WorldWideScience

Sample records for adenoviral vector safety

  1. Myocardial transfection of hypoxia inducible factor-1α via an adenoviral vector during coronary artery bypass grafting. A multicenter phase I and safety study

    Increasing numbers of patients with advanced coronary artery disease have limited options for percutaneous and/or surgical revascularization. A prospective, randomized, phase I clinical multicenter trial was performed to assess the feasibility and safety of delivering a pro-angiogenic transcription factor termed 'hypoxia inducible factor-1α', delivered to ischemic cardiac muscle via a type 2 adenoviral (Ad2HIF) vector. The 13 patients were included under the following criteria: 1 hypoperfused area of viable ventricular muscle without options for revascularization and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥30%. After coronary artery bypass grafting was completed, 10 injections of the study drug (n=10), in 3 escalating doses up to 1 x 1011 viral particles or saline (n=3) as a placebo control, were injected intramyocardially. After completion of the 1-year follow-up, all patients had uncomplicated postoperative courses, are alive and feeling well; 1 patient had a self-limited run of tachycardia postoperatively and at 6 months, 1 patient developed recurrent angina. Positron emission tomography perfusion analysis revealed improvement in the Ad2HIF injected areas in selected patients. These data support the feasibility and preliminary safety of adenoviral transfection with Ad2HIF in regions of viable myocardium. Additional studies will be required to determine the efficacy and safety of Ad2HIF. (author)

  2. Adenoviral Vectors for Hemophilia Gene Therapy

    Brunetti-Pierri, N; Ng, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Hemophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder resulting from deficiency of blood coagulation factors. Current standard of care for hemophilia patients is frequent intravenous infusions of the missing coagulation factor. Gene therapy for hemophilia involves the introduction of a normal copy of the deficient coagulation factor gene thereby potentially offering a definitive cure for the bleeding disorder. A variety of approaches have been pursued for hemophilia gene therapy and this review article focuses on those that use adenoviral vectors. PMID:24883229

  3. Biological activity and safety of adenoviral vector-expressed wild-type p53 after intratumoral injection in melanoma and breast cancer patients with p53-overexpressing tumors

    Dummer, R; Bergh, J; Karlsson, Y; Horovitz, JA; Mulder, NH; Huinin, DT; Burg, G; Hofbauer, G; Osanto, S

    2000-01-01

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human cancer. Gene transfer of a wild-type (wt) p53 gene reverses the loss of normal p53 function in vitro and in vivo. A phase I dose escalation study of single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of a replication-defective adenoviral expression vector cont

  4. The Evolution of Adenoviral Vectors through Genetic and Chemical Surface Modifications

    Cristian Capasso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A long time has passed since the first clinical trial with adenoviral (Ad vectors. Despite being very promising, Ad vectors soon revealed their limitations in human clinical trials. The pre-existing immunity, the marked liver tropism and the high toxicity of first generation Ad (FG-Ad vectors have been the main challenges for the development of new approaches. Significant effort toward the development of genetically and chemically modified adenoviral vectors has enabled researchers to create more sophisticated vectors for gene therapy, with an improved safety profile and a higher transduction ability of different tissues. In this review, we will describe the latest findings in the high-speed, evolving field of genetic and chemical modifications of adenoviral vectors, a field in which different disciplines, such as biomaterial research, virology and immunology, co-operate synergistically to create better gene therapy tools for modern challenges.

  5. The evolution of adenoviral vectors through genetic and chemical surface modifications.

    Capasso, Cristian; Garofalo, Mariangela; Hirvinen, Mari; Cerullo, Vincenzo

    2014-02-01

    A long time has passed since the first clinical trial with adenoviral (Ad) vectors. Despite being very promising, Ad vectors soon revealed their limitations in human clinical trials. The pre-existing immunity, the marked liver tropism and the high toxicity of first generation Ad (FG-Ad) vectors have been the main challenges for the development of new approaches. Significant effort toward the development of genetically and chemically modified adenoviral vectors has enabled researchers to create more sophisticated vectors for gene therapy, with an improved safety profile and a higher transduction ability of different tissues. In this review, we will describe the latest findings in the high-speed, evolving field of genetic and chemical modifications of adenoviral vectors, a field in which different disciplines, such as biomaterial research, virology and immunology, co-operate synergistically to create better gene therapy tools for modern challenges. PMID:24549268

  6. Capsid modification strategies for detargeting adenoviral vectors.

    Parker, Alan L; Bradshaw, Angela C; Alba, Raul; Nicklin, Stuart A; Baker, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors hold immense potential for a wide variety of gene therapy based applications; however, their efficacy and toxicity is dictated by "off target" interactions that preclude cell specific targeting to sites of disease. A number of "off target" interactions have been described in the literature that occur between the three major capsid proteins (hexon, penton, and fiber) and components of the circulatory system, including cells such as erythrocytes, white blood cells, and platelets, as well as circulatory proteins including complement proteins, coagulation factors, von Willebrand Factor, p-selectin as well as neutralizing antibodies. Thus, to improve efficacious targeting to sites of disease and limit nonspecific uptake of virus to non-target tissues, specifically the liver and the spleen, it is necessary to develop suitable strategies for genetically modifying the capsid proteins to preclude these interactions. To this end we have developed versatile systems based on homologous recombination for modification of each of the major capsid proteins, which are described herein. PMID:24132476

  7. Preclinical Efficacy and Safety Profile of Allometrically Scaled Doses of Doxycycline Used to Turn "On" Therapeutic Transgene Expression from High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors in a Glioma Model.

    VanderVeen, Nathan; Raja, Nicholas; Yi, Elizabeth; Appelman, Henry; Ng, Philip; Palmer, Donna; Zamler, Daniel; Dzaman, Marta; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most commonly occurring primary brain cancer in adults, in whom its highly infiltrative cells prevent total surgical resection, often leading to tumor recurrence and patient death. Our group has discovered a gene therapy approach for GBM that utilizes high-capacity "gutless" adenoviral vectors encoding regulatable therapeutic transgenes. The herpes simplex type 1-thymidine kinase (TK) actively kills dividing tumor cells in the brain when in the presence of the prodrug, ganciclovir (GCV), whereas the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) is an immune-stimulatory molecule under tight regulation by a tetracycline-inducible "Tet-On" activation system that induces anti-GBM immunity. As a prelude to a phase I clinical trial, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses of the tetracycline doxycycline (DOX) allometrically scaled for rats. DOX initiates the expression of Flt3L, which has been shown to recruit dendritic cells to the brain tumor microenvironment-an integral first step in the development of antitumor immunity. The data revealed a highly safe profile surrounding these human-equivalent doses of DOX under an identical therapeutic window as proposed in the clinical trial. This was confirmed through a neuropathological analysis, liver and kidney histopathology, detection of neutralizing antibodies, and systemic toxicities in the blood. Interestingly, we observed a significant survival advantage in rats with GBM receiving the 300 mg/day equivalent dosage of DOX versus the 200 mg/day equivalent. Additionally, rats rejected "recurrent" brain tumor threats implanted 90 days after their primary brain tumors. We also show that DOX detection within the plasma can be an indicator of optimal dosing of DOX to attain therapeutic levels. This work has significant clinical relevance for an ongoing phase I clinical trial in humans with primary GBM and for other therapeutic approaches using

  8. Targeted cancer gene therapy : the flexibility of adenoviral gene therapy vectors

    Rots, MG; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR; Haisma, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors are promising reagents for therapeutic interventions in humans, including gene therapy for biologically complex diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, the major advantage of adenoviral vectors is their superior in vivo gene transfer efficienc

  9. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors in experimental gene therapy*

    Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2005-01-01

    In the majority of potential applications gene therapy will require an effective transfer of a transgene in vivo resulting in high-level and long-term transgene expression, all in the absence of significant toxicity or inflammatory responses. The most efficient vehicles for delivery of foreign genes to the target tissues are modified adenoviruses. Adenoviral vectors of the first generation, despite the high infection efficacy, have an essential drawback: they induce strong immune response, wh...

  10. Constructing recombinant replication-defective adenoviral vectors that express glucose transporter-1 through in vitro ligation

    Fangcheng Li; Junliang Li; Ranyi Liu; Xinke Xu; Kaichang Yuan; Zhonghua Wu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We constructed a homologous recombination bacterial method based on the pAdEasy system, a widely used system, for generating recombinant adenoviral vectors that express glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) in rats.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of generating recombinant replication-defective adenoviral vectors that express GLUT1 in rats by in vitro ligation based on the Adeno-XTM system. DESIGN: An in vitro cell-based experiment. SETTING: This study was performed at the Linbaixin Medical Research Center of the Second Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University and Central Laboratory for Prevention and Treatment of Tumor, Sun Yat-sen University between January and August 2004. MATERIALS: Male, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were used to extract total RNA from brain tissue. E. coli DH5?and human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK293 cells) used in the present study were cryo-preserved by the Second Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University. Rabbit anti-rat GLUT1 polyclonal antibody (Chemicon, U.S.A.) and primers (Shanghai Boya Bioengineering Co., Ltd) were also used. METHODS: E1/E3-deleted replication-defective adenoviral vectors were used. Using in vitro ligation, the target gene was first sub-cloned into a shuttle vector plasmid to obtain the fragment containing target gene expression cassettes by enzyme digestion. Subsequently, the fragment was co-transformed with linearized adenoviral backbone vector into the E. coli strain. The recombinant adenoviral plasmid was transfected into HEK293 cells to assembly recombinant adenoviral vectors with replication capabilities. The procedure was repeated several times for recombinant adenoviral vectors amplification. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficiency of recombinant adenoviral vectors to express the target gene was measured by gene and protein expression through polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot assays, respectively.RESULTS: Results demonstrated that recombinant adenoviral

  11. Combination recombinant simian or chimpanzee adenoviral vectors for vaccine development.

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Lingshu; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Schmidt, Stephen D; Gall, Jason G D; Colloca, Stefano; Seder, Robert A; Mascola, John R; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-12-16

    Recombinant adenoviral vector (rAd)-based vaccines are currently being developed for several infectious diseases and cancer therapy, but pre-existing seroprevalence to such vectors may prevent their use in broad human populations. In this study, we investigated the potential of low seroprevalence non-human primate rAd vectors to stimulate cellular and humoral responses using HIV/SIV Env glycoprotein (gp) as the representative antigen. Mice were immunized with novel simian or chimpanzee rAd (rSAV or rChAd) vectors encoding HIV gp or SIV gp by single immunization or in heterologous prime/boost combinations (DNA/rAd; rAd/rAd; rAd/NYVAC or rAd/rLCM), and adaptive immunity was assessed. Among the rSAV and rChAd tested, rSAV16 or rChAd3 vector alone generated the most potent immune responses. The DNA/rSAV regimen also generated immune responses similar to the DNA/rAd5 regimen. rChAd63/rChAd3 and rChAd3 /NYVAC induced similar or even higher levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell and IgG responses as compared to rAd28/rAd5, one of the most potent combinations of human rAds. The optimized vaccine regimen stimulated improved cellular immune responses and neutralizing antibodies against HIV compared to the DNA/rAd5 regimen. Based on these results, this type of novel rAd vector and its prime/boost combination regimens represent promising candidates for vaccine development. PMID:26514419

  12. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle. PMID:12960972

  13. Challenges and Prospects for Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Gene Therapy

    Pasquale Piccolo; Nicola Brunetti-Pierri

    2014-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors that are devoid of all viral coding sequences are promising non-integrating vectors for gene therapy because they efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in vivo, have a large cloning capacity, and drive long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. The main obstacle preventing clinical applications of HDAd vectors is the host innate inflammatory response against the vector capsid proteins that occurs shortly after intravascular vect...

  14. Challenges and Prospects for Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Gene Therapy

    Pasquale Piccolo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd vectors that are devoid of all viral coding sequences are promising non-integrating vectors for gene therapy because they efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in vivo, have a large cloning capacity, and drive long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. The main obstacle preventing clinical applications of HDAd vectors is the host innate inflammatory response against the vector capsid proteins that occurs shortly after intravascular vector administration and result in acute toxicity, the severity of which is dose dependent. Intense efforts have been focused on elucidating adenoviral vector–host interactions and the factors involved in the acute toxicity. This review focuses on the recent acquisition of data on such interactions and on strategies investigated to improve the therapeutic index of HDAd vectors.

  15. Gene Therapy with Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors: Current Advances and Future Perspectives

    Philip Ng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant Adenoviral vectors represent one of the best gene transfer platforms due to their ability to efficiently transduce a wide range of quiescent and proliferating cell types from various tissues and species. The activation of an adaptive immune response against the transduced cells is one of the major drawbacks of first generation Adenovirus vectors and has been overcome by the latest generation of recombinant Adenovirus, the Helper-Dependent Adenoviral (HDAd vectors. HDAds have innovative features including the complete absence of viral coding sequences and the ability to mediate high level transgene expression with negligible chronic toxicity. This review summarizes the many aspects of HDAd biology and structure with a major focus on in vivo gene therapy application and with an emphasis on the unsolved issues that these vectors still presents toward clinical application.

  16. Functional correction of adult mdx mouse muscle using gutted adenoviral vectors expressing full-length dystrophin

    DelloRusso, Christiana; Scott, Jeannine M.; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis; Salvatori, Giovanni; Barjot, Catherine; Robinson, Ann S.; Robert W Crawford; Brooks, Susan V; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Delivery of functionally effective levels of dystrophin to immunocompetent, adult mdx (dystrophin-deficient) mice has been challenging because of the size of the gene, immune responses against viral vectors, and inefficient infection of mature muscle. Here we show that high titer stocks of three different gutted adenoviral vectors carrying full-length, muscle-specific, dystrophin ex...

  17. Tropism-modification strategies for targeted gene delivery using adenoviral vectors

    Baker, Andrew H; Parker, Alan L.; Bradshaw, Angela C.; Nicklin, Stuart A.; McNeish, Iain A; Raul Alba; Lynda Coughlan

    2010-01-01

    Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans) and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX), which bridges hepatocyte transduction in...

  18. Increased Mucosal CD4+ T Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques following Vaccination with an Adenoviral Vector

    Bukh, Irene; Calcedo, Roberto; Roy, Soumitra; Carnathan, Diane G.; Grant, Rebecca; Qin, Qiuyue; Boyd, Surina; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Veeder, Christin L; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Betts, Michael R.; James M Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T ...

  19. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for liver-directed gene therapy

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Ng, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors devoid of all viral-coding sequences are promising non-integrating vectors for liver-directed gene therapy because they have a large cloning capacity, can efficiently transduce a wide variety of cell types from various species independent of the cell cycle and can result in long-term transgene expression without chronic toxicity. The main obstacle preventing clinical applications of HDAd for liver-directed gene therapy is the host innate inflammatory...

  20. Challenges in manufacturing adenoviral vectors for global vaccine product deployment.

    Vellinga, Jort; Smith, J Patrick; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Majhen, Dragomira; Lemckert, Angelique; van Ooij, Mark; Ives, Paul; Yallop, Christopher; Custers, Jerome; Havenga, Menzo

    2014-04-01

    Abstract Once adenovirus vector-based vaccines are licensed for the prevention of important infectious diseases, manufacturing processes capable of reliably delivering large numbers of vaccine doses will be required. The highest burden of disease for many infectious pathogens under investigation occurs in resource-poor settings. Therefore, the price per dose will be an important determinant of success. This review describes common practices for manufacturing replication-incompetent adenovirus vectors at clinical scale. Recent innovations and strategies aimed at improving the cost-effectiveness of manufacturing and ensuring high-volume vaccine production and purification are described. Hereto, technologies to increase bioreactor yields are reviewed. In addition, the use of single-use perfusion bioreactors, modification of some purification steps to avoid the use of expensive endonucleases, and use of charged filters during anion exchange all have the potential to bring down the cost of goods and are thus described. Finally, processes for ensuring quality throughout the manufacturing process, methods for testing viral identity, and safety of master seeds through to the end vaccine product are described. PMID:24593243

  1. An adenoviral vector regulated by hypoxia for the treatment of ischaemic disease and cancer.

    Binley, K; Iqball, S; Kingsman, A; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    1999-10-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors have a number of advantages for gene therapy, including transduction of a range of dividing and non-dividing cell types. However, this broad range may be a disadvantage if non-target cells are transduced and are adversely affected by expression of the transferred gene. Here we describe a novel adenoviral vector in which transcription of the transgene is restricted to the patho-physiological condition of low oxygen tension (hypoxia). Hypoxia activates the expression of a number of genes, principally via the stabilisation of members of the bHLH/PAS family of transcription factors that bind to a con- sensus DNA sequence, the hypoxia response element (HRE). We have configured an optimised HRE expression cassette into an adenoviral vector, AdOBHRE. A range of cell types, including primary human skeletal muscle, when transduced with AdOBHRE display a low basal level of transgene expression that is highly induced in hypoxia to levels equivalent to that obtained from the CMV promoter. The AdOBHRE vector could be exploited for transcriptionally targeted gene therapy for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, peripheral arterial disease, arthritis and anaemia where tissue hypoxia is a cardinal feature. PMID:10516721

  2. Transfection of Primary Hepatocytes with Liver-Enriched Transcription Factors Using Adenoviral Vectors.

    Benet, Marta; Jover, Ramiro; Bort, Roque

    2015-01-01

    Primary cultured hepatocytes are probably the best model to study endogenous metabolic pathways, toxicity, or drug metabolism. Many of these studies require expression of ectopic genes. It would be desirable to use a method of transfection that allows dose-response studies, high efficiency of transfection, and the possibility to express several genes at the same time. Adenoviral vectors fulfill these requirements, becoming a valuable tool for primary hepatocyte transfection. Moreover, they are easy to generate and do not require a high level of biocontainment. In the present chapter, we describe the generation, cloning, amplification, and purification of an adenoviral vector capable of infecting primary cultured hepatocytes. This recombinant adenovirus induces robust expression of the protein of interest in hepatocytes within a wide range of doses. PMID:26272145

  3. Adenoviral vector expressing murine β-defensin 2 enhances immunogenicity of an adenoviral vector based H5N1 influenza vaccine in aged mice.

    Vemula, Sai V; Pandey, Aseem; Singh, Neetu; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

    2013-10-01

    The ability to resist infections and respond to vaccinations is greatly reduced in the older adult population owing to a general decline in innate and adaptive immune functions with aging. Over the years several strategies such as increasing the vaccine dose, number of immunizations and using adjuvants have been evaluated to improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines in the older adult population. Murine β-defensin 2 (Mbd2) has been shown to function as a molecular adjuvant by recruiting and activating immature dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), to the site of the immunization. In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Mbd2 to enhance the efficacy of an adenoviral vector-based H5N1 influenza vaccine expressing hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) (HAd-HA-NP) in an aged mouse model. Our results indicated that immunostimulation with an adenoviral vector expressing Mbd2 (HAd-Mbd2) activated DCs and significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by HAd-HA-NP. Furthermore, immunostimulation with HAd-Mbd2 followed by immunization with HAd-HA-NP resulted in significantly lower virus titers in the lungs following challenge with a H5N1 influenza virus compared to the group immunized with HAd-HA-NP without immunostimulation. Overall, our results highlight the potential utility of Mbd2 as a molecular adjuvant to enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of vaccines for the elderly. PMID:23892144

  4. Advances and future challenges in recombinant adenoviral vectored H5N1 influenza vaccines.

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has increased the potential for a new pandemic to occur. This event highlights the necessity for developing a new generation of influenza vaccines to counteract influenza disease. These vaccines must be manufactured for mass immunization of humans in a timely manner. Poultry should be included in this policy, since persistent infected flocks are the major source of avian influenza for human infections. Recombinant adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines are an attractive alternative to the currently licensed influenza vaccines. This class of vaccines induces a broadly protective immunity against antigenically distinct H5N1, can be manufactured rapidly, and may allow mass immunization of human and poultry. Recombinant adenoviral vectors derived from both human and non-human adenoviruses are currently being investigated and appear promising both in nonclinical and clinical studies. This review will highlight the current status of various adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines and will outline novel approaches for the future. PMID:23202501

  5. Advances and Future Challenges in Recombinant Adenoviral Vectored H5N1 Influenza Vaccines

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has increased the potential for a new pandemic to occur. This event highlights the necessity for developing a new generation of influenza vaccines to counteract influenza disease. These vaccines must be manufactured for mass immunization of humans in a timely manner. Poultry should be included in this policy, since persistent infected flocks are the major source of avian influenza for human infections. Recombinant adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines are an attractive alternative to the currently licensed influenza vaccines. This class of vaccines induces a broadly protective immunity against antigenically distinct H5N1, can be manufactured rapidly, and may allow mass immunization of human and poultry. Recombinant adenoviral vectors derived from both human and non-human adenoviruses are currently being investigated and appear promising both in nonclinical and clinical studies. This review will highlight the current status of various adenoviral vectored H5N1 vaccines and will outline novel approaches for the future.

