Pauly, M.; Hoppe, E.; Mugisha, L.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Akoua-Koffi, C.; Couacy-Hymann, E.; Anoh, A. E.; Mossoun, A.; Schubert, G.; Wiersma, L.; Pascale, S.; Muyembe, J.-J.; Karhemere, S.; Weiss, S.; Leendertz, S. A.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Leendertz, F. H.; Ehlers, B.
Roč. 11, č. 25 (2014), s. 25. ISSN 1743-422X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Adenoviridae * Human adenovirus D * Genotype * Sub-Saharan Africa * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.181, year: 2014
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 belongs to the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae and is involved in respiratory and enteric infections of calves. The isolation of BAV-3 has not been reported prior to this study in China. In 2009, there were many cases in cattle showing similar clinical signs to BAV-3 infection and a virus strain, showing cytopathic effect in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells, was isolated from a bovine nasal swab collected from feedlot cattle in Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate was confirmed as a bovine adenovirus type 3 by PCR and immunofluorescence assay, and named as HLJ0955. So far only the complete genome sequence of prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain has been reported. In order to further characterize the Chinese isolate HLJ0955, the complete genome sequence of HLJ0955 was determined. Results The size of the genome of the Chinese isolate HLJ0955 is 34,132 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 53.6%. The coding sequences for gene regions of HLJ0955 isolate were similar to the prototype of BAV-3 WBR-1 strain, with 80.0-98.6% nucleotide and 87.5-98.8% amino acid identities. The genome of HLJ0955 strain contains 16 regions and four deletions in inverted terminal repeats, E1B region and E4 region, respectively. The complete genome and DNA binding protein gene based phylogenetic analysis with other adenoviruses were performed and the results showed that HLJ0955 isolate belonged to BAV-3 and clustered within the Mastadenovirus genus of the family Adenoviridae. Conclusions This is the first study to report the isolation and molecular characterization of BAV-3 from cattle in China. The phylogenetic analysis performed in this study supported the use of the DNA binding protein gene of adenovirus as an appropriate subgenomic target for the classification of different genuses of the family Adenoviridae on the molecular basis. Meanwhile, a large-scale pathogen and serological epidemiological
Full Text Available Human adenoviruses belong to the Adenoviridae family and they are divided into seven species, including 56 types. Adenoviruses are common opportunistic pathogens that are rarely associated with clinical symptoms in immunocompetent patients. However, they are emerging pathogens causing morbidity and mortality in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, HIV infected patients and patients with primary immune deficiencies. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic viraemia to respiratory and gastrointestinal disease, haemorrhagic cystitis and severe disseminated illness. There is currently no formally approved therapy for the treatment of adenovirus infections.This article presents current knowledge about adenoviruses, their pathogenicity and information about available methods to diagnose and treat adenoviral infections.
Rodrigo Melo Mendes
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Viruses of the Adenoviridae family are associated with many clinical syndromes, possessing 50 serotypes. These agents and viruses of the Herpesviridae family are the two major agents responsible for viral conjunctivitis, and a rapid diagnosis is important due to the epidemic character of adenoviral infections. METHODS: We developed a PCR without DNA extraction for adenovirus using primers that amplify a 300 bp fragment of the hexon capsid protein gene from many serotypes. RESULTS: Swab samples from cornea of seven patients with keratoconjunctivitis were analyzed, and one of them was PCR positive for adenovirus. The sequence of this fragment shows a 100% homology with the sequence of adenovirus type 8. CONCLUSION: Sequencing of 300 bp from the hexon gene allows to identify almost all Ad serotypes, including all serotypes related to epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (8,19,37 and almost all serotypes involved with Ad-associated conjunctivitis.OBJETIVO: Vírus da família Adenoviridae estão associados com muitas síndromes clínicas, sendo conhecidos 50 sorotipos. Vírus desta família e da família Herpesviridae são os maiores responsáveis por conjuntivite viral, sendo um rápido diagnóstico importante devido ao caráter epidêmico das infecções por adenovírus. MÉTODOS: Reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR para adenovírus foi desenvolvida utilizando iniciadores que amplificam um fragmento de 300 bp do gene da proteína hexon do capsídeo de diversos sorotipos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase foi efetuada sem a etapa de extração de DNA. RESULTADOS: Amostras de "swabs" de córneas de sete pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite foram analisadas, sendo que uma amostra foi positiva para adenovírus. O seqüenciamento deste fragmento mostrou 100% de homologia com a seqüência do adenovírus tipo 8. CONCLUSÃO: O seqüenciamento do fragmento de 300 bp do gene do hexon permite a identificação de quase todos os sorotipos de adenov
Seimon, Tracie A; Olson, Sarah H; Lee, Kerry Jo; Rosen, Gail; Ondzie, Alain; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Patricia; Anthony, Simon J; Joly, Damien O; Karesh, William B; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, W Ian
Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region. PMID:25781992
Wang, Y; Zhu, N; Li, Y; Lu, R; Wang, H; Liu, G; Zou, X; Xie, Z; Tan, W
Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in children is thought to be mainly caused by infection with various viruses, some of which have been well characterized; however, analyses of respiratory tract viromes among children with SARI versus those without are limited. In this study, nasopharyngeal swabs from children with and without SARI (135 versus 15) were collected in China between 2008 and 2010 and subjected to multiplex metagenomic analyses using a next-generation sequencing platform. The results show that members of the Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, Anelloviridae and Adenoviridae families represented the most abundant species identified (>50% genome coverage) in the respiratory tracts of children with SARI. The viral population found in the respiratory tracts of children without SARI was less diverse and mainly dominated by the Anelloviridae family with only a small proportion of common epidemic respiratory viruses. Several almost complete viral genomes were assembled, and the genetic diversity was determined among several samples based on next-generation sequencing. This research provides comprehensive mapping of the viromes of children with SARI and indicates high heterogeneity of known viruses present in the childhood respiratory tract, which may benefit the detection and prevention of respiratory disease. PMID:26802214
Full Text Available Abstract Earlier, we detected viral RNAs packaged in the porcine adenovirus (PAdV -3 virions. Using Southern blot analysis, we further demonstrated that the viral RNAs were predominantly packaged in CsCl purified mature capsids (containing viral genome than empty/intermediate capsids. Some of the packaged viral RNAs appear to be polyadenylated. Real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR analysis indicated that the copy number of the tested viral mRNAs encoding E1Bsmall and fiber proteins was less than one per full capsid. Moreover, detection of viral RNA packaged in CsCl purified human adenovirus (HAdV -5 virions indicates that the viral RNA packaging might be a common phenomenon in members of Adenoviridae family. Further quantitative analysis of viral protein, DNA, and RNA in CsCl purified mature and empty/intermediate capsids of recombinant HAdV-5 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein indicated that the traceable viral RNA detected in empty/intermediate capsids seems associated with the presence of traceable viral genomic DNA. Taken together, our data suggest that the viral RNAs may be passively packaged in adenovirus virion during encapsidation of viral genomic DNA in cell nuclei. Thus, viral RNA packaging may be a characteristic feature of adenoviral genomic DNA encapsidation.
Wu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Xianwen; Yang, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Yang, Jian; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Du, Jiang; Liu, Liguo; Xue, Ying; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi
Bats are natural hosts for a large variety of zoonotic viruses. This study aimed to describe the range of bat viromes, including viruses from mammals, insects, fungi, plants, and phages, in 11 insectivorous bat species (216 bats in total) common in six provinces of China. To analyze viromes, we used sequence-independent PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing technology (Solexa Genome Analyzer II; Illumina). The viromes were identified by sequence similarity comparisons to known viruses. The mammalian viruses included those of the Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae, Retroviridae, Circoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Astroviridae, Flaviridae, Coronaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Parvovirinae; insect viruses included those of the Baculoviridae, Iflaviridae, Dicistroviridae, Tetraviridae, and Densovirinae; fungal viruses included those of the Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae; and phages included those of the Caudovirales, Inoviridae, and Microviridae and unclassified phages. In addition to the viruses and phages associated with the insects, plants, and bacterial flora related to the diet and habitation of bats, we identified the complete or partial genome sequences of 13 novel mammalian viruses. These included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, a circovirus, a bocavirus, picornaviruses, a pestivirus, and a foamy virus. Pairwise alignments and phylogenetic analyses indicated that these novel viruses showed little genetic similarity with previously reported viruses. This study also revealed a high prevalence and diversity of bat astroviruses and coronaviruses in some provinces. These findings have expanded our understanding of the viromes of bats in China and hinted at the presence of a large variety of unknown mammalian viruses in many common bat species of mainland China. PMID:22855479
Farkas, Szilvia L; Gál, János
A female, adult ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata ornata) with fatty liver was submitted for virologic examination in Hungary. Signs of an adenovirus infection including degeneration of the liver cells, enlarged nuclei and intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an adenovirus was later confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this novel chelonian adenovirus was distinct from previously described reptilian adenoviruses, not belonging to any of the recognized genera of the family Adenoviridae. As a part of the routine diagnostic procedure for chelonians the detection of herpes-, rana- and iridoviruses together with Mycoplasma spp. was attempted. Amplicons were generated by a general mycoplasma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S/23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) intergenic spacer region, as well as, a specific Mycoplasma agassizii PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the analyses of partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, the Mycoplasma sp. of the ornate box turtle seemed to be identical with the recently described eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) Mycoplasma sp. This is the first report of a novel chelonian adenovirus and a mycoplasma infection in an ornate box turtle (T. ornata ornata) in Europe. PMID:19375875
Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, M. van [Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Boheemen, S. van [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jong, A.A.W. de [Department of Pathology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L. [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Viroclinics Biosciences, Marconistraat 16, 3029 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuiken, T., E-mail: t.Kuiken@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.
