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Sample records for adenovirus based vaccine

  1. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  2. Adenovirus-based vaccines against avian-origin H5N1 influenza viruses.

    He, Biao; Zheng, Bo-jian; Wang, Qian; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2015-02-01

    Since 1997, human infection with avian H5N1, having about 60% mortality, has posed a threat to public health. In this review, we describe the epidemiology of H5N1 transmission, advantages and disadvantages of different influenza vaccine types, and characteristics of adenovirus, finally summarizing advances in adenovirus-based H5N1 systemic and mucosal vaccines. PMID:25479556

  3. Permissive growth of human adenovirus type 4 vaccine strain-based vector in porcine cell lines.

    Gao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wan, Wen-Yan; Li, Hong-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Xue; Yang, Xia; Li, Yong-Tao; Chang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chuan-Qing; Zhao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry. PMID:26850542

  4. Disrupted Adenovirus-Based Vaccines Against Small Addictive Molecules Circumvent Anti-Adenovirus Immunity

    De, Bishnu P.; Pagovich, Odelya E; Hicks, Martin J.; Rosenberg, Jonathan B.; Moreno, Amira Y.; Janda, Kim D.; Koob, George F; Worgall, Stefan; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Sondhi, Dolan; Crystal, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) vaccine vectors have been used for many applications due to the capacity of the Ad capsid proteins to evoke potent immune responses, but these vectors are often ineffective in the context of pre-existing anti-Ad immunity. Leveraging the knowledge that E1−E3− Ad gene transfer vectors are potent immunogens, we have developed a vaccine platform against small molecules by covalently coupling analogs of small molecules to the capsid proteins of disrupted Ad (dAd5). We hypothesized ...

  5. Anti-Cocaine Vaccine Based on Coupling a Cocaine Analog to a Disrupted Adenovirus

    Koob, George; Hicks, Martin J.; Wee, Sunmee; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; De, Bishnu P.; Kaminksy, Stephen M.; Moreno, Amira; Kim D. Janda; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in developing an anti-cocaine vaccine is that cocaine is a small molecule, invisible to the immune system. Leveraging the knowledge that adenovirus (Ad) capsid proteins are highly immunogenic in humans, we hypothesized that linking a cocaine hapten to Ad capsid proteins would elicit high-affinity, high-titer antibodies against cocaine, sufficient to sequester systemically administered cocaine and prevent access to the brain, thus suppressing cocaine-induced behaviors. Based on t...

  6. Impact of preexisting adenovirus vector immunity on immunogenicity and protection conferred with an adenovirus-based H5N1 influenza vaccine.

    Pandey, Aseem; Singh, Neetu; Vemula, Sai V; Couëtil, Laurent; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenoviruses in the majority of the human population might adversely impact the development of adaptive immune responses against adenovirus vector-based vaccines. To address this issue, we primed BALB/c mice either intranasally (i.n.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with varying doses of wild type (WT) human adenovirus subtype 5 (HAd5). Following the development of immunity against HAd5, we immunized animals via the i.n. or i.m. route of inoculation with a HAd vector (HAd-HA-NP) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) of A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) influenza virus. The immunogenicity and protection results suggest that low levels of vector immunity (mice with up to 10(7) plaque forming units (p.f.u.) of HAd-WT did not adversely impact the protective efficacy of the vaccine. Furthermore, high levels of vector immunity (approximately 1500 virus-neutralization titer) induced by priming mice with 10(8) p.f.u. of HAd-WT were overcome by either increasing the vaccine dose or using alternate routes of vaccination. A further increase in the priming dose to 10(9) p.f.u. allowed only partial protection. These results suggest possible strategies to overcome the variable levels of human immunity against adenoviruses, leading to better utilization of HAd vector-based vaccines. PMID:22432020

  7. Modeling Pre-Existing Immunity to Adenovirus in Rodents: Immunological Requirements for Successful Development of a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 5-based Ebola Vaccine

    Choi, Jin Huk; Schafer, Stephen C.; Zhang, Lihong; Juelich, Terry; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Croyle, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-existing immunity (PEI) to human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) worldwide is the primary limitation to routine clinical use of Ad5-based vectors in immunization platforms. Using systemic and mucosal PEI induction models in rodents (mice and guinea pigs), we assessed the influence of PEI on the type of adaptive immune response elicited by an Ad5-based vaccine for Ebola with respect to immunization route. Splenocytes isolated from vaccinated animals revealed that immunization by the same route...

  8. Human type 5 adenovirus-based tuberculosis vaccine: is the respiratory route of delivery the future?

    Smaill, Fiona; Xing, Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Despite progress in managing TB, there were 8.6 million new cases in 2012. To control TB will require a more effective vaccine than BCG, new drugs and better diagnostic tests. Recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses expressing foreign DNA have been studied as vaccines. We developed and evaluated a recombinant replication-deficient human Ad5 vector expressing Ag85A (Ad5Ag85A) as a TB vaccine in animal models and a Phase I human study. Animal models of Ad5Ag85A show markedly improved protection over BCG alone and immunization via the respiratory route provides the best type of protection. In humans, intramuscular vaccination was safe; Ad5Ag85A was immunogenic and stimulated polyfunctional T cell responses, more potently in previously BCG-vaccinated volunteers. Pre-existing Ad5 antibodies did not dampen the response. Given its potency, Ad5-based TB vaccines are well-positioned to be delivered to the respiratory tract, induce local lung immunity to control TB, and inform innovative approaches to new TB vaccination strategies. PMID:24935214

  9. Immunogenicity and efficacy testing in chimpanzees of an oral hepatitis B vaccine based on live recombinant adenovirus.

    Lubeck, M D; Davis, A R; Chengalvala, M; Natuk, R J; Morin, J E; Molnar-Kimber, K; Mason, B. B.; Bhat, B M; Mizutani, S; Hung, P P

    1989-01-01

    As a major cause of acute and chronic liver disease as well as hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to pose significant health problems world-wide. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccines based on adenovirus vectors have been developed to address global needs for effective control of hepatitis B infection. Although considerable progress has been made in the construction of recombinant adenoviruses that express large amounts of HBV gene products, preclinical immunogenicity and ...

  10. Broadly protective adenovirus-based multivalent vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for pandemic preparedness.

    Vemula, Sai V; Ahi, Yadvinder S; Swaim, Anne-Marie; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry accompanied by their occasional transmission to humans have highlighted the public health threat posed by these viruses. Newer vaccine approaches for pandemic preparedness against these viruses are needed, given the limitations of vaccines currently approved for H5N1 viruses in terms of their production timelines and the ability to induce protective immune responses in the absence of adjuvants. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of an adenovirus (AdV)-based multivalent vaccine approach for pandemic preparedness against H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in a mouse model. Replication-defective AdV vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) from different subtypes and nucleoprotein (NP) from one subtype induced high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and conferred protection against virus replication following challenge with H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes. Inclusion of HA from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus in the vaccine formulation further broadened the vaccine coverage. Significantly high levels of HA stalk-specific antibodies were observed following immunization with the multivalent vaccine. Inclusion of NP into the multivalent HA vaccine formulation resulted in the induction of CD8 T cell responses. These results suggest that a multivalent vaccine strategy may provide reasonable protection in the event of a pandemic caused by H5, H7, or H9 avian influenza virus before a strain-matched vaccine can be produced. PMID:23638099

  11. Low seroprevalent species D adenovirus vectors as influenza vaccines.

    Weaver, Eric A; Barry, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza remains a constant threat. While standard influenza vaccines have great utility, the need for improved vaccine technologies have been brought to light by the 2009 swine flu pandemic, highly pathogenic avian influenza infections, and the most recent early and widespread influenza activity. Species C adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (AD5) are potent vehicles for gene-based vaccination. While potent, most humans are already immune to this virus. In this study, low seroprevalent species D adenoviruses Ad26, 28, and 48 were cloned and modified to express the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin gene for vaccine studies. When studied in vivo, these species D Ad vectors performed quite differently as compared to species C Ad vectors depending on the route of immunization. By intramuscular injection, species D vaccines were markedly weaker than species C vaccines. In contrast, the species D vaccines were equally efficient as species C when delivered mucosally by the intranasal route. Intranasal adenovirus vaccine doses as low as 10(8) virus particles per mouse induced complete protection against a stringent lethal challenge dose of influenza. These data support translation of species D adenoviruses as mucosal vaccines and highlight the fundamental effects of differences in virus tropism on vaccine applications. PMID:23991187

  12. Adenovirus Capsid-Based Anti-Cocaine Vaccine Prevents Cocaine from Binding to the Nonhuman Primate CNS Dopamine Transporter

    Maoz, Anat; Hicks, Martin J.; Vallabhjosula, Shankar; Synan, Michael; Kothari, Paresh J; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Ballon, Douglas J.; KaMinSky, Stephen M.; De, Bishnu P.; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Martinez, Diana; Koob, George F.; Kim D. Janda; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major problem for which there is no approved pharmacotherapy. We have developed a vaccine to cocaine (dAd5GNE), based on the cocaine analog GNE linked to the capsid proteins of a serotype 5 adenovirus, designed to evoke anti-cocaine antibodies that sequester cocaine in the blood, preventing access to the CNS. To assess the efficacy of dAd5GNE in a large animal model, positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [11C]PE2I were used to measure cocaine occupancy ...

  13. A universal influenza A vaccine based on adenovirus expressing matrix-2 ectodomain and nucleoprotein protects mice from lethal challenge.

    Zhou, Dongming; Wu, Te-Lang; Lasaro, Marcio O; Latimer, Brian P; Parzych, Elizabeth M; Bian, Ang; Li, Yan; Li, Hua; Erikson, Jan; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2010-12-01

    A universal influenza vaccine, designed to induce broadly cross-reactive immunity against current and future influenza A virus strains, is in critical demand to reduce the need for annual vaccinations with vaccines chosen upon predicting the predominant circulating viral strains, and to ameliorate the threat of cyclically occurring pandemics that have, in the past, killed tens of millions. Here, we describe a vaccine regimen based on sequential immunization with two serologically distinct chimpanzee-derived replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing the matrix-2 protein ectodomain (M2e) from three divergent strains of influenza A virus fused to the influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) for induction of antibodies to M2e and virus-specific CD8(+) T cells to NP. In preclinical mouse models, the Ad vaccines expressing M2e and NP elicit robust NP-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses and moderate antibody responses to all three M2e sequences. Most importantly, vaccinated mice are protected against morbidity and mortality following challenge with high doses of different influenza virus strains. Protection requires both antibodies to M2e and cellular immune responses to NP. PMID:20877342

  14. Modeling pre-existing immunity to adenovirus in rodents: immunological requirements for successful development of a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5-based ebola vaccine.

    Choi, Jin Huk; Schafer, Stephen C; Zhang, Lihong; Juelich, Terry; Freiberg, Alexander N; Croyle, Maria A

    2013-09-01

    Pre-existing immunity (PEI) to human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) worldwide is the primary limitation to routine clinical use of Ad5-based vectors in immunization platforms. Using systemic and mucosal PEI induction models in rodents (mice and guinea pigs), we assessed the influence of PEI on the type of adaptive immune response elicited by an Ad5-based vaccine for Ebola with respect to immunization route. Splenocytes isolated from vaccinated animals revealed that immunization by the same route in which PEI was induced significantly compromised Ebola Zaire glycoprotein (ZGP)-specific IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells and ZGP-specific multifunctional CD8+ T cell populations. ZGP-specific IgG1 antibody levels were also significantly reduced and a sharp increase in serum anti-Ad5 neutralizing antibody (NAB) titers were noted following immunization. These immune parameters correlated with poor survival after lethal challenge with rodent-adapted Ebola Zaire virus (ZEBOV). Although the number of IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells was reduced in animals given the vaccine by a different route from that used for PEI induction, the multifunctional CD8+ T cell response was not compromised. Survival rates in these groups were higher than when PEI was induced by the same route as immunization. These results suggest that antigen-specific multifunctional CD8(+) T cell and Th2 type antibody responses compromised by PEI to Ad5 are required for protection from Ebola. They also illustrate that methods for induction of PEI used in preclinical studies must be carefully evaluated for successful development of novel Ad5-based vaccines. PMID:23915419

  15. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

  16. Vaccine Design: Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vectors.

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2016-01-01

    Replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors were initially developed for gene transfer for correction of genetic diseases. Although Ad vectors achieved high levels of transgene product expression in a variety of target cells, expression of therapeutic proteins was found to be transient as vigorous T cell responses directed to components of the vector as well as the transgene product rapidly eliminate Ad vector-transduced cells. This opened the use of Ad vectors as vaccine carriers and by now a multitude of preclinical as well as clinical studies has shown that Ad vectors induce very potent and sustained transgene product-specific T and B cell responses. This chapter provides guidance on developing E1-deleted Ad vectors based on available viral molecular clones. Specifically, it describes methods for cloning, viral rescue and purification as well as quality control studies. PMID:27076309

  17. Progress on adenovirus-vectored universal influenza vaccines.

    Xiang, Kui; Ying, Guan; Yan, Zhou; Shanshan, Yan; Lei, Zhang; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus (IFV) infection causes serious health problems and heavy financial burdens each year worldwide. The classical inactivated influenza virus vaccine (IIVV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) must be updated regularly to match the new strains that evolve due to antigenic drift and antigenic shift. However, with the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved antigens, and the CD8(+) T cell responses targeting viral internal proteins nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein 1 (M1) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1), it is possible to develop a universal influenza vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, NP, and matrix proteins. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) is an ideal influenza vaccine vector because it has an ideal stability and safety profile, induces balanced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses due to activation of innate immunity, provides 'self-adjuvanting' activity, can mimic natural IFV infection, and confers seamless protection against mucosal pathogens. Moreover, this vector can be developed as a low-cost, rapid-response vaccine that can be quickly manufactured. Therefore, an adenovirus vector encoding conserved influenza antigens holds promise in the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This review will summarize the progress in adenovirus-vectored universal flu vaccines and discuss future novel approaches. PMID:25876176

  18. A human type 5 adenovirus-based Trypanosoma cruzi therapeutic vaccine re-programs immune response and reverses chronic cardiomyopathy.

    Isabela Resende Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a prototypical neglected tropical disease. Specific immunity promotes acute phase survival. Nevertheless, one-third of CD patients develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC associated with parasite persistence and immunological unbalance. Currently, the therapeutic management of patients only mitigates CCC symptoms. Therefore, a vaccine arises as an alternative to stimulate protective immunity and thereby prevent, delay progression and even reverse CCC. We examined this hypothesis by vaccinating mice with replication-defective human Type 5 recombinant adenoviruses (rAd carrying sequences of amastigote surface protein-2 (rAdASP2 and trans-sialidase (rAdTS T. cruzi antigens. For prophylactic vaccination, naïve C57BL/6 mice were immunized with rAdASP2+rAdTS (rAdVax using a homologous prime/boost protocol before challenge with the Colombian strain. For therapeutic vaccination, rAdVax administration was initiated at 120 days post-infection (dpi, when mice were afflicted by CCC. Mice were analyzed for electrical abnormalities, immune response and cardiac parasitism and tissue damage. Prophylactic immunization with rAdVax induced antibodies and H-2Kb-restricted cytotoxic and interferon (IFNγ-producing CD8+ T-cells, reduced acute heart parasitism and electrical abnormalities in the chronic phase. Therapeutic vaccination increased survival and reduced electrical abnormalities after the prime (analysis at 160 dpi and the boost (analysis at 180 and 230 dpi. Post-therapy mice exhibited less heart injury and electrical abnormalities compared with pre-therapy mice. rAdVax therapeutic vaccination preserved specific IFNγ-mediated immunity but reduced the response to polyclonal stimuli (anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, CD107a+ CD8+ T-cell frequency and plasma nitric oxide (NO levels. Moreover, therapeutic rAdVax reshaped immunity in the heart tissue as reduced the number of perforin+ cells

  19. A Single Dose Respiratory Recombinant Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection for Non-Human Primates from Lethal Ebola Infection

    Choi, Jin Huk; Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Qiu, Xiangguo; Shedlock, Devon J.; Strong, Jim; Xu, Jason X.; Michie, Kelly L.; Audet, Jonathan; Fernando, Lisa; Myers, Mark J.; Weiner, David; Bajrovic, Irnela; Tran, Lilian Q.; Wong, Gary; Bello, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues and cases appear in the United States and other countries, the need for long-lasting vaccines to preserve global health is imminent. Here, we evaluate the long-term efficacy of a respiratory and sublingual (SL) adenovirus-based vaccine in non-human primates in two phases. In the first, a single respiratory dose of 1.4 × 109 infectious virus particles (ivp)/kg of Ad-CAGoptZGP induced strong Ebola glycoprotein (GP) specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell res...

  20. Nasal Delivery of an Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Bypasses Pre-Existing Immunity to the Vaccine Carrier and Improves the Immune Response in Mice

    Croyle, Maria A.; Patel, Ami; Tran, Kaylie N.; Gray, Michael; ZHANG Yi; Strong, James E.; Feldmann, Heinz; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2008-01-01

    Pre-existing immunity to human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is common in the general population. Bypassing pre-existing immunity could maximize Ad5 vaccine efficacy. Vaccination by the intramuscular (I.M.), nasal (I.N.) or oral (P.O.) route with Ad5 expressing Ebola Zaire glycoprotein (Ad5-ZGP) fully protected naïve mice against lethal challenge with Ebola. In the presence of pre-existing immunity, only mice vaccinated I.N. survived. The frequency of IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells was reduced by 80% and ...

  1. Assessment of route of administration and dose escalation for an adenovirus-based influenza A Virus (H5N1) vaccine in chickens.

    Steitz, Julia; Wagner, Robert A; Bristol, Tyler; Gao, Wentao; Donis, Ruben O; Gambotto, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes one of the most economically devastating poultry diseases. An HPAI vaccine to prevent the disease in commercial and backyard birds must be effective, safe, and inexpensive. Recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of an adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine (Ad5.HA) in chickens. To further evaluate the potential of the Ad5.HA vaccine and its cost-effectiveness, studies to determine the minimal effective dose and optimal route of administration in chickens were performed. A dose as low as 10(7) viral particles (vp) of adenovirus-based H5N1 vaccine per chicken was sufficient to generate a robust humoral immune response, which correlated with the previously reported level of protection. Several routes of administration, including intratracheal, conjunctival, subcutaneous, and in ovo routes, were evaluated for optimal vaccine administration. However, only the subcutaneous route of immunization induced a satisfactory level of influenza virus-specific antibodies. Importantly, these studies established that the vaccine-induced immunity was cross-reactive against an H5N1 strain from a different clade, emphasizing the potential of cross-protection. Our results suggest that the Ad5.HA HPAI vaccine is safe and effective, with the potential of cross-clade protection. The ease of manufacturing and cost-effectiveness make Ad5.HA an excellent avian influenza vaccine candidate with the ability to protect poultry from HPAI virus infection. Considering the limitations of the influenza vaccine technology currently used for poultry applications, any effort aimed at overcoming those limitations is highly significant. PMID:20660133

  2. Adenovirus-based vaccine against Listeria monocytogenes

    Jensen, Søren; Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech;

    2013-01-01

    bacteria, using Listeria monocytogenes as a model organism. Protection in C57BL/6 mice against recombinant L. monocytogenes expressing an immunodominant epitope of the LCMV glycoprotein (GP33) was greatly accelerated, augmented, and prolonged following vaccination with an adenoviral vaccine encoding GP......, vaccination of C57BL/6 (L. monocytogenes-resistant) and BALB/c (L. monocytogenes-susceptible) mice with adenoviral vectors encoding natural L. monocytogenes-derived soluble Ags (listeriolysin O and p60) revealed that tethering of these Ags to Ii markedly improved the vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell response to...... two of three epitopes studied. More importantly, Ii linkage accelerated and augmented vaccine-induced protection in both mouse strains and prolonged protection, in particular that induced by the weak Ag, p60, in L. monocytogenes-susceptible BALB/c mice....

  3. A Single Dose Respiratory Recombinant Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection for Non-Human Primates from Lethal Ebola Infection.

    Choi, Jin Huk; Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Qiu, Xiangguo; Shedlock, Devon J; Strong, Jim; Xu, Jason X; Michie, Kelly L; Audet, Jonathan; Fernando, Lisa; Myers, Mark J; Weiner, David; Bajrovic, Irnela; Tran, Lilian Q; Wong, Gary; Bello, Alexander; Kobinger, Gary P; Schafer, Stephen C; Croyle, Maria A

    2015-08-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues and cases appear in the United States and other countries, the need for long-lasting vaccines to preserve global health is imminent. Here, we evaluate the long-term efficacy of a respiratory and sublingual (SL) adenovirus-based vaccine in non-human primates in two phases. In the first, a single respiratory dose of 1.4×10(9) infectious virus particles (ivp)/kg of Ad-CAGoptZGP induced strong Ebola glycoprotein (GP) specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and Ebola GP-specific antibodies in systemic and mucosal compartments and was partially (67%) protective from challenge 62 days after immunization. The same dose given by the SL route induced Ebola GP-specific CD8+ T cell responses similar to that of intramuscular (IM) injection, however, the Ebola GP-specific antibody response was low. All primates succumbed to infection. Three primates were then given the vaccine in a formulation that improved the immune response to Ebola in rodents. Three primates were immunized with 2.0×10(10) ivp/kg of vaccine by the SL route. Diverse populations of polyfunctional Ebola GP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and significant anti-Ebola GP antibodies were present in samples collected 150 days after respiratory immunization. The formulated vaccine was fully protective against challenge 21 weeks after immunization. While diverse populations of Ebola GP-specific CD4+ T cells were produced after SL immunization, antibodies were not neutralizing and the vaccine was unprotective. To our knowledge, this is the first time that durable protection from a single dose respiratory adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine has been demonstrated in primates. PMID:25363619

  4. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica invasin enhances the efficacy of classical swine-fever-vectored vaccine based on human adenovirus

    Helin Li; Pengbo Ning; Zhi Lin; Wulong Liang; Kai Kang; Lei He; Yanming Zhang

    2015-03-01

    The use of adenovirus vector-based vaccines is a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immune responses. Improving vaccine potency is necessary in other approaches to address their inadequate protection for the majority of infectious diseases. This study is the first to reconstruct a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus co-expressing E2 and invasin C-terminal (InvC) glycoproteins (rAd-E2-InvC). rAd-E2-InvC with 2×106 TCID50 was intramuscularly administered two times to CSFV-free pigs at 14 day intervals. No adverse clinical reactions were observed in any of the pigs after the vaccination. The CSFV E2-specific antibody titer was significantly higher in the rAd-E2-InvC group than that in the rAdV-E2 group as measured by NPLA and blocking ELISA. Pigs immunized with rAd-E2-InvC were completely protected against lethal challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues after CSFV challenge. These results demonstrate that rAd-E2-InvC could be an alternative to the existing CSF vaccine. Moreover, InvC that acts as an adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of rAdV-E2 and induce high CSFV E2-specific antibody titer and protection level.

  5. An adenovirus-based vaccine with a double-stranded RNA adjuvant protects mice and ferrets against H5N1 avian influenza in oral delivery models.

    Scallan, Ciaran D; Tingley, Debora W; Lindbloom, Jonathan D; Toomey, James S; Tucker, Sean N

    2013-01-01

    An oral gene-based avian influenza vaccine would allow rapid development and simplified distribution, but efficacy has previously been difficult to achieve by the oral route. This study assessed protection against avian influenza virus challenge using a chimeric adenovirus vector expressing hemagglutinin and a double-stranded RNA adjuvant. Immunized ferrets and mice were protected upon lethal challenge. Further, ferrets immunized by the peroral route induced cross-clade neutralizing antibodies, and the antibodies were selective against hemagglutinin, not the vector. Similarly, experiments in mice demonstrated selective immune responses against HA with peroral delivery and the ability to circumvent preexisting vector immunity. PMID:23155123

  6. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy

    Wold, William S.M.; Toth, Karoly

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  7. A Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Based on a Complex Adenovirus Vector Provides Significant Protection in Rhesus Monkeys against All Four Serotypes of Dengue Virus▿

    Raviprakash, Kanakatte; Wang, Danher; Ewing, Dan; Holman, David H.; Block, Karla; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Chen, Lan; Hayes, Curtis; Dong., John Y.; Porter, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Nearly a third of the human population is at risk of infection with the four serotypes of dengue viruses, and it is estimated that more than 100 million infections occur each year. A licensed vaccine for dengue viruses has become a global health priority. A major challenge to developing a dengue vaccine is the necessity to produce fairly uniform protective immune responses to all four dengue virus serotypes. We have developed two bivalent dengue virus vaccines, using a complex adenovirus vect...

  8. A new adenovirus based vaccine vector expressing an Eimeria tenella derived TLR agonist improves cellular immune responses to an antigenic target.

    Daniel M Appledorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviral based vectors remain promising vaccine platforms for use against numerous pathogens, including HIV. Recent vaccine trials utilizing Adenovirus based vaccines expressing HIV antigens confirmed induction of cellular immune responses, but these responses failed to prevent HIV infections in vaccinees. This illustrates the need to develop vaccine formulations capable of generating more potent T-cell responses to HIV antigens, such as HIV-Gag, since robust immune responses to this antigen correlate with improved outcomes in long-term non-progressor HIV infected individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we designed a novel vaccine strategy utilizing an Ad-based vector expressing a potent TLR agonist derived from Eimeria tenella as an adjuvant to improve immune responses from a [E1-]Ad-based HIV-Gag vaccine. Our results confirm that expression of rEA elicits significantly increased TLR mediated innate immune responses as measured by the influx of plasma cytokines and chemokines, and activation of innate immune responding cells. Furthermore, our data show that the quantity and quality of HIV-Gag specific CD8(+ and CD8(- T-cell responses were significantly improved when coupled with rEA expression. These responses also correlated with a significantly increased number of HIV-Gag derived epitopes being recognized by host T cells. Finally, functional assays confirmed that rEA expression significantly improved antigen specific CTL responses, in vivo. Moreover, we show that these improved responses were dependent upon improved TLR pathway interactions. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented in this study illustrate the potential utility of Ad-based vectors expressing TLR agonists to improve clinical outcomes dependent upon induction of robust, antigen specific immune responses.