  6. Vascular gene transfer from metallic stent surfaces using adenoviral vectors tethered through hydrolysable cross-linkers.

    Fishbein, Ilia; Forbes, Scott P; Adamo, Richard F; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert J; Alferiev, Ivan S

    2014-01-01

    In-stent restenosis presents a major complication of stent-based revascularization procedures widely used to re-establish blood flow through critically narrowed segments of coronary and peripheral arteries. Endovascular stents capable of tunable release of genes with anti-restenotic activity may present an alternative strategy to presently used drug-eluting stents. In order to attain clinical translation, gene-eluting stents must exhibit predictable kinetics of stent-immobilized gene vector release and site-specific transduction of vasculature, while avoiding an excessive inflammatory response typically associated with the polymer coatings used for physical entrapment of the vector. This paper describes a detailed methodology for coatless tethering of adenoviral gene vectors to stents based on a reversible binding of the adenoviral particles to polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PABT)-modified stainless steel surface via hydrolysable cross-linkers (HC). A family of bifunctional (amine- and thiol-reactive) HC with an average t1/2 of the in-chain ester hydrolysis ranging between 5 and 50 days were used to link the vector with the stent. The vector immobilization procedure is typically carried out within 9 hr and consists of several steps: 1) incubation of the metal samples in an aqueous solution of PABT (4 hr); 2) deprotection of thiol groups installed in PABT with tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (20 min); 3) expansion of thiol reactive capacity of the metal surface by reacting the samples with polyethyleneimine derivatized with pyridyldithio (PDT) groups (2 hr); 4) conversion of PDT groups to thiols with dithiothreitol (10 min); 5) modification of adenoviruses with HC (1 hr); 6) purification of modified adenoviral particles by size-exclusion column chromatography (15 min) and 7) immobilization of thiol-reactive adenoviral particles on the thiolated steel surface (1 hr). This technique has wide potential applicability beyond stents, by facilitating surface engineering of

  7. Potential of Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors in Modulating Airway Innate Immunity

    Rahul Kushwah; Huibi Cao; Jim Hu

    2007-01-01

    Innate immune responses form the first line of defense against foreign insults and recently significant advances have been made in our understanding of the initiation of innate immune response along with its ability to modulate inflammation. In airway diseases such as asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis, over reacting of the airway innate immune responses leads to cytokine imbalance and airway remodeling or damage. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors have the potential to deliver genes to modulate airway innate immune responses and have many advantages over its predecessors. However, there still are a few limitations that need to be addressed prior to their use in clinical applications.

  8. Antitumor Activity and Prolonged Expression from a TRAIL-Expressing Adenoviral Vector

    Jeongwu Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines, but generally spares most normal cells. Transduction by an adenoviral vector expressing human TRAIL cDNA (Ad.TRAIL-GFP resulted in both direct tumor cell killing as well as a potent bystander effect through presentation of TRAIL by transduced normal cells. Administration of Ad.TRAIL-GFP significantly prolonged survival of mice harboring either intracerebral glioblastomas or breast carcinoma-induced peritoneal carcinomatosis. Additionally, TRAIL induced prolonged transgene expression in normal tissue, presumably as a result of diminished immunemediated destruction of vector-transduced cells. Taken together, these data suggest that vector-mediated transduction of TRAIL may represent an effective strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  9. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose. PMID:27434682

  10. Comparison of osteogenic potentials of human rat BMP4 and BMP6 gene therapy using [E1-] and [E1-,E2b-] adenoviral vectors

    Hongwei Li, Jin Zhong Li, Debra D. Pittman, Andy Amalfitano, Gerald R. Hankins, Gregory A. Helm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenic potentials of some recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP first-generation adenoviral vectors (ADhBMPs are significantly limited in immunocompetent animals. It is unclear what role expression of viral proteins and foreign proteins transduced by adenoviral vectors play in the host immune response and in ectopic bone formation. In this study two sets of experiments were designed and performed. First, rat BMP6 cDNA were amplified, sequenced, and recombined in first-generation adenoviral vector (ADrBMP6. A comparison of human and rat BMP6 adenoviral vectors demonstrated identical osteogenic activities in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent rats. Second, the activities of recombinant human BMP6 in E1- (ADhBMP6 and [E1-,E2b-] ( [E1-,E2b-]ADGFP&hBMP6, and [E1-,E2b-]ADhBMP6 adenoviral vectors were compared in both in vitro and in vivo models. Similar activities of these two generations of BMP adenoviral vectors were found in all models. These results indicate that the amount of viral gene expression and the source of the BMP cDNA are not major factors in the interruption of osteogenic potentials of recombinant BMP6 adenoviral vectors in immunocompetent animals.

  11. Lifetime correction of genetic deficiency in mice with a single injection of helper-dependent adenoviral vector

    Kim, In-Hoo; Józkowicz, Alicja; Piedra, Pedro A.; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Ideally, somatic gene therapy should result in lifetime reversal of genetic deficiencies. However, to date, phenotypic correction of monogenic hyperlipidemia in mouse models by in vivo gene therapy has been short-lived and associated with substantial toxicity. We have developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HD-Ad) containing the apolipoprotein (apo) E gene. A single i.v. injection of this vector completely and stably corrected the hypercholesterolemia in apoE-deficient mice, an effect...

  12. Immunization Against the Transgene but not the TetON Switch Reduces Expression From Gutless Adenoviral Vectors in the Brain

    Xiong, Weidong; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Puntel, Mariana; Mondkar, Sonali; Larocque, Daniel; Liu, Chunyan; Curtin, James F.; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Immune responses against vectors or encoded transgenes can impose limitations on gene therapy. We demonstrated that tetracycline-regulated high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ads) sustain regulated transgene expression in the brain even in the presence of systemic pre-existing immune responses against adenoviruses. In this study we assessed whether systemic pre-existing immune responses against the transgene products, i.e., β-Gal or the tetracycline-dependent (TetON) regulatory transcription...

  13. Dual-expressing adenoviral vectors encoding the sodium iodide symporter for use in noninvasive radiological imaging of therapeutic gene transfer

    Introduction: Noninvasive analysis of therapeutic transgene expression is important for the development of clinical translational gene therapy strategies against cancer. To image p53 and MnSOD gene transfer noninvasively, we used radiologically detectable dual-expressing adenoviral vectors with the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) as the reporter gene. Methods: Dual-expressing adenoviral vectors were constructed with hNIS cloned into E3 region and therapeutic genes, either MnSOD or p53, recombined into the E1 region. Steady-state mRNA levels of hNIS were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. hNIS function was determined by iodide uptake assay and MnSOD, and p53 protein levels were assessed by Western blots. Results: 125I- accumulation resulting from hNIS expression in both Ad-p53-hNIS- and Ad-MnSOD-hNIS-infected MDA-MB-435 cells could be visualized clearly on phosphorimaging autoradiograph. Iodide accumulation increased with increasing adenovirus titer, and there was a linear correlation between iodide uptake and dose. p53 and MnSOD protein levels increased as a function of adenovirus titer, and there was a direct positive correlation between p53 and MnSOD expression and hNIS function. P53 and MnSOD overexpression inhibited cell growth in the dual-expressing adenoviral vector-infected cells. Conclusions: Radiological detection of hNIS derived from dual-expressing adenoviral vectors is a highly effective method to monitor therapeutic gene transfer and expression in a noninvasive manner

  14. Tropism-Modification Strategies for Targeted Gene Delivery Using Adenoviral Vectors

    Andrew H. Baker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high efficiency, targeted gene delivery with adenoviral vectors is a long-standing goal in the field of clinical gene therapy. To achieve this, platform vectors must combine efficient retargeting strategies with detargeting modifications to ablate native receptor binding (i.e. CAR/integrins/heparan sulfate proteoglycans and “bridging” interactions. “Bridging” interactions refer to coagulation factor binding, namely coagulation factor X (FX, which bridges hepatocyte transduction in vivo through engagement with surface expressed heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. These interactions can contribute to the off-target sequestration of Ad5 in the liver and its characteristic dose-limiting hepatotoxicity, thereby significantly limiting the in vivo targeting efficiency and clinical potential of Ad5-based therapeutics. To date, various approaches to retargeting adenoviruses (Ad have been described. These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon, pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies, can be employed simultaneously. Detargeting can be achieved by genetic ablation of native receptor-binding determinants, ablation of “bridging interactions” such as those which occur between the hexon of Ad5 and coagulation factor X (FX, or alternatively, through the use of polymer

  15. Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of primary hyperoxaluria type 1

    Castello, Raffaele; Borzone, Roberta; D’Aria, Stefania; Annunziata, Patrizia; Piccolo, Pasquale; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of liver metabolism due to deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) which catalyzes conversion of glyoxylate into glycine. AGT deficiency results in overproduction of oxalate which ultimately leads to end-stage renal disease and death. Organ transplantation as either preemptive liver transplantation or combined liver/kidney transplantation is the only available therapy to prevent disease progression. Gene therapy is an attractive option to provide an alternative treatment for PH1. Towards this goal, we investigated helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors for liver-directed gene therapy of PH1. Compared to saline controls, AGT-deficient mice injected with an HDAd encoding the AGT under the control of a liver-specific promoter showed a significant reduction of hyperoxaluria and less increase of urinary oxalate following challenge with Ethylene Glycol (EG), a precursor of glyoxylate. These studies may thus pave the way to clinical application of HDAd for PH1 gene therapy. PMID:26609667

  16. Factors involved in the maturation of murine dendritic cells transduced with adenoviral vector variants

    Adenoviral vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer is an attractive method for manipulating the immunostimulatory properties of dendritic cells (DCs) for cancer immunotherapy. DCs treated with Ad have phenotype alterations (maturation) that facilitate T cell sensitization. We investigated the mechanisms of DC maturation with Ad transduction. Expression levels of a maturation marker (CD40) on DCs treated with conventional Ad, fiber-modified Ads (AdRGD, AdF35, AdF35ΔRGD), or a different serotype Ad (Ad35) were correlated with their transduction efficacy. The αv-integrin directional Ad, AdRGD, exhibited the most potent ability to enhance both foreign gene expression and CD40 expression, and induced secretion of interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-α in DCs. The presence of a foreign gene expression cassette in AdRGD was not necessary for DC maturation. Maturation of DCs treated with AdRGD was suppressed by destruction of the Ad genome, inhibition of endocytosis, or endosome acidification, whereas proteasome inhibition increased CD40 expression levels on DCs. Moreover, inhibition of αv-integrin signal transduction and blockade of cytokine secretion affected the maturation of DCs treated with AdRGD only slightly or not at all, respectively. Thus, our data provide evidence that Ad-induced DC maturation is due to Ad invasion of the DCs, followed by nuclear transport of the Ad genome, and not to the expression of foreign genes

  17. Novel Adenoviral Vector Induces T Cell Responses Despite Anti-Adenoviral Neutralizing Antibodies in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Morse, Michael A; Chaudhry, Arvind; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Hobeika, Amy C.; Osada, Takuya; Clay, Timothy M.; Amalfitano, Andrea; Burnett, Bruce K.; Devi, Gayathri R.; Hsu, David S; Xu, Younong; Balcaitis, Stephanie; Dua, Rajesh; Nguyen, Susan; Balint, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    First generation, E1-deleted Adenovirus subtype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors, although promising platforms for use as cancer vaccines, are impeded in activity by naturally occurring or induced Ad-specific neutralizing antibodies. Ad5-based vectors with deletions of the E1 and the E2b regions (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]), the latter encoding the DNA polymerase and the pre-terminal protein, by virtue of diminished late phase viral protein expression, were hypothesized to avoid immunological clearance and induce ...

  18. Retrograde optogenetic characterization of the pontospinal module of the locus coeruleus with a canine adenoviral vector.

    Li, Yong; Hickey, Louise; Perrins, Ray; Werlen, Emilie; Patel, Amisha A; Hirschberg, Stefan; Jones, Matt W; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J; Pickering, Anthony E

    2016-06-15

    Noradrenergic neurons of the brainstem extend projections throughout the neuraxis to modulate a wide range of processes including attention, arousal, autonomic control and sensory processing. A spinal projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to regulate nociceptive processing. To characterize and selectively manipulate the pontospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats, we implemented a retrograde targeting strategy using a canine adenoviral vector to express channelrhodopsin2 (CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry). LC microinjection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry produced selective, stable, transduction of noradrenergic neurons allowing reliable opto-activation in vitro. The ChR2-transduced LC neurons were opto-identifiable in vivo and functional control was demonstrated for >6 months by evoked sleep-wake transitions. Spinal injection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry retrogradely transduced pontine noradrenergic neurons, predominantly in the LC but also in A5 and A7. A pontospinal LC (ps:LC) module was identifiable, with somata located more ventrally within the nucleus and with a discrete subset of projection targets. These ps:LC neurons had distinct electrophysiological properties with shorter action potentials and smaller afterhyperpolarizations compared to neurons located in the core of the LC. In vivo recordings of ps:LC neurons showed a lower spontaneous firing frequency than those in the core and they were all excited by noxious stimuli. Using this CAV2-based approach we have demonstrated the ability to retrogradely target, characterise and optogenetically manipulate a central noradrenergic circuit and show that the ps:LC module forms a discrete unit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26903420

  19. A novel Cre recombinase reporter mouse strain facilitates selective and efficient infection of primary immune cells with adenoviral vectors.

    Heger, Klaus; Kober, Maike; Rieß, David; Drees, Christoph; de Vries, Ingrid; Bertossi, Arianna; Roers, Axel; Sixt, Michael; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses are potent vectors for the efficient transient expression of exogenous genes in resting immune cells. However, most leukocytes are refractory to efficient adenoviral transduction as they lack expression of the coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR). To circumvent this obstacle, we generated the R26/CAG-CARΔ1(StopF) (where R26 is ROSA26 and CAG is CMV early enhancer/chicken β actin promoter) knock-in mouse line. This strain allows monitoring of in situ Cre recombinase activity through expression of CARΔ1. Simultaneously, CARΔ1 expression permits selective and highly efficient adenoviral transduction of immune cell populations, such as mast cells or T cells, directly ex vivo in bulk cultures without prior cell purification or activation. Furthermore, we show that CARΔ1 expression dramatically improves adenoviral infection of in vitro differentiated conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs), basophils, mast cells, as well as Hoxb8-immortalized hematopoietic progenitor cells. This novel dual function mouse strain will hence be a valuable tool to rapidly dissect the function of specific genes in leukocyte physiology. PMID:25787118

  20. Co-expression of tumor antigen and interleukin-2 from an adenoviral vector augments the efficiency of therapeutic tumor vaccination

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Nørgaard Nielsen, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    approach where the target antigen fused to Ii is expressed from the adenoviral E1 region and IL-2 is expressed from the E3 region. Immunization of mice with this new vector construct resulted in an augmented primary effector CD8+ T-cell response. Furthermore, in a melanoma model we observed significantly...... prolonged tumor control in vaccinated wild type (WT) mice. The improved tumor control required antigen-specific cells, since no tumor control was observed, unless the melanoma cells expressed the vaccine targeted antigen. We also tested our new vaccine in immunodeficient (CD80/86 deficient) mice. Following...

  1. Intranasal vaccination with a helper-dependent adenoviral vector enhances transgene-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice.

    Fu, Yuan-hui; He, Jin-sheng; Zheng, Xian-xian; Wang, Xiao-bo; Xie, Can; Shi, Chang-xin; Zhang, Mei; Tang, Qian; Wei, Wei; Qu, Jian-guo; Hong, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors were developed primarily for genetic disease therapy by deleting all coding regions for attenuating the host cellular immune response to adenovirus (Ad) and long-lasting gene expression. Recently Harui et al. reported that HDAd vaccine could stimulate superior transgene-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses via the intraperitoneal route, compared to first-generation adenoviral (FGAd) vaccine. This prompted us to explore the potential of HDAd as a vaccine vector administrated intranasally. In this study, we prepared HDAd and FGAd vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), respectively, and compared their efficacy in mice. Mice were immunized intranasally with 5x10(9) vp HDAd or FGAd vector particles. Despite stimulating similar anti-Ad antibody responses with FGAd vaccine in the prime/boost strategy, HDAd vector expressing EGFP displayed superior transgene-specific serum IgG, mucosal IgA and cellular immune response, with the characterization of balanced or mixed Th1/Th2 CD4+ T-cell responses. Meanwhile, a single dose of intranasal (i.n.) vaccine of HDAd-EGFP induced a serum IgG response with more efficacy than FGAd-EGFP. In addition, i.n. boost immunization enhanced transgene-specific humoral and cellular responses, compared to single i.n. HDAd-EGFP immunization. Our results suggest that HDAd has potential for a mucosal vaccine vector via i.n. route, which will be useful for the development of vaccines against respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. PMID:19945423

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Modified Adenoviral Vectors for Gene Therapy: A View through Animal Models Tested.

    Castañeda-Lopez, M E; Garza-Veloz, I; Lopez-Hernandez, Y; Barbosa-Cisneros, O Y; Martinez-Fierro, M L

    2016-07-01

    The central dogma of gene therapy relies on the application of novel therapeutic genes to treat or prevent diseases. The main types of vectors used for gene transfer are adenovirus, retrovirus, lentivirus, liposome, and adeno-associated virus vectors. Gene therapy has emerged as a promising alternative for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The main targets are cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and different types of cells from hematological and mesenchymal sources. In this review, we focus on molecules with anti-inflammatory effects used for in vivo gene therapy mediated by adenoviral gene transfer in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, with particular emphasis on autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27245510

  3. Quality of the transgene-specific CD8+ T cell response induced by adenoviral vector immunization is critically influenced by virus dose and route of vaccination

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Ørskov, Cathrine; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been widely used for experimental gene therapy and vaccination, yet there is a surprising lack of knowledge connecting the route and dose of adenovirus administration to the induced transgene-specific immune response. We have recently demonstrated polyfunctional CD8(+) T c...... effector functions, accumulated in the spleen. These findings indicate that the localization of the adenoviral inoculum and not the total Ag load determines the quality of the CD8(+) T cell response induced with adenoviral vaccines.......Adenoviral vectors have been widely used for experimental gene therapy and vaccination, yet there is a surprising lack of knowledge connecting the route and dose of adenovirus administration to the induced transgene-specific immune response. We have recently demonstrated polyfunctional CD8(+) T...... correlated positively with dissemination, whereas the functional capacity of the generated T cells correlated inversely with vector dissemination. A comparison of the immune response to s.c. or i.v. administration at moderate doses revealed that inoculation by both routes induced a transient peak of IFN...

  4. Adenovirus Specific Pre-Immunity Induced by Natural Route of Infection Does Not Impair Transduction by Adenoviral Vaccine Vectors in Mice

    de Andrade Pereira, Bruna; E. Maduro Bouillet, Leoneide; Dorigo, Natalia A.; Fraefel, Cornel; Bruna-Romero, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAd5V) vectors are gold standards of T-cell immunogenicity as they efficiently induce also humoral responses to exogenous antigens, in particular when used in prime-boost protocols. Some investigators have shown that pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses interferes with transduction by adenoviral vectors, but the actual extent of this interference is not known since it has been mostly studied in mice using unnatural routes of infection and virus doses....

