI are usually singular but the procedure presented here do not suffer...

  11. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt.

    Rohner, Fabian; Wirth, James P; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chiwile, Faraja; Yankson, Hannah; Sesay, Fatmata; Koroma, Aminata S; Petry, Nicolai; Pyne-Bailey, Solade; Dominguez, Elisa; Kupka, Roland; Hodges, Mary H; de Onis, Mercedes

    2016-02-01

    Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world's population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women's urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine) was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency. PMID:26848685

  12. Students' Use of Tutoring Services, by Adequate Yearly Progress Status of School. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2010-023

    Warkentien, Siri; Grady, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief contributes to current research by investigating the use of tutoring services among a nationally representative group of public school students enrolled in grades K-12. The report compares students in schools that have not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for 3 or more years, and were thereby enrolled in schools that…

  13. Are Substance Use Prevention Programs More Effective in Schools Making Adequate Yearly Progress? A Study of Project ALERT

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Hanley, Sean M.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to determine if a popular school-based drug prevention program might be effective in schools that are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). Thirty-four schools with grades 6 through 8 in 11 states were randomly assigned either to receive Project ALERT (n = 17) or to a control group (n = 17); of these, 10 intervention…

  14. Iodine Status of Women of Reproductive Age in Sierra Leone and Its Association with Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt

    Fabian Rohner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt iodization programs are a public health success in tackling iodine deficiency. Yet, a large proportion of the world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Sierra Leone, household salt samples and women’s urine samples were quantitatively analyzed for iodine content. Salt was collected from 1123 households, and urine samples from 817 non-pregnant and 154 pregnant women. Household coverage with adequately iodized salt (≥15 mg/kg iodine was 80.7%. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC of pregnant women was 175.8 µg/L and of non-pregnant women 190.8 µg/L. Women living in households with adequately iodized salt had higher median UIC (for pregnant women: 180.6 µg/L vs. 100.8 µg/L, respectively, p < 0.05; and for non-pregnant women: 211.3 µg/L vs. 97.8 µg/L, p < 0.001. Differences in UIC by residence, region, household wealth, and women’s education were much smaller in women living in households with adequately iodized salt than in households without. Despite the high household coverage of iodized salt in Sierra Leone, it is important to reach the 20% of households not consuming adequately iodized salt. Salt iodization has the potential for increasing equity in iodine status even with the persistence of other risk factors for deficiency.

  15. Using Fuzzy Logic to Identify Schools Which May Be Misclassified by the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress Policy

    Yates, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation developed, tested, and prototyped a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) that would assist decision makers in identifying schools that may have been misclassified by existing Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) methods. This prototype was then used to evaluate Louisiana elementary schools using published school data for Academic Year 2004. …

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake in Germany

    Mensink, Gert; Truthmann, Julia; Rabenberg, Martina; Heidemann, Christin; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Richter, Almut

    2013-01-01

    To date, the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society on fruit and vegetable intake have not been met by the majority of the population. In the first wave of the “German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults” (DEGS1), which was conducted from 2008 to 2011, food consumption was determined with a validated food frequency questionnaire in a representative random sample of the 18–79-year-old resident population of Germany (n=7,116). The number of portions of fruit and vegetabl...

  17. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease surveillance data among health facilities in Nairobi County, Kenya, 2013

    Mwatondo, Athman Juma; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Maina, Caroline; Makayotto, Lyndah; Mwangi, Moses; Njeru, Ian; Arvelo, Wences

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kenya adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of adequate reporting and factors associated with IDSR reporting among health facilities in one Kenyan County. Methods Health facilities (public and private) were enrolled using stratified random sampling from 348 facilities prioritized for routine surveillance reporting. Adequately-reporting facilities were defined as those which submitted >10 weekly reports during a twelve-week period and a poor reporting facilities were those which submitted <10 weekly reports. Multivariate logistic regression with backward selection was used to identify risk factors associated with adequate reporting. Results From September 2 through November 30, 2013, we enrolled 175 health facilities; 130(74%) were private and 45(26%) were public. Of the 175 health facilities, 77 (44%) facilities classified as adequate reporting and 98 (56%) were reporting poorly. Multivariate analysis identified three factors to be independently associated with weekly adequate reporting: having weekly reporting forms at visit (AOR19, 95% CI: 6-65], having posters showing IDSR functions (AOR8, 95% CI: 2-12) and having a designated surveillance focal person (AOR7, 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion The majority of health facilities in Nairobi County were reporting poorly to IDSR and we recommend that the Ministry of Health provide all health facilities in Nairobi County with weekly reporting tools and offer specific trainings on IDSR which will help designate a focal surveillance person. PMID:27303581

  18. Pre-hospital dietary intake correlates with muscle mass at the time of fracture in older hip fractured patients

    Riccardo eCalvani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Failure to meet an adequate dietary intake is involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which in turn increase the risk for falls and fractures, respectively. Older people with hip fracture are often protein-malnourished at hospitalization. Whether low protein-energy intake is associated with muscle atrophy in hip fractured patients is presently unknown. This information is necessary for the development of novel strategies to manage this especially vulnerable patient population. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the relationship between dietary intake and muscle mass in older hip fractured patients.Methods. Analyses were conducted in hip fractured elderly admitted to an orthopedic and trauma surgery ward (University Hospital. Muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis within 24 h from admission. Dietary information was collected via 24-h dietary recall and nutrient intakes calculated by a nutrition software.Results. Among 62 hip fractured patients (mean age 84.6±7.6 years, 84% women, the average energy intake was 929.2±170.3 Kcal/day, with higher values reported by men (1.046.8±231.4 Kcal/day relative to women (906.5±148.3 Kcal/day; p=0.01. Absolute and normalized protein intake was 50.0±13.5 g/day and 0.88±0.27 g/kg (body weight/day, respectively, with no gender differences. A positive correlation was determined between total energy intake and muscle mass (r=0.384; p=0.003. Similarly, protein and leucine consumption was positively correlated with muscle mass (r=0.367 and 0.311, respectively; p=0.005 for both.Conclusions. A low intake of calories, protein and leucine is associated with reduced muscle mass in hip fractured elderly. Given the relevance of sarcopenia as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in this patient population, our findings highlight the importance of a comprehensive dietary assessment for the detection of nutritional deficits predisposing to or aggravating

  19. Measurement of children's food intake with digital photography and the effects of second servings upon food intake.

    Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Anton, Stephen D; Allen, H Raymond; Alfonso, Anthony; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany; Sothern, Melinda; Williamson, Donald A

    2007-04-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake with the digital photography method and the effects of second servings upon food intake. Food intake was measured in a school cafeteria for 5 days. Adiposity was assessed with body impedance analysis and body mass index, expressed as percentile rank. Mood and self-esteem were assessed with questionnaires. Estimates of food intake were highly reliable between two registered dietitians who independently estimated food intake. Boys ate more food than girls. A significant association between food intake and adiposity supported convergent validity. Non-significant correlations between food intake and depressed mood and self-esteem supported discriminant validity. When second servings were available, more food was selected and discarded, but mean food intake did not increase. Children who returned for second servings, however, ate more food when second servings were available, and a trend suggested that they also ate more food when second servings were not available. These findings support the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake using digital photography and demonstrate its utility for studies of food intake and body weight. PMID:17336784

  20. Prediction of intake in growing dairy heifers under tropical conditions.

    Oliveira, A S; Ferreira, V B

    2016-02-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to develop models of the prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) in growing dairy heifers [postweaning to 390 kg of body weight (BW)] under tropical conditions. The adequacy of the models was assessed in a comparison with the 4 US models currently used to predict DMI [Quigley; National Research Council; and 2 Hoffman models]. The data set was created using 95 treatment means from 28 studies published in journals. The data set (studies) was randomly divided into 2 data subsets for the statistical analyses. The first data subset was used to develop the prediction equations for DMI (17 studies; 58 treatment means), and the second data subset was used to assess the adequacy of the predictive models (11 studies; 37 treatment means). The models were developed using nonlinear and linear mixed analyses. Breed (Bos taurus vs. Bos taurus × Bos indicus), BW (240.2±62.2 kg), and average daily gain (ADG, 0.83±0.28 kg/d) were the independent variables. No significant effects of the breed or the interactions between the breed and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) or breed and ADG were detected. Thus, nonlinear [DMI=0.1175 × BW(0.75) - 3.4984 × e((-2.4690 × ADG))] and linear models [DMI=8.7147 - 0.2402 × BW(0.75) + 0.0027 × (BW(0.75))(2) + 3.6050 × ADG - 1.4168 × ADG(2)] were proposed for both breeds. The nonlinear model explained 81% of the variation in the DMI, over-predicted the DMI by 0.21 kg/d and predicted the DMI with a higher accuracy and precision than the linear model [root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP)=8.82 vs. 10.71% of the observed DMI, respectively]. The Quigley model explained only 54% of the variation in the DMI and was the fourth most accurate and precise model (RMSEP=11.21% of the observed DMI). The National Research Council model explained 69% of the variation in the DMI but under-predicted the DMI by 0.53 kg/d, with an RMSEP of 12.72% of the observed DMI and presence of systematic constant bias. The Hoffman exponential