  9. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    Xiang, Z.Q. [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ertl, H.C., E-mail: ertl@wistar.upenn.edu [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rupprecht, C.E. [The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS (United States); Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  10. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus

  11. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge.

    Park, Ki Seok; Lee, Jiyeung; Ahn, So Shin; Byun, Young-Ho; Seong, Baik Lin; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk; Choi, Young Ki; Na, Yun Jeong; Hwang, Inhwan; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Chang Geun

    2009-12-20

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains. PMID:19836045

  12. Mucosal immunity induced by adenovirus-based H5N1 HPAI vaccine confers protection against a lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus challenge

    Development of effective vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses is a global public health priority. Considering the difficulty in predicting HPAI H5N1 pandemic strains, one strategy used in their design includes the development of formulations with the capacity of eliciting broad cross-protective immunity against multiple viral antigens. To this end we constructed a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus-based avian influenza virus vaccine (rAdv-AI) expressing the codon-optimized M2eX-HA-hCD40L and the M1-M2 fusion genes from HPAI H5N1 human isolate. Although there were no significant differences in the systemic immune responses observed between the intramuscular prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IM/IM) and the intranasal prime-intramuscular boost regimen (IN/IM), IN/IM induced more potent CD8+ T cell and antibody responses at mucosal sites than the IM/IM vaccination, resulting in more effective protection against lethal H5N2 avian influenza (AI) virus challenge. These findings suggest that the strategies used to induce multi-antigen-targeted mucosal immunity, such as IN/IM delivery of rAdv-AI, may be a promising approach for developing broad protective vaccines that may be more effective against the new HPAI pandemic strains.

  13. Beta-defensin 2 enhances immunogenicity and protection of an adenovirus-based H5N1 influenza vaccine at an early time.

    Vemula, Sai V; Amen, Omar; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2013-12-26

    Reports of human infections with highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses in many countries in Asia and Africa with varying case fatality rates highlight the pandemic potential of these viruses. In order to contain a rapidly spreading influenza virus in a pandemic scenario, a vaccine which can induce rapid and robust immune responses, preferably in a single dose, is necessary. Murine beta-defensin 2 (Mbd2), a small molecular weight protein expressed by epithelial cells, has been shown to enhance antigen-specific immune responses by recruiting and activating professional antigen presenting cells to the site of vaccination. This study assessed the potential of Mbd2 to enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a human adenovirus (HAd)-based vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) [HAd-HA-NP] of an H5N1 influenza virus. A single inoculation of mice with both HAd-HA-NP and a HAd vector expressing Murine β-defensin 2 (HAd-Mbd2) resulted in significantly higher levels of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses compared to the groups vaccinated only with HAd-HA-NP. These responses were evident even at day 7 post-immunization. Furthermore, the HAd-HA-NP+HAd-Mbd2-immunized group receiving the lowest vector dose (2 × 10(7)+1 × 10(7)) was completely protected against an rgH5N1 virus challenge on day 7 post-vaccination. These results highlight the potential of Mbd2 as a genetic adjuvant in inducing rapid and robust immune responses to a HAd-based vaccine. PMID:24051000

  14. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  15. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  16. Protective Efficacy of a Single Immunization of a Chimeric Adenovirus Vector-Based Vaccine against Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge in Rhesus Monkeys▿

    Barouch, Dan H.; Liu, Jinyan; Lynch, Diana M; O'Brien, Kara L.; La Porte, Annalena; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; Riggs, Ambryice M.; Clark, Sarah; Abbink, Peter; Montefiori, David C.; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.; Self, Steven G.; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Rare serotype and chimeric recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors that evade anti-Ad5 immunity are currently being evaluated as potential vaccine vectors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens. We have recently reported that a heterologous rAd prime-boost regimen expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag afforded durable partial immune control of an SIV challenge in rhesus monkeys. However, single-shot immunization may ultimately be preferable for global vaccine de...

  17. Biodistribution and Toxicological Safety of Adenovirus Type 5 and Type 35 Vectored Vaccines Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), Ebola, or Marburg Are Similar Despite Differing Adenovirus Serotype Vector, Manufacturer's Construct, or Gene Inserts

    Sheets, Rebecca L.; Stein, Judith; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; Andrews, Charla; Nason, Martha; He, Bin; Koo, Edward; Trotter, Holly; Duffy, Chris; Manetz, T. Scott; Gomez, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Vaccine Research Center has developed vaccine candidates for different diseases/infectious agents (including HIV-1, Ebola, and Marburg viruses) built on an adenovirus vector platform, based on adenovirus type 5 or 35. To support clinical development of each vaccine candidate, pre-clinical studies were performed in rabbits to determine where in the body they biodistribute and how rapidly they clear, and to screen for potential toxicities (intrinsic and immunotoxicities). The vaccines biodi...

  18. Multi-antigen vaccines based on complex adenovirus vectors induce protective immune responses against H5N1 avian influenza viruses.

    Holman, David H; Wang, Danher; Raja, Nicholas U; Luo, Min; Moore, Kevin M; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Mytle, Nutan; Dong, John Y

    2008-05-19

    There are legitimate concerns that the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus could adapt for human-to-human transmission and cause a pandemic similar to the 1918 "Spanish flu" that killed 50 million people worldwide. We have developed pandemic influenza vaccines by incorporating multiple antigens from both avian and Spanish influenza viruses into complex recombinant adenovirus vectors. In vaccinated mice, these vaccines induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses against pandemic influenza virus antigens, and protected vaccinated mice against lethal H5N1 virus challenge. These results indicate that this multi-antigen, broadly protective vaccine may serve as a safer and more effective approach than traditional methods for development of a pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:18395306

  19. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Provides Multispecies Protection against Rift Valley Fever.

    Warimwe, George M; Gesharisha, Joseph; Carr, B Veronica; Otieno, Simeon; Otingah, Kennedy; Wright, Danny; Charleston, Bryan; Okoth, Edward; Elena, Lopez-Gil; Lorenzo, Gema; Ayman, El-Behiry; Alharbi, Naif K; Al-dubaib, Musaad A; Brun, Alejandro; Gilbert, Sarah C; Nene, Vishvanath; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) causes recurrent outbreaks of acute life-threatening human and livestock illness in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. No licensed vaccines are currently available for humans and those widely used in livestock have major safety concerns. A 'One Health' vaccine development approach, in which the same vaccine is co-developed for multiple susceptible species, is an attractive strategy for RVFV. Here, we utilized a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platform with an established human and livestock safety profile, ChAdOx1, to develop a vaccine for use against RVFV in both livestock and humans. We show that single-dose immunization with ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccine, encoding RVFV envelope glycoproteins, elicits high-titre RVFV-neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection against RVFV challenge in the most susceptible natural target species of the virus-sheep, goats and cattle. In addition we demonstrate induction of RVFV-neutralizing antibody by ChAdOx1-GnGc vaccination in dromedary camels, further illustrating the potency of replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine platforms. Thus, ChAdOx1-GnGc warrants evaluation in human clinical trials and could potentially address the unmet human and livestock vaccine needs. PMID:26847478

  20. A CD46-binding chimpanzee adenovirus vector as a vaccine carrier.

    Tatsis, Nia; Blejer, Ariella; Lasaro, Marcio O; Hensley, Scott E; Cun, Ann; Tesema, Lello; Li, Yan; Gao, Guang-Ping; Xiang, Zhi Q; Zhou, Dongming; Wilson, James M; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2007-03-01

    A replication-defective chimeric vector based on the chimpanzee adenovirus serotype C1 was developed and tested as a vaccine carrier in mice. The AdC1 virus is closely related to human adenoviruses of subgroup B2 and uses CD46 for cell attachment. To overcome poor growth of E1-deleted AdC1 vectors on cell lines that provide the E1 of adenovirus of the human serotype 5 (AdHu5) virus in trans, the inverted terminal repeats and some of the early genes of AdC1 were replaced with those from AdC5, a chimpanzee origin adenovirus of subfamily E. The chimeric AdC1/C5 vector efficiently transduces CD46-expressing mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and initiates their maturation. Transduction of DCs in vivo is inefficient in CD46 transgenic mice. The AdC1/C5 vector induces transgene product-specific B- and CD8(+) T-cell responses in mice. Responses are slightly higher in wild-type mice than in CD46 transgenic mice. Transgene product-specific T-cell responses elicited by the AdC1/C5 vector can be increased by priming or boosting with a heterologous adenovirus vector. Pre-existing immunity to adenovirus of the common human serotype 5 does not affect induction of cell-mediated immune responses by the AdC1/C5 vector. This vector provides an additional tool in a repertoire of adenovirus-based vaccine vectors. PMID:17228314

  1. History of the restoration of adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, live oral (Adenovirus Vaccine) in the context of the Department of Defense acquisition system.

    Hoke, Charles H; Snyder, Clifford E

    2013-03-15

    Respiratory pathogens cause morbidity and mortality in US military basic trainees. Following the influenza pandemic of 1918, and stimulated by WWII, the need to protect military personnel against epidemic respiratory disease was evident. Over several decades, the US military elucidated etiologies of acute respiratory diseases and invented and deployed vaccines to prevent disease caused by influenza, meningococcus, and adenoviruses. In 1994, the Adenovirus Vaccine manufacturer stopped its production. By 1999, supplies were exhausted and adenovirus-associated disease, especially serotype 4-associated febrile respiratory illness, returned to basic training installations. Advisory bodies persuaded Department of Defense leaders to initiate restoration of Adenovirus Vaccine. In 2011, after 10 years of effort by government and contractor personnel and at a cost of about $100 million, the Adenovirus Vaccine was restored to use at all military basic training installations. Disease and adenovirus serotype 4 isolation rates have fallen dramatically since vaccinations resumed in October 2011 and remain very low. Mindful of the adage that "The more successful a vaccine is, the more quickly the need for it will be forgotten.", sustainment of the supply of the Adenovirus Vaccine may be a challenge, and careful management will be required for such sustainment. PMID:23291475

  2. Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Anthrax Vaccine

    As bioterrorism is emerging as a national threat, it is urgent to develop a new generation of anthrax vaccines that can be rapidly produced and mass administered in an emergency setting. We have demonstrated that protective immunity against anthrax spores could be elicited in mice by intranasal administration of a non-replicating human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in a single-dose regimen. The potency of an Ad5 vector encoding PA was remarkably enhanced by codon optimization of the PA gene to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. This nasal vaccine can be mass-administered by non-medical personnel during a bioterrorist attack. In addition, replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free Ad5-vectored anthrax vaccines can be mass produced in PER.C6 cells in serum-free wave bioreactors and purified by column chromatography to meet a surge in demand. The non-replicating nature of this new generation of anthrax vaccine ensures an excellent safety profile for vaccines and the environment.(author)

  3. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: Vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...

  4. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intr...

  5. Determination of the minimum fully protective dose of adenovirus-based DIVA vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus challenge in East African goats.

    Holzer, Barbara; Taylor, Geraldine; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Hodgson, Sophia; Okoth, Edward; Herbert, Rebecca; Toye, Philip; Baron, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of sheep and goats, primarily in developing countries. It is becoming the object of intensive international control efforts. Current vaccines do not allow vaccinated and infected animals to be distinguished (no DIVA capability). We have previously shown that recombinant, replication-defective, adenovirus expressing the PPRV H glycoprotein (AdH) gives full protection against wild type PPRV challenge. We have now tested lower doses of the vaccine, as well as AdH in combination with a similar construct expressing the PPRV F glycoprotein (AdF). We show here that, in a local breed of goat in a country where PPR disease is common (Kenya), as little as 10(7) pfu of AdH gives significant protection against PPRV challenge, while a vaccine consisting of 10(8) pfu of each of AdH and AdF gives apparently sterile protection. These findings underline the utility of these constructs as DIVA vaccines for use in PPR control. PMID:26796101

  6. A porcine adenovirus with low human seroprevalence is a promising alternative vaccine vector to human adenovirus 5 in an H5N1 virus disease model.

    Patel, Ami; Tikoo, Suresh; Kobinger, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Human adenovirus 5 (AdHu5) vectors are robust vaccine platforms however the presence of naturally-acquired neutralizing antibodies may reduce vector efficacy and potential for re-administration. This study evaluates immune responses and protection following vaccination with a replication-incompetent porcine adenovirus 3 (PAV3) vector as an alternative vaccine to AdHu5 using an avian influenza H5N1 disease model. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in BALB/c mice following vaccination with different doses of the PAV3 vector expressing an optimized A/Hanoi/30408/2005 H5N1 hemagglutinin antigen (PAV3-HA) and compared with an AdHu5-HA control. PAV3-HA rapidly generated antibody responses, with significant neutralizing antibody titers on day 21, and stronger cellular immune responses detected on day 8, compared to AdHu5-HA. The PAV3-HA vaccine, administered 8 days before challenge, demonstrated improved survival and lower virus load. Evaluation of long-term vaccine efficacy at 12 months post-vaccination showed better protection with the PAV3-HA than with the AdHu5-HA vaccine. Importantly, as opposed to AdHu5, PAV3 vector was not significantly neutralized by human antibodies pooled from over 10,000 individuals. Overall, PAV3-based vector is capable of mediating swift, strong immune responses and offer a promising alternative to AdHu5. PMID:21179494

  7. Increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2B is associated with a specific T cell response

    We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but swine vaccinated with an Ad5-vectored FMDV O1 Campos vaccine, Ad5-O1Campos (...

  8. Enhancement of fibroblast activation protein α-based vaccines and adenovirus boost immunity by cyclophosphamide through inhibiting IL-10 expression in 4T1 tumor bearing mice.

    Xia, Qiu; Geng, Fei; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Chen-Lu; Xu, Ping; Lu, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xiang-Hui

    2016-08-31

    Fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) is expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of more than 90% of malignant epithelia carcinomas. CAFs are the main type of cells in the tumor microenvironment which offer nutrition and protection to the tumor and regulate immunosuppression. To eliminate CAFs, a vaccine targeting FAPα may be used with a heterologous prime-boost strategy to enhance the FAPα-specific cellular immunity. Here, a FAP vaccine using a recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vector was constructed as well as a DNA vaccine reported in our previous work. Although the DNA prime-rAd boost strategy enhanced FAPα-specific immune responses, improvement of anti-tumor immunity effects was not observed. Examination of immunosuppressive factors revealed that high expression of the IL-10 cytokine was considered the main cause of the failure of the prime-boost strategy. However, heterologous vaccination in combination with a low-dose of cyclophosphamide (CY), which was reported to reduce IL-10 production and promote a shift from immunosuppression to immunopotentiation, resulted in enhanced effects in terms of numbers of effector T cells and tumor growth inhibition rates, compared to the CY alone or DNA alone group. Tumor growth was inhibited markedly when the prime-boost strategy was combined with CY in both the prophylactic and therapeutic settings and the survival time of 4T1 tumor bearing mice was also prolonged significantly. With the reduction of IL-10, enhancement of the anti-tumor effect by the prime-boost strategy was observed. These results suggest that FAPα-targeted rAd boosting in combination with CY is an attractive approach to overcoming immunosuppression in cancer vaccines. PMID:27498213

  9. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5

  10. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    Weaver, Eric A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Camacho, Zenaido T. [Department of Cell Biology, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM 88062 (United States); Hillestad, Matthew L. [Nephrology Training Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J. [Virology and Gene Therapy Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: mab@mayo.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology and Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  11. Cellular Changes Induced by Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Expressing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural and Nonstructural Proteins

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals including swine and bovines. The emergency control of outbreaks is dependent on rapid protection and prevention of virus spread. Adenovirus-based FMD subunit vaccines containing the coding region of viral ca...

  12. Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic

    Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with

  13. Protective avian influenza in ovo vaccination with non-replicating human adenovirus vector.

    Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C; Suarez, David L; Sylte, Matt J; Pfeiffer, Jennifer; Van Kampen, Kent R

    2007-04-12

    Protective immunity against avian influenza virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a non-replicating human adenovirus vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 (89% hemagglutinin homology; 68% protection) and H5N2 (94% hemagglutinin homology; 100% protection) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenges. This vaccine can be mass-administered using available robotic in ovo injectors which provide a major advantage over current vaccination regimens. In addition, this class of adenovirus-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly with improved safety since they do not contain any replication-competent adenoviruses. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural avian influenza virus infections. PMID:17055126

  14. Adenovirus vectored vaccines against influenza a virus do not result in vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease following heterologous challenge in contrast to whole inactivated virus vaccine

    Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...

  15. Multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A24 subunit vaccine in cattle using direct homologous challenge

    The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularl...

  16. Bovine adenoviral vector-based H5N1 influenza vaccine overcomes exceptionally high levels of pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus.

    Singh, Neetu; Pandey, Aseem; Jayashankar, Lakshmi; Mittal, Suresh K

    2008-05-01

    Because of the high prevalence of adenovirus (Ad) infections in humans, it is believed that pre-existing Ad-neutralizing antibodies (vector immunity) may negatively impact the immune response to vaccine antigens when delivered by human Ad (HAd) vectors. In order to evaluate whether bovine Ad subtype 3 (BAd3), a non-HAd vector, can effectively elude high levels of pre-existing vector immunity, naïve and HAd serotype 5 (HAd)-primed mice were immunized with BAd-H5HA [BAd3 vector expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 influenza virus]. Even in the presence of very high levels of HAd-specific neutralizing antibody, no significant reductions in HA-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were observed in HAd-primed mice immunized with BAd-H5HA. In naïve mice immunized with HAd-H5HA (HAd5 vector expressing H5N1 HA) and boosted with BAd-H5HA, the humoral responses elicited were significantly higher (P mice with BAd-H5HA bestowed full protection from morbidity and mortality following a potentially lethal challenge with A/Hong Kong/483/97. These results demonstrate the importance of BAd vectors as an alternate or supplement to HAd vectors for influenza pandemic preparedness. PMID:18301400

  17. Avian influenza in ovo vaccination with replication defective recombinant adenovirus in chickens: vaccine potency, antibody persistence, and maternal antibody transfer.

    Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo

    2011-06-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high

  18. Vaccines within vaccines: the use of adenovirus types 4 and 7 as influenza vaccine vectors.

    Weaver, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus Types 4 and 7 (Ad4 and Ad7) are associated with acute respiratory distress (ARD). In order to prevent widespread Ad-associated ARD (Ad-ARD) the United States military immunizes new recruits using a safe and effective lyophilized wildtype Ad4 and Ad7 delivered orally in an enteric-coated capsule. We cloned Ad4 and Ad7 and modified them to express either a GFP-Luciferase (GFPLuc) fusion gene or a centralized influenza H1 hemagglutinin (HA1-con). BALB/c mice were injected with GFPLuc expressing viruses intramuscularly (i.m.) and intranasally (i.n.). Ad4 induced significantly higher luciferase expression levels as compared with Ad7 by both routes. Ad7 transduction was restored using a human CD46+ transgenic mouse model. Mice immunized with serial dilutions of viruses expressing the HA1-con influenza vaccine gene were challenged with 100 MLD 50 of influenza virus. Ad4 protected BALB/c mice at a lower dose by i.m. immunization as compared with Ad7. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in protection by i.n. immunization. Although Ad7 i.m. transduction was restored in CD46+ transgenic mice, protection against influenza challenge required even higher doses as compared with the BALB/c mice. However, Ad7 i.n. immunized CD46+ transgenic mice were better protected as compared with Ad4. Interestingly, the restoration of Ad7 transduction in CD46+ mice did not increase vaccine efficacy and indicates that Ad7 may transduce a different subset of cells through alternative receptors in the absence of CD46. These data indicate that both Ad4 and Ad7 can effectively induce anti-H1N1 immunity against a heterologous challenge using a centralized H1 gene. Future studies in non-human primates or human clinical trials will determine the overall effectiveness of Ad4 and Ad7 as vaccines for influenza. PMID:24280656

  19. Protective immunity against botulism provided by a single dose vaccination with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    Zeng, Mingtao; Xu, Qingfu; Elias, Md.; Pichichero, Michael E.; Simpson, Lance L.; Leonard A. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins cause botulism, a neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals. We constructed a replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding a synthesized codon-optimized gene for expression of the heavy chain C-fragment (HC50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C). This recombinant human serotype 5 adenoviral vector (Ad5) was evaluated as a genetic vaccine candidate against botulism caused by BoNT/C in a mouse model. A one-time intramuscular injection with 105 to 2 × 107 pfu of adeno...

  20. Viable adenovirus vaccine prototypes: High-level production of a papillomavirus capsid antigen from the major late transcriptional unit

    Berg, Michael; DiFatta, Julie; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Schlegel, Richard; Ketner, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Safe, effective, orally delivered, live adenovirus vaccines have been in use for three decades. Recombinant derivatives of the live adenovirus vaccines may prove an economical alternative to current vaccines for a variety of diseases. To explore that possibility, we constructed a series of recombinants that express the major capsid protein (L1) of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), a model for mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) composed ...

  1. Comparison of the immunogenicity and protection against bovine tuberculosis following immunization by BCG-priming and boosting with adenovirus or protein based vaccines.

    Dean, G; Whelan, A; Clifford, D; Salguero, F J; Xing, Z; Gilbert, S; McShane, H; Hewinson, R G; Vordermeier, M; Villarreal-Ramos, B

    2014-03-01

    There is a requirement for vaccines or vaccination strategies that confer better protection against TB than the current live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for use in cattle. Boosting with recombinant viral vectors expressing mycobacterial proteins, such as Ag85A, has shown a degree of promise as a strategy for improving on the protection afforded by BCG. Experiments in small animal models have indicated that broadening the immune response to include mycobacterial antigens other than Ag85A, such as Rv0288, induced by boosting with Ad5 constructs has a direct effect on the protection afforded against TB. Here, we compared the immunogenicity and protection against challenge with M. bovis afforded by boosting BCG-vaccinated cattle with a human type 5 (Ad5)-based vaccine expressing the mycobacterial antigens Ag85A (Ad5-85A); or Ag85A, Rv0251, Rv0287 and Rv0288 (Ad5-TBF); or with protein TBF emulsified in adjuvant (Adj-TBF). Boosting with TBF broaden the immune response. The kinetics of Ad5-TBF and Adj-TBF were shown to be different, with effector T cell responses from the latter developing more slowly but being more durable than those induced by Ad5-TBF. No increase in protection compared to BCG alone was afforded by Ad5-TBF or Adj-TBF by gross pathology or bacteriology. Using histopathology, as a novel parameter of protection, we show that boosting BCG vaccinated cattle with Ad5-85A induced significantly better protection than BCG alone. PMID:24269321

  2. A complex adenovirus vaccine against chikungunya virus provides complete protection against viraemia and arthritis

    Wang, Danher; Suhrbier, Andreas; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Gardner, Joy; Luo, Min; Le, Thuy T.; Anraku, Itaru; Sakalian, Michael; Einfeld, David; Dong, John Y

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, recently caused the largest epidemic ever seen for this virus. Chikungunya disease primarily manifests as a painful and debilitating arthralgia/arthritis, and no effective drug or vaccine is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant chikungunya virus vaccine comprising a non-replicating complex adenovirus vector encoding the structural polyprotein cassette of chikungunya virus. A single immunisation with this vaccine consistently induc...

  3. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines.

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  4. Heterologous Immunity between Adenoviruses and Hepatitis C Virus: A New Paradigm in HCV Immunity and Vaccines

    Singh, Shakti; Vedi, Satish; Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as vectors for gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery. Recombinant Ad vectors are being tested as vaccines for many pathogens. We have made a surprising observation that peptides derived from various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens contain extensive regions of homology with multiple adenovirus proteins, and conclusively demonstrate that adenovirus vector can induce robust, heterologous cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. Intriguingly, the induction of this cross-reactive immunity leads to significant reduction of viral loads in a recombinant vaccinia-HCV virus infected mouse model, supporting their role in antiviral immunity against HCV. Healthy human subjects with Ad-specific pre-existing immunity demonstrated cross-reactive cellular and humoral immune responses against multiple HCV antigens. These findings reveal the potential of a previously uncharacterized property of natural human adenovirus infection to dictate, modulate and/or alter the course of HCV infection upon exposure. This intrinsic property of adenovirus vectors to cross-prime HCV immunity can also be exploited to develop a prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccine against HCV. PMID:26751211

  5. Effect of Preexisting Immunity to Adenovirus Human Serotype 5 Antigens on the Immune Responses of Nonhuman Primates to Vaccine Regimens Based on Human- or Chimpanzee-Derived Adenovirus Vectors▿

    McCoy, Kimberly; Tatsis, Nia; Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit; Lasaro, Marcio O; Scott E Hensley; Lin, Shih-Wen; Li, Yan; Giles-Davis, Wynetta; Cun, Ann; Zhou, Dongming; Xiang, Zhiquan; Letvin, Norman L.; Hildegund C J Ertl

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compared a prime-boost regimen with two serologically distinct replication-defective adenovirus (Ad) vectors derived from chimpanzee serotypes C68 and C1 expressing Gag, Pol, gp140, and Nef of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with a regimen in which replication-defective Ad vectors of the human serotype 5 (AdHu5) were given twice. Experiments were conducted in rhesus macaques that had or had not been preexposed to antigens of AdHu5. There was no significant difference in T...