  5. Cloning and characterization of an adenoviral vector for highly efficient and doxycycline – suppressible expression of bioactive human single – chain interleukin 12 in colon cancer

    Schäfer Hansjörg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is well characterized to induce cellular antitumoral immunity by activation of NK-cells and T-lymphocytes. However, systemic administration of recombinant human IL-12 resulted in severe toxicity without perceptible therapeutic benefit. Even though intratumoral expression of IL-12 leads to tumor regression and long-term survival in a variety of animal models, clinical trials have not yet shown a significant therapeutic benefit. One major obstacle in the treatment with IL-12 is to overcome the relatively low expression of the therapeutic gene without compromising the safety of such an approach. Our objective was to generate an adenoviral vector system enabling the regulated expression of very high levels of bioactive, human IL-12. Results High gene expression was obtained utilizing the VP16 herpes simplex transactivator. Strong regulation of gene expression was realized by fusion of the VP16 to a tetracycline repressor with binding of the fusion protein to a flanking tetracycline operator and further enhanced by auto-regulated expression of its fusion gene within a bicistronic promoter construct. Infection of human colon cancer cells (HT29 at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i. of 10 resulted in the production of up to 8000 ng/106 cells in 48 h, thus exceeding any published vector system so far. Doxycycline concentrations as low as 30 ng/ml resulted in up to 5000-fold suppression, enabling significant reduction of gene expression in a possible clinical setting. Bioactivity of the human single-chain IL-12 was similar to purified human heterodimeric IL-12. Frozen sections of human colon cancer showed high expression of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor with significant production of human single chain IL-12 in colon cancer biopsies after infection with 3*107 p.f.u. Ad.3r-scIL12. Doxycycline mediated suppression of gene expression was up to 9000-fold in the infected colon cancer tissue. Conclusion VP16

  6. Evaluation of excipients for enhanced thermal stabilization of a human type 5 adenoviral vector through spray drying.

    LeClair, Daniel A; Cranston, Emily D; Xing, Zhou; Thompson, Michael R

    2016-06-15

    We have produced a thermally stable recombinant human type 5 adenoviral vector (AdHu5) through spray drying with three excipient formulations (l-leucine, lactose/trehalose and mannitol/dextran). Spray drying leads to immobilization of the viral vector which is believed to prevent viral protein unfolding, aggregation and inactivation. The spray dried powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titrations, and X-ray diffraction to identify the effects of temperature and atmospheric moisture on the immobilizing matrix. Thermal stability of the viral vector was confirmed in vitro by infection of A549 lung epithelial cells. Mannitol/dextran powders showed the greatest improvement in thermal stability with almost no viral activity loss after storage at 20°C for 90days (0.7±0.3 log TCID50) which is a significant improvement over the current -80°C storage protocol. Furthermore, viral activity was retained over short term exposure (72h) to temperatures as high as 55°C. Conversely, all powders exhibited activity loss when subjected to moisture due to amplified molecular motion of the matrix. Overall, a straightforward method ideal for the production of thermally stable vaccines has been demonstrated through spray drying AdHu5 with a blend of mannitol and dextran and storing the powder under low humidity conditions. PMID:27130366

  7. Improved vaccine protection against retrovirus infection after co-administration of adenoviral vectors encoding viral antigens and type I interferon subtypes

    Groitl Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I interferons (IFNs exhibit direct antiviral effects, but also distinct immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we analyzed type I IFN subtypes for their effect on prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccination of mice against Friend retrovirus (FV or HIV. Results Mice were vaccinated with adenoviral vectors encoding FV Env and Gag proteins alone or in combination with vectors encoding IFNα1, IFNα2, IFNα4, IFNα5, IFNα6, IFNα9 or IFNβ. Only the co-administration of adenoviral vectors encoding IFNα2, IFNα4, IFNα6 and IFNα9 resulted in strongly improved immune protection of vaccinated mice from subsequent FV challenge infection with high control over FV-induced splenomegaly and reduced viral loads. The level of protection correlated with augmented virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses and enhanced antibody titers. Similar results were obtained when mice were vaccinated against HIV with adenoviral vectors encoding HIV Env and Gag-Pol in combination with various type I IFN encoding vectors. Here mainly CD4+ T cell responses were enhanced by IFNα subtypes. Conclusions Our results indicate that certain IFNα subtypes have the potential to improve the protective effect of adenovirus-based vaccines against retroviruses. This correlated with augmented virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Thus, co-expression of select type I IFNs may be a valuable tool for the development of anti-retroviral vaccines.

  8. Sensitization of prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine induced by a replication incompetent adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of cytosine deaminase adenoviral/5-fluorocytosine system on prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: Cell culture, infectivity test and sensitivity test, observing the bystander effect and animal model experiment were carried out. RESULTS: All the established prostate cancer cell lines were eventually infectable, but ratio of vector/cell and time of exposed at which infection occurs was dependent on the cell lines. The expression of transfered cytosine deaminase gene peaked at different days, but persisted beyond 11 days. The prostate cell lines were sensitized to the 5-fluorocytosine by infection with the cytosine deaminase gene adenoviral vector, and only 5% of the LNCap and 10% of the RM-1 cells infected were required for 100% cell death. In the animal model, there was significant eradiation of tumor growth at the ratio of 400 vector particles/cell and with the systematic treatment of 5-fluorocytosine. CONCLUSION: The adenoviral vector carrying a cytosine deaminase transcription unit can sensitize the prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine, and the system can significantly inhibit the growth of prostatic tumor in mice.

  9. Short-term Correction of Arginase Deficiency in a Neonatal Murine Model With a Helper-dependent Adenoviral Vector

    Gau, Chia-Ling; Rosenblatt, Robin A; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Lay, Fides D; Dow, Adrienne C; Livesay, Justin; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lee, Brendan; Cederbaum, Stephen D; Grody, Wayne W; Lipshutz, Gerald S

    2009-01-01

    Neonatal gene therapy has the potential to ameliorate abnormalities before disease onset. Our gene knockout of arginase I (AI) deficiency is characterized by increasing hyperammonemia, neurological deterioration, and early death. We constructed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDV) carrying AI and examined for correction of this defect. Neonates were administered 5 × 109 viral particles/g and analyzed for survival, arginase activity, and ammonia and amino acids levels. The life expectancy of arg−/− mice increased to 27 days while controls died at 14 days with hyperammonemia and in extremis. Death correlated with a decrease in viral DNA/RNA per cell as liver mass increased. Arginase assays demonstrated that vector-injected hepatocytes had ~20% activity of heterozygotes at 2 weeks of age. Hepatic arginine and ornithine in treated mice were similar to those of saline-injected heterozygotes at 2 weeks, whereas ammonia was normal. By 26 days, arginase activity in the treated arg−/− livers declined to <10%, and arginine and ornithine increased. Ammonia levels began increasing by day 25, suggesting the cause of death to be similar to that of uninjected arg−/− mice, albeit at a later time. These studies demonstrate that the AI deficient newborn mouse can be temporarily corrected and rescued using a HDV. PMID:19367256

  10. Effects of recombinant adenoviral vector containing IRE1α gene on proliferation and apoptosis of ATDC5 stem cells

    Xiang-zhu LI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct the recombinant adenoviral vector containing human IRE1α (type I transmembrane protein kinase/endoribonucleasegene, and investigate its effects on proliferation and apoptosis of ATDC5 stem cells. Methods  By using pAdEasyTM adenovirus vector system, the recombinant shuttle vectors of IRE1α full-length gene(pAdTrack-IRE1αand RNase+Kinasedomain(pAdTrack-R+Kwere constructed, and then transferred with pAdEasy-1 to generate recombinant adenovirus plasmid pAd-IRE1α and pAd-R+K by electroporation method. Subsequently, the plasmids were transfected into HEK-293 cells to pack and amplify the recombinant adenovirus Ad-IRE1α and Ad-R+K. The expression of recombinant adenovirus was detected by PCR. The ATDC5 cells wereinfected in vitro by recombinant adenovirus Ad-IRE1α and Ad-R+K, the infection efficiency of green fluorescent protein(GFPwas observed, and the influence of Ad-IRE1α and Ad-R+K on the proliferation and apoptosis of ATDC5 cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS or non-ERS was detected by flow cytometry(FCM. Results Restriction endonuclease digestion analysis and PCR indicated that the recombinant adenovirus vector Ad-IRE1α andAd-R+K was successfully constructed. FCM detection showed that under ERS conditions, the G1 phasedcreased and S phase increased in ATDC5 cells after transfected by Ad-IRE1α and Ad-R+K, meanwhile the apoptosis rate increased significantly(P<0.05. Conclusion Infection of recombinant adenovirus containing IRE1α gene may promote the proliferation and apoptosis of ATDC5cells.

  11. Prostate-specific expression of Bax delivered by an adenoviral vector induces apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Lowe, S L; Rubinchik, S; Honda, T; McDonnell, T J; Dong, J Y; Norris, J S

    2001-09-01

    In prostate carcinoma, overexpression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 has been found to be associated with resistance to therapies including radiation and androgen ablation. Restoring the balance of Bcl-2 family members may result in the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells previously resistant to treatment. To accomplish this, a strategy involving overexpression of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was executed. The use of cytotoxic genes such as Bax require selective expression of the gene. In this study, we examined the ability of selective expression of Bax protein directed by a prostate-specific promoter to induce apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma. A second-generation adenoviral vector was constructed with the modified prostate-specific probasin promoter, ARR2PB, directing expression of an HA-tagged Bax gene and a green fluorescent protein reporter translated from an internal ribosome entry site (ARR2PB.Bax.GFP). ARR2PB promoter activity is tightly regulated and highly prostate specific and is responsive to androgens and glucocorticoids. The prostate-specific promoter-Bax-GFP transgene cassette was inserted into a cloning site near the right inverted terminal repeat of the adenoviral vector to retain specificity of the promoter. LNCaP cells infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP showed high levels of Bax expression 48 h after infection resulting in an 85% reduction in cell viability. Importantly, LNCaP cells stably transfected to overexpress Bcl-2 showed similar patterns of cell death when infected with Ad/ARR(2)PB.Bax.GFP, an 82% reduction in cell viability seen 48 h after infection. Apoptosis was confirmed by measuring caspase activation and using the TUNEL assay. Tissue specificity was evaluated using A549 cells (lung adenocarcinoma), SK-Hep-1 (liver cancer) cells, and Hela (cervical cancer) cells which did not show detectable expression of virally delivered Bax protein or any increase in cell death. Systemic administration of Ad/ARR2PB. Bax.GFP in nude

  12. Long-Term Reduction of Cocaine Self-Administration in Rats Treated with Adenoviral Vector-Delivered Cocaine Hydrolase: Evidence for Enzymatic Activity

    Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Saykao, Amy T.; Parks, Robin J.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    A new pharmacokinetic approach treating cocaine addiction involves rapidly metabolizing cocaine before it reaches brain reward centers using mutated human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) or cocaine hydrolase (CocH). Recent work has shown that helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector-mediated plasma CocH reduced the locomotor-activating effects of cocaine and prevented reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior up to 6 months in rats. The present study investigated whether hdAD-CocH could decreas...

  13. Induction of a Protective Heterosubtypic Immune Response Against the Influenza Virus by using Recombinant Adenoviral Vectors Expressing Hemagglutinin of the Influenza H5 Virus.

    Shmarov, M M; Sedova, E S; Verkhovskaya, L V; Rudneva, I A; Bogacheva, E A; Barykova, Yu A; Shcherbinin, D N; Lysenko, A A; Tutykhina, I L; Logunov, D Y; Smirnov, Yu A; Naroditsky, B S; Gintsburg, A L

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses are characterized by a high degree of antigenic variability, which causes the annual emergence of flu epidemics and irregularly timed pandemics caused by viruses with new antigenic and biological traits. Novel approaches to vaccination can help circumvent this problem. One of these new methods incorporates genetic vaccines based on adenoviral vectors. Recombinant adenoviral vectors which contain hemagglutinin-encoding genes from avian H5N1 and H5N2 (Ad-HA5-1 and Ad-HA5-2) influenza viruses were obtained using the AdEasy Adenoviral Vector System (Stratagene). Laboratory mice received a double intranasal vaccination with Ad-HA5-1 and Ad-HA5-2. This study demonstrates that immunization with recombinant adenoviruses bearing the Н 5 influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induces a immune response which protects immunized mice from a lethal dose of the H5 influenza virus. Moreover, it also protects the host from a lethal dose of the H1 virus, which belongs to the same clade as H5, but does not confer protection from the subtype H3 influenza virus, which belongs to a different clade. PMID:22649637

  14. Hexon-modified recombinant E1-deleted adenoviral vectors as bivalent vaccine carriers for Coxsackievirus A16 and Enterovirus 71.

    Zhang, Chao; Yang, Yong; Chi, Yudan; Yin, Jieyun; Yan, Lijun; Ku, Zhiqiang; Liu, Qingwei; Huang, Zhong; Zhou, Dongming

    2015-09-22

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health concern in Asia; more efficient vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Adenoviral (Ad) capsids have been used widely for the presentation of foreign antigens to induce specific immune responses in the host. Here, we describe a novel bivalent vaccine for HFMD based on the hexon-modified, E1-deleted chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 68 (AdC68). The novel vaccine candidate was generated by incorporating the neutralising epitope of Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), PEP71, into hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), and a shortened neutralising epitope of Enterovirus 71 (EV71), sSP70, into HVR2 of the AdC68 hexon. In order to enhance the immunogenicity of EV71, VP1 of EV71 was cloned into the E1-region of the AdC68 vectors. The results demonstrated that these two epitopes were well presented on the virion surface and had high affinity towards specific antibodies, and VP1 of EV71 was also significantly expressed. In pre-clinical mouse models, the hexon-modified AdC68 elicited neutralising antibodies against both CA16 and EV71, which conferred protection to suckling mice against a lethal challenge of CA16 and EV71. In summary, this study demonstrates that the hexon-modified AdC68 may represent a promising bivalent vaccine carrier against EV71 and CA16 and an epitope-display platform for other pathogens. PMID:26296491

  15. Efficient generation of recombinant adenoviral vectors by Cre-lox recombination in vitro.

    Aoki, K.; Barker, C.; Danthinne, X; Imperiale, M J; Nabel, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although recombinant adenovirus vectors are attractive for use in gene expression studies and therapeutic applications, the construction of these vectors remains relatively time-consuming. We report here a strategy that simplifies the production of adenoviruses using the Cre-loxP system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-length recombinant adenovirus DNA was generated in vitro by Cre-mediated recombination between loxP sites in a linearized shuttle plasmid containing a transgene and ade...

  16. Radiation-Induced Upregulation of Gene Expression From Adenoviral Vectors Mediated by DNA Damage Repair and Regulation

    Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the combination of replication-deficient adenoviruses and radiotherapy in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mechanism of radiation-mediated upregulation of adenoviral transgene expression. Methods and Materials: Adenoviral transgene expression (luciferase or green fluorescent protein) was studied with and without radiation in three cell lines: breast cancer M4A4-LM3, prostate cancer PC-3MM2, and lung cancer LNM35/enhanced green fluorescent protein. The effect of the radiation dose, modification of the viral capsid, and five different transgene promoters were studied. The cellular responses were studied using mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Double strand break repair was modulated by inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, topoisomerase-I, and DNA protein kinase, and transgene expression was measured. Results: We found that a wide range of radiation doses increased adenoviral transgene expression regardless of the cell line, transgene, promoter, or viral capsid modification. Treatment with adenovirus, radiation, and double strand break repair inhibitors resulted in persistence of double strand breaks and subsequent increases in adenovirus transgene expression. Conclusions: Radiation-induced enhancement of adenoviral transgene expression is linked to DNA damage recognition and repair. Radiation induces a global cellular response that results in increased production of RNA and proteins, including adenoviral transgene products. This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery.

  17. Radiation-Induced Upregulation of Gene Expression From Adenoviral Vectors Mediated by DNA Damage Repair and Regulation

    Nokisalmi, Petri; Rajecki, Maria; Pesonen, Sari; Escutenaire, Sophie [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Soliymani, Rabah [Protein Chemistry Unit, Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum Helsinki (Finland); Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Radiation and Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Ahtiainen, Laura [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Hemminki, Akseli, E-mail: akseli.hemminki@helsinki.fi [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program, Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the combination of replication-deficient adenoviruses and radiotherapy in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the mechanism of radiation-mediated upregulation of adenoviral transgene expression. Methods and Materials: Adenoviral transgene expression (luciferase or green fluorescent protein) was studied with and without radiation in three cell lines: breast cancer M4A4-LM3, prostate cancer PC-3MM2, and lung cancer LNM35/enhanced green fluorescent protein. The effect of the radiation dose, modification of the viral capsid, and five different transgene promoters were studied. The cellular responses were studied using mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence analysis. Double strand break repair was modulated by inhibitors of heat shock protein 90, topoisomerase-I, and DNA protein kinase, and transgene expression was measured. Results: We found that a wide range of radiation doses increased adenoviral transgene expression regardless of the cell line, transgene, promoter, or viral capsid modification. Treatment with adenovirus, radiation, and double strand break repair inhibitors resulted in persistence of double strand breaks and subsequent increases in adenovirus transgene expression. Conclusions: Radiation-induced enhancement of adenoviral transgene expression is linked to DNA damage recognition and repair. Radiation induces a global cellular response that results in increased production of RNA and proteins, including adenoviral transgene products. This study provides a mechanistic rationale for combining radiation with adenoviral gene delivery.

  18. Vascular Gene Transfer from Metallic Stent Surfaces Using Adenoviral Vectors Tethered through Hydrolysable Cross-linkers

    Fishbein, Ilia; Forbes, Scott P.; Adamo, Richard F.; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert J.; Alferiev, Ivan S.

    2014-01-01

    In-stent restenosis presents a major complication of stent-based revascularization procedures widely used to re-establish blood flow through critically narrowed segments of coronary and peripheral arteries. Endovascular stents capable of tunable release of genes with anti-restenotic activity may present an alternative strategy to presently used drug-eluting stents. In order to attain clinical translation, gene-eluting stents must exhibit predictable kinetics of stent-immobilized gene vector r...

  19. [Construction of recombinant adenoviral vector expressing genes of the conservative influenza proteins M2 and nucleoprotein].

    Esmagambetov, I B; Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Lysenko, A A; Garas, M N; Shmarov, M M; Logunov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a highly contagious and one of the most massive infection diseases. General epidemiological significance has a strain, which belongs to subtype A. A high degree of genetic variety leads to the permanent changes in the antigenic structure of the influenza virus. Therefore, the current influenza vaccines require periodic updating of the composition of strains. Presently, it is important to develop a universal vaccine that can protect against different strains of influenza A virus at the same time and is based on the conserved antigens of the influenza virus. The recombinant adenovirus vectors expressing genes of conserved viral antigenes may be a promising candidate vaccine against influenza A. Using the method of the homologous recombination, we developed in this study recombinant adenovirus of fifth serotype that expresses genes of the ion channel M2 and nucleoprotein NP of the influenza virus A. Genes of the consensus protein M2 and NP of human influenza A virus were included into the structure of the viral genome. The expression of the antigens M2 and NP using recombinant adenovirus vector was detected by a Western blot assay. The immunogenicity of the developed recombinant adenovirus vector was demonstrated by the intranasal immunization of laboratory mice. PMID:25080815

  20. Generation and characterization of novel adenoviral vectors for hybrid nuclease-mediated gene targeting

    Henriques, Sara Filipa Dias

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado [versão pública]. Biologia (Biologia Humana e Ambiente). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 Adenovirus-based vectors are among the most efficient and disseminated gene transfer vehicles currently in use in a broad range of basic and applied research applications including the testing of gene therapy. As a gene therapy modality, gene targeting relies on the site-specific genome modification based on “integrases” or on the error-free homologous recombination...

  1. Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) material

    Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko, E-mail: t.uemura@aist.go.jp [Nanosystem Research Institute (NRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba Central-4, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed {beta}-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous {beta}-TCP as a carrier.

  2. Adenoviral Producer Cells

    Imre Kovesdi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (Ad vectors, in particular those of the serotype 5, are highly attractive for a wide range of gene therapy, vaccine and virotherapy applications (as discussed in further detail in this issue. Wild type Ad5 virus can replicate in numerous tissue types but to use Ad vectors for therapeutic purposes the viral genome requires modification. In particular, if the viral genome is modified in such a way that the viral life cycle is interfered with, a specific producer cell line is required to provide trans-complementation to overcome the modification and allow viral production. This can occur in two ways; use of a producer cell line that contains specific adenoviral sequences incorporated into the cell genome to trans-complement, or use of a producer cell line that naturally complements for the modified Ad vector genome. This review concentrates on producer cell lines that complement non-replicating adenoviral vectors, starting with the historical HEK293 cell line developed in 1977 for first generation Ad vectors. In addition the problem of replication-competent adenovirus (RCA contamination in viral preparations from HEK293 cells is addressed leading to the development of alternate cell lines. Furthermore novel cell lines for more complex Ad vectors and alternate serotype Ad vectors are discussed.

  3. Heterologous prime-boost regimens with a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector and adjuvanted F4 protein elicit polyfunctional HIV-1-specific T-Cell responses in macaques.