  1. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  2. Dose coefficients from incorporated 129 Iodine. Influence of dietary intake

    Dose coefficients from incorporated 129 Iodine. Influence of Dietary intake. Internal dose coefficients recently published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and adopted in the new European Directive, allow direct calculation of the committed effective dose by multiplying the intake of radionuclide, expressed as becquerels, Bq, by those dose coeffIcients. For iodine, however, this methodology needs adaptation as iodine uptake by thyroid from blood is ruled by an adjustment process to the daily iodine intake: The greater that intake, the smaller the iodine fraction of thyroid uptake. Dealing with the 129 iodine radioactive isotope, for a same ingested Bq, the uptake factor can vary, from 0.3, for a daily dietary intake of 165 μg, to 0.03 for a daily dietary intake of 2.2 mg. Illustrations of this variability are simulated in several situations that could involve contaminated water consumption. (authors)

  3. Hypersonic Intake Starting Characteristics–A CFD Validation Study

    Soumyajit Saha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of hypersonic intake starting characteristics is presented. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD software. Wall pressure distribution and intake performance parameters are found to match well with experimental data for different free stream Mach number in the range of 3-8. The unstarting of the intake is traced from the sudden drop of mass capture ratio. Wall condition (adiabatic or isothermal is seen to have pronounced effect in estimating the performance parameters in the intake. The computed unstarting Mach number is seen to be higher for adiabatic condition compared to isothermal condition. For unstarting case, large separation bubble is seen near the entrance of the intake, which is responsible for expulsion of the shock system out of the intake.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.147-152, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1340

  4. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    Freil, M; Nielsen, MA; Blitz, B; Gut, C; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2006-01-01

    , eaten and wasted was measured, and energy and protein intake calculated. Results: The quartile of patients with the lowest energy intake consumed on average 128 kJ per patient [(95% confidence interval (CI) 79-178 kJ] with the old system; with the new system they consumed 560 kJ per patient (95% CI 489......, increases the energy and protein intake of the patients. Design: Observational study comparing the food intake before and twice after the implementation of the new system, the first time by specially trained staff and the second time by ordinary staff members, following training. The amount of food served......-631 kJ) on the first occasion, and 1021 kJ per patient (95% CI 939-1104 kJ) on the second occasion. With the old system, the wastage was on average 276 g per patient (48% of the total amount produced) compared with 118 g per patient (30%) and 78 g (21%) on the two test occasions with the new system...

  5. Reorganization of a hospital catering system increases food intake in patients with inadequate intake

    Freil, M.; Nielsen, M. A.; Biltz, C.; Gut, R.; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Almdal, T.

    2006-01-01

    , eaten and wasted was measured, and energy and protein intake calculated. Results: The quartile of patients with the lowest energy intake consumed on average 128 kJ per patient [(95% confidence interval (CI) 79-178 kJ] with the old system; with the new system they consumed 560 kJ per patient (95% CI 489...... the energy and protein intake of the patients. Design: Observational study comparing the food intake before and twice after the implementation of the new system, the first time by specially trained staff and the second time by ordinary staff members, following training. The amount of food served......-631 kJ) on the first occasion, and 1021 kJ per patient (95% CI 939-1104 kJ)on the second occasion. With the old system, the wastage was on average 276 g per patient (48% of the total amount produced) compared with 118 g per patient (30%) and 78 g (21%) on the two test occasions with the new system...

  6. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  7. Energy Intake Estimates of Respondent-Measured Alcoholic Beverages

    Tujague, Jennifer; Kerr, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate a methodology for estimating detailed energy intake from alcoholic beverages. Methods: Participants were 315 monthly drinkers who completed a drink-measuring exercise. Energy intake from alcohol and non-alcohol ingredients was calculated for all beverages consumed. Results: Measured alcoholic beverages had on average 140 kilocalories, with 26% of the energy coming from non-alcohol ingredients. The average monthly kilocalorie intake, from all alcoh...

  8. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    Kristensen, Nadja B.; Madsen, Mia L.; H Hansen, Tue; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia Smedmann; Gøbel, Rikke J.; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Background Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Methods Seventy 18–61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1 257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary in...

  9. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  10. Food Choice and Sodium Intake in the American Diet

    Dong, Zefeng; Gao, Zhifeng; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption has significant impact on sodium intake, with which overconsumption will result in negative healthy impact on individuals. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 and regression analyses, we examined the effect of consumption of various food groups on the sodium intake of American adults (19 years of age or older) and changes in the impacts of various food consumption on sodium intake over the study period. The impact of respondents’ demograp...

  11. The Beverage Intake Questionnaire: Initial Validity and Reliability

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of energy-containing beverages may lead to weight gain, yet research investigating this issue is limited. An easily-administered beverage intake assessment tool could facilitate research on this topic. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine the validity and reliability of a self-administered beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ), which estimates mean daily intake of beverages consumed (g, kcals) across 19 beverage categories. Participants (n=105; aged 39...

  12. Nutritional intake of various groups of Flemish vegetarians

    Deriemaeker, P; Alewaeters, K; Hebbelinck, M; Clarys, P

    2011-01-01

    Background The most recent national nutritional survey (2004) indicates that 1.2% of the Flemish population follows a vegetarian diet. Information on nutritional intake in vegetarians in this population is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study is to describe the nutritional intake and dietary adequacy of various groups of Flemish vegetarians. Materials and methods Nutritional intake was assessed in various vegetarian groups from different study designs: young children (aged 1 to 10 y...

  13. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-su...

  14. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  15. Hypersonic Intake Starting Characteristics–A CFD Validation Study

    Soumyajit Saha; Debasis Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulation of hypersonic intake starting characteristics is presented. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved alongwith SST turbulence model using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Wall pressure distribution and intake performance parameters are found to match well with experimental data for different free stream Mach number in the range of 3-8. The unstarting of the intake is traced from the sudden drop of mass capture ratio. Wall condition (adiabatic or ...

  16. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds i...

  17. Poultry Intake and Chronic Diseases:a Systematic Review

    Jing CUI; Yan MA; Hua-qi ZHANG; Jing CAI; Ai-guo MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively review the relationship between poultry intake and chronic diseases.MethodsThe literatures were limited to human studies and written in English during 2002 to 2014 and in Chinese during 1997 to 2014. A total of 35 studies were included in this study. Among all the included studies, five studies were related to colorectal cancer (CRC), six to prostate cancer (PCA) and five to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The relationships between poultry intake and CRC, PCA and T2DM were evaluated with the method recommended by WHO.Results First, the poultry intake was not associated with CRC. Five studies were included in this analysis, in which three (including one systematic review, one cohort study and one case-control study) were not associated between the poultry intake with CRC, while two (including one case-control study and one cohort study) were negatively associated. Second, the poultry intake was not associated with PCA. Six studies were included in this analysis, in which two (including one case-control study and one cohort study) were not associated between the poulty intake with PCA, while two case-control studies were positively associated with fried chichen, and another two case-control studies negatively associated. Third, the poultry intake was not associated with T2DM. Five studies were included in this analysis, in which three (including one randomized controlled trial and two cohort studies) were not associated between the poultry intake and T2DM, while one cohort study not associated, but the processed poultry intake was positively associated. In another cohort study, the fried chicken intake was positively associated with T2DM. Finally, there were no enough data on the relationship between the poultry intake and the cardiovascular diseases (CVD), breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, blood pressure, obesity and anemia.Conclusion Poultry intake is not associated with CRC PCA or T2DM.

  18. The intake of intense sweeteners ? an update review

    Renwick, Andrew Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author?s previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant ADI values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available...

  19. Intake of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer.

    Knekt, P.; Järvinen, R.; Seppänen, R; Pukkala, E; Aromaa, A

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between intake of dairy products and risk of breast cancer was studied in 4697 initially cancer-free women, aged 15 years or over. During a 25 year follow-up period after the collection of food consumption data, 88 breast cancers were diagnosed. Intakes of foods were calculated from dietary history interviews covering the habitual diet of examinees over the preceding year. There was a significant inverse gradient between milk intake and incidence of breast cancer, the age-adj...

  20. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Amanda Moura Souza; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Denise Tavares Giannini; Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira; Marize Melo dos Santos; Vanessa Sá Leal; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calcul...

  1. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children.