  6. Immunogenicity when utilizing adenovirus serotype 4 and 5 vaccines expressing circumsporozoite protein in naïve and Adenovirus (Ad5 immune mice

    Schuldt Nathaniel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induction of potent long lasting effector T cell responses against liver stage malaria antigens strongly correlates with protection from malaria. While Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 based malaria vaccine platforms have the ability to induce potent effector T cell responses against transgenes, high rates of pre-existing Ad5 immunity in malaria endemic regions has prompted study of alternative Ad serotype based malaria vaccines as replacements for Ad5 based malaria vaccines. The research described in this article examines the utility of alternative serotype adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4 expressing a sporozoite surface protein (circumsporozoite protein (CSP (Ad4-CSP to induce immune responses against CSP. The immunogenicity of Ad4-CSP was also tested in homologous and heterologous prime boost vaccinations in both Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immune backgrounds as compared to use of Ad5-CSP. Results In Ad5 naïve animals, use of Ad4-CSP priming vaccinations followed by boosting with Ad5-CSP (Ad4-CSP/Ad5-CSP maximally increased the numbers of CSP specific cytokine secreting cytotoxic T cells relative to repeated use of Ad5-CSP. The Ad4-CSP/Ad5-CSP regimen also induced equivalent levels of CSP specific cell killing as did homologous prime-boost vaccinations with Ad5-CSP, despite stimulating lower numbers of CSP specific cytotoxic T cells. Priming with Ad4-CSP followed by a homologous boost resulted in significantly less CSP specific humoral responses than any other vaccination regimen tested in Ad naïve animals. In Ad5 immune animals, addition of Ad4-CSP in homologous or heterologous prime boost resulted in inductions of higher CSP specific responses than animals repeatedly vaccinated with Ad5-CSP alone. However, the observed responses were well below those observed in similarly treated Ad naïve mice. Conclusions While the Ad4-CSP/Ad5-CSP and Ad5-CSP/Ad5-CSP vaccination regimens resulted in equivalent CSP specific killing in Ad naïve animals

  7. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease subunit vaccines: the first decade

    Here we present the results of the first decade of development of a replication-defective human adenovirus (Ad5) containing the capsid and 3C protease coding regions of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) as a vaccine candidate. In proof-of concept studies we demonstrated that a single inoculation w...

  8. CD46-mediated transduction of a species D adenovirus vaccine improves mucosal vaccine efficacy.

    Camacho, Zenaido T; Turner, Mallory A; Barry, Michael A; Weaver, Eric A

    2014-04-01

    The high levels of preexisting immunity against Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) have deemed Ad5 unusable for translation as a human vaccine vector. Low seroprevalent alternative viral vectors may be less impacted by preexisting immunity, but they may also have significantly different phenotypes from that of Ad5. In this study we compare species D Ads (26, 28, and 48) to the species C Ad5. In vitro transduction studies show striking differences between the species C and D viruses. Most notably, Ad26 transduced human dendritic cells much more effectively than Ad5. In vivo imaging studies showed strikingly different transgene expression profiles. The Ad5 virus was superior to the species D viruses in BALB/c mice when delivered intramuscularly. However, the inverse was true when the viruses were delivered mucosally via the intranasal epithelia. Intramuscular transduction was restored in mice that ubiquitously expressed human CD46, the primary receptor for species D viruses. We analyzed both species C and D Ads for their ability to induce prophylactic immunity against influenza in the CD46 transgenic mouse model. Surprisingly, the species D vaccines again failed to induce greater levels of protective immunity as compared with the species C Ad5 when delivered intramuscularly. However, the species D Ad vaccine vector, Ad48, induced significantly greater protection as compared with Ad5 when delivered mucosally via the intranasal route in CD46 transgenic mice. These data shed light on the complexities between the species and types of Ad. Our findings indicate that more research will be required to identify the mechanisms that play a key role in the induction of protective immunity induced by species D Ad vaccines. PMID:24635714

  9. Adenovirus vaccine vectors expressing hepatitis B surface antigen: importance of regulatory elements in the adenovirus major late intron.

    Mason, B B; Davis, A R; Bhat, B M; Chengalvala, M; Lubeck, M D; Zandle, G; Kostek, B; Cholodofsky, S; Dheer, S; Molnar-Kimber, K

    1990-08-01

    Adenovirus types 4 and 7 are currently used as live oral vaccines for prevention of acute respiratory disease caused by these adenovirus serotypes. To investigate the concept of producing live recombinant vaccines using these serotypes, adenovirus types 4 (Ad4) and 7 (Ad7) were constructed that produce HBsAg upon infection of cell cultures. Ad4 recombinants were constructed that express HBsAg from a cassette inserted 135 bp from the right-hand terminus of the viral genome. The cassette contained the Ad4 major late promoter followed by leader 1 of the tripartite leader, the first intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2, leaders 2 and 3, the HBsAg gene, and tandem polyadenylation signals from the Ad4 E3B and hexon genes. Using this same cassette, a series of Ad4 recombinants expressing HBsAg were constructed with deletions in the intervening sequence between leaders 1 and 2 to evaluate the contribution of the downstream control elements more precisely. Inclusion of regions located between +82 and +148 as well as +148 and +232 resulted in increases in expression levels of HBsAg in A549-infected cells by 22-fold and 44-fold, respectively, over the levels attained by an adenovirus recombinant retaining only sequences from +1 to +82, showing the importance of these elements in the activation of the major late promoter during the course of a natural Ad4 viral infection. Parallel increases were also observed in steady-state levels of cytoplasmic HBsAg-specific mRNA. When similar Ad7 recombinant viruses were constructed, these viruses also expressed 20-fold more HBsAg due to the presence of the intron. All Ad4 and Ad7 recombinants produced HBsAg particles containing gp27 and p24 which were secreted in the medium. When dogs were immunized intratracheally with one of these Ad7 recombinants, they seroconverted to both Ad7 and HBsAg to a high level. PMID:2371766

  10. Rapid and sustained CD4(+) T-cell-independent immunity from adenovirus-encoded vaccine antigens

    Holst, Peter J; Bartholdy, Christina; Buus, Anette Stryhn;

    2007-01-01

    absence of CD4(+) T-cell help were sustained in the long term and able to expand and control a secondary challenge with LCMV. Our results demonstrate that modifications to the antigen used in adenovirus vaccines may be used to improve the induced T-cell response. Such a strategy for CD4(+) T-cell...... elicited with an adenovirus-encoded minimal epitope covalently linked to beta(2)-microglobulin. We demonstrate that the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked epitope induced an accelerated and augmented CD8(+) T-cell response. Furthermore, the immunity conferred by vaccination with beta(2)-microglobulin......-linked lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-derived epitopes was long-lived and protective. Notably, in contrast to full-length protein, the response elicited with the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked LCMV-derived epitope was CD4(+) T-cell independent. Furthermore, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells primed in the...

  11. Aerosolized adenovirus-vectored vaccine as an alternative vaccine delivery method

    Roy Chad J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional parenteral injection of vaccines is limited in its ability to induce locally-produced immune responses in the respiratory tract, and has logistical disadvantages in widespread vaccine administration. Recent studies suggest that intranasal delivery or vaccination in the respiratory tract with recombinant viral vectors can enhance immunogenicity and protection against respiratory diseases such as influenza and tuberculosis, and can offer more broad-based generalized protection by eliciting durable mucosal immune responses. Controlled aerosolization is a method to minimize vaccine particle size and ensure delivery to the lower respiratory tract. Here, we characterize the dynamics of aerosolization and show the effects of vaccine concentration on particle size, vector viability, and the actual delivered dose of an aerosolized adenoviral vector. In addition, we demonstrate that aerosol delivery of a recombinant adenoviral vaccine encoding H1N1 hemagglutinin is immunogenic and protects ferrets against homologous viral challenge. Overall, aerosol delivery offers comparable protection to intramuscular injection, and represents an attractive vaccine delivery method for broad-based immunization campaigns.

  12. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges

    The Marburg virus (MARV), an African filovirus closely related to the Ebola virus, causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, treatment of disease is only supportive, and no vaccines are available to prevent spread of MARV infections. In order to address this need, we have developed and characterized a novel recombinant vaccine that utilizes a single complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine (cAdVax) to overexpress a MARV glycoprotein (GP) fusion protein derived from the Musoke and Ci67 strains of MARV. Vaccination with the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine led to efficient production of MARV-specific antibodies in both mice and guinea pigs. Significantly, guinea pigs vaccinated with at least 5 x 107 pfu of cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine were 100% protected against lethal challenges by the Musoke, Ci67 and Ravn strains of MARV, making it a vaccine with trivalent protective efficacy. Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV

  13. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    Xiang, Z. Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data dem...

  14. Bolstering Components of the Immune Response Compromised by Prior Exposure to Adenovirus: Guided Formulation Development for a Nasal Ebola Vaccine.

    Choi, Jin Huk; Schafer, Stephen C; Freiberg, Alexander N; Croyle, Maria A

    2015-08-01

    The severity and longevity of the current Ebola outbreak highlight the need for a fast-acting yet long-lasting vaccine for at-risk populations (medical personnel and rural villagers) where repeated prime-boost regimens are not feasible. While recombinant adenovirus (rAd)-based vaccines have conferred full protection against multiple strains of Ebola after a single immunization, their efficacy is impaired by pre-existing immunity (PEI) to adenovirus. To address this important issue, a panel of formulations was evaluated by an in vitro assay for their ability to protect rAd from neutralization. An amphiphilic polymer (F16, FW ∼39,000) significantly improved transgene expression in the presence of anti-Ad neutralizing antibodies (NAB) at concentrations of 5 times the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50). In vivo performance of rAd in F16 was compared with unformulated virus, virus modified with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), and virus incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) polymeric beads. Histochemical analysis of lung tissue revealed that F16 promoted strong levels of transgene expression in naive mice and those that were exposed to adenovirus in the nasal cavity 28 days prior to immunization. Multiparameter flow cytometry revealed that F16 induced significantly more polyfunctional antigen-specific CD8+ T cells simultaneously producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α than other test formulations. These effects were not compromised by PEI. Data from formulations that provided partial protection from challenge consistently identified specific immunological requirements necessary for protection. This approach may be useful for development of formulations for other vaccine platforms that also employ ubiquitous pathogens as carriers like the influenza virus. PMID:25549696

  15. Evaluation of fiber-modified adenovirus vector-vaccine against foot-and-mouth diseaes in cattle

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) include the use of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (Ad5) that contains the capsid encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). An Ad5.A24 has proven effective as a vaccine against FMD in swine and cattle. However, ther...

  16. A phase 1b randomized, controlled, double-blinded dosage-escalation trial to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of an adenovirus type 35 based circumsporozoite malaria vaccine in Burkinabe healthy adults 18 to 45 years of age.

    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ad35.CS.01 is a pre-erythrocytic malaria candidate vaccine. It is a codon optimized nucleotide sequence representing the P. falciparum circumsporozoite (CS surface antigen inserted in a replication deficient Adenovirus 35 backbone. A Phase 1a trial has been conducted in the USA in naïve adults and showed that the vaccine was safe. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and immunogenicity of ascending dosages in sub Saharan Africa. METHODS: A double blind, randomized, controlled, dose escalation, phase Ib trial was conducted in a rural area of Balonghin, the Saponé health district (Burkina Faso. Forty-eight healthy adults aged 18-45 years were randomized into 4 cohorts of 12 to receive three vaccine doses (day 0, 28 and 84 of 10(9, 10(10, 5X10(10, 10(11 vp of Ad35.CS.01 or normal saline by intra muscular injection. Subjects were monitored carefully during the 14 days following each vaccination for non serious adverse events. Severe and serious adverse events were collected throughout the participant study duration (12 months from the first vaccination. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured on study days 0, 28, 56, 84, 112 and 140. RESULTS: Of the forty-eight subjects enrolled, forty-four (91.7% received all three scheduled vaccine doses. Local reactions, all of mild severity, occurred in thirteen (27.1% subjects. Severe (grade 3 laboratory abnormalities occurred in five (10.4% subjects. One serious adverse event was reported and attributed to infection judged unrelated to vaccine. The vaccine induced both antibody titers and CD8 T cells producing IFNγ and TNFα with specificity to CS while eliciting modest neutralizing antibody responses against Ad35. CONCLUSION: Study vaccine Ad35.CS.01 at four different dose levels was well-tolerated and modestly immunogenic in this population. These results suggest that Ad35.CS.01 should be further investigated for preliminary efficacy in human challenge models and as part

  17. Chimpanzee adenovirus- and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine is safe and immunogenic in adults.

    Green, Christopher A; Scarselli, Elisa; Sande, Charles J; Thompson, Amber J; de Lara, Catherine M; Taylor, Kathryn S; Haworth, Kathryn; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Angus, Brian; Siani, Loredana; Di Marco, Stefania; Traboni, Cinzia; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Capone, Stefania; Vitelli, Alessandra; Cortese, Riccardo; Klenerman, Paul; Nicosia, Alfredo; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-08-12

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection in annual epidemics, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. However, despite its importance, no vaccine exists. The chimpanzee adenovirus, PanAd3-RSV, and modified vaccinia virus Ankara, MVA-RSV, are replication-defective viral vectors encoding the RSV fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N), and matrix (M2-1) proteins for the induction of humoral and cellular responses. We performed an open-label, dose escalation, phase 1 clinical trial in 42 healthy adults in which four different combinations of prime/boost vaccinations were investigated for safety and immunogenicity, including both intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) administration of the adenovirus-vectored vaccine. The vaccines were safe and well tolerated, with the most common reported adverse events being mild injection site reactions. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. RSV neutralizing antibody titers rose in response to IM prime with PanAd3-RSV and after IM boost for individuals primed by the IN route. Circulating anti-F immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) were observed after the IM prime and IM boost. RSV-specific T cell responses were increased after the IM PanAd3-RSV prime and were most efficiently boosted by IM MVA-RSV. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion after boost was from both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, without detectable T helper cell 2 (TH2) cytokines that have been previously associated with immune pathogenesis following exposure to RSV after the formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine. In conclusion, PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV are safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. These vaccine candidates warrant further clinical evaluation of efficacy to assess their potential to reduce the burden of RSV disease. PMID:26268313

  18. Protection of chickens against avian influenza with nonreplicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine.

    Toro, H; Tang, D C

    2009-04-01

    Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus has been elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo or i.m. vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad)-free human Ad vector encoding the AI virus A/Turkey/Wisconsin/68 H5 (AdTW68. H5) or the A/Chicken/New York/94 H7 (AdChNY94. H7) hemagglutinin (HA). The AdTW68.H5-vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic AI virus challenges. The AdChNY94. H7-vaccinated chickens were protected against an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus challenge. Chickens vaccinated in ovo with AdTW68.H5 followed by posthatch i.m. vaccination with AdChNY94.H7 responded to both vaccinations, with robust antibody titers against both the H5 and H7 AI proteins. The use of a synthetic AI H5 HA gene codon optimized to match the tRNA pool found in chicken cells is more potent than the cognate H5 HA gene. Mass administration of this AI vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of the nonreplicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination will not interfere with epidemiological surveys of natural AI infections. Finally, the demonstration that Ad-vectored vaccines can be administered repeatedly without appreciably losing potency highlights the commercial potential of this new class of vaccine in poultry. PMID:19276437

  19. MHC class II-associated invariant chain linkage of antigen dramatically improves cell-mediated immunity induced by adenovirus vaccines

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Orskov, Cathrine; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2008-01-01

    potent and versatile Ag delivery vehicles available. However, the impact of chronic infections like HIV and hepatitis C virus underscore the need for further improvements. In this study, we show that the protective immune response to an adenovirus-encoded vaccine Ag can be accelerated, enhanced......, broadened, and prolonged by tethering of the rAg to the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-derived glycoprotein linked to Ii increased the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell stimulatory capacity in vitro and in vivo....... Furthermore, mice vaccinated with a single dose of adenovirus-expressing LCMV-derived glycoprotein linked to Ii were protected against lethal virus-induced choriomeningitis, lethal challenge with strains mutated in immunodominant T cell epitopes, and systemic infection with a highly invasive strain. In...

  20. Mucosal vaccination with recombinant adenovirus encoding nucleoprotein provides potent protection against influenza virus infection.

    Kim, So-Hee; Kim, Joo Young; Choi, Youngjoo; Nguyen, Huan H; Song, Man Ki; Chang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Influenza vaccines that target the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase cause inconvenience of having vaccination every year. For this reason, development of universal vaccines targeting conserved viral components is needed. In this study, we generated recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vaccine encoding nucleoprotein (NP) of A/PR/8/34 influenza virus, designated rAd/NP. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally or sublingually with rAd/NP vaccine and subsequently challenged with lethal doses of heterologous as well as homologous influenza viruses. We found that intranasal immunization of rAd/NP elicited strong mucosal IgA responses as well as stronger CD8 T-cell responses toward immunodominant K(d)-restricted NP147-155 epitope than sublingual immunization. Importantly, only single intranasal but not sublingual immunization of rAd/NP provides potent protection against both homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. These results suggest that recombinant rAd/NP could be a universal vaccine candidate for mucosal administration against influenza virus. PMID:24086536

  1. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine.

    Xiang, Z Q; Greenberg, L; Ertl, H C; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-02-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  2. Multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A24 subunit vaccine in cattle using homologous challenge.

    Schutta, Christopher; Barrera, José; Pisano, Melia; Zsak, Laszlo; Grubman, Marvin J; Mayr, Gregory A; Moraes, Mauro P; Kamicker, Barbara J; Brake, David A; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Brough, Douglas E; Butman, Bryan T; Neilan, John G

    2016-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularly to a total of 150 steers in doses ranging from approximately 1.0×10(8) to 2.1×10(11) particle units per animal. No detectable local or systemic reactions were observed after vaccination. At 7 days post-vaccination (dpv), vaccinated and control animals were challenged with FMDV serotype A24 Cruzeiro via the intradermal lingual route. Vaccine efficacy was measured by FMDV A24 serum neutralizing titers and by protection from clinical disease and viremia after challenge. The results of eight studies demonstrated a strong correlation between AdtA24 vaccine dose and protection from clinical disease (R(2)=0.97) and viremia (R(2)=0.98). There was also a strong correlation between FMDV A24 neutralization titers on day of challenge and protection from clinical disease (R(2)=0.99). Vaccination with AdtA24 enabled differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) as demonstrated by the absence of antibodies to the FMDV nonstructural proteins in vaccinates prior to challenge. Lack of AdtA24 vaccine shedding after vaccination was indicated by the absence of neutralizing antibody titers to both the adenovector and FMDV A24 Cruzeiro in control animals after co-mingling with vaccinated cattle for three to four weeks. In summary, a non-adjuvanted AdtA24 experimental vaccine was shown to be safe, immunogenic, consistently protected cattle at 7 dpv against direct, homologous FMDV challenge, and enabled differentiation of infected from vaccinated cattle prior to challenge. PMID:26707216

  3. Hexon-modified recombinant E1-deleted adenovirus vectors as dual specificity vaccine carriers for influenza virus.

    Zhou, Dongming; Wu, Te-Lang; Emmer, Kristel L; Kurupati, Raj; Tuyishime, Steven; Li, Yan; Giles-Davis, Wynetta; Zhou, Xiangyang; Xiang, Zhiquan; Liu, Qin; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2013-03-01

    To determine if an ordered and repetitive display of an epitope promoted induction of superior antibody responses, we compared B-cell responses to an influenza A virus epitope that was either encoded as a transgene by an adenovirus (Ad) vector or expressed on the vector's surface. To this end, we constructed a panel of influenza A virus vaccines based on chimpanzee-derived replication-defective adenovirus (AdC) vectors of serotype SAd-V25 also called AdC68. AdC68 vectors were modified to express a linear B-cell epitope of the ectodomain of matrix 2 (M2e) within variable regions 1 (VR1) or 4 (VR4) of the adenovirus hexon. Additional vectors with wild-type or M2e-modified hexon encoded M2e fused to the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) as a transgene product. Hexon-modified vectors were tested for immunogenicity and efficacy in mice in comparison to vectors with native hexon expressing the M2e-NP fusion protein. Upon priming, vectors expressing M2e within VR1 of hexon induced M2e-specific antibody responses of higher magnitude and avidity than those carrying M2e within VR4 or vectors expressing the M2e as part of a transgene product. CD8(+) T-cell responses to the transgenic NP were comparable between vectors. M2e-specific antibody responses could be boosted by a second dose of the VR1 hexon-modified vector but not by repeated immunization with the VR4 hexon-modified vector. PMID:23229092

  4. Approaches for genetic purity testing of live recombinant viral vaccines using a human adenovirus:rabies model.

    Lutze-Wallace, C; Sapp, T; Nadin-Davis, S A; Wandeler, A

    1992-01-01

    A two part purity testing regimen for genetically engineered live viral vaccines is described using a human adenovirus 5: rabies glycoprotein gene recombinant as a model vaccine. Initially, restriction endonuclease analysis of the recombinant viral genome verified the integrity of the recombinant construct and identified the vector genome. The second stage employed the polymerase chain reaction to facilitate a more detailed study of the target rabies glycoprotein cassette. The size of the tar...

  5. Protection of mice and poultry from lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus through adenovirus-based immunization.

    Gao, Wentao; Soloff, Adam C; Lu, Xiuhua; Montecalvo, Angela; Nguyen, Doan C; Matsuoka, Yumi; Robbins, Paul D; Swayne, David E; Donis, Ruben O; Katz, Jacqueline M; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M; Gambotto, Andrea

    2006-02-01

    The recent emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strains in poultry and their subsequent transmission to humans in Southeast Asia have raised concerns about the potential pandemic spread of lethal disease. In this paper we describe the development and testing of an adenovirus-based influenza A virus vaccine directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) (VN/1203/04) strain isolated during the lethal human outbreak in Vietnam from 2003 to 2005. We expressed different portions of HA from a recombinant replication-incompetent adenoviral vector, achieving vaccine production within 36 days of acquiring the virus sequence. BALB/c mice were immunized with a prime-boost vaccine and exposed to a lethal intranasal dose of VN/1203/04 H5N1 virus 70 days later. Vaccination induced both HA-specific antibodies and cellular immunity likely to provide heterotypic immunity. Mice vaccinated with full-length HA were fully protected from challenge with VN/1203/04. We next evaluated the efficacy of adenovirus-based vaccination in domestic chickens, given the critical role of fowl species in the spread of HPAI worldwide. A single subcutaneous immunization completely protected chickens from an intranasal challenge 21 days later with VN/1203/04, which proved lethal to all control-vaccinated chickens within 2 days. These data indicate that the rapid production and subsequent administration of recombinant adenovirus-based vaccines to both birds and high-risk individuals in the face of an outbreak may serve to control the pandemic spread of lethal avian influenza. PMID:16439551

  6. Efficacy and safety of a live canine adenovirus-vectored rabies virus vaccine in swine.

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Ma, Guangpeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-10-01

    Rabies infections in swine have been reported occasionally in recent years in certain geographic locations. Although a protective vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus is available for use in swine, searching for a more economically viable formulation for use in developing countries is always a priority. This work describes the testing of a canine adenovirus that expresses a rabies viral epitope (CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP) in a porcine rabies model. The data presented here show that the recombinant viral vaccine was effective in protecting swine against rabies if administered intramuscularly, but not orally or intranasally, and that protection was probably related to the development of a humoral response that lasted at least 28 weeks. Following vaccination, no behavioral abnormalities were observed in vaccinated swine and virus particles were not detected in either tissues or body fluids, indicating that this formulation was safe. The recombinant virus stimulated an effective level of antibody response in the immunized swine after a single intramuscular inoculation. PMID:18721839

  7. Novel Cocaine Vaccine Linked to a Disrupted Adenovirus Gene Transfer Vector Blocks Cocaine Psychostimulant and Reinforcing Effects

    Wee, Sunmee; Hicks, Martin J.; De, Bishnu P.; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Moreno, Amira Y.; KaMinSky, Stephen M.; Kim D. Janda; Crystal, Ronald G.; Koob, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising treatment for drug addiction. However, insufficient immune responses to vaccines in most subjects pose a challenge. In this study, we tested the efficacy of a new cocaine vaccine (dAd5GNE) in antagonizing cocaine addiction-related behaviors in rats. This vaccine used a disrupted serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vector coupled to a third-generation cocaine hapten, termed GNE (6-(2R,3S)-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octane-2-carboxamido-hexano...

  8. An Adenovirus-Vectored Nasal Vaccine Confers Rapid and Sustained Protection against Anthrax in a Single-Dose Regimen

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Jex, Edward; Feng, Tsungwei; Sivko, Gloria S.; Baillie, Leslie W.; Goldman, Stanley; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, and its spores have been developed into lethal bioweapons. To mitigate an onslaught from airborne anthrax spores that are maliciously disseminated, it is of paramount importance to develop a rapid-response anthrax vaccine that can be mass administered by nonmedical personnel during a crisis. We report here that intranasal instillation of a nonreplicating adenovirus vector encoding B. anthracis protective antigen could confer rapid and sust...

  9. Intranasal Mucosal Boosting with an Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine Markedly Enhances the Protection of BCG-Primed Guinea Pigs against Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Xing, Zhou; McFarland, Christine T.; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Izzo, Angelo; Wang, Jun; McMURRAY, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Recombinant adenovirus-vectored (Ad) tuberculosis (TB) vaccine platform has demonstrated great potential to be used either as a stand-alone or a boost vaccine in murine models. However, Ad TB vaccine remains to be evaluated in a more relevant and sensitive guinea pig model of pulmonary TB. Many vaccine candidates shown to be effective in murine models have subsequently failed to pass the test in guinea pig models. Methods and Findings Specific pathogen-free guinea pigs were immuniz...

  10. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  11. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus. PMID:27076308

  12. Comparison of vaccines for induction of heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus: cold-adapted vaccine versus DNA prime-adenovirus boost strategies.

    Lo, Chia-Yun; Wu, Zhengqi; Misplon, Julia A; Price, Graeme E; Pappas, Claudia; Kong, Wing-Pui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2008-04-16

    Influenza epidemics or pandemics can arise for which strain- or subtype-matched vaccines are unavailable. Heterosubtypic immunity (Het-I) targeting conserved influenza A antigens could reduce morbidity and mortality during preparation of matched vaccines. Various vaccines inducing Het-I in animals have been studied separately using different viruses and conditions, but effectiveness for inducing Het-I has not been directly compared. The present studies compared immunization with cold-adapted (ca) viruses to DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus (rAd) boost vaccination to conserved antigens nucleoprotein (NP), matrix-2 (M2), or A/NP+M2. Both ca and DNA-rAd vaccinations induced antibody and T cell responses, and protected against lethal H1N1 challenge. Only A/NP+M2 DNA-rAd protected against challenge with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1); ca vaccine did not. Existing ca vaccines may provide some Het-I, but experimental vaccination focusing on conserved antigens was more effective in this model for protection against a divergent, highly pathogenic virus. PMID:18378366

  13. A Promising Trigene Recombinant Human Adenovirus Vaccine Against Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    Li, Helin; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-05-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) vaccine based on HAdV-5 had achieved an efficient protection in swine. Both classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E0 glycoprotein and E2 glycoprotein were the targets for neutralizing antibodies and related to immune protection against CSF. Interleukin-2 (IL2), as an adjuvant, also had been used in CSF vaccine research. In this study, coexpression of the CSFV E0, E2, and IL2 genes by HAdV-5 (rAdV-E0-E2-IL2) was constructed and immunized to evaluate its efficacy. Three expressed genes had been sequentially connected with foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (FMDV 2A). The vaccine was administered by intramuscular inoculation to CSFV-free pigs (10(8) TCID50) twice at triweekly intervals. No adverse clinical signs were observed in any of the pigs after vaccination. The vaccine induced strong humoral and cellular responses that led to complete protection against clinical signs of lethal CSFV infection, viremia, and shedding of challenge virus. The rAdV-E0-E2-IL2 is a promising, efficient, and safe marker vaccine candidate against CSFV. PMID:26918463

  14. Clinical assessment of a novel recombinant simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 as a vectored vaccine expressing conserved Influenza A antigens.