    Lorin, Clarisse; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick; Baudart, Sébastien; Ska, Michaël; Bayat, Babak; Brauers, Geoffroy; Clarinval, Géraldine; Donner, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Martine; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Mettens, Pascal; Cohen, Joe; Voss, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are important for HIV-1 replication control. F4/AS01 consists of F4 recombinant fusion protein (containing clade B Gag/p24, Pol/RT, Nef and Gag/p17) formulated in AS01 Adjuvant System, and was shown to induce F4-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses in humans. While replication-incompetent recombinant HIV-1/SIV antigen-expressing human adenoviral vectors can elicit high-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, their use is hampered by widespread pre-existing immunity to human serotypes. Non-human adenovirus serotypes associated with lower prevalence may offer an alternative strategy. We evaluated the immunogenicity of AdC7-GRN ('A'), a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 vector expressing clade B Gag, RT and Nef, and F4/AS01 ('P'), when delivered intramuscularly in homologous (PP or AA) and heterologous (AAPP or PPAA) prime-boost regimens, in macaques and mice. Vaccine-induced HIV-1-antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood (macaques), liver, spleen, and intestinal and genital mucosa (mice) were characterized by intracellular cytokine staining. Vaccine-specific IgG antibodies (macaques) were detected using ELISA. In macaques, only the heterologous prime-boost regimens induced polyfunctional, persistent and balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific to each HIV-1 vaccine antigen. AdC7-GRN priming increased the polyfunctionality of F4/AS01-induced CD4+ T cells. Approximately 50% of AdC7-GRN-induced memory CD8+ T cells exhibited an effector-memory phenotype. HIV-1-specific antibodies were detected with each regimen. In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in the mucosal and systemic anatomical compartments assessed. When administered in heterologous prime-boost regimens, AdC7-GRN and F4/AS01 candidate vaccines acted complementarily in inducing potent and persistent peripheral blood HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and antibodies in macaques. Besides

  4. A Human Vaccine Strategy Based On Chimpanzee Adenoviral and MVA Vectors That Primes, Boosts and Sustains Functional HCV Specific T-Cell Memory*

    Swadling, Leo; Capone, Stefania; Antrobus, Richard D.; Brown, Anthony; Richardson, Rachel; Newell, Evan W.; Halliday, John; Kelly, Christabel; Bowen, Dan; Fergusson, Joannah; Kurioka, Ayako; Ammendola, Virginia; Sorbo, Mariarosaria Del; Grazioli, Fabiana; Esposito, Maria Luisa; Siani, Loredana; Traboni, Cinzia; Hill, Adrian; Colloca, Stefano; Davis, Mark; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Folgori, Antonella; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    A protective vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains an unmet clinical need. HCV infects millions of people worldwide and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Animal challenge experiments, immunogenetics studies and assessment of host immunity during acute infection highlight the critical role that effective T-cell immunity plays in viral control. In this first-in-man study we have induced antiviral immunity with functional characteristics analogous to those associated with viral control in natural infection, and improved upon a vaccine based on adenoviral vectors alone. We assessed a heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy based on a replicative defective simian adenoviral vector (ChAd3) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the NS3, NS4, NS5A and NS5B proteins of HCV genotype-1b. Analysis employed single cell mass cytometry (CyTOF), and HLA class-I peptide tetramer technology in healthy human volunteers. We show that HCV specific T-cells induced by ChAd3 are optimally boosted with MVA, and generate very high levels of both CD8+ and CD4+ HCV specific T-cells targeting multiple HCV antigens. Sustained memory and effector T-cell populations are generated and T-cell memory evolved over time with improvement of quality (proliferation and polyfunctionality) following heterologous MVA boost. We have developed a HCV vaccine strategy, with durable, broad, sustained and balanced T-cell responses, characteristic of those associated with viral control, paving the way for the first efficacy studies of a prophylactic HCV vaccine. PMID:25378645

  5. Construction of a bicistronic recombinant adenoviral vector for human interleukin-10 and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    LIN Jian-qing; LIN Cai-zhu; LIN Xian-zhong; ZENG Kai; GAO You-guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Human interleukin-10 (hlL-10) is a cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor,which is involved in various immune responses.The purpose of this study was to construct an adenoviral vector carrying the hlL-10 gene for expression of biologically active hlL-10 in rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs).Methods A pSNAV2.0-hlL10 plasmid was used as a template to obtain a hlL-10 cDNA fragment that was subcloned by restriction enzyme digestion and ligation into a pDC316-IRES-EGFP-lacZ alpha plasmid carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene.The pDC316-hlL-10-IRES-EGFP plasmid was linearized by Pmel digestion and used to transfect HEK293 packaging cells using the adenovirus packaging system AdMax.Virus particles were amplified by repeatedly infecting HEK293 cells with the seed virus and then purified by ion exchange.After the number of virus particles and titer was determined,rMSCs were infected with the adenoviral vector.The infection rate was determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry,and hlL-10 protein expression in rMSCs was measured by Western blotting.Results The virus particle concentration,OD260/280 value and virus titer of the amplified and purified recombinant adenovirus were 3.2×1011 VP/ml,approximately 2.0,and 1.1×1010 TCID50/ml,respectively.Bright green fluorescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry in the recombinant adenovirus-infected rMSCs.GFP expression was considered the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and was time-dependent.The infection rate was 92.9% at 100 MOI.Conclusions A bicistrenic recombinant adenoviral vector for hlL-10 and EGFP gene expression were successfully constructed.The infection rate of rMSCs by the adenovirus was high (92.9% at 100 MOI) and the target gene hlL-10 was highly expressed in cells.The present study provides an experimental basis for further research of immunosuppressive therapy using hlL-10.The expression level of hlL-10 protein as detected by

  6. New pre-pandemic influenza vaccines: an egg- and adjuvant-independent human adenoviral vector strategy induces long-lasting protective immune responses in mice.

    Hoelscher, M A; Jayashankar, L; Garg, S; Veguilla, V; Lu, X; Singh, N; Katz, J M; Mittal, S K; Sambhara, S

    2007-12-01

    Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses that are currently circulating in southeast Asia may acquire the potential to cause the next influenza pandemic. A number of alternate approaches are being pursued to generate cross-protective, dose-sparing, safe, and effective vaccines, as traditional vaccine approaches, i.e., embryonated egg-grown, are not immunogenic. We developed a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector-based, adjuvant- and egg-independent pandemic influenza vaccine strategy as a potential alternative to conventional egg-derived vaccines. In this paper, we address suboptimal dose and longevity of vaccine-induced protective immunity and demonstrate that a vaccine dose as little as 1 x 10(6) plaque-forming unit (PFU) is sufficient to induce protective immune responses against a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. Furthermore, the vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and protective immunity persisted at least for a year. PMID:17957181

  7. Priming of CD8 T Cells by Adenoviral Vectors Is Critically Dependent on B7 and Dendritic Cells but Only Partially Dependent on CD28 Ligation on CD8 T Cells

    Nielsen, Karen N; Steffensen, Maria A; Christensen, Jan P;

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have long been forerunners in the development of effective CD8 T cell-based vaccines; therefore, it is imperative that we understand the factors controlling the induction of robust and long-lasting transgene-specific immune responses by these vectors. In this study, we investig......Adenoviral vectors have long been forerunners in the development of effective CD8 T cell-based vaccines; therefore, it is imperative that we understand the factors controlling the induction of robust and long-lasting transgene-specific immune responses by these vectors. In this study, we...... investigated the organ sites, molecules, and cell subsets that play a critical role in the priming of transgene-specific CD8 T cells after vaccination with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector. Using a human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector and genetically engineered mice, we found that CD8(+) and/or CD......103(+) dendritic cells in the draining lymph node played a critical role in the priming of Ad5-induced CD8 T cell responses. Moreover, we found that CD80/86, but not CD28, was essential for efficient generation of both primary effectors and memory CD8 T cells. Interestingly, the lack of CD28...

  8. Suppression of human colon tumor growth by adenoviral vector-mediated NK4 expression in an athymic mouse model

    Jian-Zheng Jie; Jian-Wei Wang; Jian-Guo Qu; Tao Hung

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the suppressive effects of adenoviral vector-mediated expression of NK4, an antagonist of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), on human colon cancer in an athymic mouse model to explore the possibility of applying NK4 to cancer gene therapy.METHODS: A human colon tumor model was developed by subcutaneous implantation of tumor tissue formed by LS174T cells grown in athymic mice. Fifteen tumorbearing mice were randomized into three groups (n = 5in each group) at d 3 after tumor implantation and mice were injected intratumorally with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or with recombinant adenovirus expressing β-galactosidase (Ad-LacZ) or NK4 (rvAdCMV/NK4) at a 6-d interval for total 5 injections in each mouse. Tumor sizes were measured during treatment to draw a tumor growth curve. At d 26 after the first treatment, all animals were sacrificed and the tumors were removed to immunohistochemically examine proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), microvessel density (represented by CD31), and apoptotic cells. In a separate experiment,15 additional athymic mice were employed to develop a tumor metastasis model by intraperitoneal injection(ip) of LS174T cells. These mice were randomized into 3 groups (n = 5 in each group) at d 1 after injection and were treated by ip injection of PBS, or Ad-LacZ, or rvAdCMV/NK4 at a 6-d interval for total two injections in each mouse. All animals were sacrificed at d 14 and the numbers and weights of disseminated tumors within the abdominal cavity were measured.RESULTS: Growth of human colon tumors were significantly suppressed in the athymic mice treated with rvAdCMV/NK4 (2537.4±892.3 mm3) compared to those treated by either PBS (5175.2±1228.6 mm3)or Ad-LacZ (5578.8±1955.7 mm3) (P<0.05). The tumor growth inhibition rate was as high as 51%.Immunohistochemical staining revealed a similar PCNA labeling index (75.1%±11.2% in PBS group vs 72.8%±7.6% in Ad-LacZ group vs 69.3%±9.4% in rvAdCMV/NK4 group) in all groups, but

  9. Adenovirus Specific Pre-Immunity Induced by Natural Route of Infection Does Not Impair Transduction by Adenoviral Vaccine Vectors in Mice.

    de Andrade Pereira, Bruna; Maduro Bouillet, Leoneide E; Dorigo, Natalia A; Fraefel, Cornel; Bruna-Romero, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAd5V) vectors are gold standards of T-cell immunogenicity as they efficiently induce also humoral responses to exogenous antigens, in particular when used in prime-boost protocols. Some investigators have shown that pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses interferes with transduction by adenoviral vectors, but the actual extent of this interference is not known since it has been mostly studied in mice using unnatural routes of infection and virus doses. Here we studied the effects of HAd5V-specific immune responses induced by intranasal infection on the transduction efficiency of recombinant adenovirus vectors. Of interest, when HAd5V immunity was induced in mice by the natural respiratory route, the pre-existing immunity against HAd5V did not significantly interfere with the B and T-cell immune responses against the transgene products induced after a prime/boost inoculation protocol with a recombinant HAd5V-vector, as measured by ELISA and in vivo cytotoxic T-cell assays, respectively. We also correlated the levels of HAd5V-specific neutralizing antibodies (Ad5NAbs) induced in mice with the levels of Ad5NAb titers found in humans. The data indicate that approximately 60% of the human serum samples tested displayed Ad5NAb levels that could be overcome with a prime-boost vaccination protocol. These results suggest that recombinant HAd5V vectors are potentially useful for prime-boost vaccination strategies, at least when pre-existing immunity against HAd5V is at low or medium levels. PMID:26679149

  10. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract worldwide. There is currently no clinically approved vaccine against RSV infection. Recently, it has been shown that a replication-deficient first generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which encodes modified RSV attachment glycoprotein (G), elicits long-term protective immunity against RSV infection in mice. The major problem in developing such a vaccine is that G protein lacks MHC-I-restricted epitopes. However, RSV fusion glycoprotein (F) is a major cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in humans and mice, therefore, an FGAd-encoding F (FGAd-F) was constructed and evaluated for its potential as an RSV vaccine in a murine model. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with FGAd-F generated serum IgG, bronchoalveolar lavage secretory IgA, and RSV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in BALB/c mice, with characteristic balanced or mixed Th1/Th2 CD4+ T-cell responses. Serum IgG was significantly elevated after boosting with i.n. FGAd-F. Upon challenge, i.n. immunization with FGAd-F displayed an effective protective role against RSV infection. These results demonstrate FGAd-F is able to induce effective protective immunity and is a promising vaccine regimen against RSV infection.

  11. Intranasal immunization with a replication-deficient adenoviral vector expressing the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus elicits protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    Fu, Yuanhui [Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052 (China); College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China); He, Jinsheng, E-mail: jshhe@bjtu.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China); Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Zheng, Xianxian [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Wu, Qiang [Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Zhang, Mei; Wang, Xiaobo [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Wang, Yan [Department of Pathology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Xie, Can; Tang, Qian; Wei, Wei [Department of Immunology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032 (China); Wang, Min; Song, Jingdong; Qu, Jianguo [Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052 (China); Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xin [College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China); Hong, Tao [Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100052 (China); College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, 3 Shangyuan Residence, Haidian District, Beijing, 100044 (China)

    2009-04-17

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a serious pediatric pathogen of the lower respiratory tract worldwide. There is currently no clinically approved vaccine against RSV infection. Recently, it has been shown that a replication-deficient first generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which encodes modified RSV attachment glycoprotein (G), elicits long-term protective immunity against RSV infection in mice. The major problem in developing such a vaccine is that G protein lacks MHC-I-restricted epitopes. However, RSV fusion glycoprotein (F) is a major cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope in humans and mice, therefore, an FGAd-encoding F (FGAd-F) was constructed and evaluated for its potential as an RSV vaccine in a murine model. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with FGAd-F generated serum IgG, bronchoalveolar lavage secretory IgA, and RSV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in BALB/c mice, with characteristic balanced or mixed Th1/Th2 CD4+ T-cell responses. Serum IgG was significantly elevated after boosting with i.n. FGAd-F. Upon challenge, i.n. immunization with FGAd-F displayed an effective protective role against RSV infection. These results demonstrate FGAd-F is able to induce effective protective immunity and is a promising vaccine regimen against RSV infection.

  12. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    Burmistrova, Daria A; Tillib, Sergey V; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N; Zubkova, Olga V; Ivanova, Tatiana I; Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Shmarov, Maxim M; Logunov, Denis Y; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  13. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    Daria A Burmistrova

    Full Text Available Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh, for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection.

  14. Capsomere specific bioresponsive coating of adenoviral vectors with pHPMA-copolymers can mediate charge dependent hepatocyte transduction in vivo

    Prill, J.-M.; Pasquarelli, N.; Šubr, Vladimír; Engler, T.; Ulbrich, Karel; Kochanek, S.; Kreppel, F.

    Prague: Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR, 2012. s. 67. ISBN 978-80-85009-72-9. [Prague Meeting on Macromolecules /76./ - Polymers in Medicine. 01.07.2012-05.07.2012, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Adenovirus vectors * HPMA Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  15. Immunization with Hexon modified adenoviral vectors integrated with gp83 epitope provides protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Anitra L Farrow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Chagas disease is an endemic infection that affects over 8 million people throughout Latin America and now has become a global challenge. The current pharmacological treatment of patients is unsuccessful in most cases, highly toxic, and no vaccines are available. The results of inadequate treatment could lead to heart failure resulting in death. Therefore, a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses and protection against Chagas disease is necessary.The "antigen capsid-incorporation" strategy is based upon the display of the T. cruzi epitope as an integral component of the adenovirus' capsid rather than an encoded transgene. This strategy is predicted to induce a robust humoral immune response to the presented antigen, similar to the response provoked by native Ad capsid proteins. The antigen chosen was T. cruzi gp83, a ligand that is used by T. cruzi to attach to host cells to initiate infection. The gp83 epitope, recognized by the neutralizing MAb 4A4, along with His6 were incorporated into the Ad serotype 5 (Ad5 vector to generate the vector Ad5-HVR1-gp83-18 (Ad5-gp83. This vector was evaluated by molecular and immunological analyses. Vectors were injected to elicit immune responses against gp83 in mouse models. Our findings indicate that mice immunized with the vector Ad5-gp83 and challenged with a lethal dose of T. cruzi trypomastigotes confer strong immunoprotection with significant reduction in parasitemia levels, increased survival rate and induction of neutralizing antibodies.This data demonstrates that immunization with adenovirus containing capsid-incorporated T. cruzi antigen elicits a significant anti-gp83-specific response in two different mouse models, and protection against T. cruzi infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies mediated by cell-mediated immune responses, as evidenced by the production of several Ig isotypes

  16. Expression of Mouse SCP2 Gene Adenoviral Vector Carrying Albumin Promoter in Hepa1-6 Cells%固醇携带蛋白2腺病毒载体的构建与鉴定

    贾岩峰; 崔云峰; 崔乃强; 彭雁飞; 宁召臣; 张琚

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To construct the replication defective adenoviral vector of SCP2 gene carrying murine albumin promoter, and study the relations between SCP2 gene and the formation of cholesterol calculus. Methods The cDNA of SCP2 gene was cloned by using RT-PCR technique. The albumin promoter was linked to SCP2 gene's upstream, and the EGFP gene lied in its downstream. The plasmid pDC312-ALB-SCP2-IRES2 -EGFP was constructed by the gene recombination technique. The Admax Adenoviral Vector System was used to generate the replication defective adenoviral vectors, which were purified by CsCl method. The processes of TCID50 were applied to detect the titers of the adenoviral vectors. The RNA and protein were respectively extracted from the infected Hepal-6 cells by the adenoviral vector. The real-time quantitative PCR was employed to detect the mRNA expression levels, and the Western blotting analysis was used to measure the SCP2 protein levels. Result We constructed successfully the replication defective adenoviral vector of SCP2 gene carrying murine albumin promoter. When the mRNA levels of SCP2 gene were overexpressed, CYP7al mRNA levels were down-regulated (t=3.97,p<0.05); and the mRNA levels of HMGCR were up-regulated (t=3.23,p<0.05). Conclusions The SCP2 gene overexpression may affect cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, which could promote the formation of cholesterol calculus.%目的:构建携带白蛋白启动子SCP2 基因腺病毒载体,研究其与胆固醇结石形成的关系.方法:(1)利用RT-PCR技术克隆小鼠SCP2基因,在其上游接入白蛋白(ALB)启动子,下游连接绿色荧光报告基因(EGFP),构建穿梭质粒pDC312-ALB-SCP2-IRES2-EGFP;(2)采用Ad Max TM Adenoviru5 Vector系统包装病毒,CsCl法纯化病毒、TCID50法测定滴度;(3)重组腺病毒感染小鼠hepa-1-6细胞,实时定量PCR检测mRNA的表达;Western印迹检测SCP2蛋白表达情况;结果:成功构建携带白蛋白启动子SCP2基因腺病毒载体;当SCP2

  17. Synergism/complementarity of recombinant adenoviral vectors and other vaccination platforms during induction of protective immunity against malaria

    Ana Paula Morais Martins Almeida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of immunogenicity of most malaria antigens and the complex immune responses required for achieving protective immunity against this infectious disease have traditionally hampered the development of an efficient human malaria vaccine. The current boom in development of recombinant viral vectors and their use in prime-boost protocols that result in enhanced immune outcomes have increased the number of malaria vaccine candidates that access pre-clinical and clinical trials. In the frontline, adenoviruses and poxviruses seem to be giving the best immunization results in experimental animals and their mutual combination, or their combination with recombinant proteins (formulated in adjuvants and given in sequence or being given as protein/virus admixtures, has been shown to reach unprecedented levels of anti-malaria immunity that predictably will be somehow reproduced in the human setting. However, all this optimism was previously seen in the malaria vaccine development field without many real applicable results to date. We describe here the current state-of-the-art in the field of recombinant adenovirus research for malaria vaccine development, in particular referring to their use in combination with other immunogens in heterologous prime-boost protocols, while trying to simultaneously show our contributions and point of view on this subject.

  18. Induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses in a mouse model following gene fusion of HSP70C and Hantaan virus Gn and S0.7 in an adenoviral vector.

    Linfeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs display adjuvant functions when given as fusion proteins to enhance vaccination efficiency. To evaluate enhanced potency of Hantaan virus (HTNV glycoprotein (GP and nucleocapsid protein (NP immunogenicity by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, a recombinant adenovirus rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C expression vector was developed by genetically linking the HSP70 C-terminal gene (HSP70 359-610 aa, HSP70C to the Gn and 0.7 kb fragment of the NP (aa1-274-S0.7. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with these recombinant adenoviral vectors. A series of immunological assays determined the immunogenicity of the recombinant adenoviral vectors. The results showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C induced a stronger humoral and cellular immune response than other recombinant adenoviruses (rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG and rAd-GnS0.7 and the HFRS vaccine control. Animal protection experiments showed that rAd-GnS0.7-pCAG-HSP70C was effective at protecting C57BL/6 mice from HTNV infection. The results of the immunological experiments showed that HSP70C lead to enhanced vaccine potency, and suggested significant potential in the development of genetically engineered vaccines against HTNV.

  19. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase for somatic integration.

    Wenli Zhang

    Full Text Available We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We found that in all mice which received the hyperactive SB transposase, transgene expression levels were stabilized in a dose-dependent manner and that the highest vector dose was accompanied by fatalities in mice. To analyze potential genotoxic side-effects due to somatic integration into host chromosomes, we performed a genome-wide integration site analysis using linker-mediated PCR (LM-PCR and linear amplification-mediated PCR (LAM-PCR. Analysis of genomic DNA samples obtained from HSB5 treated female and male mice revealed a total of 1327 unique transposition events. Overall the chromosomal distribution pattern was close-to-random and we observed a random integration profile with respect to integration into gene and non-gene areas. Notably, when using the LM-PCR protocol, 27 extra-chromosomal integration events were identified, most likely caused by transposon excision and subsequent transposition into the delivered adenoviral vector genome. In total, this study provides a careful evaluation of the safety profile of adenovirus/Sleeping Beauty transposase hybrid-vectors. The obtained information will be useful when designing future preclinical studies utilizing hybrid-vectors in small and large animal models.

  20. Transduction of brain dopamine neurons by adenoviral vectors is modulated by CAR expression: rationale for tropism modified vectors in PD gene therapy.

    Travis B Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene-based therapy is a new paradigm for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD and offers considerable promise for precise targeting and flexibility to impact multiple pathobiological processes for which small molecule agents are not available. Some success has been achieved utilizing adeno-associated virus for this approach, but it is likely that the characteristics of this vector system will ultimately create barriers to progress in clinical therapy. Adenovirus (Ad vector overcomes limitations in payload size and targeting. The cellular tropism of Ad serotype 5 (Ad5-based vectors is regulated by the Ad attachment protein binding to its primary cellular receptor, the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR. Many clinically relevant tissues are refractory to Ad5 infection due to negligible CAR levels but can be targeted by tropism-modified, CAR-independent forms of Ad. Our objective was to evaluate the role of CAR protein in transduction of dopamine (DA neurons in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ad5 was delivered to the substantia nigra (SN in wild type (wt and CAR transgenic animals. Cellular tropism was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC in the SN and striatal terminals. CAR expression was assessed by western blot and IHC. We found in wt animals, Ad5 results in robust transgene expression in astrocytes and other non-neuronal cells but poor infection of DA neurons. In contrast, in transgenic animals, Ad5 infects SNc neurons resulting in expression of transduced protein in their striatal terminals. Western blot showed low CAR expression in the ventral midbrain of wt animals compared to transgenic animals. Interestingly, hCAR protein localizes with markers of post-synaptic structures, suggesting synapses are the point of entry into dopaminergic neurons in transgenic animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that CAR deficiency limits infection of wild type DA neurons by Ad5 and provide a rationale for the

  1. Vaccination with an adenoviral vector encoding the tumor antigen directly linked to invariant chain induces potent CD4(+) T-cell-independent CD8(+) T-cell-mediated tumor control

    Sorensen, Maria R; Holst, Peter J; Pircher, Hanspeter;

    2009-01-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for cancer control. In the context of antiviral vaccines, adenoviral vectors have emerged as a favorable means for immunization. Therefore, we chose a strategy combining use of these vectors with another successful approach, namely linkage of...... the vaccine antigen to invariant chain (Ii). To evaluate this strategy we used a mouse model, in which an immunodominant epitope (GP33) of the LCMV glycoprotein (GP) represents the tumor-associated neoantigen. Prophylactic vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-deficient human adenovirus 5...... than vaccination with adenovirus expressing GP alone (Ad-GP), or GP and Ii unlinked (Ad-GP+Ii). Ad-Ii-GP- induced tumor control depended on an improved generation of the tumor-associated neoantigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell response and was independent of CD4(+) T cells. IFN-gamma was shown to be a key...

  2. Construction of recombinant adenoviral vector co-expressing interleukin-7 and enhanced green fluorescent protein%IL-7和EGFP双基因共表达重组腺病毒载体的构建

    宁昌; 余长林; 李建军; 胡锴勋

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To construct the adenoviral vector co - expressing interleukin - 7( IL -7 ) and enhanced green fluorescent protein( EGFP),to lay a experimental foundation for further study on the infection into stem cell. Methods: The target gene IL -7 was cloned into the shuttle plasmid expressed the report gene EGFP. Then the re-combinant shuttle plasmid was transformed into Dh5a bacteria to recombine with backbone vector pAdxsi. Next,the plasmid pAd - EGFP - mIL7 was amplified in H293 cells and purifired, then the viral titer was determined. Results: The recombinanted shuttle plasmid pShuttle - EGFP - mIL7 digested with restriction endonucleases was confirmed by two products which length were respectively about 0. 5kb and 5. 1kb; the recombinanted plasmid pAdxsi - EGFP -mIL7 digested with restriction endonucleases was confirmed by seven products which length were respectively about 14K,11.8K,3. Lkb,2.66kb,2.47K,1.45K and 0.6K; recombinant adenoviral amplifired with titer of 2×l010pfu/ ml. Conclusion: The recombinant adenoviral vector pAdxsi - EGFP - mIL7 was successfully constructed.%目的:构建白细胞介素7(IL-7)和增强型绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)共表达的重组腺病毒载体,为进一步感染干细胞奠定基础.方法:将目的基因IL-7克隆到含有报告基因EGFP的穿梭质粒中,然后再将构建的重组穿梭质粒转移至pAdxsi载体中,构建重组腺病毒载体质粒,继而在H293细胞中扩增,纯化后测定病毒滴度.结果:pShuttle-EGFP-mIL7重组穿梭质粒经酶切鉴定得到0.5kb和5.1kb 2条带;pAdxsi-EGFP-mIL7重组腺病毒载体质粒经酶切鉴定得到14K、11.8K、3.1kb、2.66kb、2.47K、1.45K、0.6K 7条带;TCID50法测定纯化后的病毒滴度为2×1010pfu/ml.结论:pAdxsi-EGFP-mIL7重组腺病毒载体构建成功.

  3. Cytotoxic effect of replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying L-plastin promoter regulated E1A and cytosine deaminase genes in cancers of the breast, ovary and colon.

    Akbulut, Hakan; Zhang, Lixin; Tang, Yucheng; Deisseroth, Albert

    2003-05-01

    Prodrug activating transcription unit gene therapy is one of several promising approaches to cancer gene therapy. Combining that approach with conditionally replication-competent viral vectors that are truly tumor specific has been an important objective of recent work. In this study, we report the construction of a new conditionally replication-competent bicistronic adenoviral vector in which the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the E1a gene are driven by the L-plastin tumor-specific promoter (AdLpCDIRESE1a). A similar vector driven by the CMV promoter has also been constructed (AdCMVCDIRESE1a) as a control. We have carried out in vitro cytotoxicity in carcinomas of the breast, ovary and colon, and in vivo efficacy studies with these vectors in an animal model of colon cancer. While the addition of the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector to established cancer cell lines showed significant cytotoxicity in tumor cells derived from carcinomas of the breast (MCF-7), colon (HTB-38) and ovary (Ovcar 5), no significant toxicity was seen in explant cultures of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) exposed to this vector. The addition of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) significantly increased the cytotoxicity in an additive fashion of both the AdLpCDIRESE1a and AdCMVCDIRESE1a vectors as well as that of the AdLpCD replication incompetent vector to established tumor cell lines. However, no significant cytotoxicity was observed with the addition of 5FC to explant cultures of normal human mammary epithelial cells that had been exposed to the L-plastin-driven vectors. Studies with mixtures of infected and uninfected tumor cell lines showed that the established cancer cell lines infected with the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector generated significant toxicity to surrounding uninfected cells (the "bystander effect") even at a ratio of 0.25 of infected cells to infected + uninfected cells in the presence of 5FC. The injection of the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector into subcutaneous deposits of human tumor nodules in the

  4. Bovine adenoviral vector-based H5N1 influenza vaccine overcomes exceptionally high levels of pre-existing immunity against human adenovirus.

    Singh, Neetu; Pandey, Aseem; Jayashankar, Lakshmi; Mittal, Suresh K

    2008-05-01

    Because of the high prevalence of adenovirus (Ad) infections in humans, it is believed that pre-existing Ad-neutralizing antibodies (vector immunity) may negatively impact the immune response to vaccine antigens when delivered by human Ad (HAd) vectors. In order to evaluate whether bovine Ad subtype 3 (BAd3), a non-HAd vector, can effectively elude high levels of pre-existing vector immunity, naïve and HAd serotype 5 (HAd)-primed mice were immunized with BAd-H5HA [BAd3 vector expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from H5N1 influenza virus]. Even in the presence of very high levels of HAd-specific neutralizing antibody, no significant reductions in HA-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were observed in HAd-primed mice immunized with BAd-H5HA. In naïve mice immunized with HAd-H5HA (HAd5 vector expressing H5N1 HA) and boosted with BAd-H5HA, the humoral responses elicited were significantly higher (P mice with BAd-H5HA bestowed full protection from morbidity and mortality following a potentially lethal challenge with A/Hong Kong/483/97. These results demonstrate the importance of BAd vectors as an alternate or supplement to HAd vectors for influenza pandemic preparedness. PMID:18301400

  5. Ephrin A2 receptor targeting does not increase adenoviral pancreatic cancer transduction in vivo

    Michael A van Geer; Conny T Bakker; Naoya Koizumi; Hiroyuki Mizuguchi; John G Wesseling; Ronald PJ Oude Elferink; Piter J Bosma

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To generate an adenoviral vector specifically targeting the EphA2 receptor (EphA2R) highly expressed on pancreatic cancer cells in vivo.METHODS:YSA,a small peptide ligand that binds the EphA2R with high affinity,was inserted into the HI loop of the adenovirus serotype 5 fiber knob.To further increase the specificity of this vector,binding sites for native adenoviral receptors,the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrin,were ablated from the viral capsid.The ablated retargeted adenoviral vector was produced on 293T cells.Specific targeting of this novel adenoviral vector to pancreatic cancer was investigated on established human pancreatic cancer cell lines.Upon demonstrating specific in vitro targeting,in vivo targeting to subcutaneous growing human pancreatic cancer was tested by intravenous and intraperitoneal administration of the ablated adenoviral vector.RESULTS:Ablation of native cellular binding sites reduced adenoviral transduction at least 100-fold.Insertion of the YSA peptide in the HI loop restored adenoviral transduction of EphA2R-expressing cells but not of cells lacking this receptor.YSA-mediated transduction was inhibited by addition of synthetic YSA peptide.The transduction specificity of the ablated retargeted vector towards human pancreatic cancer cells was enhanced almost 10-fold in vitro.In a subsequent in vivo study in a nude (nu/nu) mouse model however,no increased adenoviral targeting to subcutaneously growing human pancreas cancer nodules was seen upon injection into the tail vein,nor upon injection into the peritoneum.CONCLUSION:Targeting the EphA2 receptor increases specificity of adenoviral transduction of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro but fails to enhance pancreatic cancer transduction in vivo.

  6. A fiber-modified adenoviral vector interacts with immunoevasion molecules of the B7 family at the surface of murine leukemia cells derived from dormant tumors

    Rogée Sophie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor cells can escape the immune system by overexpressing molecules of the B7 family, e.g. B7-H1 (PD-L1 or CD86, which suppresses the anti-tumor T-cell responses through binding to the PD-1 receptor, and similarly for B7.1 (CD80, through binding to CTLA-4. Moreover, direct interactions between B7-H1 and B7.1 molecules are also likely to participate in the immunoevasion mechanism. In this study, we used a mouse model of tumor dormancy, DA1-3b leukemia cells. We previously showed that a minor population of DA1-3b cells persists in equilibrium with the immune system for long periods of time, and that the levels of surface expression of B7-H1 and B7.1 molecules correlates with the dormancy time. We found that leukemia cells DA1-3b/d365 cells, which derived from long-term dormant tumors and overexpressed B7-H1 and B7.1 molecules, were highly permissive to Ad5FB4, a human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 vector pseudotyped with chimeric human-bovine fibers. Both B7-H1 and B7.1 were required for Ad5FB4-cell binding and entry, since (i siRNA silencing of one or the other B7 gene transcript resulted in a net decrease in the cell binding and Ad5FB4-mediated transduction of DA1-3b/d365; and (ii plasmid-directed expression of B7.1 and B7-H1 proteins conferred to Ad5FB4-refractory human cells a full permissiveness to this vector. Binding data and flow cytometry analysis suggested that B7.1 and B7-H1 molecules played different roles in Ad5FB4-mediated transduction of DA1-3b/d365, with B7.1 involved in cell attachment of Ad5FB4, and B7-H1 in Ad5FB4 internalization. BRET analysis showed that B7.1 and B7-H1 formed heterodimeric complexes at the cell surface, and that Ad5FB4 penton, the viral capsomere carrying the fiber projection, could negatively interfere with the formation of B7.1/B7-H1 heterodimers, or modify their conformation. As interactors of B7-H1/B7.1 molecules, Ad5FB4 particles and/or their penton capsomeres represent potential therapeutic agents

  7. Clinical utility of recombinant adenoviral human p53 gene therapy: current perspectives

    Chen GX

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Guang-xia Chen,1,* Shu Zhang,2–4,* Xiao-hua He,1 Shi-yu Liu,1 Chao Ma,2–4 Xiao-Ping Zou2–4 1Department of Gastroenterology, First People’s Hospital of Xuzhou, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Drum Tower Hospital, 3Medical School of Nanjing University, 4Jiangsu Clinical Medical Center of Digestive Disease, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors have contributed equally to the paperAbstract: Gene therapy has promised to be a highly effective antitumor treatment by introducing a tumor suppressor gene or the abrogation of an oncogene. Among the potential therapeutic transgenes, the tumor suppressor gene p53 serves as an attractive target. Restoration of wild-type p53 function in tumors can be achieved by introduction of an intact complementary deoxyribonucleic acid copy of the p53 gene using a suitable viral vector, in most cases an adenoviral vector (Adp53. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that Adp53 triggers a dramatic tumor regression response in various cancers. These viruses are engineered to lack certain early proteins and are thus replication defective, including Gendicine, SCH-58500, and Advexin. Several types of tumor-specific p53-expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus vectors (known as replication-competent CRAdp53 vectors have been developed, such as ONYX 015, AdDelta24-p53, SG600-p53, OBP-702, and H101. Various clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the safety and efficiency of these adenoviral vectors. In this review we will talk about the biological mechanisms, clinical utility, and therapeutic potentials of the replication-deficient Adp53-based and replication-competent CRAdp53-based gene therapy.Keywords: adenovirus, Adp53, CRAdp53

  8. Adenoviral gene therapy in gastric cancer: A review

    Nima Khalighinejad; Hesammodin Hariri; Omid Behnamfar; Arash Yousefi; Amir Momeni

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With current therapeutic approaches the prognosis of gastric cancer is very poor, as gastric cancer accounts for the second most common cause of death in cancer related deaths. Gastric cancer like almost all other cancers has a molecular genetic basis which relies on disruption in normal cellular regulatory mechanisms regarding cell growth, apoptosis and cell division. Thus novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy promise to become the alternative choice of treatment in gastric cancer. In gene therapy, suicide genes, tumor suppressor genes and anti-angiogenesis genes among many others are introduced to cancer cells via vectors.Some of the vectors widely used in gene therapy are Adenoviral vectors. This review provides an update of the new developments in adenoviral cancer gene therapy including strategies for inducing apoptosis, inhibiting metastasis and targeting the cancer cells.

  9. Comparison of Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter (hNIS) Gene Expressions between Lentiviral and Adenoviral Vectors in Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirusmediated delivery systems has not been reported. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Lentiviral-mediated hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and transduction efficiency of Rad-hNIS into rMSC evaluated by Rad-GFP was 19.1±4.7%, 54.0±6.4%, 85.7±8.7%, and 98.4±1.3% at MOI 1, 5, 20, and 100, respectively. The hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC were assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and I-125 uptake. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses revealed that hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC were greater than those in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 20 but lower than at MOI 50. However in vitro I-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC (29,704±6,659 picomole/106 cells) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 (6,168±2,134 picomole/106 cells). Despite lower amount of expressed protein, hNIS function in rMSC was greater by lentivirus than by adenovirus mediated expression. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative vector efficiency for transgene expression

  10. Comparison of Human Sodium/Iodide Symporter (hNIS) Gene Expressions between Lentiviral and Adenoviral Vectors in Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Park, So Yeon; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chung, June Key; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Heui Ran [Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Quantitative comparison of transgene expression within stem cells between lentivirus and adenovirusmediated delivery systems has not been reported. Here, we evaluated the human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene expression in rat mesenchymal stem cell (rMSC) transduced by lentivirus or adenovirus, and compared the hNIS expression quantitatively between the two delivery systems. Lentiviral-mediated hNIS expressing rMSC (lenti-hNIS-rMSC) was constructed by cloning hNIS gene into pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST (Invitrogen) to obtain pLenti-hNIS, transducing rMSC with the pLenti-hNIS, and selecting with blasticidin for 3 weeks. Recombinant adenovirus expressing hNIS gene (Rad-hNIS) was produced by homologous recombination and transduction efficiency of Rad-hNIS into rMSC evaluated by Rad-GFP was 19.1{+-}4.7%, 54.0{+-}6.4%, 85.7{+-}8.7%, and 98.4{+-}1.3% at MOI 1, 5, 20, and 100, respectively. The hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC or adeno-hNIS-rMSC were assessed by immunocytochemistry, western blot, and I-125 uptake. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses revealed that hNIS expressions in lenti-hNIS-rMSC were greater than those in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 20 but lower than at MOI 50. However in vitro I-125 uptake test demonstrated that iodide uptake in lenti-hNIS-rMSC (29,704{+-}6,659 picomole/10{sup 6} cells) was greater than that in adeno-hNIS-rMSC at MOI 100 (6,168{+-}2,134 picomole/10{sup 6} cells). Despite lower amount of expressed protein, hNIS function in rMSC was greater by lentivirus than by adenovirus mediated expression. Stem cell tracking using hNIS as a reporter gene should be conducted in consideration of relative vector efficiency for transgene expression.

  11. Adenoviral Vectors for Hemophilia Gene Therapy

    Brunetti-Pierri, N.; Ng, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Hemophilia is an inherited blood clotting disorder resulting from deficiency of blood coagulation factors. Current standard of care for hemophilia patients is frequent intravenous infusions of the missing coagulation factor. Gene therapy for hemophilia involves the introduction of a normal copy of the deficient coagulation factor gene thereby potentially offering a definitive cure for the bleeding disorder. A variety of approaches have been pursued for hemophilia gene therapy and this review ...