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7-17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  2. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention. PMID:10604182

  3. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  4. Aplicação das Dietary Reference Intakes na avaliação da ingestão de nutrientes para indivíduos Application of Dietary Reference Intakes for assessment of individuals

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do estado nutricional é uma das práticas clínicas fundamentais para tomar-se a decisão quanto ao diagnóstico nutricional de um indivíduo e à conduta dietética a ser-lhe prescrita. A adequação da ingestão de nutrientes é um dos componentes da avaliação nutricional e é feita a partir de valores de referência que se constituem em estimativas das necessidades fisiológicas desses nutrientes e metas de ingestão dos mesmos. Colocam-se hoje à disposição dos profissionais um novo conjunto de valores de referência que constituem um avanço importante no modo de interpretar a adequação dietética: as Dietary Reference Intakes. Este artigo aborda os métodos propostos para avaliação da adequação da ingestão de nutriente às necessidades do indivíduo, utilizando os novos valores de referências.The nutritional status assessment is one of the fundamental clinical approaches in making a decision about nutritional diagnosis and dietetic behavior, in order to prescribe an adequate diet therapy. The evaluation of nutrient intakes is a component of the nutritional assessment and it is made from estimates of nutrient physiological needs and goals for good nutrition, known as reference values. A new group of reference values is recently available for health professionals: the Dietary Reference Intakes, which represent an important progress in the field of dietary assessment interpretation. This paper discusses the proposed methods for the individual nutrient intake assessment, using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

  5. Right pp Semigroups with Multiplicative Right Adequate Transversals%带有乘右适当断面的右主投射半群

    胡耀华; 郭小江

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of right adequate transversals of rpp semigroups is introduced. We establish the structure of rpp semigroups with multiplicative right adequate transversals in terms of right normal bands and right adequate semigroups. In particular, some special cases are considered.

  6. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  7. Evaluation of Food Intake in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Z Faghfoori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon of unknown cause that is associated with important nutrition deficiencies such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Because no study has been carried out to date in Iran, the aim of this pilot study was the assessment of dietary intake of these patients. Methods: In this pilot study, 41 UC patients whose disease severity was mild or moderate were selected. Data about diet restrictions were collected via a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed 3 times during a 2 month period with 30 days interval and 3-day food-recall (9days in general. Results: Subjects were 26 men and 15 women and 65.9% patients avoided completely or limited milk intake. Dietary limitation about fruits and vegetables was 24.4 and 43.9 percent, respectively and legumes intake was 58.5%. Mean calorie intake in 41 patients was 2125.14±60.83 calories/day and in two groups, calcium and fiber intake was significantly less than the standard dietary recommendation. Conclusion: Dietary intake examination showed some deficiencies such as calcium and iron deficiency and fiber intake was low because the intake of fruits, vegetables and legumes was limited.

  8. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked

  9. Prevalence of chronic complications, metabolic control and nutritional intake in type 1 diabetes

    Toeller, M; Buyken, A E; Heitkamp, G;

    1999-01-01

    This study compares the prevalence of chronic complications, the quality of metabolic control and the nutritional intake in people with type 1 diabetes in different European regions. The EURODIAB Complications Study included a sample of 3250 European patients with type 1 diabetes stratified for...... hypoglycaemia and proliferative retinopathy were more common. Persons from the eastern European and the German centres consumed undesirably high amounts of cholesterol, total and saturated fat. Overall, improvements in the prevention, detection and management of diabetes complications in persons with type 1...... diabetes are essential throughout Europe, particularly in eastern European regions. Since elevated LDL-cholesterol levels and hypertension were strikingly common in this relatively young cohort of European people with type 1 diabetes, generally more attention should be directed towards an adequate...

  10. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:24668685

  11. The Leap of a Provincial SME into the Global Market Using E-commerce: The Success of Adequate Planning

    Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; García Salcines, Enrique; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; López Coronado, Miguel; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    The leap into the global market is not easy when it involves a provincial family business. This article demonstrates how adequate planning is fundamental in a small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) with the tight budget they have available to them, in order to be able to differentiate themselves in a highly competitive market, taking into accounts the benefits and risks involved. The Information Technology (IT) tools put in place will give the necessary support and allow for the possibility of increasing and improving the infrastructure as the company requires. An adequate strategy for the future to increases sales would be e-marketing techniques as well as the current promotions which contribute to diffusing the brand.

  12. INTERNAL AUDIT FOR FINANCIAL INVESTMENT COMPANIES – ASSURANCE FOR ADEQUATE SUPERVISING OF CORPORATE GOVERNENCE PRINCIPLES

    Tatiana Danescu; Ovidiu Spatacean

    2008-01-01

    In the risk assessment process, financial auditors often rely on internalauditors when establishing the control risk level. Therefore, adequate internal auditfunction, as part of a solid corporate governance is a factor of lowering control risk,when assessing audit risks for Financial Investment Companies. The paper intends toapproach issues related to internal audit as a relevant source of added value for listedcompanies and the main objectives related to internal audit engagements forFinanc...

  13. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents

  14. PROBLEMS OF MAINTAINING ADEQUATE ACCOUNTING RECORDS FOR A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    John R. Ledgerwood; Stephen N. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the accounting challenges faced by a small-scale non-profit organization operating in sub-Saharan Africa. We will look at the case of Enright Flight Ministries, Inc. a 501(c)3 non-profit organization based in Florida that carries out evangelical and humanitarian aid projects in Zambia. Building upon field interviews with administrative staff and project managers, we analyze the various problems facing the organization in maintaining adequate accounting records. After looki...

  15. Survey of Third-Year Postgraduate Training Positions in Family Medicine: Adding more positions for adequate training in primary care

    Busing, Nick

    1992-01-01

    In a survey of 16 program directors of residency training in family medicine, respondents were asked about numbers and types of third-year positions they offer. As Canadian educational programs move toward implementing or expanding 2-year prelicensure requirements, many directors are exploring the need to add even more positions for adequate training in primary care. Respondents offered suggestions on tailoring strategies in view of the educational, political, and economic climate.

  16. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  17. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; Pintake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:26238447

  18. The Role of Dietary Protein Intake and Resistance Training on Myosin Heavy Chain Expression

    Willoughby Darryn S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During resistance training the muscle undergoes many changes. Possibly the most profound and significant changes are those that occur in the muscles contractile proteins. Increases in these contractile proteins are one of the primary factors contributing to myofibrillar hypertrophy. The most abundant muscle protein is myosin, which comprises 25% of the total muscle protein. Due to the large amount of skeletal muscle that is composed of myosin, changes in this fiber may have profound effects on skeletal muscle size and strength. The myosin molecule is made up of 6 subunits, 2 very large heavy chains, and 4 smaller light chains. The myosin heavy chain (MHC accounts for 25–30% of all muscle proteins making its size an important factor in skeletal muscle growth. In conjunction with resistance training, dietary protein intake must be adequate to illicit positive adaptations. Although many studies have evaluated the role of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscle changes, few have evaluated the MHC specifically. Research has clearly defined the need for dietary protein and resistance training to facilitate positive changes in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current literature on the effects of dietary protein and resistance training on the expression of the myosin heavy chain.

  19. Impact of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species in the control of energy metabolism and food intake

    Anne eDrougard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related protein (AgRP/neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons. Hypothalamic ROS release is under the influence of different factors such as pancreatic and gut hormones, adipokines (leptin, apelin,..., neurotransmitters and nutrients (glucose, lipids,.... The sources of ROS production are multiple including NADPH oxidase, but also the mitochondria which is considered as the main ROS producer in the brain. ROS are considered as signaling molecules, but conversely impairment of this neuronal signaling ROS pathway contributes to alterations of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine function, leading to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.In this review we focus our attention on factors that are able to modulate hypothalamic ROS release in order to control food intake and energy metabolism, and whose deregulations could participate to the development of pathological conditions. This novel insight reveals an original mechanism in the hypothalamus that controls energy balance and identify hypothalamic ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic disorders.

  20. Dietary intake in the postoperative bariatric surgery at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro

    Louise Crovesy-de-Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: bariatric surgery is a treatment for morbid obesity that besides result in high weight loss promotes improvements in laboratory tests and in the pressure reduction. However the surgery can cause bad effects as deficiency some nutrients. This fact become more important evaluates the adequacy of dietary intake of these patients. The objective this study was evaluates the adequacy dietetic of patients after bariatric surgery.Material and methods: we select forty women who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric and carried evaluation anthropometric and dietetic. The dietary evaluate was compared with the daily consumption requirement and food pyramid for these patients.Results: forty women with 43.1 ± 9.96 years, obesity and very high risk for metabolic complications associate with obesity, and with acceptation of supplementation (95% participated this study. The majority of women consumed group’s foods “high-calorie foods, fats and sweets are energy-dense foods” and showed high intake of foods groups “grains and cereals” and “high-fiber, low-calorie foods”. Dietary intake was low-calorie (1342.50 ± 474.06 Kcal, adequate in protein (22.10 ± 6.94%, carbohydrate (50.74 ± 10.96%, lipid (26.14 ± 7.17%, saturated fatty acids (8.69 ± 2.74% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (8.93 ± 3.51% and low-monounsaturated fatty acids (4.13 ± 1.78% and fibers (17.02 ± 10.64 g.Conclusions: nutritional habits of women showed inadequacy, these results reinforce the importance of nutritional accompanying in the late postoperative bariatric surgery.