    Antrobus, Richard D; Coughlan, Lynda; Berthoud, Tamara K; Dicks, Matthew D; Hill, Adrian Vs; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2014-03-01

    Adenoviruses are potent vectors for inducing and boosting cellular immunity to encoded recombinant antigens. However, the widespread seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to common human adenovirus serotypes limits their use. Simian adenoviruses do not suffer from the same drawbacks. We have constructed a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine expressing the conserved influenza antigens, nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix protein 1 (M1). Here, we report safety and T-cell immunogenicity following vaccination with this novel recombinant simian adenovirus, ChAdOx1 NP+M1, in a first in human dose-escalation study using a 3+3 study design, followed by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the same antigens in some volunteers. We demonstrate ChAdOx1 NP+M1 to be safe and immunogenic. ChAdOx1 is a promising vaccine vector that could be used to deliver vaccine antigens where strong cellular immune responses are required for protection. PMID:24374965

  15. Design of a predicted MHC restricted short peptide immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate for Fowl adenovirus C in chicken infection

    Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each gen...

  16. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle

    Medina, Gisselle N.; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2015-01-01

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4+ and CD8+ gamma interferon (IFN-γ)+ cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle. PMID:26607309

  17. Vaxvec: The first web-based recombinant vaccine vector database and its data analysis.

    Deng, Shunzhou; Martin, Carly; Patil, Rasika; Zhu, Felix; Zhao, Bin; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-11-27

    A recombinant vector vaccine uses an attenuated virus, bacterium, or parasite as the carrier to express a heterologous antigen(s). Many recombinant vaccine vectors and related vaccines have been developed and extensively investigated. To compare and better understand recombinant vectors and vaccines, we have generated Vaxvec (http://www.violinet.org/vaxvec), the first web-based database that stores various recombinant vaccine vectors and those experimentally verified vaccines that use these vectors. Vaxvec has now included 59 vaccine vectors that have been used in 196 recombinant vector vaccines against 66 pathogens and cancers. These vectors are classified to 41 viral vectors, 15 bacterial vectors, 1 parasitic vector, and 1 fungal vector. The most commonly used viral vaccine vectors are double-stranded DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and poxviruses. For example, Vaxvec includes 63 poxvirus-based recombinant vaccines for over 20 pathogens and cancers. Vaxvec collects 30 recombinant vector influenza vaccines that use 17 recombinant vectors and were experimentally tested in 7 animal models. In addition, over 60 protective antigens used in recombinant vector vaccines are annotated and analyzed. User-friendly web-interfaces are available for querying various data in Vaxvec. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine vectors, vaccines, and related information is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Vaxvec is a timely and vital source of vaccine vector database and facilitates efficient vaccine vector research and development. PMID:26403370

  18. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  19. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus.

    Vitelli, Alessandra; Quirion, Mary R; Lo, Chia-Yun; Misplon, Julia A; Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Pierantoni, Angiolo; Ammendola, Virginia; Price, Graeme E; Soboleski, Mark R; Cortese, Riccardo; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus) has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1). We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines. PMID:23536756

  20. Vaccination to conserved influenza antigens in mice using a novel Simian adenovirus vector, PanAd3, derived from the bonobo Pan paniscus.

    Alessandra Vitelli

    Full Text Available Among approximately 1000 adenoviruses from chimpanzees and bonobos studied recently, the Pan Adenovirus type 3 (PanAd3, isolated from a bonobo, Pan paniscus has one of the best profiles for a vaccine vector, combining potent transgene immunogenicity with minimal pre-existing immunity in the human population. In this study, we inserted into a replication defective PanAd3 a transgene expressing a fusion protein of conserved influenza antigens nucleoprotein (NP and matrix 1 (M1. We then studied antibody and T cell responses as well as protection from challenge infection in a mouse model. A single intranasal administration of PanAd3-NPM1 vaccine induced strong antibody and T cell responses, and protected against high dose lethal influenza virus challenge. Thus PanAd3 is a promising candidate vector for vaccines, including universal influenza vaccines.

  1. A Complex Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine against Rift Valley Fever Virus Protects Mice against Lethal Infection in the Presence of Preexisting Vector Immunity▿

    Holman, David H.; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Wang, Danher; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Harr, Mary-Katherine; Luo, Min; Maher, Ellen M.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Dong, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been cited as a potential biological-weapon threat due to the serious and fatal disease it causes in humans and animals and the fact that this mosquito-borne virus can be lethal in an aerosolized form. Current human and veterinary vaccines against RVFV, however, are outdated, inefficient, and unsafe. We have incorporated the RVFV glycoprotein genes into a nonreplicating complex adenovirus (CAdVax) vector platform to develop a novel RVFV vaccine. Mice vaccina...

  2. The use of an E1-deleted, replication-defective adenovirus recombinant expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein for early vaccination of mice against rabies virus.

    Wang, Y.; Xiang, Z; Pasquini, S; Ertl, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    An E1-deleted, replication-defective adenovirus recombinant of the human strain 5 expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, termed Adrab.gp, was tested in young mice. Mice immunized at birth with the Adrab.gp construct developed antibodies to rabies virus and cytokine-secreting lymphocytes and were protected against subsequent challenge. Maternal immunity to rabies virus strongly interferes with vaccination of the offspring with a traditional inactivated rabies virus vaccine. The immune respo...

  3. Novel Adenovirus type 5 vaccine platform induces cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Nef despite the presence of Ad5 immunity

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Yoshida, Lois H.; Balint, Joseph; Amalfitano, Andrea; Jones, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We report here the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (CMI) in Ad5 hyper immunized mice. The effectiveness of the Ad5 [E1−, E2b−] vaccine platform was evaluated using HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef as antigenic transgenes. Broad CMI was induced foll...

  4. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based malaria vaccines.

    Sebastian, Sarah; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective malaria vaccine is a crucial part of the roadmap to malaria elimination/eradication by the year 2050. Viral-vectored vaccines based on adenoviruses and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing malaria immunogens are currently being used in heterologous prime-boost regimes in clinical trials for induction of strong antigen-specific T-cell responses and high-titer antibodies. Recombinant MVA is a safe and well-tolerated attenuated vector that has consistently shown significant boosting potential. Advances have been made in large-scale MVA manufacture as high-yield producer cell lines and high-throughput purification processes have recently been developed. This review describes the use of MVA as malaria vaccine vector in both preclinical and clinical studies in the past 5 years. PMID:26511884

  5. Polysaccharide-Based Vaccines

    Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.

  6. Utilizing the antigen capsid-incorporation strategy for the development of adenovirus serotype 5-vectored vaccine approaches.

    Gu, Linlin; Farrow, Anitra L; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Matthews, Qiana L

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been extensively modified with traditional transgene methods for the vaccine development. The reduced efficacies of these traditionally modified Ad5 vectors in clinical trials could be primarily correlated with Ad5 pre-existing immunity (PEI) among the majority of the population. To promote Ad5-vectored vaccine development by solving the concern of Ad5 PEI, the innovative Antigen Capsid-Incorporation strategy has been employed. By merit of this strategy, Ad5-vectored we first constructed the hexon shuttle plasmid HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6/pH5S by subcloning the hypervariable region (HVR) 1 of hexon into a previously constructed shuttle plasmid HVR5-His6/pH5S, which had His6 tag incorporated into the HVR5. This HVR1 DNA fragment containing a HIV epitope ELDKWAS was synthesized. HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6/pH5S was then linearized and co-transformed with linearized backbone plasmid pAd5/∆H5 (GL) , for homologous recombination. This recombined plasmid pAd5/H5-HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6 was transfected into cells to generate the viral vector Ad5/H5-HVR1-KWAS-HVR5-His6. This vector was validated to have qualitative fitness indicated by viral physical titer (VP/ml), infectious titer (IP/ml) and corresponding VP/IP ratio. Both the HIV epitope and His6 tag were surface-exposed on the Ad5 capsid, and retained epitope-specific antigenicity of their own. A neutralization assay indicated the ability of this divalent vector to circumvent neutralization by Ad5-positive sera in vitro. Mice immunization demonstrated the generation of robust humoral immunity specific to the HIV epitope and His6. This proof-of-principle study suggested that the protocol associated with the Antigen Capsid-Incorporation strategy could be feasibly utilized for the generation of Ad5-vectored vaccines by modifying different capsid proteins. This protocol could even be further modified for the generation of rare-serotype adenovirus-vectored vaccines. PMID:25993057

  7. Systemic and Mucosal T-Lymphocyte Activation Induced by Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccines in Rhesus Monkeys▿

    Sun, Yue; Bailer, Robert T.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Koup, Richard A.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2009-01-01

    The administration of vectors designed to elicited cell-mediated immune responses may have other consequences that are clinically significant. To explore this possibility, we evaluated T-cell activation during the first 2 months after recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) prime or boost immunizations in rhesus monkeys. We also evaluated the kinetics of T-lymphocyte activation in both the systemic and the mucosal compartments after rAd5 administration in monkeys with preexisting immunity to...

  8. Mucin-Based Vaccines

    Richardson, Jonathan P.; MacMillan, Derek

    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated cell surface and secreted glycoproteins . In addition to orchestrating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in healthy organisms mucins are also the major carriers of altered glycosylation in carcinomas. Tumor-associated antigens displayed by cancer cells comprise oligosaccharide and glycopeptide motifs not encountered in the same locale or at the same frequency in healthy cells, and potentially confer a selective advantage to the tumor. Frequently tumor-associated antigens are under-glycosylated and prematurely sialylated, and it is these relatively simple saccharide and glycopeptide structures that have been targeted to serve as drug candidates in most cases. A major goal is to assemble glycopeptide vaccine candidates based on partial mucin sequences and displaying tumor-associated antigens that can mount a potent immunological tumor-specific response when, in reality, the tumor has already coerced the immune system into a state of co-existence.

  9. Adenovirus-vectored drug-vaccine duo as a rapid-response tool for conferring seamless protection against influenza.

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Tarbet, E Bart; Feng, Tsungwei; Shi, Zhongkai; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C

    2011-01-01

    Few other diseases exert such a huge toll of suffering as influenza. We report here that intranasal (i.n.) administration of E1/E3-defective (ΔE1E3) adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) particles rapidly induced an anti-influenza state as a means of prophylactic therapy which persisted for several weeks in mice. By encoding an influenza virus (IFV) hemagglutinin (HA) HA1 domain, an Ad5-HA1 vector conferred rapid protection as a prophylactic drug followed by elicitation of sustained protective immunity as a vaccine for inducing seamless protection against influenza as a drug-vaccine duo (DVD) in a single package. Since Ad5 particles induce a complex web of host responses, which could arrest influenza by activating a specific arm of innate immunity to impede IFV growth in the airway, it is conceivable that this multi-pronged influenza DVD may escape the fate of drug resistance that impairs the current influenza drugs. PMID:21818346

  10. Intranasal vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus type 5 encoding influenza virus hemagglutinin elicits protective immunity to homologous challenge and partial protection to heterologous challenge in pigs.

    Braucher, Douglas R; Henningson, Jamie N; Loving, Crystal L; Vincent, Amy L; Kim, Eun; Steitz, Julia; Gambotto, Andrea A; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2012-11-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is widely circulating in the swine population and causes significant economic losses. To combat IAV infection, the swine industry utilizes adjuvanted whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines, using a prime-boost strategy. These vaccines can provide sterilizing immunity toward homologous virus but often have limited efficacy against a heterologous infection. There is a need for vaccine platforms that induce mucosal and cell-mediated immunity that is cross-reactive to heterologous viruses and can be produced in a short time frame. Nonreplicating adenovirus 5 vector (Ad5) vaccines are one option, as they can be produced rapidly and given intranasally to induce local immunity. Thus, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of a single intranasal dose of an Ad5-vectored hemagglutinin (Ad5-HA) vaccine to those of a traditional intramuscular administration of WIV vaccine. Ad5-HA vaccination induced a mucosal IgA response toward homologous IAV and primed an antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response against both challenge viruses. The Ad5-HA vaccine provided protective immunity to homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge, unlike the WIV vaccine. Nasal shedding was significantly reduced and virus was cleared from the lung by day 5 postinfection following heterologous challenge of Ad5-HA-vaccinated pigs. However, the WIV-vaccinated pigs displayed vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) following heterologous challenge, characterized by enhanced macroscopic lung lesions. This study demonstrates that a single intranasal vaccination with an Ad5-HA construct can provide complete protection from homologous challenge and partial protection from heterologous challenge, as opposed to VAERD, which can occur with adjuvanted WIV vaccines. PMID:22933397

  11. A Peptide-Based Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Assay To Test for Serum Antibody Responses to Pre-Erythrocyte Malaria Vaccines

    Kostense, Stefan; Mommaas, Bregje; Hendriks, Jenny; Verhoeven, Mariëlle; ter Haak, Mariska; Tirion, Felicia; Wiesken, Edison; Pau, Maria Grazia; Radošević, Katarina; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    Various pre-erythrocyte malaria vaccines are currently in clinical development, and among these is the adenovirus serotype 35-based circumsporozoite (CS) vaccine produced on PER.C6 cells. Although the immunological correlate of protection against malaria remains to be established, the CS antibody titer is a good marker for evaluation of candidate vaccines. Here we describe the validation of an anti-Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based...

  12. An effective vaccine against colon cancer in mice: Use of recombinant adenovirus interleukin-12 transduced dendritic cells

    Xiao-Zhou He; Liang Wang; Yan-Yun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a vaccine with recombinant adenovirus interleukin-12 (AdVIL-12) transduced dendritic cells (DCs) against colon cancer in mice.METHODS: DCs and AdVIL-12 were incubated together at different time intervals and at different doses. Supernatant was collected and tested for IL-12 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to determine whether tumor cell lysate-pulsed (TP) AdVIL-12/DCs enhance therapeutic potential in the established tumor model, CT26 colon tumor cells were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) in the midflank of naive BALB/c mice. Tumor-bearing mice were injected with a vaccination of CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs on d 3 and 10. As a protective colon tumor model, na(i)ve BALB/c mice were immunized s.c. in their abdomens with CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs twice at seven day intervals. After the immunization on d 7, the mice were challenged with a lethal dose of CT26 tumor cells and survival times were evaluated. Subsequently, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and interferon gamma (IFNγ) secretion was evaluated in the immunized mice, and assayed CTL ex vivo.RESULTS: Murine DCs were retrovirally transduced with AdVIL-12 efficiency, and the AdVIL-12 transduced DCs secreted a high level of IL-12 (AdVIL-12/DCs, 615.27 ± 42.3 pg/mL vs DCs, 46.32 ± 7.29 pg/mL, P < 0.05). Vaccination with CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs could enhance anti-tumor immunity against CT26 colon tumor in murine therapeutic models (tumor volume on d 19: CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DCs 107 ± 42 mm3 vsCT26 TP DCs 383 ± 65 mm3, P < 0.05) and protective models. Moreover, the CT26 TP AdVIL-12/DC vaccination enhances tumor-specific CTL activity, producing high levels of IFNy in immunized mice. Ex vivo primed T cells with AdVIL-12/DCs were able to induce more effective CTL activity than in primed T cells with CT26 TP/DCs (E:T = 100:1, 69.49% ± 6.11% specific lysis vs 37.44% ± 4.32% specific lysis, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Vaccination with recombinant AdVIL-12 transduced DC pulsed tumor

  13. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  14. Adenovirus as a carrier for the development of influenza virus-free avian influenza vaccines

    Tang, De-chu C.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Toro, Haroldo; Shi, Zhongkai; van Kampen, Kent R.

    2009-01-01

    A long-sought goal during the battle against avian influenza is to develop a new generation of vaccines capable of mass immunizing humans as well as poultry (the major source of avian influenza for human infections) in a timely manner. Although administration of the currently licensed influenza vaccine is effective in eliciting protective immunity against seasonal influenza, this approach is associated with a number of insurmountable problems for preventing an avian influenza pandemic. Many o...

  15. Potential use of a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector carrying the C-terminal portion of the P97 adhesin protein as a vaccine against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine.

    Okamba, Faust René; Arella, Maximilien; Music, Nedzad; Jia, Jian Jun; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Gagnon, Carl A

    2010-07-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 + or - 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 + or - 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was slightly improved in the rAdP97c vaccinated pigs (0.672 + or - 0.068 kg/day) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (0.568 + or - 0.104 kg/day). A bacterin-based commercial vaccine (Suvaxyn MH-one) was more efficient to induce a protective immune response than rAdP97c even if it did not evoke a P97 specific immune response. These results suggest that immunodominant antigens other than P97 adhesin are also important in the induction of a protective immune response and should be taken into account in the future development of M. hyopneumoniae subunit vaccines. PMID:20472025

  16. Novel Adenovirus type 5 vaccine platform induces cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Nef despite the presence of Ad5 immunity.

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Yoshida, Lois H; Balint, Joseph; Amalfitano, Andrea; Jones, Frank R

    2009-10-30

    Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We previously reported the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (CMI) against HIV-1 Gag in Ad5 hyper immune mice. Here, the effectiveness of the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] vaccine platform was evaluated using a triad mixture of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef as antigenic transgenes. Broad CMI was induced following vaccination with the HIV-1 expressing vectors in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immunized mice. A mixture of the three vaccines induced CMI against each transgene product even in the presence of hyper Ad5 immunity. These studies revealed that CMI responses to immunization with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-gag, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-pol or Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-nef vectors were transgene specific and did not induce CMI responses against irrelevant antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) or influenza virus antigens. We are evaluating this recombinant triad viral vector as an HIV-1 vaccine in a non-human primate model and the data indicate that the vaccine is worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:19559110

  17. The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination

    Thaís Aparecida Vieira Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05, considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377 and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314. The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377; and in 76.60% (36/47 of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598 and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614. There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030 as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019. The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of

  18. Highly Sensitive Method for Titration of Adenovirus Vectors

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Hildegund Ertl, ZhiQuan Xiang, Yan Li, Dongming Zhou, Xiangyang Zhou, Wynetta Giles-Davis & Yi-lin E. Liu ### Abstract Clinical development of vaccines based on adenovirus (Ad) vectors requires accurate techniques to determine vector doses including contents of infectious particles. For vectors derived from Ad virus of human serotype 5 content of infectious particles can readily be determined by plaque assays. Vaccine vectors based on alternative Ad serotypes such as thos...

  19. Vaccination with replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses encoding the main surface antigens of toxoplasma gondii induces immune response and protection against infection in mice.

    Caetano, Bráulia C; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fux, Blima; Mendes, Erica A; Penido, Marcus L O; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2006-04-01

    We have generated recombinant adenoviruses encoding three genetically modified surface antigens (SAGs) of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, that is, AdSAG1, AdSAG2, and AdSAG3. Modifications included the removal of their glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring motifs and, in some cases, the exchange of the native signal peptide for influenza virus hemagglutinin signal sequence. Adenovirus immunization of BALB/c mice elicited potent antibody responses against each protein, displaying a significant bias toward a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) profile in animals vaccinated with AdSAG1. Furthermore, the presence of parasite-specific IFN-gamma-producing T cells was analyzed by proliferation assays and enzyme-linked immunospot assays in the same animals. Splenocytes from immunized mice secreted IFN-gamma after in vitro stimulation with tachyzoite lysate antigen or with a fraction enriched for membrane-purified GPI-anchored proteins (F3) from the T. gondii tachyzoite surface. Epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells were identified in SAG1 and SAG3, but not SAG2, sequences, although this protein also induced a specific response. We also tested the capacity of the immune responses detected to protect mice against a challenge with live T. gondii parasites. Although no protection was observed against tachyzoites of the highly virulent RH strain, a significant reduction in cyst loads in the brain was observed in animals challenged with the P-Br strain. Thus, up to 80% of the cysts were eliminated from animals vaccinated with a mixture of the three recombinant viruses. Because adenoviruses seemed capable of inducing Th1-biased protective immune responses against T. gondii antigens, other parasite antigens should be tested alone or in combination with those described here to further develop a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis. PMID:16610929

  20. Vaccination using recombinants influenza and adenoviruses encoding amastigote surface protein-2 are highly effective on protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Barbosa, Rafael Polidoro Alves; Filho, Bruno Galvão; Dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Junior, Policarpo Ademar Sales; Marques, Pedro Elias; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; Cara, Denise Carmona; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Machado, Alexandre Vieira

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the protection raised by immunization with recombinant influenza viruses carrying sequences coding for polypeptides corresponding to medial and carboxi-terminal moieties of Trypanosoma cruzi ´s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP2). Those viruses were used in sequential immunization with recombinant adenovirus (heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol) encoding the complete sequence of ASP2 (Ad-ASP2) in two mouse strains (C57BL/6 and C3H/He). The CD8 effector response elicited by this protocol was comparable to that observed in mice immunized twice with Ad-ASP2 and more robust than that observed in mice that were immunized once with Ad-ASP2. Whereas a single immunization with Ad-ASP2 sufficed to completely protect C57BL/6 mice, a higher survival rate was observed in C3H/He mice that were primed with recombinant influenza virus and boosted with Ad-ASP2 after being challenged with T. cruzi. Analyzing the phenotype of CD8+ T cells obtained from spleen of vaccinated C3H/He mice we observed that heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol elicited more CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant epitope as well as a higher number of CD8+ T cells producing TNF-α and IFN-γ and a higher mobilization of surface marker CD107a. Taken together, our results suggest that immunodominant subpopulations of CD8+ T elicited after immunization could be directly related to degree of protection achieved by different immunization protocols using different viral vectors. Overall, these results demonstrated the usefulness of recombinant influenza viruses in immunization protocols against Chagas Disease. PMID:23637908

  1. A novel recombinant Peste des petits ruminants-canine adenovirus vaccine elicits long-lasting neutralizing antibody response against PPR in goats.

    Junling Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious infectious disease of goats, sheep and small wild ruminant species with high morbidity and mortality rates. The Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV expresses a hemagglutinin (H glycoprotein on its outer envelope that is crucial for viral attachment to host cells and represents a key antigen for inducing the host immune response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether H can be exploited to generate an effective PPRV vaccine, a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2 expressing the H gene of PPRV (China/Tibet strain was constructed by the in vitro ligation method. The H expression cassette, including the human cytomegalovirus (hCMV promoter/enhancer and the BGH early mRNA polyadenylation signal, was inserted into the SspI site of the E3 region, which is not essential for proliferation of CAV-2. Infectious recombinant rCAV-2-PPRV-H virus was generated in transfected MDCK cells and used to immunize goats. All vaccinated animals produced antibodies upon primary injection that were effective in neutralizing PPRV in vitro. Higher antibody titer was obtained following booster inoculation, and the antibody was detectable in goats for at least seven months. No serious recombinant virus-related adverse effect was observed in immunized animals and no adenovirus could be isolated from the urine or feces of vaccinated animals. Results showed that the recombinant virus was safe and could stimulate a long-lasting immune response in goats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This strategy not only provides an effective PPR vaccine candidate for goats but may be a valuable mean by which to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (the so-called DIVA approach.

  2. Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin

    2013-01-11

    Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry. PMID:23200938

  3. Cold-adapted influenza and recombinant adenovirus vaccines induce cross-protective immunity against pH1N1 challenge in mice.

    Mark R Soboleski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1 highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP and consensus matrix 2 (M2 (NP+M2-rAd. Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic.

  4. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-01

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. PMID:27026148

  5. Ad 2.0: a novel recombineering platform for high-throughput generation of tailored adenoviruses

    Mück-Häusl, Martin; Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome of 26–45 kb were broadly explored in basic virology, for vaccination purposes, for treatment of tumors based on oncolytic virotherapy, or simply as a tool for efficient gene transfer. However, the majority of recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdVs) is based on a small fraction of adenovirus types and their genetic modification. Recombineering techniques provide powerful tools for arbitrary engineering of recombinant DNA. Here, we ...

  6. Adenovirus Specific Pre-Immunity Induced by Natural Route of Infection Does Not Impair Transduction by Adenoviral Vaccine Vectors in Mice.

    de Andrade Pereira, Bruna; Maduro Bouillet, Leoneide E; Dorigo, Natalia A; Fraefel, Cornel; Bruna-Romero, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAd5V) vectors are gold standards of T-cell immunogenicity as they efficiently induce also humoral responses to exogenous antigens, in particular when used in prime-boost protocols. Some investigators have shown that pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses interferes with transduction by adenoviral vectors, but the actual extent of this interference is not known since it has been mostly studied in mice using unnatural routes of infection and virus doses. Here we studied the effects of HAd5V-specific immune responses induced by intranasal infection on the transduction efficiency of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Of interest, when HAd5V immunity was induced in mice by the natural respiratory route, the pre-existing immunity against HAd5V did not significantly interfere with the B and T-cell immune responses against the transgene products induced after a prime/boost inoculation protocol with a recombinant HAd5V-vector, as measured by ELISA and in vivo cytotoxic T-cell assays, respectively. We also correlated the levels of HAd5V-specific neutralizing antibodies (Ad5NAbs) induced in mice with the levels of Ad5NAb titers found in humans. The data indicate that approximately 60% of the human serum samples tested displayed Ad5NAb levels that could be overcome with a prime-boost vaccination protocol. These results suggest that recombinant HAd5V vectors are potentially useful for prime-boost vaccination strategies, at least when pre-existing immunity against HAd5V is at low or medium levels. PMID:26679149

  7. Comparative immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing different forms of hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from the H5 serotype of influenza A viruses in mice.