It has been demonstrated that cellular and viral RNAs were packaged in the virions of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1), members of the Herpesviridae family, both of which are enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses. Here, we provide evidence suggesting that RNAs are packaged in the virions of porcine adenovirus type 3 (PAdV-3), which is a member of the Adenoviridae family, a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus. The RNAs packaged in PAdV-3 virions were enriched in the size range of 300-1000 bases long. By reverse transcription (RT) of RNAs isolated from purified PAdV-3 virions, PCR amplification, and DNA sequence analysis of PCR products, we determined the identities of some viral RNAs contained in PAdV-3 virions. The results indicated that the RNAs representing transcripts from E1A, E1B, DNA binding protein (DBP), DNA polymerase (POL), E4 and some of the late genes including pIIIA, pIII, pV, Hexon, 33 K, and fiber were detected from purified PAdV-3 virions. In contrast, we could not detect the RNAs representing transcripts of precursor terminal protein (pTP), 52 kDa, pX, or 100-kDa protein genes in purified virions. Because the transcripts of pIX, IVa2, E3, protease, pVI, pVII, and pVIII overlap with those of other genes in PAdV-3, we could not definitely conclude that RNAs representing these transcripts were packaged in virions although the expected DNA fragments were produced by RT-PCR in the RNAs isolated from purified virions
Li, Linlin; Joseph, G. Victoria; Wang, Chunlin; Jones, Morris; Fellers, Gary M.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Delwart, Eric
Bats are hosts to a variety of viruses capable of zoonotic transmissions. Because of increased contact between bats, humans, and other animal species, the possibility exists for further cross-species transmissions and ensuing disease outbreaks. We describe here full and partial viral genomes identified using metagenomics in the guano of bats from California and Texas. A total of 34% and 58% of 390,000 sequence reads from bat guano in California and Texas, respectively, were related to eukaryotic viruses, and the largest proportion of those infect insects, reflecting the diet of these insectivorous bats, including members of the viral families Dicistroviridae, Iflaviridae, Tetraviridae, and Nodaviridae and the subfamily Densovirinae. The second largest proportion of virus-related sequences infects plants and fungi, likely reflecting the diet of ingested insects, including members of the viral families Luteoviridae, Secoviridae, Tymoviridae, and Partitiviridae and the genus Sobemovirus. Bat guano viruses related to those infecting mammals comprised the third largest group, including members of the viral families Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, Adenoviridae, Poxviridae, Astroviridae, and Coronaviridae. No close relative of known human viral pathogens was identified in these bat populations. Phylogenetic analysis was used to clarify the relationship to known viral taxa of novel sequences detected in bat guano samples, showing that some guano viral sequences fall outside existing taxonomic groups. This initial characterization of the bat guano virome, the first metagenomic analysis of viruses in wild mammals using second-generation sequencing, therefore showed the presence of previously unidentified viral species, genera, and possibly families. Viral metagenomics is a useful tool for genetically characterizing viruses present in animals with the known capability of direct or indirect viral zoonosis to humans.
Doszpoly, Andor; Wellehan, James F X; Childress, April L; Tarján, Zoltán L; Kovács, Endre R; Harrach, Balázs; Benkő, Mária
In the USA and in Hungary, almost simultaneously, adenoviruses of a putative novel lineage were detected by PCR and sequencing in turtles belonging to four different species (including two subspecies) of the superfamily Testudinoidea. In the USA, partial sequence of the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase was obtained from samples of a captive pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri), four eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) and two red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). In Hungary, several individuals of the latter subspecies as well as some yellow-bellied sliders (T. scripta scripta) were found to harbor identical, or closely related, putative new adenoviruses. From numerous attempts to amplify any other genomic fragment by PCR, only a nested method was successful, in which a 476-bp fragment of the hexon gene could be obtained from several samples. In phylogeny reconstructions, based on either DNA polymerase or hexon partial sequences, the putative new adenoviruses formed a clade distinct from the five accepted genera of the family Adenoviridae. Three viral sub-clades corresponding to the three host genera (Malacochersus, Terrapene, Trachemys) were observed. Attempts to isolate the new adenoviruses on turtle heart (TH-1) cells were unsuccessful. Targeted PCR screening of live and dead specimens revealed a prevalence of approximately 25% in small shelter colonies of red-eared and yellow-bellied sliders in Hungary. The potential pathology of these viruses needs further investigation; clinically healthy sliders were found to shed the viral DNA in detectable amounts. Based on the phylogenetic distance, the new adenovirus lineage seems to merit the rank of a novel genus. PMID:23567817
Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3