  1. Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust

    This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these 'ores' contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another 'parent' radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures

  2. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs).

    Vorster, Hester H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Allen, Lindsay H; King, Janet C

    2007-03-01

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promotion of optimal nutrition and preventing and treating malnutrition (both over- and undernutrition). Other applications include nutrition education, food and nutrient legislation, marketing and labeling, research, product development, food procurement and trade (import and export), food aid, and therapeutic (clinical) nutrition. Specific examples of how NIVs are used to develop food labels, fortification policies, and food-based dietary guidelines are described. Applications in both developed and developing countries are also described. In summary, NIVs are the scientific backbone of all aspects of nutrition policy in countries and regions worldwide. PMID:17521123

  3. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  4. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  5. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants.

    Ketelaars, J.J.M.J.; Tolkamp, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this thesis contains a critical appraisal of the commonly accepted theory with regard to feed intake regulation in ruminants and the presentation of a new theory. This new theory assumes that feed consumption creates both benefits to the animal (in a non-reproducing animal the intake of ne

  6. Micronutrient intake and the presence of the metabolic syndrome

    Soudabe Motamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary micronutrients have been proposed to protect against oxidative damage and related clinical complications. Aims: We aimed to compare the micronutrient intake between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3800 men and women who were aged between 35 and 65 years. The diagnosis of the MS was based on International Diabetes Federation criteria. Dietary intake of participants was assessed using a questionnaire for 24 h dietary recall. Student′s t-test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for comparing the micronutrient intake of subjects with or without the MS and the odds ratio for the presence of the MS was calculated for each micronutrient by control for total energy intake adjusted by the residue method. Results: The mean age of MS subjects and the control group was 48.8 ± 7.9 years and 47.6 ± 7.6 years, respectively. Energy-adjusted intake of vitamin E ( P < 0.05, B2 ( P < 0.01, and B12 ( P < 0.05 was higher in normal women compared with women with MS. Energy-adjusted intake of vitamin B1 was significantly higher in women with MS. After logistic regression analysis, no significant association between micronutrient intake and MS was shown. Conclusion: We found no significant association between micronutrient intake and MS.

  7. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  8. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  9. USDA develops a database for flavonoids to assess dietary intakes

    The beneficial health effects of dietary flavonoids continue to interest the scientific community in associating the flavonoid intakes and certain chronic diseases. Scientists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) and the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG), USDA planned a study of the intakes of fl...

  10. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    T. Muka; B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C.K.- de Jong (Jessica C. Kiefte-)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  11. Fluid Intake and Cognitive Performance: Should Schoolchildren Drink during Lessons?

    Fuchs, Tanja; Lührmann, Petra; Simpson, Faith; Dohnke, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that an insufficient fluid intake impairs cognitive performance. Drinking policies at schools--especially drinking during lessons--is a point of controversy. To provide a scientific base for this debate, more empirical evidence is needed on which aspects of fluid intake are crucial for cognitive performance. This…

  12. Electroretinography in healthy subjects in relation to systemic glucocorticoid intake

    Kappelgaard, Per; Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina;

    2012-01-01

    -specified level of clamped hyperglycemia. The study included 10 eyes in 10 healthy lean men aged 25 ± 3 years (mean ± SD). The subjects were examined before and after oral intake of prednisolone 37.5 mg/day for 9.1 ± 1.4 days. The diabetogenic potential of prednisolone was reinforced by the intake of a high...

  13. Texture, energy density & learning : implications for food intake

    Hogenkamp, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction
    Food texture has been shown to be an important factor in the regulation of food (energy) intake. Liquid foods e.g. elicit weaker satiety responses than solid foods with a similar energy content, and texture affects satiation, i.e. ad libitum food intake. Whether theeffect of food

  14. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E;

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data are...

  15. Air intake and exhaust systems in fuel cell engines

    Fuesser, R.; Weber, O. [Mann and Hummel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the air intake and exhaust system of a fuel cell powered road vehicle. In this instance the automotive supplier designed both the air intake and the exhaust system. The fuel cell engine gives a cold combustion effect making it possible to manufacture the exhaust from plastic materials. (UK)

  16. Dietary intake of carotenoids and risk of type 2 diabetes

    Sluijs, I.; Cadier, E.; Beulens, J. W J; van der A, D. L.; Spijkerman, A. M W; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes assoc

  17. Intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of skin cancer

    Heinen, M.M.; Hughes, M.C.; Ibiebele, T.I.; Marks, G.C.; Green, A.C.; Pols, van der J.C.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the associations between intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin, we carried out a prospective study among 1001 randomly selected adults living in an Australian community. Intake of antioxidants was estimated in 1996.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1065.205. This may include a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a...

  19. Automatic swirl angle measurements for pump intake design

    Fockert, A. de; Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Verhaart, F.I.H.

    2014-01-01

    Pre-swirl occurring in pump intake basins influences pump efficiency and lifetime. The exact effect on a pump depends on the pump design. In order to optimize the approach flow towards the pump, physical scale modelling is often applied following the guidelines formulated in pump intake design stand

  20. Estimated intake of benzoic and sorbic acids in Denmark

    Leth, Torben; Christensen, Tue; Larsen, I. K.

    2010-01-01

    The monitoring of food additives and recent dietary surveys carried out in Denmark have earlier been used to estimate the intake of sweeteners and nitrite in relation to acceptable daily intakes. The ubiquitous use of the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acids raises the question of the magnitude...

  1. Internal flow characteristics of a rectangular ramjet air intake

    Moerel, J.-L.; Veraar, R.G.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Pimentel, R.; Corriveau, D.; Hamel, N.; Lesage, F.; Vos, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Two research institutes TNO Defence, Security and Safety and DRDC-Valcartier have worked together on the improvement of modeling and simulation tools for the functioning of supersonic air intakes for realistic ramjet engines of tactical missiles. The emphasis laid on complex rectangular intake desig

  2. Food concentrations and dietary intakes of elements for Chinese man

    Objective: To obtain concentrations of elements in Chinese current foods and their dietary intakes by adult man in order to provide a basis on intake parameters of Chinese Reference Man and make related hygienic evaluation. Methods: With mixed food sample method of total diet study, determination of element concentrations in constituent foods of diets for 4 areas with different diet types was carried out by using NAA, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, AAS and necessary QA measures, and estimation of their daily intakes and hygienic evaluation were also made. Results: The concentrations of 42 elements in 12 categories of foods, their intakes and hygienic evaluation for adult man were obtained. Conclusion: The data on element concentrations in Chinese foods and their dietary intakes were updated and widened. These data provided a new basis for developing the parameters of Chinese Reference Man and revealed some current hygienic problems. For example, from viewpoint of nutrition hygiene the Ca, Zn, and Cu intakes for Chinese Reference Man are insufficient, and from consideration of food hygiene the intakes of Pb,Cd and Na are excessive.. Especially, and Cd average daily intakes of Pb, Cd and Hg have been increased during recent years, those of Pb exceed their ADIs, which should be paid attention to

  3. Studies of twins indicate that genetics influence dietary intake

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O;

    2008-01-01

    Habitual dietary intake is a complex behavior that may have both biological and nonbiological bases. We estimated the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on dietary intake in a large population-based sample of healthy twins. Data originated from a cross-sectional study of 600 male...

  4. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  5. Magnesium Intake and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Higher dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) may protect against development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in elderly men and women. We examined cross-sectional associations between magnesium i...

  6. Are current practices adequate

    Events related to safeguards during the last year are reviewed. Present needs are a clear statement of safeguards objectives, more Federal funds, and design of facilities for easier safeguards. It is felt that effective safeguards can be implemented at relatively low overall cost to industry. C. Walske's presentation of the AIF position is strongly endorsed. (U.S.)