    Hu, Xiangjing; Meng, Weixu; Dong, Zhenyuan; Pan, Weiqi; Sun, Caijun; Chen, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in poultry and their subsequent transmission to humans have highlighted an urgent need to develop preventive vaccines in the event of a pandemic. In this paper we constructed recombinant adenovirus (rAd)-vectored influenza vaccines expressing different forms of H5 hemagglutinin (HA) from the A/Vietnam/1194/04 (VN/1194/04) virus, a wild-type HA, a sequence codon-optimized HA and a transmembrane (TM) domain-truncated HA. Compared to the rAd vectors expressing the wild-type HA (rAd-04wtHA) and the TM-truncated form of HA (rAd-04optHA-dTM), the rAd vectored vaccine with the sequence codon-optimized HA (rAd-04optHA) showed a tendency to induce much higher hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) antibody titers in mice immunized with a prime-boost vaccine. Furthermore, administration of the rAd-04optHA vaccine to mice could elicit cross-reactive immune responses against the antigenically distinct HK/482/97 virus. Additionally, we constructed another vector containing the codon-optimized HA of the A/Hong Kong/482/97 (HK/482/97) virus. Administration of a bivalent immunization formulation including the rAd-04optHA and rAd-97optHA vaccines to mice induced a stronger immune response against HK/482/97 virus than the monovalent formulation. Taken together, these findings may have some implications for the development of rAd-vectored vaccines in the event of the pandemic spread of HPAI. PMID:20883733

  8. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in ...

  9. Recombinant trimeric HA protein immunogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses and their combined use with inactivated or adenovirus vaccines.

    Shih-Chang Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus continues to cause disease in poultry and humans. The hemagglutinin (HA envelope protein is the primary target for subunit vaccine development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used baculovirus-insect cell expression to obtain trimeric recombinant HA (rHA proteins from two HPAI H5N1 viruses. We investigated trimeric rHA protein immunogenicity in mice via immunizations, and found that the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies resulted from coupling with a PELC/CpG adjuvant. We also found that the combined use of trimeric rHA proteins with (a an inactivated H5N1 vaccine virus, or (b a recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length HA sequences for prime-boost immunization, further improved antibody responses against homologous and heterologous H5N1 virus strains. Data from cross-clade prime-boost immunization regimens indicate that sequential immunization with different clade HA antigens increased antibody responses in terms of total IgG level and neutralizing antibody titers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the use of trimeric rHA in prime-boost vaccine regimens represents an alternative strategy for recombinant H5N1 vaccine development.

  10. [PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF LIVE RECOMBINANT ANTHRAX VACCINES BASED ON OPPORTUNISTIC AND APATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS].

    Popova, P Yu; Mikshis, N I

    2016-01-01

    Live genetic engineering anthrax vaccines on the platform of avirulent and probiotic micro-organisms are a safe and adequate alternative to preparations based on attenuated Bacillus anthracis strains. Mucosal application results in a direct contact of the vaccine preparations with mucous membranes in those organs arid tissues of the macro-organisms, that are exposed to the pathogen in the first place, resulting in a development of local and systemic immune response. Live recombinant anthrax vaccines could be used both separately as well as in a prime-boost immunization scheme. The review focuses on immunogenic and protective properties of experimental live genetic engineering prearations, created based on members of geni of Salmonella, Lactobacillus and adenoviruses. PMID:27029122

  11. Rapid generation of fowl adenovirus 9 vectors.

    Pei, Yanlong; Griffin, Bryan; de Jong, Jondavid; Krell, Peter J; Nagy, Éva

    2015-10-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdV) have the largest genomes of any fully sequenced adenovirus genome, and are widely considered as excellent platforms for vaccine development and gene therapy. As such, there is a strong need for stream-lined protocols/strategies for the generation of recombinant adenovirus genomes. Current genome engineering strategies rely upon plasmid based homologous recombination in Escherichia coli BJ5183. This process is time-consuming, involves multiple cloning steps, and low efficiency recombination. This report describes a novel system for the more rapid generation of recombinant fowl adenovirus genomes using the lambda Red recombinase system in E. coli DH10B. In this strategy, PCR based amplicons with around 50 nt long homologous arms, a unique SwaI site and a chloramphenicol resistance gene fragment (CAT cassette), are introduced into the FAdV-9 genome in a highly efficient and site-specific manner. To demonstrate the efficacy of this system we generated FAdV-9 ORF2, and FAdV-9 ORF11 deleted, CAT marked and unmarked FAdV-9 infectious clones (FAdmids), and replaced either ORF2 or ORF11, with an EGFP expression cassette or replaced ORF2 with an EGFP coding sequence via the unique SwaI sites, in approximately one month. All recombinant FAdmids expressed EGFP and were fully infectious in CH-SAH cells. PMID:26238923

  12. Intranasal mucosal boosting with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine markedly enhances the protection of BCG-primed guinea pigs against pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Zhou Xing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant adenovirus-vectored (Ad tuberculosis (TB vaccine platform has demonstrated great potential to be used either as a stand-alone or a boost vaccine in murine models. However, Ad TB vaccine remains to be evaluated in a more relevant and sensitive guinea pig model of pulmonary TB. Many vaccine candidates shown to be effective in murine models have subsequently failed to pass the test in guinea pig models. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Specific pathogen-free guinea pigs were immunized with BCG, AdAg85A intranasally (i.n, AdAg85A intramuscularly (i.m, BCG boosted with AdAg85A i.n, BCG boosted with AdAg85A i.m, or treated only with saline. The animals were then infected by a low-dose aerosol of M. tuberculosis (M.tb. At the specified times, the animals were sacrificed and the levels of infection in the lung and spleen were assessed. In separate studies, the long-term disease outcome of infected animals was monitored until the termination of this study. Immunization with Ad vaccine alone had minimal beneficial effects. Immunization with BCG alone and BCG prime-Ad vaccine boost regimens significantly reduced the level of M.tb infection in the tissues to a similar extent. However, while BCG alone prolonged the survival of infected guinea pigs, the majority of BCG-immunized animals succumbed by 53 weeks post-M.tb challenge. In contrast, intranasal or intramuscular Ad vaccine boosting of BCG-primed animals markedly improved the survival rate with 60% of BCG/Ad i.n- and 40% of BCG/Ad i.m-immunized guinea pigs still surviving by 74 weeks post-aerosol challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Boosting, particularly via the intranasal mucosal route, with AdAg85A vaccine is able to significantly enhance the long-term survival of BCG-primed guinea pigs following pulmonary M.tb challenge. Our results thus support further evaluation of this viral-vectored TB vaccine in clinical trials.

  13. Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FM...

  14. Intranasal Boosting with an Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine Markedly Enhances Protection by Parenteral Mycobacterium bovis BCG Immunization against Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Santosuosso, Michael; McCormick, Sarah; Zhang, Xizhong; Zganiacz, Anna; Xing, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A (AdAg85A) as a boost vaccine. Since we recently demonstrated that a single intranasal but not intramuscular immunization with AdAg85A was able to...

  15. [Two recombinant adenovirus vaccine candidates containing neuraminidase Gene of H5N1 influenza virus (A/Anhui/1/2005) elicited effective cell-mediated immunity in mice].

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Chen, Hong; Li, Kui-Biao; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Ke; Yang, Liang; Xu, Hong; Shu, Yue-Long; Tan, Wen-Jie; Zeng, Yi

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the recombinant adenovirus vaccine (rAdV) candidates containing neuraminidase (NA) gene of H5N1 influenza virus and test in BALB/c mice the effect of cell-mediated immunity. In this study, two kind of NA gene (WtNA gene, the wild type; Mod. NA gene, the codon-modified type) derived from H5N1 influenza virus (A/Anhui/1/2005) were cloned and inserted respectively into plasmid of adenovirus vector, then the rAdV vaccines candidates (rAdV-WtNA and rAdV-Mod. NA) were developed and purified, followed by immunization intramuscularly (10(9) TCID50 per dose, double injection at 0 and 4th week) in BALB/c mice, the effect of cell-mediated immunity were analysed at 5th week. Results indicated that: (i) NA protein expression was detected in two rAdV vaccines candidates by Western blotting; (ii) the rAdV-Mod. NA vaccine could elicit more robust NA specific cell-mediated immunity in mice than that of rAdV-WtNA vaccine (P = 0. 016) by IFN-gamma ELIspot assay. These findings suggested rAdV-Mod. NA vaccine was a potential vaccine candidate against H5N1 influenza and worthy of further investigation. PMID:19954107

  16. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  17. Adenovirus-mediated REIC/Dkk-3 gene therapy: Development of an autologous cancer vaccination therapy (Review)

    Watanabe, Masami; Nasu,Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Reduced expression in immortalized cells (REIC)/Dickkopf (Dkk)-3 is a tumor suppressor and therapeutic gene and has been studied with respect to the application of cancer gene therapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that the intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector carrying the human REIC/Dkk-3 gene (Ad-REIC) suppresses tumor growth in mouse models of prostate, breast and testicular cancer and malignant mesothelioma. The mechanisms underlying these antitumor therapeutic effects have ...

  18. Intramuscular Delivery of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vector Expressing Humanized Protective Antigen Induces Rapid Protection against Anthrax That May Bypass Intranasally Originated Preexisting Adenovirus Immunity

    Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; YI, SHAOQIONG; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a s...

  19. Genomic and Bioinformatics Analysis of HAdV-4, a Human Adenovirus Causing Acute Respiratory Disease: Implications for Gene Therapy and Vaccine Vector Development

    Purkayastha, Anjan; Ditty, Susan E.; Su, Jing; McGraw, John; Hadfield, Ted L.; Tibbetts, Clark; Seto, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Human adenovirus serotype 4 (HAdV-4) is a reemerging viral pathogenic agent implicated in epidemic outbreaks of acute respiratory disease (ARD). This report presents a genomic and bioinformatics analysis of the prototype 35,990-nucleotide genome (GenBank accession no. AY594253). Intriguingly, the genome analysis suggests a closer phylogenetic relationship with the chimpanzee adenoviruses (simian adenoviruses) rather than with other human adenoviruses, suggesting a recent origin of HAdV-4, and...

  20. Optimization and scale-up of cell culture and purification processes for production of an adenovirus-vectored tuberculosis vaccine candidate.

    Shen, Chun Fang; Jacob, Danielle; Zhu, Tao; Bernier, Alice; Shao, Zhongqi; Yu, Xuefeng; Patel, Mehul; Lanthier, Stephane; Kamen, Amine

    2016-06-17

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading cause of death by infectious disease worldwide. The only available TB vaccine is the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). However, parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. AdAg85A, an adenoviral vector expressing the mycobacterial protein Ag85A, is a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate, and has shown promising results in pre-clinical studies and phase I trial. This adenovirus vectored vaccine is produced using HEK 293 cell culture. Here we report on the optimization of cell culture conditions, scale-up of production and purification of the AdAg85A at different scales. Four commercial serum-free media were evaluated under various conditions for supporting the growth of HEK293 cell and production of AdAg85A. A culturing strategy was employed to take advantages of two culture media with respective strengths in supporting the cell growth and virus production, which enabled to maintain virus productivity at higher cell densities and resulted in more than two folds of increases in culture titer. The production of AdAg85A was successfully scaled up and validated at 60L bioreactor under the optimal conditions. The AdAg85A generated from the 3L and 60L bioreactor runs was purified through several purification steps. More than 98% of total cellular proteins was removed, over 60% of viral particles was recovered after the purification process, and purity of AdAg85A was similar to that of the ATCC VR-1516 Ad5 standard. Vaccination of mice with the purified AdAg85A demonstrated a very good level of Ag85A-specific antibody responses. The optimized production and purification conditions were transferred to a GMP facility for manufacturing of AdAg85A for generation of clinical grade material to support clinical trials. PMID:27154390

  1. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  2. Adenovirus-Vectored Drug-Vaccine Duo as a Rapid-Response Tool for Conferring Seamless Protection against Influenza

    Jianfeng Zhang; E Bart Tarbet; Tsungwei Feng; Zhongkai Shi; Van Kampen, Kent R; Tang, De-chu C

    2011-01-01

    Few other diseases exert such a huge toll of suffering as influenza. We report here that intranasal (i.n.) administration of E1/E3-defective (ΔE1E3) adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) particles rapidly induced an anti-influenza state as a means of prophylactic therapy which persisted for several weeks in mice. By encoding an influenza virus (IFV) hemagglutinin (HA) HA1 domain, an Ad5-HA1 vector conferred rapid protection as a prophylactic drug followed by elicitation of sustained protective immunity...

  3. Genetic stability of a recombinant adenovirus vaccine vector seed library expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 proteins

    WU, JIE; CHEN, KE-DA; GAO, MENG; CHEN, GANG; JIN, SU-FENG; ZHUANG, FANG-CHENG; WU, XIAO-HONG; JIANG, YUN-SHUI; LI, JIAN-BO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the genetic stability of a master seed bank (MSB) and a working seed bank (WSB) of an adenovirus vector vaccine expressing the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6 and E7 fusion proteins (Ad-HPV16E6E7). Microscopic examination and viral infectious efficacy were used to measure the infectious titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB. Polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the stability of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 target gene insertion, while western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression levels of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 target protein. A C57BL/6 mouse TC-1 tumor cell growth inhibition model was used to evaluate the biological effect of Ad-HPV16E6E7 administration. The infectious titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB were 6.31×109 IU/ml and 3.0×109 IU/ml, respectively. In addition, the expression levels of the inserted target genes and target proteins were found to be stable. In the mouse TC-1 tumor inhibition analysis, when the virus titers of the Ad-HPV16E6E7 MSB and WSB were 109 IU/ml, the tumor inhibition rate was 100%, which was significantly different when compared with the control group (χ2MSB=20.00 and χ2WSB=20.00; P<0.01). Therefore, the Ad-HPV16E6E7 vaccine seed bank is genetically stable and meets the requirements for vaccine development. PMID:25780403

  4. Recombinant influenza vaccines.

    Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L

    2012-10-01

    This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377

  5. A broadly applicable method to characterize large DNA viruses and adenoviruses based on the DNA polymerase gene

    Montgomery Roy D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many viral pathogens are poorly characterized, are difficult to culture or reagents are lacking for confirmatory diagnoses. We have developed and tested a robust assay for detecting and characterizing large DNA viruses and adenoviruses. The assay is based on the use of degenerate PCR to target a gene common to these viruses, the DNA polymerase, and sequencing the products. Results We evaluated our method by applying it to fowl adenovirus isolates, catfish herpesvirus isolates, and largemouth bass ranavirus (iridovirus from cell culture and lymphocystis disease virus (iridovirus and avian poxvirus from tissue. All viruses with the exception of avian poxvirus produced the expected product. After optimization of extraction procedures, and after designing and applying an additional primer we were able to produce polymerase gene product from the avian poxvirus genome. The sequence data that we obtained demonstrated the simplicity and potential of the method for routine use in characterizing large DNA viruses. The adenovirus samples were demonstrated to represent 2 types of fowl adenovirus, fowl adenovirus 1 and an uncharacterized avian adenovirus most similar to fowl adenovirus 9. The herpesvirus isolate from blue catfish was shown to be similar to channel catfish virus (Ictalurid herpesvirus 1. The case isolate of largemouth bass ranavirus was shown to exactly match the type specimen and both were similar to tiger frog virus and frog virus 3. The lymphocystis disease virus isolate from largemouth bass was shown to be related but distinct from the two previously characterized lymphocystis disease virus isolates suggesting that it may represent a distinct lymphocystis disease virus species. Conclusion The method developed is rapid and broadly applicable to cell culture isolates and infected tissues. Targeting a specific gene for in the large DNA viruses and adenoviruses provide a common reference for grouping the newly identified

  6. Plant-Based Vaccines: Production and Challenges

    Erna Laere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based vaccine technologies involve the integration of the desired genes encoding the antigen protein for specific disease into the genome of plant tissues by various methods. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and transformation via genetically modified plant virus are the common methods that have been used to produce effective vaccines. Nevertheless, with the advancement of science and technology, new approaches have been developed to increase the efficiency of former methods such as biolistic, electroporation, agroinfiltration, sonication, and polyethylene glycol treatment. Even though plant-based vaccines provide many benefits to the vaccine industry, there are still challenges that limit the rate of successful production of these third-generation vaccines. Even with all the limitations, continuous efforts are still ongoing in order to produce efficient vaccine for many human and animals related diseases owing to its great potentials. This paper reviews the existing conventional methods as well as the development efforts by researchers in order to improve the production of plant-based vaccines. Several challenges encountered during and after the production process were also discussed.

  7. PEGylated Adenoviruses: From Mice to Monkeys

    Piyanuch Wonganan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Covalent modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG, a non-toxic polymer used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for over 60 years, can profoundly influence the pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic and toxciologic profile of protein and peptide-based therapeutics. This review summarizes the history of PEGylation and PEG chemistry and highlights the value of this technology in the context of the design and development of recombinant viruses for gene transfer, vaccination and diagnostic purposes. Specific emphasis is placed on the application of this technology to the adenovirus, the most potent viral vector with the most highly characterized toxicity profile to date, in several animal models.

  8. Particle-based platforms for malaria vaccines.

    Wu, Yimin; Narum, David L; Fleury, Sylvain; Jennings, Gary; Yadava, Anjali

    2015-12-22

    Recombinant subunit vaccines in general are poor immunogens likely due to the small size of peptides and proteins, combined with the lack or reduced presentation of repetitive motifs and missing complementary signal(s) for optimal triggering of the immune response. Therefore, recombinant subunit vaccines require enhancement by vaccine delivery vehicles in order to attain adequate protective immunity. Particle-based delivery platforms, including particulate antigens and particulate adjuvants, are promising delivery vehicles for modifying the way in which immunogens are presented to both the innate and adaptive immune systems. These particle delivery platforms can also co-deliver non-specific immunostimodulators as additional adjuvants. This paper reviews efforts and advances of the Particle-based delivery platforms in development of vaccines against malaria, a disease that claims over 600,000 lives per year, most of them are children under 5 years of age in sub-Sahara Africa. PMID:26458803

  9. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    Xiang Zuoshuang; Hur Junguk; Feldman Eva L; He Yongqun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of va...

  10. Flagellin Encoded in Gene-Based Vector Vaccines Is a Route-Dependent Immune Adjuvant.

    Rady, Hamada F; Dai, Guixiang; Huang, Weitao; Shellito, Judd E; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2016-01-01

    Flagellin has been tested as a protein-based vaccine adjuvant, with the majority of studies focused on antibody responses. Here, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of flagellin for both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice in the setting of gene-based immunization, and have made several novel observations. DNA vaccines and adenovirus (Ad) vectors were engineered to encode mycobacterial protein Ag85B, with or without flagellin of Salmonella typhimurium (FliC). DNA-encoded flagellin given IM enhanced splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to co-expressed vaccine antigen, including memory responses. Boosting either IM or intranasally with Ad vectors expressing Ag85B without flagellin led to durable enhancement of Ag85B-specific antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in both spleen and pulmonary tissues, correlating with significantly improved protection against challenge with pathogenic aerosolized M. tuberculosis. However, inclusion of flagellin in both DNA prime and Ad booster vaccines induced localized pulmonary inflammation and transient weight loss, with route-dependent effects on vaccine-induced T cell immunity. The latter included marked reductions in levels of mucosal CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses following IM DNA/IN Ad mucosal prime-boosting, although antibody responses were not diminished. These findings indicate that flagellin has differential and route-dependent adjuvant activity when included as a component of systemic or mucosally-delivered gene-based prime-boost immunization. Clear adjuvant activity for both T and B cell responses was observed when flagellin was included in the DNA priming vaccine, but side effects occurred when given in an Ad boosting vector, particularly via the pulmonary route. PMID:26844553

  11. Flagellin Encoded in Gene-Based Vector Vaccines Is a Route-Dependent Immune Adjuvant.

    Hamada F Rady

    Full Text Available Flagellin has been tested as a protein-based vaccine adjuvant, with the majority of studies focused on antibody responses. Here, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of flagellin for both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice in the setting of gene-based immunization, and have made several novel observations. DNA vaccines and adenovirus (Ad vectors were engineered to encode mycobacterial protein Ag85B, with or without flagellin of Salmonella typhimurium (FliC. DNA-encoded flagellin given IM enhanced splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to co-expressed vaccine antigen, including memory responses. Boosting either IM or intranasally with Ad vectors expressing Ag85B without flagellin led to durable enhancement of Ag85B-specific antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in both spleen and pulmonary tissues, correlating with significantly improved protection against challenge with pathogenic aerosolized M. tuberculosis. However, inclusion of flagellin in both DNA prime and Ad booster vaccines induced localized pulmonary inflammation and transient weight loss, with route-dependent effects on vaccine-induced T cell immunity. The latter included marked reductions in levels of mucosal CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses following IM DNA/IN Ad mucosal prime-boosting, although antibody responses were not diminished. These findings indicate that flagellin has differential and route-dependent adjuvant activity when included as a component of systemic or mucosally-delivered gene-based prime-boost immunization. Clear adjuvant activity for both T and B cell responses was observed when flagellin was included in the DNA priming vaccine, but side effects occurred when given in an Ad boosting vector, particularly via the pulmonary route.

  12. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. METHODS: Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate

  13. Effects of the deletion of early region 4 (E4) open reading frame 1 (orf1), orf1-2, orf1-3 and orf1-4 on virus-host cell interaction, transgene expression, and immunogenicity of replicating adenovirus HIV vaccine vectors.

    Thomas, Michael A; Song, Rui; Demberg, Thorsten; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Venzon, David; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    The global health burden engendered by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a sobering reminder of the pressing need for a preventative vaccine. In non-human primate models replicating adenovirus (Ad)-HIV/SIV recombinant vaccine vectors have been shown to stimulate potent immune responses culminating in protection against challenge exposures. Nonetheless, an increase in the transgene carrying capacity of these Ad vectors, currently limited to approximately 3000 base pairs, would greatly enhance their utility. Using a replicating, E3-deleted Ad type 5 host range mutant (Ad5 hr) encoding full-length single-chain HIVBaLgp120 linked to the D1 and D2 domains of rhesus macaque CD4 (rhFLSC) we systematically deleted the genes encoding early region 4 open reading frame 1 (E4orf1) through E4orf4. All the Ad-rhFLSC vectors produced similar levels of viral progeny. Cell cycle analysis of infected human and monkey cells revealed no differences in virus-host interaction. The parental and E4-deleted viruses expressed comparable levels of the transgene with kinetics similar to Ad late proteins. Similar levels of cellular immune responses and transgene-specific antibodies were elicited in vaccinated mice. However, differences in recognition of Ad proteins and induced antibody subtypes were observed, suggesting that the E4 gene products might modulate antibody responses by as yet unknown mechanisms. In short, we have improved the transgene carrying capacity by one thousand base pairs while preserving the replicability, levels of transgene expression, and immunogenicity critical to these vaccine vectors. This additional space allows for flexibility in vaccine design that could not be obtained with the current vector and as such should facilitate the goal of improving vaccine efficacy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the effects of these E4 deletions on transgene expression and immunogenicity in a

  14. A new genetic vaccine platform based on an adeno-associated virus isolated from a rhesus macaque.

    Lin, Jianping; Calcedo, Roberto; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Bell, Peter; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Wilson, James M

    2009-12-01

    We created a hybrid adeno-associated virus (AAV) from two related rhesus macaque isolates, called AAVrh32.33, and evaluated it as a vaccine carrier for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type A influenza virus antigens. The goal was to overcome the limitations of vaccines based on other AAVs, which generate dysfunctional T-cell responses and are inhibited by antibodies found in human sera. Injection of a Gag-expressing AAVrh32.33 vector into mice resulted in a high-quality CD8(+) T-cell response. The resulting Gag-specific T cells express multiple cytokines at high levels, including interleukin-2, with many having memory phenotypes; a subsequent boost with an adenovirus vector yielded a brisk expansion of Gag-specific T cells. A priming dose of AAVrh32.33 led to high levels of Gag antibodies, which exceed levels found after injection of adenovirus vectors. Importantly, passive transfer of pooled human immunoglobulin into mice does not interfere with the efficacy of AAVrh32.33 expressing nucleoproteins from influenza virus, as measured by protection to a lethal dose of influenza virus, which is consistent with the very low seroprevalence to this virus in humans. Studies of macaques with vectors expressing gp140 from HIV-1 (i.e., with AAVrh32.33 as the prime and simian adenovirus type 24 as the boost) demonstrated results similar to those for mice with high-level and high-quality CD8(+) T-cell responses to gp140 and high-titered neutralizing antibodies to homologous HIV-1. The biology of this novel AAV hybrid suggests that it should be a preferred genetic vaccine carrier, capable of generating robust T- and B-cell responses. PMID:19812149

  15. Mucosal immunization with recombinant adenovirus encoding soluble globular head of hemagglutinin protects mice against lethal influenza virus infection.

    Kim, Joo Young; Choi, Youngjoo; Nguyen, Huan H; Song, Man Ki; Chang, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Influenza virus is one of the major sources of respiratory tract infection. Due to antigenic drift in surface glycoproteins the virus causes annual epidemics with severe morbidity and mortality. Although hemagglutinin (HA) is one of the highly variable surface glycoproteins of the influenza virus, it remains the most attractive target for vaccine development against seasonal influenza infection because antibodies generated against HA provide virus neutralization and subsequent protection against the virus infection. Combination of recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vector-based vaccine and mucosal administration is a promising regimen for safe and effective vaccination against influenza. In this study, we constructed rAd encoding the globular head region of HA from A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus as vaccine candidate. The rAd vaccine was engineered to express high level of the protein in secreted form. Intranasal or sublingual immunization of mice with the rAd-based vaccine candidates induced significant levels of sustained HA-specific mucosal IgA and IgG. When challenged with lethal dose of homologous virus, the vaccinated mice were completely protected from the infection. The results demonstrate that intranasal or sublingual vaccination with HA-encoding rAd elicits protective immunity against infection with homologous influenza virus. This finding underlines the potential of our recombinant adenovirus-based influenza vaccine candidate for both efficacy and rapid production. PMID:24385946

  16. Adenovirus Specific Pre-Immunity Induced by Natural Route of Infection Does Not Impair Transduction by Adenoviral Vaccine Vectors in Mice

    de Andrade Pereira, Bruna; E. Maduro Bouillet, Leoneide; Dorigo, Natalia A.; Fraefel, Cornel; Bruna-Romero, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAd5V) vectors are gold standards of T-cell immunogenicity as they efficiently induce also humoral responses to exogenous antigens, in particular when used in prime-boost protocols. Some investigators have shown that pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses interferes with transduction by adenoviral vectors, but the actual extent of this interference is not known since it has been mostly studied in mice using unnatural routes of infection and virus doses....