  12. 腺病毒载体介导胞嘧啶脱氨酶基因转染的前列腺癌细胞株对5-氟胞嘧啶作用敏感性的研究%Sensitization of prostate cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine induced by adenoviral vector carrying a CD transcription unit

    殷莲华; 王新红

    2001-01-01

    目的研究胞嘧啶脱氨酶/5-氟胞嘧啶系统对前列腺癌细胞株的作用.方法细胞培养,细胞转染,药物敏感性实验,观察旁观者效应,动物实验.结果腺病毒载体可以转染所有已建立的前列腺癌细胞株,但是每种细胞株转染所要求的载体浓度以及暴露时间不同.转染的胞嘧啶脱氨酶基因在细胞内的表达高峰出现在不同的时间,但一直持续到11天以后.腺病毒载体介导的胞嘧啶脱氨酶基因转染可以使前列腺癌细胞株提高对5-氟胞嘧啶的敏感性.在LNCap和RM-1细胞株中,只有5%的细胞转染了胞嘧啶脱氨酶基因就可以引起100%的细胞杀伤效应.在动物实验中,用400MOI转染过的肿瘤细胞建立小鼠皮下肿瘤并同时腹腔注射5-氟胞嘧啶,可以有效的抑制肿瘤生长.结论腺病毒载体介导的胞嘧啶脱氨酶基因转染可以提高前列腺癌细胞株对5-氟胞嘧啶的敏感性,胞嘧啶脱氨酶/5-氟胞嘧啶的联合应用能显著抑制小鼠肿瘤生长.%Objective To investigate the efficiency of the cytosine deaminase adenoviral/5-fluorocytosine system on prostate cancer cell lines. Methods We used cell culture, infectivity and sensitivity tests, to observe bystander effect by animal tests. Results Established prostate cancer cell lines are eventually infectible by adenoviral vector. The ratio of vector/cell at which infection occurs depends on the specific cell line. The peak of expression of the transferred cytosine deaminase gene occurred in cells at different time, but persisted beyond 11 days. These prostate cell lines are sensitized to 5-fluorocytosine by infection with adenoviral vector carrying the cytosine deaminase gene. Only 5% of the LNCap and 10% of the RM-1 cells were infected and produced 100% cell death. In the animal test, there was significant inhibition of tumor growth at a ratio of 400 vector particles/cell with the systematic treatment of 5-fluorocytosine. Conclusions Adenoviral

  13. Split-intron retroviral vectors: enhanced expression with improved safety.

    Ismail, S I; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M

    2000-03-01

    The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37-48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus of the producer cell. In the past, elaborate ways to overcome this problem have included the use of alphaviruses to make the vector transcripts within the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the nuclear splicing machinery during vector production (K. J. Li and H. Garoff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3650-3654, 1998). We now present a novel design for the inclusion of introns within a retroviral vector. In essence, this is achieved by exploiting the retroviral replication process to copy not only the U3 promoter but also a synthetic splice donor to the 5'-long-terminal-repeat position during reverse transcription. Once copied, synthesized transcripts then contain a splice donor at their 5' end capable of interacting with a consensus splice acceptor engineered downstream of the packaging signal. Upon transduction, we demonstrate these vectors to produce enhanced expression from near fully spliced (and thus packaging signal minus) transcripts. The unique design of these high titer and high-expression retroviral vectors may be of use in a number of gene therapy applications. PMID:10666267

  14. Evaluation of signal transduction pathways after transient cutaneous adenoviral gene delivery

    Steinau Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenoviral vectors have provided effective methods for in vivo gene delivery in therapeutic applications. However, these vectors can induce immune responses that may severely affect the ability of vector re-application. There is limited information about the mechanisms and signal transduction pathways involved in adenoviral recognition. For optimization of cutaneous gene therapy it is necessary to investigate molecular mechanisms of virus recognition in epidermal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the signal transduction of the innate immunity after adenoviral DNA internalization in keratinocytes. Methods In vitro, keratinocytes were transfected with DNA, in the presence and absence of inhibitors for signalling molecules. In vivo, immunocompetent and athymic mice (n = 3 per group were twice transduced with an Ad-vector. Results The results show an acute induction of type-I-interferon after in vitro transfection. Inhibition of PI3K, p38 MAPK, JNK and NFkappaB resulted in a decreased expression of type-I-interferon. In contrast to immunocompetent mice, athymic mice demonstrated a constant transgene expression and reduced inflammatory response in vivo. Conclusion The results suggest an induction of the innate immunity triggered by cytoplasm localised DNA which is mediated by PI3K-, p38 MAPK-, JNK-, NFkappaB-, JAK/STAT- and ERK1/2-dependent pathways. A stable transgene expression and a reduced inflammatory response in immunodeficient mice have been observed. These results provide potential for an effective adenoviral gene delivery into immunosupressed skin.

  15. Safety of the novel influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine in pregnant heifers

    Kaissar Tabynov; Sholpan Ryskeldinova; Zhailaubay Kydyrbayev; Abylai Sansyzbay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study provides the first information about the safety of a new influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10) or subcutaneous (n=10) route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vac...

  16. Split-Intron Retroviral Vectors: Enhanced Expression with Improved Safety

    Ismail, Said I.; Kingsman, Susan M.; Kingsman, Alan J.; Uden, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The inclusion of retrovirus-derived introns within retrovirus-based expression vectors leads to a fraction of the resulting transcripts being spliced. Such splicing has been shown to markedly improve expression (W. J. Krall et al., Gene Ther. 3:37–48, 1996). One way to improve upon this still further might involve the use of more efficient introns instead of those from the provirus. Currently, however, incorporation of such introns remains self-defeating since they are removed in the nucleus ...

  17. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase for somatic integration

    Zhang, W; Muck-Hausl, M.; Wang, J.; C. Sun; Gebbing, M.; Miskey, C.; Ivics, Z.; Izsvak, Z; Ehrhardt, A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  18. Integration Profile and Safety of an Adenovirus Hybrid-Vector Utilizing Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase for Somatic Integration

    Zhang, Wenli; Muck-Hausl, Martin; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Gebbing, Maren; Miskey, Csaba; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  19. Efficient directional cloning of recombinant adenovirus vectors using DNA-protein complex.

    Okada, T; Ramsey, W J; Munir, J; Wildner, O.; Blaese, R M

    1998-01-01

    We describe an efficient cloning system utilizing adenoviral DNA-protein complexes which allows the directional cloning of genes into adenoviral expression vectors in a single step. DNA-protein complexes derived from a recombinant adenovirus (AVC2.null) were isolated by sequential use of CsCl step gradients followed by isopycnic centrifugation in a mixture of CsCl and guanidine HCl. AVC2.null is an adenoviral expression vector containing unique restriction sites between the human CMV-IE promo...

  20. Use of intron-disrupted polyadenylation sites to enhance expression and safety of retroviral vectors.

    Ismail, S I; Rohll, J B; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Uden, M

    2001-01-01

    Normal mRNA polyadenylation signals are composed of an AAUAAA motif and G/U box spaced 20 to 30 bp apart. If this spacing is increased further, then polyadenylation is disrupted. Previously it has been demonstrated that insertion of an intron will similarly disrupt this signal even though such introns are removed during a nuclear splicing reaction (X. Liu and J. Mertz, Nucleic Acids Res. 21:5256-5263, 1993). This observation has led to the suggestion that polyadenylation site selection is undertaken prior to intron excision. We now present results that both support and extend these observations and in doing so create a novel class of retroviral expression vector with improved qualities. We found that when an intron-disrupted polyadenylation signal is inserted within a retroviral expression vector, such a signal, although reformed in the producer cell, remains benign until transduction, where it is then preferentially used. Thus, we demonstrate that upon transduction these vectors now produce a majority of shortened subgenomic species and as a consequence have a reduced tendency for subsequent mobilization from transduced cells. In addition, we demonstrate that the use of this internal signal leads to enhanced expression from such vectors and that this is achieved without any loss in titer. Therefore, split polyadenylation signals confer enhanced performance and improved safety upon retroviral expression vectors into which they are inserted. Such split signals may prove useful for the future optimization of retroviral vectors in gene therapy. PMID:11119589

  1. Treatment of colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas by adenoviral mediated gene transfer of endostatin and angiostatin-like molecule in mice

    Schmitz, V; Wang, L.; Barajas, M. (Miguel); Gomar, C.; Prieto, J.; Qian, C

    2004-01-01

    Aim and method: In this study, we explored the responsiveness of different tumour entities (colorectal carcinoma (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)) to angiostatic antitumour treatment with two recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding angiostatin-like molecule (AdK1-3) and endostatin (Adendo).

  2. Adenoviral transfer of human interleukin-10 gene in lethal pancreatitis

    Zi-Qian Chen; Yao-Qing Tang; Yi Zhang; Zhi-Hong Jiang; En-Qiang Mao; Wei-Guo Zou; Ruo-Qing Lei; Tian-Quan Han; Sheng-Dao Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of adenoviral-vectordelivered human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) gene on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) rats.METHODS: Healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intraperitoneally injected with adenoviral IL-10 gene (AdvhIL-10), empty vector (Adv0) or PBS solution. Blood,liver, pancreas and lung were harvested on the second day to examine hIL-10 level by ELISA and serum amylase by enzymatic assay. A SAP model was induced by retrograde injection of sodium taurocholate through pancreatic duct.SAP rats were then administered with AdvhIL-10, Adv0 and PBS solution by a single intraperitoneal injection 20 min after SAP induction. In addition to serum amylase assay,levels of hIL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by RT-PCR, ELISA and histological study. The mortality rate was studied and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and log rank analysis.RESULTS: The levels of hIL-10 in the pancreas, liver and lung of healthy rats increased significantly after AdvhIL-10injection (1.42 ng/g in liver, 0.91 ng/g in pancreas); while there was no significant change of hIL-10 in the other two control groups. The concentration of hIL-10 was increased significantly in the SAP rats after AdvhIL-10 injection (1.68 ng/g in liver, 1.12 ng/g in pancreas) compared to the other two SAP groups with blank vector or PBS treatment (P<0.05). The serum amylase levels remained normal in the AdvhIL-10 transfected healthy rats. However,the serum amylase level was significantly elevated in the other two control SAP rats. In contrast, serum amylase was down-regulated in the AdvhIL-10 treated SAP groups.The TNF-α expression in the AdvhIL-10 treated SAP rats was significantly lower compared to the other two control SAP groups. The pathohistological changes in the AdvhIL-10 treated group were better than those in the other two control groups. Furthermore, the mortality of the AdvhIL-10 treated group was significantly reduced compared to the other two control groups (P

  3. Immunocompromised Children with Severe Adenoviral Respiratory Infection

    Joanna C. Tylka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the impact of severe respiratory adenoviral infection on morbidity and case fatality in immunocompromised children. Methods. Combined retrospective-prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU in four children’s hospitals with severe adenoviral respiratory infection and an immunocompromised state between August 2009 and October 2013. We performed a secondary case control analysis, matching our cohort 1 : 1 by age and severity of illness score with immunocompetent patients also with severe respiratory adenoviral infection. Results. Nineteen immunocompromised patients were included in our analysis. Eleven patients (58% did not survive to hospital discharge. Case fatality was associated with cause of immunocompromised state (p=0.015, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (p=0.001, requirement of renal replacement therapy (p=0.01, ICU admission severity of illness score (p=0.011, and treatment with cidofovir (p=0.005. Immunocompromised patients were more likely than matched controls to have multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (p=0.01, require renal replacement therapy (p=0.02, and not survive to hospital discharge (p=0.004. One year after infection, 43% of immunocompromised survivors required chronic mechanical ventilator support. Conclusions. There is substantial case fatality as well as short- and long-term morbidity associated with severe adenoviral respiratory infection in immunocompromised children.

  4. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    Konstantinos Zarogoulidis; Goldberg, Eugene P.; Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schimdt; Haidong Huang; Kalliopi Domvri; Konstantinos Porpodis; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Paul Zarogouldis

    2012-01-01

    Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano...

  5. Safety of the novel influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine in pregnant heifers

    Kaissar Tabynov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study provides the first information about the safety of a new influenza viral vector vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or Omp16 containing the adjuvant Montanide Gel01 in pregnant heifers. Immunization of pregnant heifers was conducted via the conjunctival (n=10 or subcutaneous (n=10 route using cross prime and booster vaccination schedules at an interval of 28 days. The vector vaccine was evaluated in comparison with positive control groups vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (n=10 or B. abortus RB51 (n=10 and a negative (PBS+Montanide Gel01; n=10 control group. Clinical studies, thermometry, assessment of local reactogenicity and observation of abortion showed that the vector vaccine via the conjunctival or subcutaneous route was completely safe for pregnant heifers compared to the commercial vaccines B. abortus S19 or B. abortus RB51. The only single adverse event was the formation of infiltration at the site of subcutaneous injection; this reaction was not observed for the conjunctival route.

  6. Adenoviral delivery of the EMX2 gene suppresses growth in human gastric cancer.

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EMX2 is a human orthologue of the Drosophila empty spiracles homeobox gene that has been implicated in embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest possible involvement of EMX2 in human cancers; however, the role of EMX2 in carcinogenesis needs further exploration. RESULTS: In this study, we reported that down-regulation of EMX2 expression was significantly correlated with EMX2 promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer. Restoring EMX2 expression using an adenovirus delivery system in gastric cancer cell lines lacking endogenous EMX2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo. In addition, we observed that animals treated with the adenoviral EMX2 expression vector had significantly better survival than those treated with empty adenoviral vector. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that EMX2 is a putative tumor suppressor in human gastric cancer. The adenoviral-EMX2 may have potential as a novel gene therapy for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer.

  7. Adenoviral Delivery of the EMX2 Gene Suppresses Growth in Human Gastric Cancer

    Li, Jie; Mo, Minli; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Zhe; Sheng, Qing; Mu, Hang; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Li, Hui; He, Biao; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2012-01-01

    Background EMX2 is a human orthologue of the Drosophila empty spiracles homeobox gene that has been implicated in embryogenesis. Recent studies suggest possible involvement of EMX2 in human cancers; however, the role of EMX2 in carcinogenesis needs further exploration. Results In this study, we reported that down-regulation of EMX2 expression was significantly correlated with EMX2 promoter hypermethylation in gastric cancer. Restoring EMX2 expression using an adenovirus delivery system in gastric cancer cell lines lacking endogenous EMX2 expression led to inhibition of cell proliferation and Wnt signaling pathway both in vitro and in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo. In addition, we observed that animals treated with the adenoviral EMX2 expression vector had significantly better survival than those treated with empty adenoviral vector. Conclusion Our study suggests that EMX2 is a putative tumor suppressor in human gastric cancer. The adenoviral-EMX2 may have potential as a novel gene therapy for the treatment of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:23029345

  8. Immunization with Recombinant Adenoviral Vectors Expressing HCV Core or F Proteins Leads to T Cells with Reduced Effector Molecules Granzyme B and IFN-γ: A Potential New Strategy for Immune Evasion in HCV Infection.

    Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Vedi, Satish; Singh, Shakti; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2015-01-01

    Multispecific, broad, and potent T cell responses have been correlated with viral clearance in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the majority of infected patients develop chronic infection, suggesting that natural infection mostly leads to development of inefficient T cell immunity. Multiple mechanisms of immune modulation and evasion have been shown in HCV infection through various investigations. This study examined the generation and modulation of T cell responses against core and frameshift (F) proteins of HCV. A single immunization of mice with replication incompetent recombinant adenovirus vectors encoding for F or core antigens induces poor T cell responses and leads to generation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with low granzyme B (GrB) expression. These T cells have impaired GrB enzyme activity and are unable to kill peptide loaded target cells. The low intracellular expression of GrB is not due to degranulation of cytotoxic granules containing cytotoxic T cells. Addition of exogenous IL-2 in in vitro cultures leads to partial recovery of GrB production, whereas immunization with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist poly I:C leads to complete restoration of GrB expression in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, a possible new strategy of T cell modulation is recognized wherein effector T cells are caused to be dysfunctional by HCV-derived antigens F or core, and strategies are also delineated to overcome this dysfunction. These studies are important in the investigation of prophylactic vaccine and immunotherapy strategies for HCV infection. PMID:26133045

  9. Usefulness of intra-arterial embolization method using gelfoam particles in effective gene transduction of adenoviral vector for liver-directed gene therapy: an preliminary animal study in dogs

    Liver-directed gene therapy is being actively pursued and developed as a method of treating various liver diseases. A number of aspects, including gene intervention, an efficient gene delivery system, and stable transgene expression are key to the success of the chosen strategy, and to overcome problems in these areas, several tactics can be used. In this study, we assess the utility of transarterial embolization using gelfoam particles soaked in an adenovirus vector as a gene-delivery method. Using the angiographic approach, three dogs each weighing 9.5-11kg were superselectively catheterized at the left hepatic artery using a 3-F microcatheter and the coaxial method. Two of the dogs were embolized at the left hepatic artery using 3x2x2-mm and 2x1x1-mm gelfoam particles soaked in 2x1011 particles/kg of recombinant adv. CMV.LacZ(LacZ-adv). The left hepatic artery of the remaining animal, used as a control, was infused with the same dose of lacZ-adv in the same way as before but without embolization of the left hepatic artery. Three days after embolization or the infusion of LacZ-adv, the dogs were sacrificed prior to harvest of the entire liver for the evaluation of gene transduction. X-gal staining of the liver tissue obtained was positive for hepatocytes, but the pattern and degree of gene transduction differed according to gelfoam particle size. Where this was 3x2x2 mm, gene transduction along the liver hilum varied, but where 2x1x1-mm particles were used, transduction was more even. No pathologic hepatic tissue injury or inflammation was apparent, and control liver tissue was not stained by X-gal. Serum SGOT and SGPT levels were slightly higher one day after the procedure, but had normalized by day 3. Intrahepatic transarterial embolization using gelfoam particles soaked in LacZ-adv appears to be a good method for effective liver-targed gene therapy

  10. Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma

    Puntel, Mariana [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Ghulam, Muhammad A.K.M. [Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Farrokhi, Catherine [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); VanderVeen, Nathan; Paran, Christopher; Appelhans, Ashley [Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan School of Medicine, MSRB II, RM 4570C, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5689 (United States); Kroeger, Kurt M.; Salem, Alireza [Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Lacayo, Liliana [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Pechnick, Robert N. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kelson, Kyle R.; Kaur, Sukhpreet; Kennedy, Sean [Gene Therapeutics Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip [Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); and others

    2013-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are promising gene delivery vehicles due to their high transduction efficiency; however, their clinical usefulness has been hampered by their immunogenicity and the presence of anti-Ad immunity in humans. We reported the efficacy of a gene therapy approach for glioma consisting of intratumoral injection of Ads encoding conditionally cytotoxic herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) and the immunostimulatory cytokine fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Ad-Flt3L). Herein, we report the biodistribution, efficacy, and neurological and systemic effects of a bicistronic high-capacity Ad, i.e., HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L. HC-Ads elicit sustained transgene expression, even in the presence of anti-Ad immunity, and can encode large therapeutic cassettes, including regulatory elements to enable turning gene expression “on” or “off” according to clinical need. The inclusion of two therapeutic transgenes within a single vector enables a reduction of the total vector load without adversely impacting efficacy. Because clinically the vectors will be delivered into the surgical cavity, normal regions of the brain parenchyma are likely to be transduced. Thus, we assessed any potential toxicities elicited by escalating doses of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L (1 × 10{sup 8}, 1 × 10{sup 9}, or 1 × 10{sup 10} viral particles [vp]) delivered into the rat brain parenchyma. We assessed neuropathology, biodistribution, transgene expression, systemic toxicity, and behavioral impact at acute and chronic time points. The results indicate that doses up to 1 × 10{sup 9} vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered into the normal rat brain and underpin further developments for its implementation in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. - Highlights: ► High capacity Ad vectors elicit sustained therapeutic gene expression in the brain. ► HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L encodes two therapeutic genes and a transcriptional switch. ► We performed a dose escalation study at

  11. Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma

    Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are promising gene delivery vehicles due to their high transduction efficiency; however, their clinical usefulness has been hampered by their immunogenicity and the presence of anti-Ad immunity in humans. We reported the efficacy of a gene therapy approach for glioma consisting of intratumoral injection of Ads encoding conditionally cytotoxic herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) and the immunostimulatory cytokine fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Ad-Flt3L). Herein, we report the biodistribution, efficacy, and neurological and systemic effects of a bicistronic high-capacity Ad, i.e., HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L. HC-Ads elicit sustained transgene expression, even in the presence of anti-Ad immunity, and can encode large therapeutic cassettes, including regulatory elements to enable turning gene expression “on” or “off” according to clinical need. The inclusion of two therapeutic transgenes within a single vector enables a reduction of the total vector load without adversely impacting efficacy. Because clinically the vectors will be delivered into the surgical cavity, normal regions of the brain parenchyma are likely to be transduced. Thus, we assessed any potential toxicities elicited by escalating doses of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L (1 × 108, 1 × 109, or 1 × 1010 viral particles [vp]) delivered into the rat brain parenchyma. We assessed neuropathology, biodistribution, transgene expression, systemic toxicity, and behavioral impact at acute and chronic time points. The results indicate that doses up to 1 × 109 vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered into the normal rat brain and underpin further developments for its implementation in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. - Highlights: ► High capacity Ad vectors elicit sustained therapeutic gene expression in the brain. ► HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L encodes two therapeutic genes and a transcriptional switch. ► We performed a dose escalation study at acute and chronic time

  12. Pre-Existing Vector Immunity Does Not Prevent Replication Deficient Adenovirus from Inducing Efficient CD8 T-Cell Memory and Recall Responses

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated i...