  7. COMPUTER MODELING OF HYDRODYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT BOUNDARIES OF WATER INTAKE AREA WITH FILTERING INTAKE

    Boronina Lyudmila Vladimirovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of water intake technologies are of great importance. These technologies are required to provide high quality water intake and treatment; they must be sufficiently simple and reliable, and they must be easily adjustable to particular local conditions. A mathematical model of a water supply area near the filtering water intake is proposed. On its basis, a software package designated for the calculation of parameters of the supply area along with its graphical representation is developed. To improve the efficiency of water treatment plants, the authors propose a new method of their integration into the landscape by taking account of velocity distributions in the water supply area within the water reservoir where the plant installation is planned. In the proposed relationship, the filtration rate and the scattering rate at the outlet of the supply area are taken into account, and they assure more precise projections of the inlet velocity. In the present study, assessment of accuracy of the mathematical model involving the scattering of a turbulent flow has been done. The assessment procedure is based on verification of the mean values equality hypothesis and on comparison with the experimental data. The results and conclusions obtained by means of the method developed by the authors have been verified through comparison of deviations of specific values calculated through the employment of similar algorithms in MathCAD, Maple and PLUMBING. The method of the water supply area analysis, with the turbulent scattering area having been taken into account, and the software package enable to numerically estimate the efficiency of the pre-purification process by tailoring a number of parameters of the filtering component of the water intake to the river hydrodynamic properties. Therefore, the method and the software package provide a new tool for better design, installation and operation of water treatment plants with respect to filtration and

  8. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  9. Daily intake of uranium by urban Indian population

    The daily intake of uranium (238U) by an urban Indian adult population was estimated by the analysis of a duplicate diet, drinking water, and air samples using neutron activation and radiochemical separation. The uranium intake through food is 0.55 μg which is much larger than that from drinking water and air, at 0.09 and 0.01 μg, respectively. The total daily dietary intake of uranium, calculated from the concentrations measured in the individual food ingredients and their daily consumption (based on the national survey) is found to be 2.2 μg which is a factor of 3.5 higher than that based on a duplicate urban diet. The maximum contribution to the daily intake is found to be from cereals. The lower intake by the urban population is most likely due to their lower food consumption. (author) 10 refs.; 4 tabs

  10. Intake of paracetamol and risk of asthma in adults

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Intake of paracetamol has been associated with development of asthma. The aim of this study was to address a possible association between intake of paracetamol and risk of adult-onset asthma. Using a multidisciplinary postal questionnaire survey concerning health and lifestyle we prospectively...... studied 19,349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. There was a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who reported frequent intake of paracetamol at baseline compared with subjects without this determinant (12.0% vs. 4.3%), OR = 3.03 (1.51-6.11), p = 0.005. The result...... remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, BMI, hay fever, eczema, and intake of medications other than paracetamol, OR = 2.16 (1.03-4.53), p = 0.041. Frequent intake of paracetamol is an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma....

  11. Dietary intakes and some biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients

    Emine Yassibas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intake of energy and some nutrients is frequently inadequate in dialysis patients because of eating and appetite disorders due to uremic syndrome. Inadequate energy and protein intake cause to malnutrition. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers and dietary intake records have great importance in determining the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD patients. Therefore this study was planned to determination of daily energy, nutrient intake and some biochemical markers of adult hemodialysis patients. Method and Material:  A hundred and thirty six (male = 73, female = 63 clinically stable HD patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were taken 24-hour dietary recall. The daily energy and nutrient intakes of patients were calculated by food consumption records and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The mean age was found 45.5±13.51 years. The ratio of patients with body mass index (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2 was 7.4% and 25 kg/m2 or upper was 16.9%. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total protein levels were below the normal levels. The daily dietary energy and protein intakes were found under the recommended level in the study period. A significant positive correlation was found between daily protein intake and serum albumin levels (r=0.210, p=0.014, daily protein intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.201, p=0.019, daily energy intake and serum total protein levels (r=0.178, p=0.039. Conclusions: HD patients often have low protein and energy intakes and most of them suffer from malnutrition. Therefore nutritional status of patients should be evaluated and periodically nutrition education should be given for improving eating habits and increasing dietary compliance is recommended.

  12. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  13. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  14. Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake

    Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

  15. Subjects with molecularly defined familial hypercholesterolemia or familial defective apoB-100 are not being adequately treated.

    Trond P Leren

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study whether subjects with a molecular genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH or familial defective apoB-100 (FDB are being adequately treated. DESIGN: A questionnaire regarding medical history was sent to 2611 subjects who had been provided with a molecular genetic diagnosis of FH or FDB, and a blood sample was obtained for lipid measurements. RESULTS: 956 (36.6% of the 2611 subjects participated. The mean age for starting lipid-lowering therapy was 33.4 (±12.1 years. Among those below 18 years of age, only 20.4% were on lipid-lowering drugs, whereas 89.1% of those aged 18 and above were on lipid-lowering drugs. The mean levels of total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were 5.7 (±1.5 mmol/l and 3.9 (±1.3 mmol/l, respectively. Among those who were on lipid-lowering drugs, 29.0% and 12.2% had levels of LDL cholesterol below 3.0 mmol/l and 2.6 mmol/l, respectively. Only 47.3% of the 956 subjects were considered as being adequately treated largely due to a failure to titrate their drug regimens. From the use of cholesterol-years score, lipid-lowering therapy must start before the age of 20 in order to prevent the subjects from contracting premature coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION: The majority of FH/FDB subjects are being diagnosed late in life and are not being adequately treated. In order to prevent them from contracting premature coronary heart disease, it is key that levels of LDL cholesterol are normalized from a young age and that sufficient doses of lipid-lowering drugs are being used.

  16. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression. PMID:26159903

  17. Role of Dietary Protein and Thiamine Intakes on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older People: A Systematic Review

    Freda Koh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of nutritional interventions to prevent and maintain cognitive functioning in older adults has been gaining interest due to global population ageing. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain and appraise relevant studies on the effects of dietary protein or thiamine on cognitive function in healthy older adults. Studies that reported on the use of nutritional supplementations and/or populations with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Seventeen eligible studies were included. Evidence supporting an association between higher protein and/or thiamine intakes and better cognitive function is weak. There was no evidence to support the role of specific protein food sources, such as types of meat, on cognitive function. Some cross-sectional and case-control studies reported better cognition in those with higher dietary thiamine intakes, but the data remains inconclusive. Adequate protein and thiamine intake is more likely associated with achieving a good overall nutritional status which affects cognitive function rather than single nutrients. A lack of experimental studies in this area prevents the translation of these dietary messages for optimal cognitive functioning and delaying the decline in cognition with advancing age.

  18. Phentolamine as a treatment for poor mixing in transposition of the great arteries with adequate intraatrial communication.

    Galal, M O; El-Naggar, W I; Sharfi, M H

    2005-01-01

    Patients with transposition of the great arteries often show poor mixing for different reasons, even after adequate balloon atrial septostomy. We present a patient with such a lesion whose clinical status improved dramatically after phentolamine was applied. We believe this improvement is due to reduction in afterload caused by the alpha(2) blocker and also possibly as a response to a presumptive effect of the drug on the diastolic function of the right ventricle, allowing more left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect. Both phenomena can improve cardiac output in such a situation. PMID:16374695

  19. On the influence of adequate Weddell Sea characteristics in a large-scale global ocean circulation model

    Hellmer, Hartmut; Schodlok, Michael; Wenzel, Manfred; Schröter, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Global ocean circulation models usually lack an adequate consideration of high-latitude processes due to a limited model domain or insufficient resolution. Without the processes in key areas of the global thermohaline circulation, the characteristics and flow of deep and bottom waters cannot be modeled realistically. In this study, a high-resolution (~20 km) ocean model focused on the Weddell Sea sector of the Southern Ocean is combined with a low-resolution (2°× 2°) global ocean model applyi...

  20. Consumption of various forms of apples is associated with a better nutrient intake and improved nutrient adequacy in diets of children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fruit has been associated with a variety of health benefits, yet, 75% of children have usual intakes of total fruit below minimum recommended amounts. Apples are the second most commonly consumed fruit in the United States; however, no studies have examined the impact of apple consumption on nutrient intake and adequacy in children's diets. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between apple (various forms consumption with nutrient intake and nutrient adequacy in a nationally representative sample of children. Design: Participants were children aged 2–18 years (n=13,339, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010. Least square means of total energy and nutrient intake, and the percentage of the population below the estimated average requirement (EAR or above the adequate intake (AI among apple consumers and non-consumers were examined. Results: Consumers of total apple products had higher (p<0.01 total intakes of fiber, magnesium, and potassium and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid, and sodium than non-consumers. Apple consumers had higher (p<0.01 total sugar intake, but lower intake of added sugars compared to non-consumers. A lower (p<0.01 percentage of apple consumers were below the EAR for 13 of the 16 nutrients studied. Apple consumers had approximately a 10 percentage unit difference below the EAR for calcium and magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E, than non-consumers. The percentage above the AI for fiber was significantly (p<0.0001 higher among total apple consumers (6.24±0.45 g compared to non-consumers (0.57±0.07 g. The results were similar for individual apple products (i.e. apple juice, applesauce, and whole apples. Conclusion: Consumption of any forms of apples provided valuable nutrients in the diets of children.