  17. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  18. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Samantha Sayers; Guerlain Ulysse; Zuoshuang Xiang; Yongqun He

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bi...

  19. Ad 2.0: a novel recombineering platform for high-throughput generation of tailored adenoviruses.

    Mück-Häusl, Martin; Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-04-30

    Recombinant adenoviruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome of 26-45 kb were broadly explored in basic virology, for vaccination purposes, for treatment of tumors based on oncolytic virotherapy, or simply as a tool for efficient gene transfer. However, the majority of recombinant adenoviral vectors (AdVs) is based on a small fraction of adenovirus types and their genetic modification. Recombineering techniques provide powerful tools for arbitrary engineering of recombinant DNA. Here, we adopted a seamless recombineering technology for high-throughput and arbitrary genetic engineering of recombinant adenoviral DNA molecules. Our cloning platform which also includes a novel recombination pipeline is based on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). It enables generation of novel recombinant adenoviruses from different sources and switching between commonly used early generation AdVs and the last generation high-capacity AdVs lacking all viral coding sequences making them attractive candidates for clinical use. In combination with a novel recombination pipeline allowing cloning of AdVs containing large and complex transgenes and the possibility to generate arbitrary chimeric capsid-modified adenoviruses, these techniques allow generation of tailored AdVs with distinct features. Our technologies will pave the way toward broader applications of AdVs in molecular medicine including gene therapy and vaccination studies. PMID:25609697

  20. Detection of human adenoviruses in organic fresh produce using molecular and cell culture-based methods.

    Marti, Elisabet; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of organic fresh produce has increased in recent years due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. However, the number of foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh produce has also increased. Contamination of food with enteric viruses is a major concern because the viruses have a low infectious dose and high persistence in the environment. Human adenovirus (HAdV) has been proposed as a good marker of faecal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the plaque assay (PA), real time PCR (qPCR) and integrated cell culture-RT-qPCR (ICC-RT-qPCR) for the recovery of HAdV from artificially and naturally contaminated fresh produce. Organic lettuce, strawberries and green onions were selected because these fresh products are frequently associated with foodborne outbreaks. The virus extraction efficiencies from artificially contaminated samples varied from 2.8% to 32.8% depending on the food matrix and the quantification method used. Although the HAdV recoveries determined by qPCR were higher than those determined by PA and ICC-RT-qPCR, PA was defined as the most reproducible method. The qPCR assays were more sensitive than the PA and ICC-RT-qPCR assays; however, this technique alone did not provide information about the viability of the pathogen. ICC-RT-qPCR was more sensitive than PA for detecting infectious particles in fresh produce samples. HAdV genome copies were detected in 93.3% of the analysed naturally contaminated samples, attesting to the common faecal contamination of the fresh produce tested. However, only 33.3% of the total samples were positive for infectious HAdV particles based on ICC-RT-qPCR. In conclusion, this study reported that HAdV can be an efficient viral marker for fresh produce contamination. Good detection of infectious HAdV was obtained with the ICC-RT-qPCR and PA assays. Thus, we suggest that the ICC-RT-qPCR and PA assays should be considered when quantitative

  1. Elaboration of optical immunosensors based on the surface plasmon resonance for detecting specific antibodies and antigens of Epstein-Barr virus and human adenovirus.

    Nesterova, N V; Nosach, L M; Zagorodnya, S D; Povnitsa, O Y; Boltovets, P M; Baranova, G V; Golovan, A V

    2008-01-01

    The study of antigen-antibody interaction on the model of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and second type adenovirus (Ad2) based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was carried out. Kinetic and concentration dependences between virus antigens and specific antisera to them at different pH were determined. Experimental samples of biosensors for the detection by SPR method of virus (EBV and Ad2) antigens using monospecific antibodies, immobilized on the surface of gold, and also for detection of specific antibodies in the blood sera of patients with EBV or adenovirus infection were elaborated PMID:19351051

  2. Outpatient-Based Pneumococcal Vaccine Campaign and Survey of Perceptions about Pneumococcal Vaccination in Patients and Doctors

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Woo Joo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite the ready availability of pneumococcal vaccine, vaccination rates are quite low in South Korea. This study was designed to assess perceptions and awareness about pneumococcal vaccines among subjects at risk and find strategies to increases vaccine coverage rates. Materials and Methods A cross sectional, community-based survey was conducted to assess perceptions about the pneumococcal vaccine at a local public health center. In a tertiary hospital, an outpatient-based pneumococ...

  3. Tailoring a Combination Preerythrocytic Malaria Vaccine.

    Bauza, Karolis; Atcheson, Erwan; Malinauskas, Tomas; Blagborough, Andrew M; Reyes-Sandoval, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The leading malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, based on the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP), will likely be the first publicly adopted malaria vaccine. However, this and other subunit vaccines, such as virus-vectored thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), provide only intermediate to low levels of protection. In this study, the Plasmodium berghei homologues of antigens CSP and TRAP are combined. TRAP is delivered using adenovirus- and vaccinia virus-based vectors in a prime-boost regime. Initially, CSP is also delivered using these viral vectors; however, a reduction of anti-CSP antibodies is seen when combined with virus-vectored TRAP, and the combination is no more protective than either subunit vaccine alone. Using an adenovirus-CSP prime, protein-CSP boost regime, however, increases anti-CSP antibody titers by an order of magnitude, which is maintained when combined with virus-vectored TRAP. This combination regime using protein CSP provided 100% protection in C57BL/6 mice compared to no protection using virus-vectored TRAP alone and 40% protection using adenovirus-CSP prime and protein-CSP boost alone. This suggests that a combination of CSP and TRAP subunit vaccines could enhance protection against malaria. PMID:26667840

  4. Vaccinations

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  5. Adenovirus-associated health risks for recreational activities in a multi-use coastal watershed based on site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Kundu, Arti; McBride, Graham; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-10-15

    We used site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess the probability of adenovirus illness for three groups of swimmers: adults with primary contact, children with primary contact, and secondary contact regardless of age. Human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were monitored by qPCR in a multi-use watershed and Adenovirus type 40/41 was detected in 11% of 73 samples, ranging from 147 to 4117 genomes per liter. Enterovirus was detected only once (32 genomes per liter). Seven of eight virus detections occurred when E. coli concentrations were below the single sample maximum water quality criterion for contact recreation, and five of eight virus detections occurred when fecal coliforms were below the corresponding criterion. We employed dose-harmonization to convert viral genome measurements to TCID50 values needed for dose-response curves. The three scenarios considered different amounts of water ingestion and Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for the variability associated with the doses. The mean illness risk in children based on adenovirus measurements obtained over 11 months was estimated to be 3.5%, which is below the 3.6% risk considered tolerable by the current United States EPA recreational criteria for gastrointestinal illnesses (GI). The mean risks of GI illness for adults and secondary contact were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. These risks changed appreciably when different distributions were fitted to the data as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In general, risk was at a maximum for the log-logistic distribution and lowest for the hockey stick distribution in all three selected scenarios. Also, under default assumptions, the risk was lowered considerably when assuming that only a small proportion of Adenovirus 40/41 (3%) was as infectious as Adenovirus type 4, compared to the assumption that all genomes were Adenovirus 4. In conclusion, site-specific QMRA on water-borne adenoviruses in this watershed provided a similar

  6. Immune Response to Recombinant Capsid Proteins of Adenovirus in Humans: Antifiber and Anti-Penton Base Antibodies Have a Synergistic Effect on Neutralizing Activity

    Gahéry-Ségard, Hanne; Farace, Françoise; Godfrin, Dominique; Gaston, Jesintha; Lengagne, Renée; Tursz, Thomas; Boulanger, Pierre; Guillet, Jean-Gérard

    1998-01-01

    Replication-deficient adenovirus used in humans for gene therapy induces a strong immune response to the vector, resulting in transient recombinant protein expression and the blocking of gene transfer upon a second administration. Therefore, in this study we examined in detail the capsid-specific humoral immune response in sera of patients with lung cancer who had been given one dose of a replication-defective adenovirus. We analyzed the immune response to the three major components of the viral capsid, hexon (Hx), penton base (Pb), and fiber (Fi). A longitudinal study of the humoral response assayed on adenovirus particle-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates showed that patients had preexisting immunity to adenovirus prior to the administration of adenovirus–β-gal. The level of the response increased in three patients after adenovirus administration and remained at a maximum after three months. One patient had a strong immune response to adenovirus prior to treatment, and this response was unaffected by adenovirus administration. Sera collected from the patients were assayed for recognition of each individual viral capsid protein to determine more precisely the molecular basis of the humoral immune response. Clear differences existed in the humoral response to the three major components of the viral capsid in serum from humans. Sequential appearance of these antibodies was observed: anti-Fi antibodies appeared first, followed by anti-Pb antibodies and then by anti-Hx antibodies. Moreover, anti-Fi antibodies preferentially recognized the native trimeric form of Fi protein, suggesting that they recognized conformational epitopes. Our results showed that sera with no neutralizing activity contained only anti-Fi antibodies. In contrast, neutralizing activity was only obtained with sera containing anti-Fi and anti-Pb antibodies. More importantly, we showed that anti-native Fi and anti-Pb antibodies had a synergistic effect on neutralization. The

  7. Applications of nanoparticles for DNA based rabies vaccine.

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology. PMID:24730305

  8. School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Parents’ Perspectives

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; MacDonald, Judy; Collins, Ramona; Frank, Christine J.; Davis, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns. Purpose We explored parents’ perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunizati...

  9. Construction of recombinant adenovirus vector containing AFP and generation of adenovirus-mediated AFP gene modified dendritic cells vaccine%含人AFP基因重组腺病毒载体的构建及其转染树突状细胞瘤苗的制备

    杨静悦; 曹大勇; 刘文超; 斯小明

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To construct recombinant adenovirus vectors containing human AFP genes,and infect dendritic cell. Methods: Full length AFP cDNAs were subcloned into pIND vector,followed by being cloned into shuttle2 vector.The AFP gene fragments resulted from the shuttle2-AFP digested with PI-Sce and I-Ceu were linked to the linear adeno-X virus DNA.After packaged with HEK293 cells,the adenovirus expression vector was obtained.The plasmid pAdeno-AFP was identified by endonuclease and PCR.After dendritic cells were infected pAdeno-AFP,the surface molecules of pAdeno-AFP/DC were analysed by flow cytometry.AFP levels in culture supernatant of pAdeno-AFP/DC were measured by ELISA. Results: AFP gene in the inserted DNA of adeno-AFP was confirmed by PCR,and predictive fragments proved by restriction enzyme digestion analysis were exhibited.All the above results indicated that human AFP gene had been connected with pAdeno-X vectors correctly.The recombinant adenovirus vector of human AFP gene packaged in HEK293 cells,it will be used to introduce the target gene into dendritic cell.pAdeno-AFP/DC were able to upregulate CD1a,CD11c,CD80,CD86 and HLA-DR.And pAdeno-AFP/DC could secrete high level of AFP in vitro. Conclusion: The recombinant adenovirus vector of human AFP gene have been constructed successfully.The established AFP -DC vaccine may be a tool of the hepatocellular carcinoma immunotherapy,and it will be the foundation of future clinical use of DC vaccine.%目的:构建含人AFP基因的腺病毒载体,体外转染树突状细胞,制备树突状细胞肝癌瘤苗.方法: 将AFP基因亚克隆到pIND 载体和Shuttle2载体中,构建穿梭载体Shuttle2-AFP.用PI-Sce Ⅰ和I-CeuⅠ双酶切后将所获AFP基因片段再与线性化的腺病毒载体pAdeno-X连接,构成pAdeno-AFP重组腺病毒载体.其后,用重组腺病毒载体转染HEK293细胞,包装腺病毒表达载体.通过酶切、PCR对腺病毒载体进行鉴定.包装好的重组病毒载体pAdeno-AFP体外

  10. Immune response and protection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of baits containing ONRAB®, a human adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant vaccine.

    Brown, L J; Rosatte, R C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Taylor, J S; Davies, J C; Donovan, D

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the immune response and protection conferred in raccoons (Procyon lotor) following consumption of ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits. Forty-two wild-caught, captive raccoons were each offered an ONRAB vaccine bait; 21 controls received no vaccine baits. Blood samples collected from all raccoons before treatment, and each week posttreatment for 16 wk, were assessed for the presence of rabies virus antibody. In the bait group, an individual was considered to have responded to vaccination if serum samples from three or more consecutive weeks were antibody-positive. Using this criterion, 77% (20/26) of raccoons that consumed ONRAB baits with no observed vaccine spillage (full dose) demonstrated a humoral immune response. In the group that received a partial dose (0.05-0.90 mL vaccine recovered), 50% (8/16) of raccoons responded to vaccination. Regardless of the vaccine dose received, among the 28 raccoons that responded to vaccination 18 had antibody initially detectable at week 2 and 22 remained antibody-positive for at least 10 consecutive weeks. Kinetics of the humoral immune response suggest that the best time to conduct postbaiting surveillance for evidence of vaccination would be 6-13 wk following bait deployment, with the highest antibody prevalence expected between weeks 8-10. A sub-sample of 29 raccoons (20 ONRAB, 9 controls) was challenged with raccoon rabies virus variant 350 days posttreatment. Eight of nine controls (89%) developed rabies whereas 15/20 vaccinates (75%) survived. Survival following rabies challenge was significantly higher in raccoons presented ONRAB vaccine baits. PMID:23060502

  11. Mucosal prior to systemic application of recombinant adenovirus boosting is more immunogenic than systemic application twice but confers similar protection against SIV-challenge in DNA vaccine-primed macaques

    We investigated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a bimodal prime/boost vaccine regimen given by various routes in the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) rhesus monkey model for AIDS. Twelve animals were immunized with SIV DNA-vectors followed by the application of a recombinant adenovirus (rAd5) expressing the same genes either intramuscularly (i.m.) or by oropharyngeal spray. The second rAd5-application was given i.m. All vaccinees plus six controls were challenged orally with SIVmac239 12 weeks post-final immunization. Both immunization strategies induced strong SIV Gag-specific IFN-γ and T-cell proliferation responses and mediated a conservation of CD4+ memory T-cells and a reduction of viral load during peak viremia following infection. Interestingly, the mucosal group was superior to the systemic group regarding breadth and strength of SIV-specific T-cell responses and exhibited lower vector specific immune responses. Therefore, our data warrant the inclusion of mucosal vector application in a vaccination regimen which makes it less invasive and easier to apply

  12. Comparative efficacy of hemagglutinin, nucleoprotein, and matrix 2 protein gene-based vaccination against H5N1 influenza in mouse and ferret.

    Rao, Srinivas S; Kong, Wing-Pui; Wei, Chih-Jen; Van Hoeven, Neal; Gorres, J Patrick; Nason, Martha; Andersen, Hanne; Tumpey, Terrence M; Nabel, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to develop a broadly protective vaccine against the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 virus have focused on highly conserved influenza gene products. The viral nucleoprotein (NP) and ion channel matrix protein (M2) are highly conserved among different strains and various influenza A subtypes. Here, we investigate the relative efficacy of NP and M2 compared to HA in protecting against HPAI H5N1 virus. In mice, previous studies have shown that vaccination with NP and M2 in recombinant DNA and/or adenovirus vectors or with adjuvants confers protection against lethal challenge in the absence of HA. However, we find that the protective efficacy of NP and M2 diminishes as the virulence and dose of the challenge virus are increased. To explore this question in a model relevant to human disease, ferrets were immunized with DNA/rAd5 vaccines encoding NP, M2, HA, NP+M2 or HA+NP+M2. Only HA or HA+NP+M2 vaccination conferred protection against a stringent virus challenge. Therefore, while gene-based vaccination with NP and M2 may provide moderate levels of protection against low challenge doses, it is insufficient to confer protective immunity against high challenge doses of H5N1 in ferrets. These immunogens may require combinatorial vaccination with HA, which confers protection even against very high doses of lethal viral challenge. PMID:20352112

  13. Construction and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccines Expressing the HMW1, HMW2, or Hia Adhesion Protein of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae▿

    Winter, Linda E.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to construct and assess the immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus vectors expressing the HMW1, HMW2, or Hia protein of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). These proteins are critical adhesins and potential protective antigens expressed by NTHi. Segments of the hmw1A and hmw2A structural genes that encode the distal one-half of mature HMW1 or HMW2 were cloned into the T7 expression vector pGEMEX-2. These constructs encoded stable HMW1 or HMW2 re...

  14. Angiotensin II increases gene expression after selective intra-arterial adenovirus delivery in a rabbit model assessed using in vivo SSTR2-based reporter imaging

    Singh, Sheela P.; Ravoori, Murali K.; Dixon, Katherine A.; Han, Lin; Gupta, Sanjay; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Wright, Kenneth C; Kundra, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Background Gene therapy has been hampered by low expression upon in vivo delivery. Using a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-based reporter, we assessed whether angiotensin II (AII) can improve gene expression by adenovirus upon intra-arterial (IA) delivery in a large animal model. Methods A SSTR2-based reporter that can be imaged by a clinically approved radiopharmaceutical was used to assess gene expression. Eight rabbits bearing VX2 tumors in each thigh were randomly injected IA with ad...

  15. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Gina Ogilvie; Maureen Anderson; Fawziah Marra; Shelly McNeil; Karen Pielak; Meena Dawar; Marilyn McIvor; Thomas Ehlen; Simon Dobson; Deborah Money; David M Patrick; Monika Naus

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during...

  16. Prospects of HA-Based Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Anwar M. Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines afford substantial protection in humans by inducing strain-specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs. Most of these Abs target highly variable immunodominant epitopes in the globular domain of the viral hemagglutinin (HA. Therefore, current vaccines may not be able to induce heterosubtypic immunity against the divergent influenza subtypes. The identification of broadly neutralizing Abs (BnAbs against influenza HA using recent technological advancements in antibody libraries, hybridoma, and isolation of single Ab-secreting plasma cells has increased the interest in developing a universal influenza vaccine as it could provide life-long protection. While these BnAbs can serve as a source for passive immunotherapy, their identification represents an important step towards the design of such a universal vaccine. This review describes the recent advances and approaches used in the development of universal influenza vaccine based on highly conserved HA regions identified by BnAbs.

  17. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  18. VaccineDA: Prediction, design and genome-wide screening of oligodeoxynucleotide-based vaccine adjuvants.

    Nagpal, Gandharva; Gupta, Sudheer; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Dhanda, Sandeep Kumar; Prakash, Satya; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory oligodeoxynucleotides (IMODNs) are the short DNA sequences that activate the innate immune system via toll-like receptor 9. These sequences predominantly contain unmethylated CpG motifs. In this work, we describe VaccineDA (Vaccine DNA adjuvants), a web-based resource developed to design IMODN-based vaccine adjuvants. We collected and analyzed 2193 experimentally validated IMODNs obtained from the literature. Certain types of nucleotides (e.g., T, GT, TC, TT, CGT, TCG, TTT) are dominant in IMODNs. Based on these observations, we developed support vector machine-based models to predict IMODNs using various compositions. The developed models achieved the maximum Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.75 with an accuracy of 87.57% using the pentanucleotide composition. The integration of motif information further improved the performance of our model from the MCC of 0.75 to 0.77. Similarly, models were developed to predict palindromic IMODNs and attained a maximum MCC of 0.84 with the accuracy of 91.94%. These models were evaluated using a five-fold cross-validation technique as well as validated on an independent dataset. The models developed in this study were integrated into VaccineDA to provide a wide range of services that facilitate the design of DNA-based vaccine adjuvants (http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/vaccineda/). PMID:26212482

  19. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central ne...

  20. Pre-Existing Adenovirus Immunity Modifies a Complex Mixed Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Response to an Ad5/HIV-1 Vaccine Candidate in Humans

    Pine, Samuel O.; KUBLIN, James G.; Hammer, Scott M.; Borgerding, Joleen; Huang, Yunda; Casimiro, Danilo R.; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2011-01-01

    The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732). Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-s...

  1. A novel method for synthetic vaccine construction based on protein assembly

    Zhida Liu; Hang Zhou; Wenjun Wang; Wenjie Tan; Yang-Xin Fu; Mingzhao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In the history of vaccine development, the synthetic vaccine is a milestone that is in stark contrast with traditional vaccines based on live-attenuated or inactivated microorganisms. Synthetic vaccines not only are safer than attenuated or inactivated microorganisms but also provide the opportunity for vaccine design for specific purposes. The first generation of synthetic vaccines has been largely based on DNA recombination technology and genetic manipulation. This de novo generation is occ...

  2. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models. PMID:27076162

  3. Prevention of influenza virus shedding and protection from lethal H1N1 challenge using a consensus 2009 H1N1 HA and NA adenovirus vector vaccine.

    Jones, Frank R; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Balint, Joseph P; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Smith, Jennifer; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Salazar, Magda; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-09-16

    Vaccines against emerging pathogens such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus can benefit from current technologies such as rapid genomic sequencing to construct the most biologically relevant vaccine. A novel platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) has been utilized to induce immune responses to various antigenic targets. We employed this vector platform to express hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. Inserts were consensuses sequences designed from viral isolate sequences and the vaccine was rapidly constructed and produced. Vaccination induced H1N1 immune responses in mice, which afforded protection from lethal virus challenge. In ferrets, vaccination protected from disease development and significantly reduced viral titers in nasal washes. H1N1 cell mediated immunity as well as antibody induction correlated with the prevention of disease symptoms and reduction of virus replication. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] should be evaluated for the rapid development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:21821082

  4. Recent advances in recombinant protein-based malaria vaccines.

    Draper, Simon J; Angov, Evelina; Horii, Toshihiro; Miller, Louis H; Srinivasan, Prakash; Theisen, Michael; Biswas, Sumi

    2015-12-22

    Plasmodium parasites are the causative agent of human malaria, and the development of a highly effective vaccine against infection, disease and transmission remains a key priority. It is widely established that multiple stages of the parasite's complex lifecycle within the human host and mosquito vector are susceptible to vaccine-induced antibodies. The mainstay approach to antibody induction by subunit vaccination has been the delivery of protein antigen formulated in adjuvant. Extensive efforts have been made in this endeavor with respect to malaria vaccine development, especially with regard to target antigen discovery, protein expression platforms, adjuvant testing, and development of soluble and virus-like particle (VLP) delivery platforms. The breadth of approaches to protein-based vaccines is continuing to expand as innovative new concepts in next-generation subunit design are explored, with the prospects for the development of a highly effective multi-component/multi-stage/multi-antigen formulation seeming ever more likely. This review will focus on recent progress in protein vaccine design, development and/or clinical testing for a number of leading malaria antigens from the sporozoite-, merozoite- and sexual-stages of the parasite's lifecycle-including PfCelTOS, PfMSP1, PfAMA1, PfRH5, PfSERA5, PfGLURP, PfMSP3, Pfs48/45 and Pfs25. Future prospects and challenges for the development, production, human delivery and assessment of protein-based malaria vaccines are discussed. PMID:26458807

  5. Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

    Samuel O Pine

    Full Text Available The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732. Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36 or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34. Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes. At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008, and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009, IL-2 (p = 0.006 and IL-10 (p = 0.05 in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these

  6. A Plasmodium Promiscuous T Cell Epitope Delivered within the Ad5 Hexon Protein Enhances the Protective Efficacy of a Protein Based Malaria Vaccine.

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Kashentseva, Elena A; Villegas, John Paul; Fernandez, Alejandra; Van Pelt, Amelia; Dmitriev, Igor P; Curiel, David T; Moreno, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A malaria vaccine is a public health priority. In order to produce an effective vaccine, a multistage approach targeting both the blood and the liver stage infection is desirable. The vaccine candidates also need to induce balanced immune responses including antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Protein-based subunit vaccines like RTS,S are able to induce strong antibody response but poor cellular reactivity. Adenoviral vectors have been effective inducing protective CD8+ T cell responses in several models including malaria; nonetheless this vaccine platform exhibits a limited induction of humoral immune responses. Two approaches have been used to improve the humoral immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus vectors, the use of heterologous prime-boost regimens with recombinant proteins or the genetic modification of the hypervariable regions (HVR) of the capsid protein hexon to express B cell epitopes of interest. In this study, we describe the development of capsid modified Ad5 vectors that express a promiscuous Plasmodium yoelii T helper epitope denominated PyT53 within the hexon HVR2 region. Several regimens were tested in mice to determine the relevance of the hexon modification in enhancing protective immune responses induced by the previously described protein-based multi-stage experimental vaccine PyCMP. A heterologous prime-boost immunization regime that combines a hexon modified vector with transgenic expression of PyCMP followed by protein immunizations resulted in the induction of robust antibody and cellular immune responses in comparison to a similar regimen that includes a vector with unmodified hexon. These differences in immunogenicity translated into a better protective efficacy against both the hepatic and red blood cell stages of P. yoelii. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a hexon modification is used to deliver a promiscuous T cell epitope. Our data support the use of such modification to enhance the immunogenicity and protective

  7. Development of CpG ODN Based Vaccine Adjuvant Formulations.

    Gursel, Mayda; Gursel, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Development of effective vaccine mediated immune responses relies on the use of vaccine adjuvants capable of enhancing and directing the adaptive immune response to the antigen. When used as vaccine adjuvants, type I interferon inducing agents can elicit potent effector/memory T cell responses and humoral immunity. Distinct sequences of single stranded synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide motifs (CpG ODN) can generate type I interferon production via a TLR9-MyD88-IRF7-mediated signaling pathway. Here, we describe two different methods of preparing CpG ODN-based vaccine adjuvant formulations that can induce a robust IFNα response from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:27076306

  8. Increased Mucosal CD4+ T Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques following Vaccination with an Adenoviral Vector

    Bukh, Irene; Calcedo, Roberto; Roy, Soumitra; Carnathan, Diane G.; Grant, Rebecca; Qin, Qiuyue; Boyd, Surina; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Veeder, Christin L; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Betts, Michael R.; James M Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T ...