  13. Implementation of reactor safety analysis code RELAP5/MOD3 and its vectorization on supercomputer FACOM VP2600

    RELAP5/MOD3 is an advanced reactor safety analysis code developed at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) under the sponsorship of USNRC. The code simulates thermohydraulic phenomena involved in loss of coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors. The code has been introduced into JAERI as a part of the technical exchange between the JAERI and USNRC under the ROSA-IV Program. First, the conversion to FACOM (= FUJITSU) M-780 version was carried out based on the IBM version extracted from the original INEL RELAP5/MOD3 source code. Next, the FACOM version has been vectorized for efficient use of new supercomputer FACOM VP2600 at JAERI. The computing speed of vectorized version is about three times faster than the scalar. The present vectorization ratio is 78%. In this report, both the implementation and vectorization methods on the FACOM computers are described. (author)

  14. Viral vectors for vascular gene therapy

    Fischer, Lukas; Preis, Meir; Weisz, Anat; Koren, Belly; Lewis, Basil S; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2002-01-01

    Vascular gene therapy is the focus of multiple experimental and clinical research efforts. While several genes with therapeutic potential have been identified, the best method of gene delivery is unknown. Viral vectors have the capacity to transfer genes at high efficiency rates. Several viral-based vectors have been used in experimental vascular gene therapy for in vivo and ex vivo gene transfer. Adenoviral-based vectors are being used for the induction of angiogenesis in phase 1 and 2 clini...

  15. Safety and efficacy of a turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine for chickens.

    Esaki, Motoyuki; Noland, Lauren; Eddins, Tim; Godoy, Alecia; Saeki, Sakiko; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

    2013-06-01

    Turkey herpesvirus vector laryngotracheitis vaccine (HVT/LT) expressing the glycoprotein B gene of laryngotracheitis virus (LTV) has been developed. In vitro growth kinetics of HVT/LT were similar to those of parental turkey herpesvirus (HVT), FC-126 strain. Genetic and phenotypic stabilities of HVT/LT after in vitro (in cell culture) or in vivo (in chickens) passage were confirmed by various assays, including Southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Safety of HVT/LT was assessed by an overdose study as well as by a backpassage study in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. The overdose study indicated that HVT/LT did not cause any adverse effects in chickens. The backpassage study confirmed that HVT/LT does not revert to virulence after five passages in chickens. The vaccine did not transmit laterally from vaccinated chickens to commingled nonvaccinated chickens. Efficacy of HVT/LT was evaluated in SPF layer chickens after vaccination by the subcutaneous route at 1 day of age. The majority of the vaccinated chickens (92%-100%) were protected against challenge with virulent LTV at 7 wk of age. Efficacy of HVT/LT was further evaluated in broiler chickens from a commercial source after in ovo vaccination to embryos at 18 days of incubation. After challenge with virulent LTV at 21 and 35 days of age, 67% and 87% of HVT/LT-vaccinated chickens did not develop LT clinical signs, respectively, while 100% (21 days of age) and 73% (35 days of age) of the challenge control chickens showed clinical signs of LT. These results suggest that HVT/LT is a safe and efficacious vaccine for control of laryngotracheitis (LT). PMID:24689173

  16. Re-Designed Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Vectors Enable Efficient Delivery of Versatile Cargo Genes to Hepatocytes with Improved Safety.

    Bai, Weiya; Cui, Xiaoxian; Chen, Ruidong; Tao, Shuai; Hong, Ran; Zhang, Jiming; Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Yongxiang; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) takes humans as its sole natural host, and productive infection in vivo is restricted exclusively to hepatocytes in the liver. Consequently, HBV-derived viral vectors are attractive candidates for liver-targeting gene therapies. Previously, we developed a novel recombinant HBV vector, designated 5c3c, from a highly replicative clinical isolate. 5c3c was demonstrated to be capable of efficiently delivering protein or RNA expression into infected primary tupaia hepatocytes (PTH), but the design of 5c3c imposes stringent restrictions on inserted sequences, which have limited its wider adoption. In this work, we addressed issues with 5c3c by re-designing the insertion strategy. The resultant vector, designated 5dCG, was more replicative than parental 5c3c, imposed no specific restrictions on inserted sequences, and allowed insertion of a variety of cargo genes without significant loss of replication efficiency. 5dCG-based recombinant HBV effectively delivered protein and RNA expression into infected PTH. Furthermore, due to the loss of functional core ORF, 5dCG vectors depend on co-infecting wild type HBV for replication and efficient expression of cargo genes. Development of the improved 5dCG vector makes wider applications of recombinant HBV possible, while dependence on co-infecting wild type HBV results in improved safety for certain in vivo applications. PMID:27171107

  17. 腺病毒介导过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体-γ1基因脑室内转染对大鼠缺血/再灌注脑的保护作用%The neuroprotection of adenoviral vector-mediated PPAR-γ1 intracerebroventricular transfection against the ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    唐吉伟; 徐军美; 钱自亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of PPAR-γ1 gene transfection via intracerebroventricular injection and possible protective effect against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.Methods Ninety adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(n=18).In group Ⅰ,the rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with normal saline 0.1 ml.In group Ⅱ,the rats were injected with empty adenoviral(Adv)vector 0.1 ml.In group Ⅲ,the rats were injected with 0.1 ml Adv-PPAR-γ1 and the group Ⅳ received Adv-EGFP 0.1 ml.The group Ⅴ was intragastrically administered with Pioglitazone.After 3 days,middle cerebral artery occlusion model was established.The group I was sham-operation group.In group Ⅱ-Ⅴ middle cerebral artery was obstructed for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h.Twenty-four hours after operation,samples were collected.The expression of green fluorescent protein in Group Ⅳ was observed with fluorescence microscope to assess the adenovirus-mediated transfection.The cerebral infarction volume was measured by triphenyltetrazolium chloride(TTC)staining.The permeability of blood-brain barrier was determined by Evan's blue.Brain water was calculated by wet-dry weight method.The histopathology was observed under light microscope and electron microscope.The activity of myeloperoxidase(MPO)was tested.The expressions of IL-1β,inter-cellular adhesion mdecule-1(ICAM-1),aquaporin protein(AQP-4)and matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9)protein were determined by Western Blotting.Results After the animals were intracerebroventricularly administered Adv-EGFP plasmid,that the fluorescence for EGFP was positive in brain tissue suggested the successful transfection of viral gene.In response to I/R injury,the permeability of blood-brain barrier(0.094 5±0.009 5),brain water(87.4±4.7),and the activity of MPO were dramatically increased(0.213±0.044)as well as the cerebral infarction volume(42.3±2.6).The expressions of IL-1β(0.84±0.05),ICAM-1(0.85±0.07),AQP-4

  18. Improvements in the vectorization of the KENO V.a criticality safety code

    A version of KENO V.a that takes advantage of the potential speedup inherent in vector processors is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current version of KENO V.a tracks an individual particle history from source generation until it either leaks from the system or is killed, at which time the next particle history is processed. A vectorized Monte Carlo code tracks multiple particle histories simultaneously. Several new vectorized Monte Carlo particle-tracking codes have been developed, proving that significant speedups are possible, however, these new codes are either proprietary or not widely used. All new vectorized Monte Carlo Codes use an event-based algorithm in which all the particles undergoing a particular event are processed simultaneously. The vectorized version of KENO V.a currently being developed employs an event-based, event-driven, all-zone, tagged-particle algorithm

  19. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    Konstantinos Zarogoulidis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano-vehicle. These formulations are multifunctional; they can be used as either local therapy or carrier for an effective inhaled gene therapy for lung cancer. Herein, we present current and future perspectives of nanocomplexes for inhaled gene therapy treatment in lung cancer.

  20. Intra-arterial adenoviral mediated tumor transfection in a novel model of cancer gene therapy

    Siemionow Maria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize a novel in vivo cancer gene therapy model in which intra-arterial adenoviral gene delivery can be characterized. In this model, the rat cremaster muscle serves as the site for tumor growth and provides convenient and isolated access to the tumor parenchyma with discrete control of arterial and venous access for delivery of agents. Results Utilizing adenovirus encoding the green fluorescent protein we demonstrated broad tumor transfection. We also observed a dose dependant increment in luciferase activity at the tumor site using an adenovirus encoding the luciferase reporter gene. Finally, we tested the intra-arterial adenovirus dwelling time required to achieve optimal tumor transfection and observed a minimum time of 30 minutes. Conclusion We conclude that adenovirus mediated tumor transfection grown in the cremaster muscle of athymic nude rats via an intra-arterial route could be achieved. This model allows definition of the variables that affect intra-arterial tumor transfection. This particular study suggests that allowing a defined intra-tumor dwelling time by controlling the blood flow of the affected organ during vector infusion can optimize intra-arterial adenoviral delivery.

  1. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH– VECTOR OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the local reports of the corporate social responsibility of the companies that function in Romania, through their own web page and to make an analysis of the occupational safety and health component as presented in the CSR reports of these companies.

  2. Mammalian safety of microbial agents for vector control: a WHO Memorandum*

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum outlines recommended safety tests for application to biological agents under consideration for widespread use for pest control. The basic principles utilized in developing these recommendations were that: (i) the hazards presented by microbial pesticides are inherently different from those associated with chemical pesticides and the tests used to determine hazard potential to man should reflect this; (ii) a high proportion of negative results is likely; (iii) tiered testing sy...

  3. Construction and characterization of calreticulin-HBsAg fusion gene recombinant adenovirus expression vector

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To generate recombinant adenoviral vector con-taining calreticulin (CRT)-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fusion gene for developing a safe, effective and HBsAg-specific therapeutic vaccine.METHODS: CRT and HBsAg gene were fused using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), endonuclease diges-tion and ligation methods. The fusion gene was cloned into pENTR/D-TOPO transfer vector after the base pairs of DNA (CACC) sequence was added to the 5′ end. Adenoviral expression vector containing CRT-HBsAg fusion gen...

  4. Physiologic and metabolic safety of butyrylcholinesterase gene therapy in mice.

    Murthy, Vishakantha; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; White, Thomas A; Parks, Robin J; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2014-07-16

    In continuing efforts to develop gene transfer of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) as therapy for cocaine addiction, we conducted wide-ranging studies of physiological and metabolic safety. For that purpose, mice were given injections of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector or helper-dependent adenoviral (hdAD) vector encoding human or mouse BChE mutated for optimal cocaine hydrolysis. Age-matched controls received saline or AAV-luciferase control vector. At times when transduced BChE was abundant, physiologic and metabolic parameters in conscious animals were evaluated by non-invasive Echo-MRI and an automated "Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System" (CLAMS). Despite high vector doses (up to 10(13) particles per mouse) and high levels of transgene protein in the plasma (∼1500-fold above baseline), the CLAMS apparatus revealed no adverse physiologic or metabolic effects. Likewise, body composition determined by Echo-MRI, and glucose tolerance remained normal. A CLAMS study of vector-treated mice given 40 mg/kg cocaine showed none of the physiologic and metabolic fluctuations exhibited in controls. We conclude that neither the tested vectors nor great excesses of circulating BChE affect general physiology directly, while they protect mice from disturbance by cocaine. Hence, viral gene transfer of BChE appears benign and worth exploring as a therapy for cocaine abuse and possibly other disorders as well. PMID:24892251

  5. INGN 201: Ad-p53, Ad5CMV-p53, adenoviral p53, p53 gene therapy--introgen, RPR/INGN 201.

    2007-01-01

    patients including virtually all of those routes currently being used for adenoviral delivery was awarded. In addition, US Patent No. 6,740,320, which broadly covers adenoviral vectors with the tumour suppressor p53 in pharmaceutical compositions, was awarded. This patent extends Introgen's patent coverage for its adenoviral p53 gene therapy product to the year 2021, not taking into account possible patent extensions. In February 2003, the US Patent and Trademark Office issued patent No. 6,511,847, entitled Recombinant p53 Adenovirus Methods and Compositions, covering any adenoviral DNA molecule that encodes the p53 gene positioned under the control of a promoter.US patents issued in 2002 include Patent No. 6,410,010, broadly covering all adenoviral p53 compositions (including ADVEXIN((R))) that express adequate p53 in amounts sufficient to suppress the growth of or kill cancer cells in patients. The patent also covers adenoviral p53, which incorporates a specific type of promoter that helps cells to express the p53 tumour suppressor gene. Introgen has a number of US patents that relate to the clinical use of adenoviral p53 gene therapy in cancer as monotherapy or in combination with one or more chemotherapeutic drugs, radiation therapies or other agents that have a damaging effect on the DNA or survival of (i.e. 2-methoxyestradiol, Patent No. 6,410,029) cancer cells.A patent with broad claims directed to combination therapy with the p53 gene and conventional chemotherapy or radiation was issued in China in August 2005. Patent No. ZL95192776.0, entitled Compositions Comprising DNA Damaging Agents and p53, was issued to the Board of Regents of The University of Texas System and was exclusively licenced to Introgen. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:17472413

  6. Adenoviral gene delivery to primary human cutaneous cells and burn wounds

    Hirsch, Stephan Tobias Florian; von Peter, Sebastian; Dubin, Grzegorz; Mittler, Dominik; Jacobsen, Frank; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Eriksson, Elof; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinsträßer, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The adenoviral transfer of therapeutic genes into epidermal and dermal cells is an interesting approach to treat skin diseases and to promote wound healing. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo transfection efficacy in skin and burn wounds after adenoviral gene delivery. Primary keratinocytes (HKC), fibroblasts (HFB), and HaCaT cells were transfected using different concentrations of an adenoviral construct (eGFP). Transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity was determine...

  7. Adenoviral Mediated Gene Transfer into the Dog Brain In Vivo

    Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt; Pluhar, Elizabeth; Liu, Chunyan; Barcia, Carlos; Bergeron, Josee; Puntel, Mariana; Curtin, James; McNiel, Elizabeth; Freese, Andrew; Ohlfest, John; Moore, Peter; Kuoy, William; Lowenstein, Pedro; Castro, Maria

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain tumor for which there is no cure. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of conditional cytotoxic (herpes simplex virus [HSV] 1-derived thymidine kinase [TK]) and immunostimulatory (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand [Flt3L]) transgenes elicited immune-mediated long-term survival in a syngeneic intracranial GBM model in rodents. However, the lack of a large GBM animal model makes it difficult to predict the outcome of therapies in humans. D...

  8. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35–40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our “gene therapy” approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce ∼ 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by ∼ 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  9. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    Naumov, Inna [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Kazanov, Dina [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Lisiansky, Victoria [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Starr, Alex [Lung and Allergy Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Arber, Nadir, E-mail: narber@post.tau.ac.il [Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Gastroenterology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  10. Phosphodiesterase 5a Inhibition with Adenoviral Short Hairpin RNA Benefits Infarcted Heart Partially through Activation of Akt Signaling Pathway and Reduction of Inflammatory Cytokines

    Li, Longhu; Zhao, Dong; Jin, Zhe; Zhang, Jian; Paul, Christian; Wang, Yigang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference therapy targeting phosphodiesterase 5a after myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to mitigate post-MI heart failure. We investigated the mechanisms that underpin the beneficial effects of PDE5a inhibition through shRNA on post-MI heart failure. Methods An adenoviral vector with an shRNA sequence inserted was adopted for the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5a (Ad-shPDE5a) in vivo and in vitro. Myocardial infarction (MI) wa...

  11. Imaging expression of adenoviral HSV1-tk suicide gene transfer using the nucleoside analogue FIRU

    Substrates for monitoring HSV1-tk gene expression include uracil and acycloguanosine derivatives.The most commonly used uracil derivative to monitor HSV1-tk gene transfer is 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[*I]iodouracil (fialuridine; I*-FIAU), where the asterisk denotes any of the radioactive iodine isotopes that can be used. We have previously studied other nucleosides with imaging properties as good as or better than FIAU, including 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-[*I]iodouracil (FIRU). The first aim of this study was to extend the biodistribution data of 123I-labelled FIRU. Secondly, we assessed the feasibility of detecting differences in HSV1-tk gene expression levels following adenoviral gene transfer in vivo with 123I-FIRU. 9L rat gliosarcoma cells were stably transfected with the HSV1-tk gene (9L-tk+). 123I-FIRU was prepared by radioiodination of 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-tributylstannyl uracil (FTMRSU; precursor compound) and purified using an activated Sep-Pak column. Incubation of 9L-tk+ cells and the parental 9L cells with 123I-FIRU resulted in a 100-fold higher accumulation of radioactivity in the 9L-tk+ cells after an optimum incubation time of 4 h. NIH-bg-nu-xid mice were then inoculated subcutaneously with HSV1-tk (-) 9L cells or HSV1-tk (+) 9L-tk+ cells into both flanks. Biodistribution studies and gamma camera imaging were performed at 15 min and 1, 2, 4 and 24 h p.i. At 15 min, the tumour/muscle, tumour/blood and tumour/brain ratios were 5.2, 1.0 and 30.3 respectively. Rapid renal clearance of the tracer from the body resulted in increasing tumour/muscle, tumour/blood and tumour/brain ratios, reaching values of 32.2, 12.5 and 171.6 at 4 h p.i. A maximum specific activity of 22%ID/g tissue was reached in the 9L-tk+ tumours 4 h after 123I-FIRU injection. Two Ad5-based adenoviral vectors containing the HSV1-tk gene were constructed: a replication-incompetent vector with the transgene in the former E1 region

  12. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses.

    Maria Abildgaard Steffensen

    Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors have shown a great potential for vaccine development due to their inherent ability to induce potent and protective CD8 T-cell responses. However, a critical issue regarding the use of these vectors is the existence of inhibitory immunity against the most commonly used Ad5 vector in a large part of the human population. We have recently developed an improved adenoviral vaccine vector system in which the vector expresses the transgene tethered to the MHC class II associated invariant chain (Ii. To further evaluate the potential of this system, the concept of pre-existing inhibitory immunity to adenoviral vectors was revisited to investigate whether the inhibition previously seen with the Ad5 vector also applied to the optimized vector system. We found this to be the case, and antibodies dominated as the mechanism underlying inhibitory vector immunity. However, presence of CD8 T cells directed against epitopes in the adenoviral vector seemed to correlate with repression of the induced response in re-vaccinated B-cell deficient mice. More importantly, despite a repressed primary effector CD8 T-cell response in Ad5-immune animals subjected to vaccination, memory T cells were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be used to induce efficient CD8 T-cell memory even in individuals with pre-existing vector immunity.

  13. Construction of adenoviral vectors expressing F and G glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV Construção de vetores adenovirais expressando as glicoproteínas F e G de vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV

    Ithana Monteiro Kosaka

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV was first characterized in 1957 and has since been recognized as the most common viral cause of severe respiratory tract infection in young infants worldwide. Despite many years of research there is still no effective treatment or any immediate prospect of a vaccine. The HRSV genome is composed of single stranded negative sense RNA and the virion consists of a nucleocapsid packaged within a lipid envelope. The envelope contains spike-like projections, each being a homo-oligomer of one of three transmembrane viral envelope proteins: the attachment protein G, the fusion protein F involved in viral penetration and the small hydrofobic protein SH. The aim of this work was to construct two recombinant replication-defective adenoviruses carrying separately F and G genes from HRSV. This system was chosen because adenovirus delivers genes into target cells with high efficiency in a variety of cell lines and can be used in vitro and in vivo. In order to obtain the recombinant viruses, we did RT-PCR of RNA extracted from the HRSV A2 strain, the genes F and G were cloned in to pAdeno-X vectors. pAdeno-F and pAdeno-G were transfected in HEK-293 cells for the production of recombinant viruses, that expressed efficiently these two proteins and provide us the means for doing functional assays and immunization tests.O Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano (HRSV foi isolado e caracterizado pela primeira vez em 1957 e é considerado como o patógeno viral mais freqüente do trato respiratório de bebês e crianças. Apesar de muitos anos de pesquisa, não há ainda um tratamento específico ou uma vacina licenciada. Seu genoma é composto por uma fita simples de RNA polaridade negativa e o vírion consiste em um nucleocapsídeo empacotado por um envelope lipídico. O envelope contém projeções, chamadas espículas, constituídas de homoligômeros de uma das 3 glicoproteínas de membrana: a proteína de ligação G

  14. Adenoviral-mediated correction of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency in murine fibroblasts and human hepatocytes

    Korson Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA, a common organic aciduria, is caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial localized, 5'deoxyadenosylcobalamin dependent enzyme, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT. Liver transplantation in the absence of gross hepatic dysfunction provides supportive therapy and metabolic stability in severely affected patients, which invites the concept of using cell and gene delivery as future treatments for this condition. Methods To assess the effectiveness of gene delivery to restore the defective metabolism in this disorder, adenoviral correction experiments were performed using murine Mut embryonic fibroblasts and primary human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficient hepatocytes derived from a patient who harbored two early truncating mutations, E224X and R228X, in the MUT gene. Enzymatic and expression studies were used to assess the extent of functional correction. Results Primary hepatocytes, isolated from the native liver after removal subsequent to a combined liver-kidney transplantation procedure, or Mut murine fibroblasts were infected with a second generation recombinant adenoviral vector that expressed the murine methylmalonyl-CoA mutase as well as eGFP from distinct promoters. After transduction, [1-14C] propionate macromolecular incorporation studies and Western analysis demonstrated complete correction of the enzymatic defect in both cell types. Viral reconstitution of enzymatic expression in the human methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficient hepatocytes exceeded that seen in fibroblasts or control hepatocytes. Conclusion These experiments provide proof of principle for viral correction in methylmalonic acidemia and suggest that hepatocyte-directed gene delivery will be an effective therapeutic treatment strategy in both murine models and in human patients. Primary hepatocytes from a liver that was unsuitable for transplantation provided an important resource for these studies.