  1. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  2. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  3. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products

    Concentrations of the essential elements Zn and Cu and potentially toxic elements Pb and Cd in different milk samples and baby food materials were measured, primarily to assess whether the intakes comply with recommended desired levels for essential and permissible levels for toxic elements. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different types of milk were found to vary from 1.70 to 3.35, 0.07 to 0.10, 43.2 to 195 and 1772 to 4230 μg/l, while the same in different baby foods had values from 39.5 to 77.7, 0.45 to 17.7, 1106.3 to 3157.3 and 9367 to 34-592 μg/kg, respectively. The concentration of Cd was found to be very low (0.1 μg/l) and fairly constant in all types of milk. The lead content in cow milk was observed to be the lowest even in comparison with breast milk. Concentrations of all these metals are approximately one order of magnitude higher in baby food products than those observed in different types of milk owing to higher fat content. The infant baby food Amul Spray contains low concentrations of toxic (Pb and Cd) and high concentrations of essential (Cu and Zn) elements. The daily intakes of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by infants through milk and baby foods marketed in Mumbai city have also been estimated. The daily intakes of Pb (1.1 μg/kg) and Cd (0.01 μg/kg) for infants through baby foods are well below the recommended tolerable levels of 3.57 μg/kg and 0.8-1.0 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly the daily intake levels of essential elements are also significantly lower than the recommended desirable levels of 3-5 mg and 0.5-1.0 mg for Zn and Cu, respectively. Milk from an Indian mother also does not provide adequate levels of essential elements to the infants and children. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  5. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  6. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  7. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  8. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Raghunath, R. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)]. E-mail: rmt@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Suseela, B. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhalke, Sunil [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-03-01

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 {mu}g/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  9. Dietary intake of metals by Mumbai adult population

    Daily intake of 12 metals (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) by Mumbai adult population were assessed by analysing duplicate diet samples. These metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and stripping voltammetric techniques. A total of 250 diet samples containing 170 vegetarian diet and 80 non-vegetarian diet collected during April 2003 to March 2004 were analysed during this study. Daily dietary intakes of 2.4 g Na and 1.2 g K were observed for Mumbai adults. Daily dietary intakes of Ca, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Mg were 367, 1.0, 6.3, 6.7, 2.0 and 304 mg, respectively. Pb, Cd, Co and Ni intakes by Mumbai adults were 32.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 108 μg/day, respectively. From this study it has been observed that the intake of toxic metals such as Pb, Cd and Ni is much lower than the tolerable daily intake derived from PTWI given by FAO/WHO and could not be considered harmful in this group of subjects. Daily intake of the studied 12 metals was found to be higher in non-vegetarian diet compared to the vegetarian diet (P < 0.02, 0.01)

  10. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    L.C. Vendramini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years. The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day, and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day, the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  11. Oxytocin reduces reward-driven food intake in humans.

    Ott, Volker; Finlayson, Graham; Lehnert, Hendrik; Heitmann, Birte; Heinrichs, Markus; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2013-10-01

    Experiments in animals suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin acts as an anorexigenic signal in the central nervous control of food intake. In humans, however, research has almost exclusively focused on the involvement of oxytocin in the regulation of social behavior. We investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on ingestion and metabolic function in healthy men. Food intake in the fasted state was examined 45 min after neuropeptide administration, followed by the assessment of olfaction and reward-driven snack intake in the absence of hunger. Energy expenditure was registered by indirect calorimetry, and blood was repeatedly sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Oxytocin markedly reduced snack consumption, restraining, in particular, the intake of chocolate cookies by 25%. Oxytocin, moreover, attenuated basal and postprandial levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol and curbed the meal-related rise in plasma glucose. Energy expenditure and hunger-driven food intake as well as olfactory function were not affected. Our results indicate that oxytocin, beyond its role in social bonding, regulates nonhomeostatic, reward-related energy intake, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and the glucoregulatory response to food intake in humans. These effects can be assumed to converge with the psychosocial function of oxytocin and imply possible applications in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:23835346

  12. 8. Nutritional intake and energy expenditure of working obese women

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is undertaken on 49 obese women out of 70 women in the age group of 35-40 years of Jalandhar who were surveyed for obesity with respect to their Body Mass Index. BMI of the subject is calculated with the help of height and weight measurements. Twenty four hour dietary recall method is used to calculate the intake of various nutrients. To calculate the energy expenditure of the sample under study, their daily life style activities are recorded. The intake of Carbohydrate and Iron are significantly less than their respective RDA. The intake of fat and Calcium in working obese women is significantly higher than their respective RDA. The Protein intake is almost equal to recommended levels. There is a significant difference between the observed energy intake and observed energy expenditure of working obese women. It was intriguing to find that the energy intake in obese women has been less than that of RDA. There are chances of underreporting of nutrient intakes and over reporting of energy expenditure in order to conform to social psyche and prejudice against obesity as shown by numerous other studies.

  13. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project

    del Burgo Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have related nutritional factors with quality of life in healthy populations. The purpose of the study was to assess whether dietary fat intake is associated to mental and physical quality of life. Methods This analysis included 8,430 participants from the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project. The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TFA, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA was assessed through a 136-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Quality of life was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey after 4 years of follow-up. Generalized Linear Models were fitted to assess the regression coefficients (b and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the 8 domains of the SF-36 according to successive quintiles of each kind of fatty acids intake. Results The multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant inverse association for SFA intake (in quintiles and two of the physical domains (physical functioning and general health. E.g. for general health domain: (highest quintile of intake (Q5 vs. lowest quintile (Q1, b = -1.6; 95% CI = -3.1, -0.1. General health also showed a dose-response relationship (p for trend Conclusions A detrimental relationship between TFA intake at baseline and most of the SF-36 mental domains measured 4 years later were found, whereas weak inverse associations were found for SFA intake and some physical domains.

  14. Intake of household salt in a Danish population

    Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2009-01-01

    from the mean urinary excretion of sodium in four 24-h collections. Household salt, added to the food by the volunteers, was assessed using a lithium-marker technique. Results: Total salt intake was 10.6 +/- 3.3 g day(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) in men and 7.1 +/- 2.3 g day(-1) in women. Median intake of......Objective: To quantify the intake of household salt and its contribution to the total salt intake in a Danish population. Methods: Eighty-seven healthy individuals (37 men and 50 women), aged 20-55 years, recruited from the area of Copenhagen, completed the study. Total salt intake was estimated...... household salt was 1.0 g day(-1) in men and 0.5 g day(-1) in women, corresponding to 10.2 and 8.7% of total salt intake in men and women, respectively. A significant difference between sexes was found regarding total salt intake (P...

  15. Interactions between high salt intake and the musculoskeletal system

    Heer, Martina; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to muscle and bone loss. However, high dietary salt (NaCl) intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss. We have recently shown that a very high salt intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a low-grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub Dec 2007). A decrease in pH, however, is on the one hand mandatory to activate osteoclast activity, on the other hand it might affect protein metabolism and thereby muscle mass. In head-down bed rest (HDBR) studies physiological adaptation as seen in microgravity is mimicked. In a recent short-term HDBR study of 14 days, we combined high salt intake and low mechanical loading to test if low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by high NaCl intake is an additive stimulus for increased bone resorption and muscle protein loss. The results show that high NaCl intake combined with low mechanical load exaggerates the increase in calcium excretion as well as the rise in bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (both: p ¡ 0.001). Bone alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, was not different according to NaCl intake (p = 0.74). Additionally, the slightly negative nitrogen balance in HDBR ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d) was exacerbated 3 fold by high NaCl intake ( 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d; p ¡ 0.001). These results were accompanied by reduced bicarbonate (p = 0.018) and base excess (p = 0.009) concentrations during high salt intake. In conclusion, HDBR and high salt intake cause -like in ambulatory test subjectsa low-grade metabolic acidosis. This may exacerbate bone resorption and nitrogen loss, which may then exaggerate disuse induced bone and muscle loss.

  16. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  17. Doses to children from intakes by ingestion

    In this article, sensitivities and doses to children from intakes of radionuclides by ingestion were studied relative to adults. Generally speaking, doses to children were higher due to their higher radio-sensitiveness to many radionuclides, even though they consume less food and water than adults. Therefore, the action levels in the Canadian guidelines for the restriction of radioactively contaminated food and water following a nuclear emergency were selected as the most restrictive among the six age groups that could lead to an individual receiving a dose equal to a specified intervention level of 1 mSv. For non-emergency situations, the specified intervention level is 0.1 mSv. At such a low intervention level, the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC) in drinking water are normally derived for adults. Although this is a common practice for guidelines in non-emergency operations, for those radionuclides when the doses to children are more than 10 times higher than the doses to adults, the MAC in non-emergency situations should be limited to, at least, as restrictive as the action levels for interventional action following a nuclear emergency. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the Canadian Government 2010. (authors)

  18. Pemphigus erythematosus relapse associated with atorvastatin intake

    Lo Schiavo A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ada Lo Schiavo,1 Rosa Valentina Puca,1 Francesca Romano,1 Roberto Cozzi2 1Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Dermatology, AORN "A Cardarelli", Naples, Italy Abstract: Statins, also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaril-CoA reductase inhibitors, are well-tolerated drugs used for prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although they are generally considered safe, some serious adverse effects, such as myositis, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis can rarely occur. Furthermore, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who have been taking statins for a long period of time suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reactions is unclear. Statins, as proapoptotic agents, release nuclear antigen into the circulation and may induce the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Herein we report the case of a 70 year-old man who developed a relapse of pemphigus erythematosus, a syndrome with features of both lupus erythematosus and pemphigus, after atorvastatin intake. Keywords: pemphigus erythematosus, autoimmune disease, treatment, pathogenesis, statins

  19. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  20. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  1. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  2. Sodium and Potassium Intake Patterns and Trends in South Korea

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined major trends and patterns regarding sodium and potassium intake and the ratio of sodium and potassium in the diets of South Koreans. We analyzed detailed 24-hour dietary recall data collected from 10,267; 8,819; and 9,264 subjects ages two years and older in the 1998, 2005, and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, respectively. Mean sodium intake did not change significantly between 1998 and 2009 (4.6 g/d vs 4.7 g/d), while potassium intake increased sign...