  9. Enhanced and sustained CD8+ T cell responses with an adenoviral vector-based hepatitis C virus vaccine encoding NS3 linked to the MHC class II chaperone protein invariant chain

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Holst, Peter Johannes; Bukh, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Potent and broad cellular immune responses against the nonstructural (NS) proteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with spontaneous viral clearance. In this study, we have improved the immunogenicity of an adenovirus (Ad)-based HCV vaccine by fusing NS3 from HCV (Strain J4; Genotype 1b...... memory. Functionally, the AdIiNS3-vaccinated mice had a significantly increased cytotoxic capacity compared with the AdNS3 group. The AdIiNS3-induced CD8(+) T cells protected mice from infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV NS3 of heterologous 1b strains, and studies in knockout mice...... demonstrated that this protection was mediated primarily through IFN-¿ production. On the basis of these promising results, we suggest that this vaccination technology should be evaluated further in the chimpanzee HCV challenge model....

  10. Protection Induced by Simultaneous Subcutaneous and Endobronchial Vaccination with BCG/BCG and BCG/Adenovirus Expressing Antigen 85A against Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle.

    Dean, Gillian S; Clifford, Derek; Whelan, Adam O; Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L; Salguero, Francisco J; Xing, Zhou; Vordermeier, Hans M; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the GB has been increasing since the 1980s. Immunisation, alongside current control measures, has been proposed as a sustainable measure to control bTB. Immunisation with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been shown to protect against bTB. Furthermore, much experimental data indicates that pulmonary local immunity is important for protection against respiratory infections including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that pulmonary immunisation is highly effective. Here, we evaluated protection against M. bovis, the main causative agent of bTB, conferred by BCG delivered subcutaneously, endobronchially or by the new strategy of simultaneous immunisation by both routes. We also tested simultaneous subcutaneous immunisation with BCG and endobronchial delivery of a recombinant type 5 adenovirus expressing mycobacterial antigen 85A. There was significantly reduced visible pathology in animals receiving the simultaneous BCG/BCG or BCG/Ad85 treatment compared to naïve controls. Furthermore, there were significantly fewer advanced microscopic granulomata in animals receiving BCG/Ad85A compared to naive controls. Thus, combining local and systemic immunisation limits the development of pathology, which in turn could decrease bTB transmission. PMID:26544594

  11. Improved NYVAC-based vaccine vectors.

    Karen V Kibler

    Full Text Available While as yet there is no vaccine against HIV/AIDS, the results of the phase III Thai trial (RV144 have been encouraging and suggest that further improvements of the prime/boost vaccine combination of a poxvirus and protein are needed. With this aim, in this investigation we have generated derivatives of the candidate vaccinia virus vaccine vector NYVAC with potentially improved functions. This has been achieved by the re-incorporation into the virus genome of two host range genes, K1L and C7L, in conjunction with the removal of the immunomodulatory viral molecule B19, an antagonist of type I interferon action. These novel virus vectors, referred to as NYVAC-C-KC and NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R, have acquired relevant biological characteristics, giving higher levels of antigen expression in infected cells, replication-competency in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, activation of selective host cell signal transduction pathways, and limited virus spread in tissues. Importantly, these replication-competent viruses have been demonstrated to maintain a highly attenuated phenotype.

  12. Partial protection against H5N1 influenza in mice with a single dose of a chimpanzee adenovirus vector expressing nucleoprotein.

    Roy, Soumitra; Kobinger, Gary P; Lin, Jianping; Figueredo, Joanita; Calcedo, Roberto; Kobasa, Darwyn; Wilson, James M

    2007-09-28

    The development of adenoviral vectors based on non-human serotypes such as the chimpanzee adenovirus simian adenovirus 24 (AdC7) may allow for their utilization in populations harboring neutralizing antibodies to common human serotypes. Because adenoviral vectors can be used to generate potent T cell responses, they may be useful as vaccines against pandemic influenza such as may be caused by the H5N1 strains that are currently endemic in avian populations. The influenza nucleoprotein (NP) is known to provide MHC Class I restricted epitopes that are effective in evoking a cytolytic response. Because there is only low sequence variation in NP sequences between different influenza strains, a T cell vaccine may provide heterosubtypic protection against a spectrum of influenza A strains. An AdC7 vector expressing the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 NP was tested for its efficacy in protecting BALB/c mice against two H5N1 strains and compared to a conventional human adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine. The AdC7 NP vaccine elicited a strong anti-NP T cell response. When tested in a mouse challenge model, there was improved survival following challenge with two strains of H5N1 that have caused human outbreaks, Vietnam/1203/04 and Hong Kong/483/97, although the improved survival reached statistical significance only with the strain from Vietnam. PMID:17728024

  13. Interferon induction by adenoviruses

    All human, simian, bovine and avian adenovirus types tested so far and the canine hepatitis virus induce interferon production in chick cells. This finding indicated this property to be characteristic for viruses belonging to the adenovirus group. Trypsin treatment, which had no effect upon the infectivity, diminished or eliminated the interferon-inducing abilities of crude adenoviruses, and thus the need for a trypsin-sensitive protein in interferon induction was suggested. T antigen and interferon were formed simultaneously in chick embryo fibroblast cells infected with human adenovirus type 12, and there-fore the adenovirus-specific T antigen was resitant to the action of endogenous interferon synthetized by the same cells. In chicks inoculated with human types, the appearance of interferon was biphasic: an 'early' and a 'late' interferon could be demonstrated with maximum titre 4 and 10 hr, respectively, after virus infection. In chicks infected with adenoviruses, first interferon production and then a decreased primary immune response to sheep red blood cells was observed. It was assumed that in adenovirus-infected chicks the interferon produced by viral stimulus resulted in a transient immunosuppression. (author)

  14. Progress and prospects for L2-based human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Jiang, Rosie T; Schellenbacher, Christina; Chackerian, Bryce; Roden, Richard B S

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a worldwide public health problem, particularly in resource-limited countries. Fifteen high-risk genital HPV types are sexually transmitted and cause 5% of all cancers worldwide, primarily cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Skin HPV types are generally associated with benign disease, but a subset is linked to non-melanoma skin cancer. Licensed HPV vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from L1 major capsid antigen of key high risk HPVs are effective at preventing these infections but do not cover cutaneous types and are not therapeutic. Vaccines targeting L2 minor capsid antigen, some using capsid display, adjuvant and fusions with early HPV antigens or Toll-like receptor agonists, are in development to fill these gaps. Progress and challenges with L2-based vaccines are summarized. PMID:26901354

  15. Novel synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based antistaphylococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Chen, Quanyi; Dintaman, Jay; Lees, Andrew; Sen, Goutam; Schwartz, David; Shirtliff, Mark E; Park, Saeyoung; Lee, Jean C; Mond, James J; Snapper, Clifford M

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcal infections are a major source of global morbidity and mortality. Currently there exists no antistaphylococcal vaccine in clinical use. Previous animal studies suggested a possible role for purified lipoteichoic acid as a vaccine target for eliciting protective IgG to several Gram-positive pathogens. Since the highly conserved (poly)glycerolphosphate backbone of lipoteichoic acid is a major antigenic target of the humoral immune system during staphylococcal infections, we developed a synthetic method for producing glycerol phosphoramidites to create a covalent 10-mer of (poly)glycerolphosphate for potential use in a conjugate vaccine. We initially demonstrated that intact Staphylococcus aureus elicits murine CD4(+) T cell-dependent (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgM and IgG responses in vivo. Naive mice immunized with a covalent conjugate of (poly)glycerolphosphate and tetanus toxoid in alum plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides produced high secondary titers of serum (poly)glycerolphosphate-specific IgG. Sera from immunized mice enhanced opsonophagocytic killing of live Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Mice actively immunized with the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine showed rapid clearance of staphylococcal bacteremia in vivo relative to mice similarly immunized with an irrelevant conjugate vaccine. In contrast to purified, natural lipoteichoic acid, the (poly)glycerolphosphate conjugate vaccine itself exhibited no detectable inflammatory activity. These data suggest that a synthetic (poly)glycerolphosphate-based conjugate vaccine will contribute to active protection against extracellular Gram-positive pathogens expressing this highly conserved backbone structure in their membrane-associated lipoteichoic acid. PMID:23649092

  16. Prime-boost vaccination with Bacillus Calmette Guerin and a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing CFP10, ESAT6, Ag85A and Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces robust antigen-specific immune responses in mice.

    Li, Wu; Li, Min; Deng, Guangcun; Zhao, Liping; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains to be a prevalent health issue worldwide. At present, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is the singular anti-TB vaccine available for the prevention of disease in humans; however, this vaccine only provides limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Therefore, the development of alternative vaccines and strategies for increasing the efficacy of vaccination against TB are urgently required. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad5-CEAB) co-expressing 10-kDa culture filtrate protein, 6-kDa early-secreted antigenic target, antigen 85 (Ag85)A and Ag85B of Mtb to boost immune responses following primary vaccination with BCG in mice. The mice were first subcutaneously primed with BCG and boosted with two doses of Ad5-CEAB via an intranasal route. The immunological effects of Ad5-CEAB boosted mice primed with BCG were then evaluated using a series of immunological indexes. The results demonstrated that the prime-boost strategy induced a potent antigen-specific immune response, which was primarily characterized by an enhanced T cell response and increased production of cytokines, including interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2, in mice. In addition, this vaccination strategy was demonstrated to have an elevated humoral response with increased concentrations of antigen-specific bronchoalveolar lavage secretory immunoglobulin (Ig)A and serum IgG in mice compared with those primed with BCG alone. These data suggested that the regimen of subcutaneous BCG prime and mucosal Ad5-CEAB boost was a novel strategy for inducing a broad range of antigen-specific immune responses to Mtb antigens in vivo, which may provide a promising strategy for further development of adenoviral-based vaccine against Mtb infection. PMID:25962477

  17. Recombinant and epitope-based vaccines on the road to the market and implications for vaccine design and production.

    Oyarzún, Patricio; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-03-01

    Novel vaccination approaches based on rational design of B- and T-cell epitopes - epitope-based vaccines - are making progress in the clinical trial pipeline. The epitope-focused recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine (termed RTS,S) is a next-generation approach that successfully reached phase-III trials, and will potentially become the first commercial vaccine against a human parasitic disease. Progress made on methods such as recombinant DNA technology, advanced cell-culture techniques, immunoinformatics and rational design of immunogens are driving the development of these novel concepts. Synthetic recombinant proteins comprising both B- and T-cell epitopes can be efficiently produced through modern biotechnology and bioprocessing methods, and can enable the induction of large repertoires of immune specificities. In particular, the inclusion of appropriate CD4+ T-cell epitopes is increasingly considered a key vaccine component to elicit robust immune responses, as suggested by results coming from HIV-1 clinical trials. In silico strategies for vaccine design are under active development to address genetic variation in pathogens and several broadly protective "universal" influenza and HIV-1 vaccines are currently at different stages of clinical trials. Other methods focus on improving population coverage in target populations by rationally considering specificity and prevalence of the HLA proteins, though a proof-of-concept in humans has not been demonstrated yet. Overall, we expect immunoinformatics and bioprocessing methods to become a central part of the next-generation epitope-based vaccine development and production process. PMID:26430814

  18. Virus-based nanoparticles as platform technologies for modern vaccines.

    Lee, Karin L; Twyman, Richard M; Fiering, Steven; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    Nanoscale engineering is revolutionizing the development of vaccines and immunotherapies. Viruses have played a key role in this field because they can function as prefabricated nanoscaffolds with unique properties that are easy to modify. Viruses are immunogenic via multiple pathways, and antigens displayed naturally or by engineering on the surface can be used to create vaccines against the cognate virus, other pathogens, specific molecules or cellular targets such as tumors. This review focuses on the development of virus-based nanoparticle systems as vaccines indicated for the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, cancer, and addiction. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:554-578. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1383 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26782096

  19. Caractérisation de vaccin à base glucides

    Tontini, Marta

    2012-01-01

    CARACTERISATION DE VACCINS A BASE DE GLUCIDESVariables influençant l'immunogénicité et propriétés physico-chimiques des vaccins glycoconjuguésDe nombreux aspects peuvent influer sur l'immunogénicité des vaccins conjugués et les principales variables étudiées jusqu'ici sont la taille du fragment saccharide et la nature des glycosides: taux de protéine dans le conjugué purifié, la stratégie de conjugaison, nature de l’espaceur et la protéine porteuse.La taille de la partie saccharidique et le r...

  20. Incorporation of 4-1BB ligand into an adenovirus vaccine vector increases the number of functional antigen-specific CD8 T cells and enhances the duration of protection against influenza-induced respiratory disease.

    Moraes, Theo J; Lin, Gloria H Y; Wen, Tao; Watts, Tania H

    2011-08-26

    T cell based influenza vaccines offer the potential for cross protective immunity to multiple clades of influenza virus. Here we explored the effect of increasing CD8 T cell responses during intranasal vaccination by incorporating a T cell costimulator, 4-1BBL. Inclusion of 4-1BBL in an influenza nucleoprotein (NP)-containing adenoviral vector increased the number of NP-specific CD8 T cells and lowered the vaccine dose required for short-term protection from influenza-induced disease in mice. At higher vaccine doses, the inclusion of 4-1BBL increased the duration of protection of mice from influenza-induced mortality. Bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that the major effects of 4-1BBL were directly on αβ T cells with minor additional effects through cells other than αβ T cells. The implications of these findings are that including 4-1BBL or adjuvants that induce 4-1BBL expression may be of benefit in a vaccine setting for enhancing the magnitude and duration of T cell responses to influenza virus. PMID:21704101

  1. Current developments in avian influenza vaccines, including safety of vaccinated birds as food.

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, most vaccines against avian influenza were based on oil-emulsified inactivated low- or high-pathogenicity viruses. Now, recombinant fowl pox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vaccines with avian influenza H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) are available and licensed. New technologies might overcome existing limitations to make available vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid production; provide optimized protection, as a result of closer genetic relations to field viruses; allow mass administration by aerosol, in drinking-water or in ovo; and allow easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations (DIVA). The technologies include avian influenza viruses with partial gene deletions, avian influenza-Newcastle disease virus chimeras, vectored vaccines such as adenoviruses and Marek's disease virus, and subunit vaccines. These new methods should be licensed only after their purity, safety, efficacy and potency against avian influenza viruses have been demonstrated, and, for live vectored vaccines, restriction of viral transmission to unvaccinated birds. Use of vaccines in countries affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza will not only protect poultry but will provide additional safety for consumers. Experimental studies have shown that birds vaccinated against avian influenza have no virus in meat and minimal amounts in eggs after HPAI virus challenge, and that replication and shedding from their respiratory and alimentary tracts is greatly reduced. PMID:18411943

  2. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    Yoshikazu Nakayama; Atsushi Aruga

    2015-01-01

    Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing he...

  3. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden

    Rehn, Moa; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Kuhlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Wallensten, Anders; Sparen, Par; Netterlid, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born >= 1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-l...

  4. Inactivation of Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus with PAXgene tissue fixative and formalin.

    Kap, Marcel; Arron, Georgina I; Loibner, M; Hausleitner, Anja; Siaulyte, Gintare; Zatloukal, Kurt; Murk, Jean-Luc; Riegman, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Formalin fixation is known to inactivate most viruses in a vaccine production context, but nothing is published about virus activity in tissues treated with alternative, non-crosslinking fixatives. We used a model assay based on cell culture to test formalin and PAXgene Tissue fixative for their virus-inactivating abilities. MDCK, A549, and MRC-5 cells were infected with Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus, respectively. When 75% of the cells showed a cytopathic effect (CPE), the cells were harvested and incubated for 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, or 24 hours, with PBS (positive control), 4% formalin, or PAXgene Tissue Fix. The cells were disrupted and the released virus was used to infect fresh MDCK, A549, and MRC-5 cells cultured on cover slips in 24-well plates. The viral cultures were monitored for CPE and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) to record viral replication and infectivity. Inactivation of Adenovirus by formalin occurred after 3 h, while Influenza A virus as well as Cytomegalovirus were inactivated by formalin after 15 min. All three virus strains were inactivated by PAXgene Tissue fixative after 15 min. We conclude that PAXgene Tissue fixative is at least as effective as formalin in inactivating infectivity of Influenza A virus, Adenovirus, and Cytomegalovirus. PMID:24845590

  5. Analysis of Antibody Responses to Protective Antigen-Based Anthrax Vaccines through Use of Competitive Assays▿

    Rebecca A Brady; Verma, Anita; Meade, Bruce D.; Burns, Drusilla L.

    2010-01-01

    The licensed anthrax vaccine and many of the new anthrax vaccines being developed are based on protective antigen (PA), a nontoxic component of anthrax toxin. For this reason, an understanding of the immune response to PA vaccination is important. In this study, we examined the antibody response elicited by PA-based vaccines and identified the domains of PA that contribute to that response in humans as well as nonhuman primates (NHPs) and rabbits, animal species that will be used to generate ...

  6. Tipping the Proteome with Gene-Based Vaccines: Weighing in on the Role of Nano materials

    Since the first generation of DNA vaccines was introduced in 1988, remarkable improvements have been made to improve their efficacy and immunogenicity. Although human clinical trials have shown that delivery of DNA vaccines is well tolerated and safe, the potency of these vaccines in humans is somewhat less than optimal. The development of a gene-based vaccine that was effective enough to be approved for clinical use in humans would be one of, if not the most important, advance in vaccines to date. This paper highlights the literature relating to gene-based vaccines, specifically DNA vaccines, and suggests possible approaches to boost their performance. In addition, we explore the idea that combining RNA and nano materials may hold the key to successful gene-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of disease

  7. Construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75

    Ramesh Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV capsid protein genes along with full-length 2B, 3B and 3Cpro and its characterization. Materials and Methods: FMD viral RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to synthesize expression cassettes (P1-2AB3BCwt and P1-2AB3BCm followed by cloning in pShuttle-CMV vector. Chemically competent BJ5183-AD-1 cells were transformed with the recombinant pShuttle-CMV to produce recombinant adenoviral plasmids. HEK-293 cells were transfected with the recombinant adenoviral plasmids to generate recombinant adenoviruses (hAd5/P1-2AB3BCwt and hAd5/P1-2AB3BCm. Expression of the target proteins was analyzed by sandwich ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The recombinant adenoviruses were purified and concentrated by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. Growth kinetics and thermostability of the recombinant adenoviruses were compared with that of non-recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (dAd5. Results: The recombinant adenoviruses containing capsid protein genes of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were generated and amplified in HEK-293 cells. The titer of the recombinant adenoviruses was approximately 108, 109.5 and 1011 TCID50/ml in supernatant media, cell lysate and CsCl purified preparation, respectively. Expression of the FMDV capsid protein was detectable in sandwich ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. Growth kinetics of the recombinant adenoviruses did not reveal a significant difference when compared with that of dAd5. A decrement of up to 10-fold at 4°C and 21-fold at 37°C was recorded in the virus titers during 60 h incubation period and found to be statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing capsid proteins of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were constructed and produced in high titers. In vitro expression of the target proteins in the adenovirus vector system was

  8. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Nancy A. Wilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  9. Novel Vaccine Against Mycoplasma Hyosynoviae: The Immunogenic Effect of Iscom-Based Vaccines in Swine

    Lauritsen, Klara Tølbøll; Vinther Heydenreich, Annette; Riber, Ulla;

    Arthritis in swine is frequently caused by Mycoplasma hyosynoviae (Mhs). For the development of an effective vaccine we investigated the immunogenic effect of three vaccine preparations with the ISCOM adjuvant Posintro™ from Nordic Vaccine. A: formalin fixed whole-cells Mhs (300 µg/dose) mixed....... IFNγ in supernatants of whole-blood cultured with Mhs-antigen was used as a marker of cell-mediated immune response (CMI). All pigs secreted IFNγ after primary vaccination followed by an increased production after booster vaccination. The CMI response was highest with vaccine B when compared...... with Posintro, B: Deoxycholate extracted lipoproteins from Mhs organisms (DOC-antigen, 300 μg/dose) in Posintro and C: DOC-antigen (50 μg/dose) in Posintro. Each vaccine-group contained three pigs. Vaccinations (i.m.) were performed at 12 and 15 weeks of age. The development of specific IgG and secretion...

  10. Structure of human adenovirus

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S. (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2012-07-11

    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  11. Towards a Coronavirus-Based HIV Multigene Vaccine

    Klara K. Eriksson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection represents one of the major health threats in the developing world. The costly treatment of infected individuals with multiple highly efficient anti-HIV drugs is only affordable in industrialized countries. Thus, an efficient vaccination strategy is required to prevent the further spread of the infection. The molecular biology of coronaviruses and particular features of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E indicate that HCoV 229E-based vaccine vectors can become a new class of highly efficient vaccines. First, the receptor of HCoV 229E, human aminopeptidase N (hAPN or CD13 is expressed mainly on human dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages indicating that targeting of HCoV 229E-based vectors to professional antigen presenting cells can be achieved by receptor-mediated transduction. Second, HCoV 229E structural genes can be replaced by multiple transcriptional units encoding various antigens. These virus-like particles (VLPs containing HCoV 229E-based vector RNA have the ability to transduce human DCs and to mediate heterologous gene expression in these cells. Finally, coronavirus infections are associated with mainly respiratory and enteric diseases, and natural transmission of coronaviruses occurs via mucosal surfaces. In humans, HCoV 229E causes common cold by infecting the upper respiratory tract. HCoV 229E infections are mainly encountered in children and re-infection occurs frequently in adults. It is thus most likely that pre-existing immunity against HCoV 229E will not significantly impact on the vaccination efficiency if HCoV 229E-based vectors are used in humans.

  12. Impact of Adenovirus infection in host cell metabolism evaluated by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Silva, Ana Carina; P Teixeira, Ana; M Alves, Paula

    2016-08-10

    Adenovirus-based vectors are powerful vehicles for gene transfer applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Although highly exploited in the clinical setting, key aspects of the adenovirus biology are still not well understood, in particular the subversion of host cell metabolism during viral infection and replication. The aim of this work was to gain insights on the metabolism of two human cell lines (HEK293 and an amniocyte-derived cell line, 1G3) after infection with an adenovirus serotype 5 vector (AdV5). In order to profile metabolic alterations, we used (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, which allowed the quantification of 35 metabolites in cell culture supernatants with low sample preparation and in a relatively short time. Significant differences between both cell lines in non-infected cultures were identified, namely in glutamine and acetate metabolism, as well as by-product secretion. The main response to AdV5 infection was an increase in glucose consumption and lactate production rates. Moreover, cultures performed with or without glutamine supplementation confirmed the exhaustion of this amino acid as one of the main causes of lower AdV5 production at high cell densities (10- and 1.5-fold less specific yields in HEK293 and 1G3 cells, respectively), and highlighted different degrees of glutamine dependency of adenovirus replication in each cell line. The observed metabolic alterations associated with AdV5 infection and specificity of the host cell line can be useful for targeted bioprocess optimization. PMID:27215342

  13. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    Fernández Erlinda; Suárez Marisela; Lleonart Ricardo; Méndez Luis; Rodríguez Elsa; Machado Héctor; Joglar Marisdania; Alfonso Aymé; Valdés Mario; Pérez Danny; Sánchez Dunia; Montero Carlos; Vargas Milagros; Estrada Mario P; Rodríguez-Mallón Alina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core el...

  14. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines.

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-09-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  15. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for obesity

    Na, Ha-Na; Kim, Hun; Nam, Jae-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are major causes of death and disability throughout the world. Many causes are known to trigger these chronic diseases, and infectious agents such as viruses are also pathological factors. In particular, it is considered that adenovirus 36 infections may be associated with obesity. If this is the case, a vaccine against adenovirus 36 may be a form of prophylaxis to combat obesity. Other types of therapeutic vaccines to combat obesity are also bein...

  16. Capsid-like Arrays in Crystals of Chimpanzee Adenovirus Hexon

    The major coat protein, hexon, from a chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC68) is of interest as a target for vaccine vector modification. AdC68 hexon has been crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222 with unit cell dimensions of a = 90.8 Angstroms, b = 433.0 Angstroms, c = 159.3 Angstroms, and one trimer (3 x 104,942 Da) in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.1 Angstroms resolution. Initial studies reveal that the molecular arrangement is quite unlike that in hexon crystals for human adenovirus. In the AdC68 crystals, hexon trimers are parallel and pack closely in two-dimensional continuous arrays similar to those formed on electron microscope grids. The AdC68 crystals are the first in which adenovirus hexon has molecular interactions that mimic those used in constructing the viral capsid

  17. Adenovirus (For Parents)

    ... respiratory tract as well, causing bronchiolitis , croup , or viral pneumonia, which is less common but can cause serious illness in infants. Adenovirus can also produce a dry, harsh cough that can resemble whooping cough (pertussis) . Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the stomach and the ...

  18. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  19. Protection against enterovirus 71 with neutralizing epitope incorporation within adenovirus type 3 hexon.

    Xingui Tian

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease with high mortality among children. Various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 have been identified as potential vaccine candidates. Capsid-incorporation of antigens into adenovirus (Ad has been developed for a novel vaccine approach. We constructed Ad3-based EV71 vaccine vectors by incorporating a neutralizing epitope SP70 containing 15 amino acids derived from capsid protein VP1 of EV71 within the different surface-exposed domains of the capsid protein hexon of Ad3EGFP, a recombinant adenovirus type 3 (Ad3 expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein. Thermostability and growth kinetic assays suggested that the SP70 epitope incorporation into hypervariable region (HVR1, HVR2, or HVR7 of the hexon did not affect Ad fitness. The SP70 epitopes were thought to be exposed on all hexon-modified intact virion surfaces. Repeated administration of BALB/c mice with the modified Ads resulted in boosting of the anti-SP70 humoral immune response. Importantly, the modified Ads immunization of mother mice conferred protection in vivo to neonatal mice against the lethal EV71 challenge, and the modified Ads-immunized mice serum also conferred passive protection against the lethal challenge in newborn mice. Compared with the recombinant GST-fused SP70 protein immunization, immunization with the Ads containing SP70 in HVR1 or HVR2 elicited higher SP70-specific IgG titers, higher neutralization titers, and conferred more effective protection to neonatal mice. Thus, this study provides valuable information for hexon-modified Ad3 vector development as a promising EV71 vaccine candidate and as an epitope-delivering vehicle for other pathogens.

  20. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  1. Immunogenicity of adenovirus-derived porcine parvovirus-like particles displaying B and T cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease.

    Pan, Qunxing; Wang, Hui; Ouyang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoli; Bi, Zhenwei; Xia, Xingxia; Wang, Yongshan; He, Kongwang

    2016-01-20

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccines combine many of the advantages of whole-virus vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines, integrating key features that underlay their immunogenicity, safety and protective potential. We have hypothesized here the effective insertion of the VP1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-40, 141-160 and 200-213 in VP1, designated VPe) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV) within the external loops of PPV VP2 could be carried out without altering assembly based on structural and antigenic data. To investigate the possibility, development of two recombinant adenovirus rAd-PPV:VP2-FMDV:VPe a or rAd-PPV:VP2-FMDV:VPe b were expressed in HEK-293 cells. Out of the two insertion strategies tested, one of them tolerated an insert of 57 amino acids in one of the four external loops without disrupting the VLPs assembly. Mice were inoculated with the two recombinant adenoviruses, and an immunogenicity study showed that the highest levels of FMDV-specific humoral responses and T cell proliferation could be induced by rAd-PPV:VP2-FMDV:VPe b expressing hybrid PPV:VLPs (FMDV) in the absence of an adjuvant. Then, the protective efficacy of inoculating swine with rAd-PPV:VP2-FMDV:VPe b was tested. All pigs inoculated with rAd-PPV:VP2-FMDV:VPe b were protected from viral challenge, meanwhile the neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those in the group inoculated with swine FMD type O synthetic peptide vaccine. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential usefulness of adenovirus-derived PPV VLPs as a vaccine strategy in prevention of FMDV. PMID:26685093

  2. Peptide/protein vaccine delivery system based on PLGA particles.

    Allahyari, Mojgan; Mohit, Elham

    2016-03-01

    Due to the excellent safety profile of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles in human, and their biodegradability, many studies have focused on the application of PLGA particles as a controlled-release vaccine delivery system. Antigenic proteins/peptides can be encapsulated into or adsorbed to the surface of PLGA particles. The gradual release of loaded antigens from PLGA particles is necessary for the induction of efficient immunity. Various factors can influence protein release rates from PLGA particles, which can be defined intrinsic features of the polymer, particle characteristics as well as protein and environmental related factors. The use of PLGA particles encapsulating antigens of different diseases such as hepatitis B, tuberculosis, chlamydia, malaria, leishmania, toxoplasma and allergy antigens will be described herein. The co-delivery of antigens and immunostimulants (IS) with PLGA particles can prevent the systemic adverse effects of immunopotentiators and activate both dendritic cells (DCs) and natural killer (NKs) cells, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of antigen-loaded PLGA particles. We will review co-delivery of different TLR ligands with antigens in various models, highlighting the specific strengths and weaknesses of the system. Strategies to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of DC-based vaccine using PLGA particles can be designed to target DCs by functionalized PLGA particle encapsulating siRNAs of suppressive gene, and disease specific antigens. Finally, specific examples of cellular targeting where decorating the surface of PLGA particles target orally administrated vaccine to M-cells will be highlighted. PMID:26513024

  3. Crystal Structure of the Fibre Head Domain of the Atadenovirus Snake Adenovirus 1

    Singh, Abhimanyu K.; Menéndez-Conejero, Rosa; San Martín, Carmen; van Raaij, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviruses are non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with trimeric fibre proteins protruding from their vertices. There are five known genera, from which only Mastadenoviruses have been widely studied. Apart from studying adenovirus as a biological model system and with a view to prevent or combat viral infection, there is a major interest in using adenovirus for vaccination, cancer therapy and gene therapy purposes. Adenoviruses from the Atadenovirus genus have been isolated from squamate reptile hosts, ruminants and birds and have a characteristic gene organization and capsid morphology. The carboxy-terminal virus-distal fibre head domains are likely responsible for primary receptor recognition. We determined the high-resolution crystal structure of the Snake Adenovirus 1 (SnAdV-1) fibre head using the multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method. Despite the absence of significant sequence homology, this Atadenovirus fibre head has the same beta-sandwich propeller topology as other adenovirus fibre heads. However, it is about half the size, mainly due to much shorter loops connecting the beta-strands. The detailed structure of the SnAdV-1 fibre head and other animal adenovirus fibre heads, together with the future identification of their natural receptors, may lead to the development of new strategies to target adenovirus vectors to cells of interest. PMID:25486282

  4. [H5N1: vaccine solutions for humans and other animals].

    Durand, Maurice-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The hypervirulence of H5N1 influenza virus makes it impossible to produce a vaccine traditionally (with egg embryos), but there are alternative solutions. A live recombinant fowl-pox H5 virus is used for avian pathology. An inactivated H5N2 adjuvant vaccine is rendered immunogenic by using hemagglutinin H5 (DIVA technique). Disease prevention strategies differ between European and Asian countries. WHO has opted for a recombinant vaccine based on a non pathogenic virus (PR8) to which modified H5 and N1 from a pandemic virus are grafted The poor immunogenicity of this vaccine will require the use of large doses and immunostimulants. A live vaccine based on an adenovirus coupled to the H5 gene was recently developed. Finally, Chinese authors are examining the preventive and curative potential of hyperimmune serum raised in animals. PMID:17195620

  5. Toolbox for Non-Intrusive Structural and Functional Analysis of Recombinant VLP Based Vaccines: A Case Study with Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Mulder, Anke M.; Bridget Carragher; Victoria Towne; Yuan Meng; Yang Wang; Lance Dieter; Potter, Clinton S.; Washabaugh, Michael W.; Sitrin, Robert D; Qinjian Zhao

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fundamental to vaccine development, manufacturing consistency, and product stability is an understanding of the vaccine structure-activity relationship. With the virus-like particle (VLP) approach for recombinant vaccines gaining popularity, there is growing demand for tools that define their key characteristics. We assessed a suite of non-intrusive VLP epitope structure and function characterization tools by application to the Hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) VLP-based vaccin...

  6. Seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to human adenoviruses type-5 and type-26 and chimpanzee adenovirus type-68 in healthy Chinese adults.

    Zhang, Shujun; Huang, Wenxiang; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qiquan; Wang, Qun; Jia, Bei

    2013-06-01

    Replication-defective adenoviruses have been utilized as candidate vaccine vectors. However, clinical application of the best-studied human adenovirus type-5 (AdHu5) is limited by the high prevalence of preexisting neutralizing antibodies resulting from natural infection. Therefore, rare adenovirus serotypes, such as human adenovirus type-26 (AdHu26) and chimpanzee adenovirus type-68 (AdC68), have been employed as substitutes for AdHu5. However, few studies have described the epidemiology of pre-existing immunity to these adenoviruses in China. Thus, 1,154 participants from six regions in China were examined to assess the presence of neutralizing antibodies against AdHu5, AdHu26, and AdC68. The seroprevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies were as follows: AdHu5, 73.1% (844/1,154) (95% confidence interval: 70.5-75.6%); AdHu26, 35.3% (407/1,154) (95% confidence interval: 32.6-38.1%); and AdC68, 12.7% (147/1,154) (95% confidence interval: 10.9-14.8%), respectively. The most frequently detected and highest titer antibodies were specific for AdHu5. The results indicate that AdHu26 and AdC68 serve as more suitable vaccine vectors than AdHu5. PMID:23588735

  7. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Aurisicchio, Luigi, E-mail: aurisicchio@takis-it.it [Takis, via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy); BIOGEM scarl, via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV) (Italy); Ciliberto, Gennaro [Takis, via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università degli studi di Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, 88100 Catanzaro (Italy)

    2011-09-22

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  8. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Gennaro Ciliberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  9. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost

  10. Mutations that alter an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the adenovirus type 2 penton base protein abolish its cell-rounding activity and delay virus reproduction in flat cells.

    Bai, M.; Harfe, B; Freimuth, P

    1993-01-01

    The adenovirus penton base protein has a cell rounding activity and may lyse endosomes during virus entry into the cytoplasm. We found that penton base that was expressed in Escherichia coli also caused cell rounding and that cells adhered to polystyrene wells that were coated with the protein. Mutant analysis showed that both properties required an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence at residues 340 to 342 of penton base. In flat adherent cells, virus mutants with amino acid substitutions in the RGD ...

  11. Subcutaneous immunization with recombinant adenovirus expressing influenza A nucleoprotein protects mice against lethal viral challenge.

    Hashem, Anwar; Jaentschke, Bozena; Gravel, Caroline; Tocchi, Monika; Doyle, Tracey; Rosu-Myles, Michael; He, Runtao; Li, Xuguang

    2012-04-01

    Current influenza vaccines mainly induce strain-specific neutralizing antibodies and need to be updated each year, resulting in significant burdens on vaccine manufacturers and regulatory agencies. Genetic immunization strategies based on the highly conserved nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza have attracted great attention as NP could induce heterosubtypic immunity. It is unclear, however, whether different forms of vectors and/or vaccination regimens could have contributed to the previously reported discrepancies in the magnitude of protection of NP-based genetic vaccinations. Here, we evaluated a plasmid DNA vector (pNP) and a recombinant adenovirus vector (rAd-NP) containing the NP gene through various combinations of immunization regimens in mice. We found that pNP afforded only partial protection even after 4 injections, with full protection against lethal challenge achieved only with the fourth boost using rAd-NP. Alternatively, only two doses of rAd-NP delivered subcutaneously were needed to induce an enhanced immune response and completely protect the animals, a finding which, to our knowledge, has not been reported before. PMID:22370512

  12. Hexavalent IPV-based combination vaccines for public-sector markets of low-resource countries.

    Mahmood, Kutub; Pelkowski, Sonia; Atherly, Deborah; Sitrin, Robert D; Donnelly, John J

    2013-09-01

    In anticipation of the successful eradication of wild polio virus, alternative vaccination strategies for public-sector markets of low-resource countries are extremely important, but are still under development. Following polio eradication, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) would be the only polio vaccine available, and would be needed for early childhood immunization for several years, as maintenance of herd immunity will be important for sustaining polio eradication. Low-cost combination vaccines containing IPV could provide reliable and continuous immunization in the post-polio eradication period. Combination vaccines can potentially simplify complex pediatric routine immunization schedules, improve compliance, and reduce costs. Hexavalent vaccines containing Diphtheria (D), Tetanus (T), whole cell pertussis (wP), Hepatitis B (HBV), Haemophilus b (Hib) and the three IPV serotype antigens have been considered as the ultimate combination vaccine for routine immunization. This product review evaluates potential hexavalent vaccine candidates by composition, probable time to market, expected cost of goods, presentation, and technical feasibility and offers suggestions for development of low-cost hexavalent combination vaccines. Because there are significant technical challenges facing wP-based hexavalent vaccine development, this review also discusses other alternative approaches to hexavalent that could also ensure a timely and reliable supply of low-cost IPV based combination vaccines. PMID:23787559

  13. Plant-based vaccines: novel and low-cost possible route for Mediterranean innovative vaccination strategies.

    Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E; Vitti, Antonella; Nuzzaci, Maria; El-Attar, Ahmad K; Piazzolla, Giuseppina; Tortorella, Cosimo; Harandi, Ali M; Olson, Olof; Wright, Sandra A; Piazzolla, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant-host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and

  14. Human adenovirus type identification

    Banik U; Adhikary AK

    2015-01-01

    Urmila Banik,1 Arun Kumar Adhikary21Unit of Pathology, 2Unit of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, MalaysiaThe published paper in your journal entitling “Human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment: an endemic outbreak with uncommon manifestations” has come into our attention.1 The article provides interesting clinical presentation of corneal epithelial layer detachment among 25%...

  15. [Construction of recombinant adenovirus co-expressing M1 and HA genes of influenza virus type A].

    Guo, Jian-Qiang; Yao, Li-Hong; Chen, Ai-Jun; Xu, Yi; Jia, Run-Qing; Bo, Hong; Dong, Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Shu, Yue-Long; Zhang, Zhi-Qing

    2009-03-01

    Based on the human H5N1 influenza virus strain A/Anhui/1/2005, recombinant adenovirus co-expressing M1 and HA genes of H5N1 influenza virus was constructed using an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence to link the two genes. The M1 and HA genes of H5N1 influenza virus were amplified by PCR and subcloned into pStar vector separately. Then the M1-IRES-HA fragment was amplified and subcloned into pShuttle-CMV vector, the shuttle plasmid was then linearized and transformed into BJ5183 bacteria which contained backbone vector pAd-Easy. The recombinant vector pAd-Easy was packaged in 293 cells to get recombinant adenovirus Ad-M1/HA. CPE was observed after 293 cells were transfected by Ad-M1/HA. The co-expression of M1 and HA genes was confirmed by Western-blot and IFA (immunofluorescence assay). The IRES containing recombinant adenovirus allowed functional co-expression of M1 and HA genes and provided the foundation for developing new influenza vaccines with adenoviral vector. PMID:19678564

  16. Oncolytic adenovirus and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy results in synergistic antitumor activity against soft-tissue sarcoma.

    Siurala, Mikko; Bramante, Simona; Vassilev, Lotta; Hirvinen, Mari; Parviainen, Suvi; Tähtinen, Siri; Guse, Kilian; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Kanerva, Anna; Kipar, Anja; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Hemminki, Akseli

    2015-02-15

    Despite originating from several different tissues, soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are often grouped together as they share mesenchymal origin and treatment guidelines. Also, with some exceptions, a common denominator is that when the tumor cannot be cured with surgery, the efficacy of current therapies is poor and new treatment modalities are thus needed. We have studied the combination of a capsid-modified oncolytic adenovirus CGTG-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF) with doxorubicin, with or without ifosfamide, the preferred first-line chemotherapeutic options for most types of STS. We show that CGTG-102 and doxorubicin plus ifosfamide together are able to increase cell killing of Syrian hamster STS cells over single agents, as well as upregulate immunogenic cell death markers. When tested in vivo against established STS tumors in fully immunocompetent Syrian hamsters, the combination was highly effective. CGTG-102 and doxorubicin (without ifosfamide) resulted in synergistic antitumor efficacy against human STS xenografts in comparison with single agent treatments. Doxorubicin increased adenoviral replication in human and hamster STS cells, potentially contributing to the observed therapeutic synergy. In conclusion, the preclinical data generated here support clinical translation of the combination of CGTG-102 and doxorubicin, or doxorubicin plus ifosfamide, for the treatment of STS, and provide clues on the mechanisms of synergy. PMID:24975392

  17. Immune Response to Recombinant Capsid Proteins of Adenovirus in Humans: Antifiber and Anti-Penton Base Antibodies Have a Synergistic Effect on Neutralizing Activity

    Gahéry-Ségard, Hanne; Farace, Françoise; Godfrin, Dominique; Gaston, Jesintha; Lengagne, Renée; Tursz, Thomas; Boulanger, Pierre; Guillet, Jean-Gérard

    1998-01-01

    Replication-deficient adenovirus used in humans for gene therapy induces a strong immune response to the vector, resulting in transient recombinant protein expression and the blocking of gene transfer upon a second administration. Therefore, in this study we examined in detail the capsid-specific humoral immune response in sera of patients with lung cancer who had been given one dose of a replication-defective adenovirus. We analyzed the immune response to the three major components of the vi...

  18. Epitope-based recombinant diagnostic antigen to distinguish natural infection from vaccination with hepatitis A virus vaccines.

    Su, Qiudong; Guo, Minzhuo; Jia, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Feng; Lu, Xuexin; Gao, Yan; Meng, Qingling; Tian, Ruiguang; Bi, Shengli; Yi, Yao

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection can stimulate the production of antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. However, vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine produces antibodies mainly against structural proteins, whereas no or very limited antibodies are produced against the non-structural proteins. Current diagnostic assays to determine exposure to HAV, such as the Abbott HAV AB test, detect antibodies only to the structural proteins and so are not able to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated virus. Here, we constructed a recombinant tandem multi-epitope diagnostic antigen (designated 'H1') based on the immune-dominant epitopes of the non-structural proteins of HAV to distinguish the two situations. H1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity and anion exchange chromatography was applied in a double-antigen sandwich ELISA for the detection of anti-non-structural HAV proteins, which was confirmed to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine. PMID:26994964

  19. Gene-based vaccine development for improving animal production in developing countries. Possibilities and constraints

    For vaccine production, recombinant antigens must be protective. Identifying protective antigens or candidate antigens is an essential precursor to vaccine development. Even when a protective antigen has been identified, cloning of its gene does not lead directly to vaccine development. The fimbrial protein of Dichelobacter nodosus, the agent of foot-rot in ruminants, was known to be protective. Recombinant vaccines against this infection are ineffective if expressed protein subunits are not assembled as mature fimbriae. Antigenic competition between different, but closely related, recombinant antigens limited the use of multivalent vaccines based on this technology. Recombinant antigens may need adjuvants to enhance response. DNA vaccines, potentiated with genes for different cytokines, may replace the need for aggressive adjuvants, and especially where cellular immunity is essential for protection. The expression of antigens from animal pathogens in plants and the demonstration of some immunity to a disease like rinderpest after ingestion of these, suggests an alternative approach to vaccination by injection. Research on disease pathogenesis and the identification of candidate antigens is specific to the disease agent. The definition of expression systems and the formulation of a vaccine for each disease must be followed by research to establish safety and efficacy. Where vaccines are based on unique gene sequences, the intellectual property is likely to be protected by patent. Organizations, licensed to produce recombinant vaccines, expect to recover their costs and to make a profit. The consequence is that genetically-derived vaccines are expensive. The capacity of vaccines to help animal owners of poorer countries depends not only on quality and cost but also on the veterinary infrastructure where they are used. Ensuring the existence of an effective animal health infrastructure in developing countries is as great a challenge for the developed world as

  20. TheQ1 Influence of Innate and Pre-Existing Immunity on Adenovirus Therapy

    Zaiss, Anne K.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Herschman, Harvey R.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been studied extensively in preclinical gene therapy models and in a range of clinical trials. However, innate immune responses to adenovirus vectors limit effectiveness of Ad5 based therapies. Moreover, extensive pre-existing Ad5 immunity in human populations will likely limit the clinical utility of adenovirus vectors, unless methods to circumvent neutralizing antibodies that bind virus and block target cell transduction can be developed;...

  1. Investigating Stakeholder Attitudes and Opinions on School-Based Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Programs

    Nodulman, Jessica A.; Starling, Randall; Kong, Alberta S.; Buller, David B.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Woodall, W. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several countries worldwide, school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs have been successful; however, little research has explored US stakeholders' acceptance toward school-based HPV vaccination programs. Methods: A total of 13 focus groups and 12 key informant interviews (N?=?117; 85% females; 66% racial/ethnic…

  2. Efficacy of a Vaccine Based on Protective Antigen and Killed Spores against Experimental Inhalational Anthrax▿ ‡

    Gauthier, Yves P.; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Paucod, Jean-Charles; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Mock, Michèle; Goossens, Pierre L.; Vidal, Dominique R.

    2008-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA)-based anthrax vaccines acting on toxins are less effective than live attenuated vaccines, suggesting that additional antigens may contribute to protective immunity. Several reports indicate that capsule or spore-associated antigens may enhance the protection afforded by PA. Addition of formaldehyde-inactivated spores (FIS) to PA (PA-FIS) elicits total protection against cutaneous anthrax. Nevertheless, vaccines that are effective against cutaneous anthrax may not be so...

  3. Identification of fever and vaccine-associated gene interaction networks using ontology-based literature mining

    Hur, Junguk; Özgür, Arzucan; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Background Fever is one of the most common adverse events of vaccines. The detailed mechanisms of fever and vaccine-associated gene interaction networks are not fully understood. In the present study, we employed a genome-wide, Centrality and Ontology-based Network Discovery using Literature data (CONDL) approach to analyse the genes and gene interaction networks associated with fever or vaccine-related fever responses. Results Over 170,000 fever-related articles from PubMed abstracts and tit...

  4. Challenges in manufacturing adenoviral vectors for global vaccine product deployment.

    Vellinga, Jort; Smith, J Patrick; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Majhen, Dragomira; Lemckert, Angelique; van Ooij, Mark; Ives, Paul; Yallop, Christopher; Custers, Jerome; Havenga, Menzo

    2014-04-01

    Abstract Once adenovirus vector-based vaccines are licensed for the prevention of important infectious diseases, manufacturing processes capable of reliably delivering large numbers of vaccine doses will be required. The highest burden of disease for many infectious pathogens under investigation occurs in resource-poor settings. Therefore, the price per dose will be an important determinant of success. This review describes common practices for manufacturing replication-incompetent adenovirus vectors at clinical scale. Recent innovations and strategies aimed at improving the cost-effectiveness of manufacturing and ensuring high-volume vaccine production and purification are described. Hereto, technologies to increase bioreactor yields are reviewed. In addition, the use of single-use perfusion bioreactors, modification of some purification steps to avoid the use of expensive endonucleases, and use of charged filters during anion exchange all have the potential to bring down the cost of goods and are thus described. Finally, processes for ensuring quality throughout the manufacturing process, methods for testing viral identity, and safety of master seeds through to the end vaccine product are described. PMID:24593243

  5. Clarification of vaccines: An overview of filter based technology trends and best practices.

    Besnard, Lise; Fabre, Virginie; Fettig, Michael; Gousseinov, Elina; Kawakami, Yasuhiro; Laroudie, Nicolas; Scanlan, Claire; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are derived from a variety of sources including tissue extracts, bacterial cells, virus particles, recombinant mammalian, yeast and insect cell produced proteins and nucleic acids. The most common method of vaccine production is based on an initial fermentation process followed by purification. Production of vaccines is a complex process involving many different steps and processes. Selection of the appropriate purification method is critical to achieving desired purity of the final product. Clarification of vaccines is a critical step that strongly impacts product recovery and subsequent downstream purification. There are several technologies that can be applied for vaccine clarification. Selection of a harvesting method and equipment depends on the type of cells, product being harvested, and properties of the process fluids. These techniques include membrane filtration (microfiltration, tangential-flow filtration), centrifugation, and depth filtration (normal flow filtration). Historically vaccine harvest clarification was usually achieved by centrifugation followed by depth filtration. Recently membrane based technologies have gained prominence in vaccine clarification. The increasing use of single-use technologies in upstream processes necessitated a shift in harvest strategies. This review offers a comprehensive view on different membrane based technologies and their application in vaccine clarification, outlines the challenges involved and presents the current state of best practices in the clarification of vaccines. PMID:26657051

  6. Design of nanomaterial based systems for novel vaccine development.

    Yang, Liu; Li, Wen; Kirberger, Michael; Liao, Wenzhen; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2016-05-26

    With lower cell toxicity and higher specificity, novel vaccines have been greatly developed and applied to emerging infectious and chronic diseases. However, due to problems associated with low immunogenicity and complicated processing steps, the development of novel vaccines has been limited. With the rapid development of bio-technologies and material sciences, nanomaterials are playing essential roles in novel vaccine design. Incorporation of nanomaterials is expected to improve delivery efficiency, to increase immunogenicity, and to reduce the administration dosage. The purpose of this review is to discuss the employment of nanomaterials, including polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, virus-like particles, peptide amphiphiles micelles, peptide nanofibers and microneedle arrays, in vaccine design. Compared to traditional methods, vaccines made from nanomaterials display many appealing benefits, including precise stimulation of immune responses, effective targeting to certain tissue or cells, and desirable biocompatibility. Current research suggests that nanomaterials may improve our approach to the design and delivery of novel vaccines. PMID:26891972

  7. What you always needed to know about electroporation based DNA vaccines

    Gothelf, Anita Birgitte; Gehl, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinations are increasingly used to fight infectious disease, and DNA vaccines offer considerable advantages, including broader possibilities for vaccination and lack of need for cold storage. It has been amply demonstrated, that electroporation augments uptake of DNA in both skin and muscle, and...... it is foreseen that future DNA vaccination may to a large extent be coupled with and dependent upon electroporation based delivery. Understanding the basic science of electroporation and exploiting knowledge obtained on optimization of DNA electrotransfer to muscle and skin, may greatly augment...

  8. Cell culture based production of avian influenza vaccines

    Wielink, van, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination of poultry can be used as a tool to control outbreaks of avian influenza, including that of highly pathogenic H5 and H7 strains. Influenza vaccines are traditionally produced in embryonated chicken eggs. Continuous cell lines have been suggested as an alternative substrate to produce influenza vaccines, as they are more robust and lack the long lead times associated with the production of large quantities of embryonated eggs. In the study that is described in this thesis, the prod...

  9. Exploring the potential of novel multivalent DNA-based vaccines

    Fissolo, Nicolas Miguel

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation, we exploited the DNA vaccination approach to test in the mouse some aspects relevant for the design of optimal CTL-stimulating, multiepitope vaccines. We have used three different ways to prime multispecific CD8+ T cell responses: 1) We have cloned a polytope DNA vaccine that encodes 10 epitopes binding MHC class I molecules encoded by the K, D or L locus (of H-2d, H-2b and H-2k haplotype mice). Vaccination of different mouse strains showed that Ld-restricted CD8+ T cell...

  10. Advances in inducing adaptive immunity using cell-based cancer vaccines: Clinical applications in pancreatic cancer.

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-14

    The incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is on the rise, and the prognosis is extremely poor because PDA is highly aggressive and notoriously difficult to treat. Although gemcitabine- or 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is typically offered as a standard of care, most patients do not survive longer than 1 year. Therefore, the development of alternative therapeutic approaches for patients with PDA is imperative. As PDA cells express numerous tumor-associated antigens that are suitable vaccine targets, one promising treatment approach is cancer vaccines. During the last few decades, cell-based cancer vaccines have offered encouraging results in preclinical studies. Cell-based cancer vaccines are mainly generated by presenting whole tumor cells or dendritic cells to cells of the immune system. In particular, several clinical trials have explored cell-based cancer vaccines as a promising therapeutic approach for patients with PDA. Moreover, chemotherapy and cancer vaccines can synergize to result in increased efficacies in patients with PDA. In this review, we will discuss both the effect of cell-based cancer vaccines and advances in terms of future strategies of cancer vaccines for the treatment of PDA patients. PMID:27182156