  3. Intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the Finnish diet

    Concentrations of seven single PCB indicator congeners were measured in 99 food samples. These concentrations were converted into a total PCB content and used for estimating total PCB intake among Finns. The average intake from food is 15 μg/day or 0,25 μ/kg body weight per day, which showed no change during the late 1980s. Approximately half of the intake comes from fish. The composition of the PCB mixture varies a lot in different sample types, which emphasizes the importance of single compound determination. (orig.)

  4. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    Y Wang; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed i...

  5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ORAL NICOTINE INTAKE IN RATS

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Collins, Allan C.; Pogun, Sakire

    2011-01-01

    To study individual differences in nicotine preference and intake, male and female rats were given free access to a choice of oral nicotine (10 or 20 mg/L) or water for 24 hours/day for periods of at least six weeks, starting at adolescence or adulthood. A total of 341 rats, were used in four different experiments; weight, nicotine intake and total liquid consumption were recorded weekly. Results show that rats can discriminate nicotine from water, can regulate their intake, and that there ar...

  6. Estimated Dietary Intake of Nitrite and Nitrate in Swedish Children

    Larsson, Kristin Anna; Darnerud, Per Ola; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Merino, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intake of nitrate and nitrite in Swedish children. Daily intake estimates were based on a nationwide food consumption survey (4-day food diary) and nitrite/nitrate content in vegetables, fruit, cured meat and water. The mean intake of nitrite from cured meat among 2259 children studied was 0.013, 0.010 and 0.007 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 in age groups 4, 8-9 and 11-12, respectively. Among these age groups, three individuals (0.1% of the studied chil...

  7. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants.

    Ketelaars, J.J.M.J.; Tolkamp, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this thesis contains a critical appraisal of the commonly accepted theory with regard to feed intake regulation in ruminants and the presentation of a new theory. This new theory assumes that feed consumption creates both benefits to the animal (in a non-reproducing animal the intake of net energy for maintenance and gain) and costs (the total oxygen consumption of the animal). It is hypothesized that, for the animal, the intake level where the ratio between benefits and costs becom...

  8. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  9. Investigating the effects of arctic dietary intake on lung health

    Baines, K J; Backer, V; Gibson, P G;

    2015-01-01

    assessed using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The dietary composition differed significantly in the two regions, with higher whale, seal and wild meat intake and lower fruit and vegetable intake in the Arctic regions compared with Denmark. Consumption of vegetables (P=0.004) and whale and....../or seal (P<0.0001) was significantly and positively associated with FEV1, as well as with FVC (vegetables: P=0.001, whale and/or seal: P=0.002). Regular fruit intake was included in the statistical models; however, it did not reach statistical significance (FEV1: P=0.053; FVC: P=0.055). CONCLUSIONS: High...

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine use and nutrient intake among individuals with multiple sclerosis in the United States.

    Masullo, Laura; Papas, Mia A; Cotugna, Nancy; Baker, Sandra; Mahoney, Lauren; Trabulsi, Jillian

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, specific CAM therapies used within this population have not been thoroughly described, particularly the use of supplements, herbal remedies, and dietary modifications. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the prevalence of specific types of CAM used by adults with MS in the United States. Participants included adults who were diagnosed with MS at least 1 year prior to study enrollment. CAM use was measured using the CAM Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey, and nutrient intake was assessed using an Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall. This study found that a majority (77 %, n = 27) of the sample used CAM within the past 12 months, the most prevalent type being vitamins/minerals (88.9 %, n = 24), nonvitamin, nonmineral, natural products (NP) (44.4 %, n = 12), relaxation techniques (33.3 %, n = 9), and special diets (29.6 %, n = 8). Regarding diet, median percent calories from fat (37 %) and saturated fat (12 %) were higher than current recommendations, while dietary fiber intake met only 87 % of the adequate intake. Participants following the Paleo (7.4 %, n = 2) diet did not meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins D and E, while those on the Swank diet (7.4 %, n = 2) were below the EAR for vitamins C, A, E, and folate. The results support previous findings that CAM therapies are commonly used by individuals with MS. Inadequate intakes of certain vitamins and minerals by those following the Swank and Paleo diet suggest these diets may be too restrictive, thus further research is warranted. PMID:24981322

  11. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Matthew W. Gillman; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associ...

  12. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L−1 (mean 14.4 μg L−1, median 11.9 μg L−1). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L−1 originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the monitoring and/or the USI

  13. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  14. Poor neurological sequelae of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in an infant despite adequate antiviral and adjunct corticosteroid therapy

    Ratna B Basak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old infant presented to our emergency department with fever, altered consciousness, and focal seizures of acute onset. He had vesicular skin lesions over the right preauricular region. CT brain showed a large hypodense lesion involving the left temporo-parietal region, left basal ganglia and left thalamus. MRI brain revealed bilateral multifocal corticomedullary lesions suggestive of encephalitis. CSF-PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV type I. He was treated with standard dose intravenous acyclovir for 15 days along with a trial of pulse methylprednisolone, but was readmitted within a week with features of an early relapse. The infant survived but developed significant neurological sequelae. Although treatment of HSV is available, the neurological outcome is guarded even with adequate antiviral therapy. Adjunct corticosteroid therapy did not appear to attenuate the neurological sequelae.

  15. Are radon gas measurements adequate for epidemiological studies and case control studies of radon-induced lung cancer?

    The lung dose derived from radon is not attributed to the radon gas itself, but instead to its short-lived progeny. However, in many epidemiological studies as well as in case control studies of the radon risk, the excess number of cancers are related to the radon gas exposure, and not to the radon progeny exposure. A justification for such an approach has resorted to the assumption that there is self-compensation between the radiation doses from the unattached and attached fractions. In the present study, we used the Jacobi model to calculate the radon progeny concentrations in a room by varying the attachment rate and then calculated the resulting lung dose. It was found that self-compensation was not fully realised, and the effective dose can vary by a factor up to ∼2 for the same radon gas concentration. In conclusion, the radon gas concentration alone does not provide adequate information on the effective dose. (authors)

  16. Dietary Intake Research in Asian Children: Significance and Challenges.

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-01-01

    Food intake studies have a long history. However, until a few decades ago, there was limited quantitative data on feeding patterns and food intake in infants and children living in South Asia. The recent SEANUT study and MING study have provided several new insights into the dietary patterns of children living in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The complexity and variety of Asian diets makes the collation of dietary information a challenge. The double burden of under-nutrition and over-nutrition is prevalent in many Asian countries. Compared to obesity, stunting is widespread in South East Asia. Our future challenge is to develop food intake assessment techniques which can be refined and made available as a common dietary assessment tool across this region. Successful nutritional intervention can only be achieved if we know what Asian children eat. Dietary intake research will be a key factor in realizing our goal to eradicate malnutrition in this region. PMID:26598852

  17. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  18. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease

    M.J. Engelhart (Marianne); M.I. Geerlings (Miriam); A. Ruitenberg (Annemieke); J.C. van Swieten; J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCONTEXT: Laboratory findings have suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Therefore, the risk of Alzheimer disease might be reduced by intake of antioxidants that counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. OB

  19. Lignan intake in the Netherlands and its relation with mortality

    Milder, I.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    KEYWORDS:lignans, phytoestrogens, secoisolariciresinol, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, food composition, intake, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, mortalityPlant lignans are diphenolic compounds that are present in many plant foods. The plant lignans

  20. Lipid profile, anthropometry and dietary intake of 132 Thai vegetarians.

    Supawan, V; Pongpaew, P; Tungtrongchitr, R; Tawprasert, S; Changbumrung, S; Migasena, P; Schelp, F P

    1992-01-01

    The anthropometric measurements, lipid pattern and dietary intake of 64 male and 68 female Thai vegetarians (mostly lacto-vegetarians) were investigated. 32 males and 36 females on an ordinary Thai diet served as controls. Nutritional anthropometric variables and serum lipid concentrations, which the exception of triglycerides, were found to be lower in the vegetarian group than in the control group. The vegetarians consumed more energy than the controls. No difference in the protein intake was observed in both groups. Fat intake was, however, lower and carbohydrate intake higher in the vegetarian group. Also in the vegetarian group, HDL-cholesterol fraction correlated negatively with anthropometric measurements. Other fractions show only a weak correlation, if at all, in this group. A good correlation to all serum lipid variables determined to anthropometric measurement was observed in the control group. PMID:1291536

  1. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland...... and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women...... found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland....

  2. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  3. Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace

    Eliza Goszczyńska

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. Therefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of...

  4. Diurnal Triglyceridemia in Relation to Alcohol Intake in Men

    Ana Torres do Rego

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and postprandial triglyceride concentrations largely depend on dietary and lifestyle factors. Alcohol intake is associated with triglycerides, but the effect of alcohol on diurnal triglyceridemia in a free living situation is unknown. During three days, 139 men (range: 18–80 years measured their own capillary triglyceride (cTG concentrations daily on six fixed time-points before and after meals, and the total daily alcohol intake was recorded. The impact of daily alcohol intake (none; low, <10 g/day; moderate, 10–30 g/day; high, >30 g/day on diurnal triglyceridemia was analyzed by the incremental area under the cTG curve (∆cTG-AUC reflecting the mean of the six different time-points. Fasting cTG were similar between the alcohol groups, but a trend of increased cTG was observed in men with moderate and high alcohol intake after dinner and at bedtime (p for trend <0.001 which persisted after adjustment for age, smoking and body mass index. The ∆cTG-AUC was significantly lower in males with low alcohol intake (3.0 ± 1.9 mmol·h/L (n = 27 compared to males with no (7.0 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L (n = 34, moderate (6.5 ± 1.8 mmol·h/L (n = 54 or high alcohol intake (7.2 ± 2.2 mmol·h/L (n = 24, when adjusted for age, smoking and body mass index (adjusted p value < 0.05. In males, low alcohol intake was associated with decreased diurnal triglyceridemia, whereas moderate and high alcohol intake was associated with increased triglycerides after dinner and at bed time.

  5. Exercise, Energy Intake, Glucose Homeostasis, and the Brain

    Van Praag, Henriette; Fleshner, Monika; Schwartz, Michael W.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Here we summarize topics covered in an SFN symposium that considered how and why exercise and energy intake affect neuroplasticity and, conversely, how the brain regulates peripheral energy metabolism. This article is not a comprehensive review of the subject, but rather a view of how the authors' findings fit into a broader context. Emerging findings elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise and energy intake modify the plasticity of neural circuits in ways that affect br...

  6. Excretion of radium in relation to dietary intake

    Comprehensive measurements of the Ra226 contents of more than 200 common foods and 100 of the principal supplies of drinking water in Great Britain have been used to compare the mean intakes of radium per person from these sources, in a number of occupational groups as well as among the populations of various region; of the country. In spite of the wide range of activities present in foods, the mean intakes show little variation among the groups, the values lying between 2 and 3 pc per person per day. The drinking waters in Britain have radium contents differing by factors of up to 250 to 1, but in the majority of cases the absolute levels are so low relative to those present in the staple foods that the mean intakes from water represent only 5 to 6% of the mean total amounts of radium ingested by each individual. Only in one exceptional area of the country, representing less than 1% of the total population, is it possible for the daily intakes from water to exceed those from food. Measurements of faecal excretion resulting from the normal dietary intake have shown that in the case of young adults, the average level of Ra226 excreted in this way is 2 to 2.5 pc/d. This figure agrees with the estimates of the mean daily intakes. Human metabolic studies have shown that the large majority of each day's dietary intake of radium is excreted within 24 to 48 h, but attempts to assess the fractional retention in adults have given variable results. Measurements of the daily intakes and faecal excretions of a young child, over a period of 33 d, indicate that the retention of radium during periods of active bone growth may be as high as 10% or even more. (author)

  7. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease

    Engelhart, Marianne; Geerlings, Miriam; Ruitenberg, Annemieke; van Swieten, J C; Witteman, Jacqueline; Breteler, Monique; Hofman, Albert

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCONTEXT: Laboratory findings have suggested that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Therefore, the risk of Alzheimer disease might be reduced by intake of antioxidants that counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary intake of antioxidants is related to risk of Alzheimer disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in the Netherland...

  8. US adolescent food intake trends from 1965 to 1996

    Cavadini, C.; Siega-Riz, A. M.; Popkin, B.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine adolescent food consumption trends in the United States with important chronic disease implications. Methods Analysis of dietary intake data from 4 nationally representative US Department of Agriculture surveys of persons aged 11 to 18 years (n = 12,498). Results From 1965 to 1996, a considerable shift occurred in the adolescent diet. Total energy intake decreased, as did the proportion of energy from total fat (39%-32%) and saturated fat (15%-12%). Concurrent increases o...

  9. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  10. Alkylresorcinols as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake

    Landberg, Rikard

    2009-01-01

    Dietary biomarkers are objective measures of food or nutrient intake and can be related to endpoints in epidemiological studies, used in the validation of dietary assessment instruments and used to check of compliance during intervention studies. Alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic lipids present exclusively in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains, have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. The overall aim with this thesis was to evaluate AR as specific biomarkers o...

  11. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    Kleef, van, G.A.; Shimizu, M; Wansink, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods: Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise o...

  12. Food compensation: do exercise ads change food intake?

    Shimizu Mitsuru; van Kleef Ellen; Wansink Brian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exe...

  13. Isoflavone intake in four different European countries : The VENUS approach

    Erp-Baart, M.A.J. van; Brants, H.A.M.; Kiely, M; Mulligan, A.; Turrini, A.; Sermoneta, C.; Kilkkinen, A.; Valsta, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the level of isoflavone intake (total isoflavones, daidzein and genistein) in four European countries: Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands and the UK. For this purpose national food composition databases of isoflavone content were created in a comparable way, using the Vegetal Estrogens in Nutrition and the Skeleton (VENUS) analytical database as a common basis, and appropriate food consumption data were selected. The isoflavone intake in Ireland, Italy, The ...

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    Nicklett, Emily J; Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specific...

  15. Dietary Intake of Artificial Sweeteners by the Belgian Population

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie Marie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study it was investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years was at risk of exceeding ADI levels of acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and sucralose through assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. The conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sw...

  16. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  17. Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients

    Wan Chik Wan Chak; Chee Kan; Shahar Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background A cross sectional survey was carried out on 120 hospitalised geriatric patients aged 60 and above in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur to investigate their nutrient intakes and food preferences. Methods Food intakes were recorded using a one day weighed method and diet recall. Food preferences were determined using a five point hedonic score. Food wastages and factors affecting dietary adequacy were also investigated. Results The findings indicated that...

  18. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C.; D'Avanzo, B; De Negri, E.; Franceschi, S; Decarli, A

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between estimated intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of colorectal cancer was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. The study was based on 828 patients with colon cancer, 498 with rectal cancer and 2,024 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-digestive tract diseases. Relative risks (RRs) of intake quintiles were computed after allowance for age, sex and other major potential confounding factors, including an estim...

  19. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Balaghi, Sima; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mahdavi, Reza; Ghaemmaghami, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverse effect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluids consumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid were enough and appropriate. Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males) volunteer students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were as­sessed by 24-hour recall method of 3 days (two week days and one week- end included). Dietary intake of subjects was analyzed by Nutritionist III software program. The mean total fluid intake (drinking fluid values merged with data on the water content of foods) and the rate of metabolic water were figured out. Comparisons of the results with recommended dietary values were made using student's t-test.. Data of dietary intakes for two under-reporter female subjects were not included in the statistical analysis. Results: Daily total mean of fluid intake for girls (1598±40ml) and boys (1861±59ml) reflect the sum of beverages (Girls, 818±29ml; boys, 1147±57ml) and food water (Girls, 780±47ml; boys, 714±86m). The most consumed beverage for girls and boys were water (40%) and tea (49%) respectively. Daily mean intake of milk for girls and boys were 106.31±10ml (13%) and 57.30±11ml (5%), respectively. Conclusion: The mean daily fluid intake of subjects, specially water, and milk was lower than rec­ommended values. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tailored nutrition intervention targeting the young adults to improve their beverage choices. PMID:24688900

  20. Fluids Intake and Beverage Consumption Pattern among University Students

    Jamal Ghaemmaghami; Reza Mahdavi; Elnaz Faramarzi; Sima Balaghi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Insufficient and inappropriate daily fluid intake in a long period may have adverseeffect on human's health. Therefore, the present study evaluated the amounts and sources of fluidsconsumed by university students to determine whether these amounts and sources of fluid wereenough and appropriate.Methods: In this descriptive study, 245 (142 females and 103 males) volunteer students of TabrizUniversity of Medical Sciences in 2009 were recruited. Food and fluid intake of subjects were...