  15. SAFETY

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  16. Radiosensitization effect of recombinant adenoviral-mediated PUMA gene on pancreatic carcinoma cells

    Objective: To study the effect of PUMA gene mediated by recombinant adenovirus vector combined with radiation on the pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: The PANC-1 cells were infected with Ad- PUMA (MOI=10, 50 and 100, respectively) for 48 h. The expression of PUMA mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. PANC-1 cells were divided into 4 groups: control group, transfection group, irradiation group and combined treatment group. The cell growth inhibition rate and apoptotic rate of PANC-1 cells were assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Human pancreatic carcinomas were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice, which were randomized into 4 groups: control group, transfection group, irradiation group and combined treatment group. Tumor growth rate and apoptotic index at different time points were recorded in 35 days. Results: The expression of PUMA mRNA and protein was increased with the increase of MOI of Ad-PUMA, which was does-dependant (MOI=10, mRNA=0.46± 0.02, protein=0.75± 0.09; MOI=50, mRNA=1.12±0.09, protein=1.01±0.18; MOI=100, mRNA=1.50±0.08, protein= 1.80±0.15; P3, (39.5±9.23)mm3, (33.6±10.3)mm3 and (52.0±11.43)mm3, respectively, P<0.05]. And the apoptotic index was increased in the same manner (AI=0.43±0.05, 0.29±0.10, 0.24±0.05 and 0.00±0.00, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: Recombinant adenoviral-mediated PUMA gene combined with irradiation could increase the cell-killing effect on pancreatic carcinoma. It is better than that of either one kind of therapy. (authors)

  17. Safety issues in construction of facilities for long-term storage of radioactive waste at vector site

    In Ukraine, it is planned to create a number of near-surface facilities for disposal of short-lived RW and long-term (up to 100 years) storage of long-lived RW at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The expected streams of long-lived RW are analyzed in the paper. According to the analysis of RW streams, in particular, issues are considered on development of RW acceptance criteria, admissible radiological impacts during preparation of RW for long-term storage, reliability of barriers (RW packages, modules and structures, etc.) during long-term storage of RW. (orig.)

  18. Safety

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  19. Vaccination with Ad5 vectors expands Ad5-specific CD8 T cells without altering memory phenotype or functionality.

    Natalie A Hutnick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenoviral (Ad vaccine vectors represent both a vehicle to present a novel antigen to the immune system as well as restimulation of immune responses against the Ad vector itself. To what degree Ad-specific CD8(+ T cells are restimulated by Ad vector vaccination is unclear, although such knowledge would be important as vector-specific CD8(+ T cell expansion could potentially further limit Ad vaccine efficacy beyond Ad-specific neutralizing antibody alone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we addressed this issue by measuring human Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5-specific CD8(+ T cells in recipients of the Merck Ad5 HIV-1 vaccine vector before, during, and after vaccination by multicolor flow cytometry. Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells were detectable in 95% of subjects prior to vaccination, and displayed primarily an effector-type functional profile and phenotype. Peripheral blood Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cell numbers expanded after Ad5-HIV vaccination in all subjects, but differential expansion kinetics were noted in some baseline Ad5-neutralizing antibody (Ad5 nAb seronegative subjects compared to baseline Ad5 nAb seropositive subjects. However, in neither group did vaccination alter polyfunctionality, mucosal targeting marker expression, or memory phenotype of Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that repeat Ad5-vector administration in humans expands Ad5-specific CD8(+ T-cells without overtly affecting their functional capacity or phenotypic properties. This is a secondary analysis of samples collected during the 016 trial. Results of the Merck 016 trial safety and immunogenicity have been previously published in the journal of clinical infectious diseases [1]. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00849680[http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00849680].

  20. Loss of Endothelial Barrier in Marfan Mice (mgR/mgR Results in Severe Inflammation after Adenoviral Gene Therapy.

    Philipp Christian Seppelt

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder of connective tissue. The vascular complications of Marfan syndrome have the biggest impact on life expectancy. The aorta of Marfan patients reveals degradation of elastin layers caused by increased proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. In this study we performed adenoviral gene transfer of human tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (hTIMP-1 in aortic grafts of fibrillin-1 deficient Marfan mice (mgR/mgR in order to reduce elastolysis.We performed heterotopic infrarenal transplantation of the thoracic aorta in female mice (n = 7 per group. Before implantation, mgR/mgR and wild-type aortas (WT, C57BL/6 were transduced ex vivo with an adenoviral vector coding for human TIMP-1 (Ad.hTIMP-1 or β-galactosidase (Ad.β-Gal. As control mgR/mgR and wild-type aortas received no gene therapy. Thirty days after surgery, overexpression of the transgene was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC and collagen in situ zymography. Histologic staining was performed to investigate inflammation, the neointimal index (NI, and elastin breaks. Endothelial barrier function of native not virus-exposed aortas was evaluated by perfusion of fluorescent albumin and examinations of virus-exposed tissue were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM.IHC and ISZ revealed sufficient expression of the transgene. Severe cellular inflammation and intima hyperplasia were seen only in adenovirus treated mgR/mgR aortas (Ad.β-Gal, Ad.hTIMP-1 NI: 0.23; 0.43, but not in native and Ad.hTIMP-1 treated WT (NI: 0.01; 0.00. Compared to native mgR/mgR and Ad.hTIMP-1 treated WT aorta, the NI is highly significant greater in Ad.hTIMP-1 transduced mgR/mgR aorta (p = 0.001; p = 0.001. As expected, untreated Marfan grafts showed significant more elastolysis compared to WT (p = 0.001. However, elastolysis in Marfan aortas was not reduced by adenoviral overexpression of hTIMP-1 (compared to untreated

  1. Adenoviral vector mediated-expression of caspase-3 siRNA on apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    Wu Feixiang; Yu Weifeng; Yuan Yang; Miao Xuerong; Xu Xuewu; Huang Shengdong; Sun Yuming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To construct the recombinant adenovirus expressing small RNA of rats caspase-3 and observe the down-regulation effect of caspase-3 in neurons induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) in vitro. Methods: pShuttleH1-siCas3 containing Oligo DNA of the targeting sequences and pEGFPC1-Cas3 containing caspase-3 and EGFP sequences were constructed respectively, pShuttleH1-siCas3 and pEGFPC1-Cas3 were co-transfected to the 293 cells by liposomes to determine interfering efficacy by flow eytometry, pShuttleH1-siCas3 was linearized and transformed into E. coli BJ5183 cells containing backbone plasmid pAdEasy-1. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into 293 cells to package the adenovirus Ad-siCas3. The titers of adenovirus were determined by the specific 50% tissue culture infection dosage method. After virus infected the cultured hippocampus neurons, LPS-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 mRNA expression were observed. Results: It was identified that the sequence of target gene was correctly inserted into the genome of virus. The expression of green fluorescence protein was reduced by pShuttleH1-siCas3 in 293 cells. The titer of recombinant adenovirus was 1.06×1010 pfu/ml. After virus infection, caspase-3 mRNA was greatly reduced and neurons apoptosis was suppressed. Conclusion: The recombinant adenovirus expressing rats caspase-3 siRNA were successfully constructed, which may probably be further used in pain therapy by its anti-apoptosis effect.

  2. Enhanced antitumor response mediated by the codelivery of paclitaxel and adenoviral vector expressing IL-12.

    Cao, Linjie; Zeng, Qin; Xu, Chaoqun; Shi, Sanjun; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2013-05-01

    It has been well-established that chemo-immunotherapy using cytotoxic drugs and appropriate cytokines offers a promising approach for the treatment of neoplastic diseases. In view of this, to improve melanoma treatment effect, our study developed a new codelivery system (AL/Ad5/PTX) that paclitaxel (PTX) and adenovirus encoding for murine interleukin-12 (Ad5-mIL-12) were incorporated into anionic liposomes (AL). First, AL/Ad5/PTX complexes were prepared by incorporating Ad5 into anionic PTX liposomes using calcium-induced phase change. Second, the size distribution and zeta potential of AL/Ad5/PTX were investigated. Third, the results of in vitro transduction assays showed that PTX introduced into AL/Ad-luc or AL/Ad5-mIL-12 highly enhanced gene transduction efficiency in B16 cells than naked Ad5 or AL/Ad complexes while it had no comparability in A549 cells. Finally, a melanoma-bearing mouse model was established to assess the antitumor effect. Tumor growth inhibition and prolonged survival time, accompanied by increased mIL-12 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression levels in serum or tumor sites, were observed in mice treated with AL/Ad5-mIL-12/PTX, as compared with those treated with either AL/Ad5-mIL-12 or AL/PTX. In conclusion, these results suggested that codelivery of Ad5-mIL-12 and PTX incorporated into AL could be a relatively efficient strategy for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:23534449

  3. The roles of adenoviral vectors and donor DNA structures on genome editing

    Holkers, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and efficient genome editing is primarily dependent on the generation of a sequence-specific, genomic double-stranded DNA break (DSB) combined with the introduction of an exogenous DNA template into target cells. The exogenous template, called donor DNA, normally contains the foreign sequences flanked by DNA regions sharing sequence identity (“homologous”) to those bracketing the target site. The strategies for mediating the formation of DSBs at the predefined genomic loci, have been...

  4. Adenoviral vector-mediated overexpression of osteoprotegerin accelerates osteointegration of titanium implants in ovariectomized rats.

    Yin, G; Chen, J; Wei, S; Wang, H; Chen, Q; Lin, Y; Hu, J; Luo, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of human osteoprotegerin (hOPG) transgene to accelerate osteointegration of titanium implant in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Bone marrow stromal cells transduced with Ad-hOPG-EGFP could sustainedly express hOPG. Osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells treated by the hOPG were examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone slice resorption assay. The results showed differentiation and function of osteoclasts were significantly suppressed by hOPG in vitro. Ad-hOPG-EGFP was locally administered to the bone defect prior to implant placement in OVX and sham rats. After 3, 7, 28 days of implantation, the femurs were harvested for molecular and histological analyses. Successful transgene expression was confirmed by western blot and cryosectioning. A significant reduction in TRAP+ numbers was detected in Ad-hOPG-EGFP group. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR examination revealed that hOPG transgene markedly diminished the expression of cathepsin K and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand in vivo. The transgene hOPG modification revealed a marked increasing osteointegration and restored implant stability in OVX rats (Prats. Osteoprotegerin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to osteointegration of implants under osteoporotic conditions. PMID:25871826

  5. Adenoviral protein V promotes a process of viral assembly through nucleophosmin 1

    Ugai, Hideyo; Dobbins, George C.; Wang, Minghui [Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pathology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Le, Long P. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Pathology Service, 55 Fruit St.-GRJ 249, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Matthews, David A. [School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Medical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Curiel, David T., E-mail: dcuriel@radonc.wustl.edu [Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pathology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); The Gene Therapy Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    Adenoviral infection induces nucleoplasmic redistribution of a nucleolar nucleophosmin 1/NPM1/B23.1. NPM1 is preferentially localized in the nucleoli of normal cells, whereas it is also present at the nuclear matrix in cancer cells. However, the biological roles of NPM1 during infection are unknown. Here, by analyzing a pV-deletion mutant, Ad5-dV/TSB, we demonstrate that pV promotes the NPM1 translocation from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm in normal cells, and the NPM1 translocation is correlated with adenoviral replication. Lack of pV causes a dramatic reduction of adenoviral replication in normal cells, but not cancer cells, and Ad5-dV/TSB was defective in viral assembly in normal cells. NPM1 knockdown inhibits adenoviral replication, suggesting an involvement of NPM1 in adenoviral biology. Further, we show that NPM1 interacts with empty adenovirus particles which are an intermediate during virion maturation by immunoelectron microscopy. Collectively, these data implicate that pV participates in a process of viral assembly through NPM1.

  6. Pre-Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Experimental Vaccines Based on Non-Replicating Vaccinia Vectors against Yellow Fever

    Schäfer, Birgit; Holzer, Georg W.; Joachimsthaler, Alexandra; Coulibaly, Sogue; Schwendinger, Michael; Crowe, Brian A.; Kreil, Thomas R.; Barrett, P. Noel; Falkner, Falko G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Currently existing yellow fever (YF) vaccines are based on the live attenuated yellow fever virus 17D strain (YFV-17D). Although, a good safety profile was historically attributed to the 17D vaccine, serious adverse events have been reported, making the development of a safer, more modern vaccine desirable. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the precursor of the membrane and envelope (prME) protein of the YFV-17D strain was inserted into the non-replicating modified vac...

  7. Microbiota aeróbia conjuntival nas conjuntivites adenovirais Ocular flora in adenoviral conjunctivitis

    Eliane Mayumi Nakano; Denise de Freitas; Maria Cecília Zorat Yu; Lênio Souza Alvarenga; Ana Luisa Hofling- Lima

    2002-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudar a microbiota aeróbica conjuntival em pacientes com quadro clínico de conjuntivite viral aguda. Método: Trinta pacientes entre 18 e 40 anos portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral e 30 pacientes sem a doença foram submetidos à colheita de material da conjuntiva para cultura. Os portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral foram submetidos ao exame até 3 dias após o início dos sintomas. As culturas foram realizadas utilizando-se os meios de ágar-sangue e ágar-chocolate. Pacientes em u...

  8. Adenoviral targeting using genetically incorporated camelid single variable domains

    Kaliberov, Sergey A.; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N.; Buggio, Maurizio; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Shoemaker, Charles B.; Curiel, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The unique ability of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) to accomplish efficient transduction has allowed the use of Ad5-based vectors for a range of gene therapy applications. Several strategies have been developed to alter tropism of Ad vectors to achieve a cell-specific gene delivery by employing fiber modifications via genetic incorporation of targeting motifs. In this study we have explored the utility of novel anti-human carcinoembryonic antigen (hCEA) single variable domains derived fro...

  9. Regulatable Gutless Adenovirus Vectors Sustain Inducible Transgene Expression in the Brain in the Presence of an Immune Response against Adenoviruses

    Xiong, Weidong; Goverdhana, Shyam; Sciascia, Sandra A.; Candolfi, Marianela; Zirger, Jeffrey M.; BARCIA, CARLOS; Curtin, James F.; King, Gwendalyn D; Jaita, Gabriela; Liu, Chunyan; Kroeger, Kurt; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Medina-Kauwe, Lali; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip

    2006-01-01

    In view of recent serious adverse events and advances in gene therapy technologies, the use of regulatable expression systems is becoming recognized as indispensable adjuncts to successful clinical gene therapy. In the present work we optimized high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors encoding the novel tetracycline-dependent (TetOn)-regulatory elements for efficient and regulatable gene expression in the rat brain in vivo. We constructed two HC-Ad vectors encoding β-galactosidase (β-gal) dri...

  10. Distribución de b-galactosidasa por transferencia adenoviral como modelo de terapia génica intralinfonodal en perros con linfosarcoma multicéntrico espontáneo

    Luis Núñez Ochoa; Francisco José Trigo Tavera; Vicente Madrid Marina; Andrés Gutiérrez López

    2007-01-01

    La terapia génica en cáncer se administra principalmente por vía intravenosa e in situ mediante el empleo de vectores virales y no virales. La administración sistémica del vector transfiere el gen terapéutico al tejido neoplásico, pero también a otros órganos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la distribución de expresión del gen reportero Lac Z insertado en un vector adenoviral y administrado vía intralinfonodal (ILN) en perros con linfosarcoma multicéntrico espontáneo. La distribución...

  11. Adenoviral gene transfer of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) partially restores normal pulmonary arterial pressure in eNOS-deficient mice

    Champion, Hunter C.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Greenberg, Stanley S.; Giles, Thomas D.; Hyman, Albert L.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that mice deficient in the gene coding for endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) have increased pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. In the present study, the effect of transfer to the lung of an adenoviral vector encoding the eNOS gene (AdCMVeNOS) on pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance was investigated in eNOS-deficient mice. One day after intratracheal administration of AdCMVeNOS to eNOS−/− mice, there was an increase in eNOS protein, cGMP levels, and calcium-dependent conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline in the lung. The increase in eNOS protein and activity in eNOS−/− mice was associated with a reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance when compared with values in eNOS-deficient mice treated with vehicle or a control adenoviral vector coding for β-galactosidase, AdCMVβgal. These data suggest that in vivo gene transfer of eNOS to the lung in eNOS−/− mice can increase eNOS staining, eNOS protein, calcium-dependent NOS activity, and cGMP levels and partially restore pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance to near levels measured in eNOS+/+ mice. Thus, the major finding in this study is that in vivo gene transfer of eNOS to the lung in large part corrects a genetic deficiency resulting from eNOS deletion and may be a useful therapeutic intervention for the treatment of pulmonary hypertensive disorders in which eNOS activity is reduced. PMID:12237402

  12. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice.

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P; Kashentseva, Elena A; Yeh, Anthony J; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Curiel, David T; Leppla, Stephen; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  13. Poly(I:C/alum mixed adjuvant priming enhances HBV subunit vaccine-induced immunity in mice when combined with recombinant adenoviral-based HBV vaccine boosting.

    Xia Chuai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virus-specific cellular immune responses play a critical role in virus clearance during acute or chronic HBV infection. Currently, the commercially available HBV vaccine is combined with alum adjuvant, which stimulates mainly Th2 immune responses. Therefore, development of new therapeutic HBV vaccine adjuvants and immune strategies that also promote Th1 and CTL responses is urgently needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve the immunity induced by the novel HBSS1 HBV vaccine, we evaluated the ability of adjuvants, including alum, CpG and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C], to enhance the response when boosted with the recombinant adenoviral vector vaccine rAdSS1. The immune responses to different adjuvant combinations were assessed in C57BL/6 mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, ELISpot and cytokine release assays. Among the combinations tested, a HBV protein particle vaccine with CpG/alum and poly(I:C/alum priming combinations accelerated specific seroconversion and produced high antibody (anti-PreS1, anti-S antibody titres with a Th1 bias. After boosting with recombinant adenoviral vector vaccine rAdSS1, both groups produced a strong multi-antigen (S and PreS1-specific cellular immune response. HBSS1 immunisation with poly(I:C/alum priming also generated high-level CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses in terms of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2. CONCLUSIONS: The protein-vaccine HBSS1 with mixed poly(I:C/alum adjuvant priming, followed by a rAdSS1 vaccine boost, maximises specific antibody and Th1-biased cellular immune responses. This regime might prove useful in the development of HBV therapeutic vaccines. Furthermore, this promising strategy might be applied to vaccines against other persistent infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis.

  14. Amplification of inflammation in emphysema and its association with latent adenoviral infection.

    Retamales, I; Elliott, W M; Meshi, B; Coxson, H O; Pare, P D; Sciurba, F C; Rogers, R M; Hayashi, S; Hogg, J C

    2001-08-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that the cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory process is amplified in severe emphysema and explores the association of this response with latent adenoviral infection. Lung tissue from patients with similar smoking histories and either no (n = 7), mild (n = 7), or severe emphysema (n = 7) was obtained by lung resection. Numbers of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), macrophages, B cells, CD4, CD8 lymphocytes, and eosinophils present in tissue and airspaces and of epithelial cells expressing adenoviral E1A protein were determined using quantitative techniques. Severe emphysema was associated with an absolute increase in the total number of inflammatory cells in the lung tissue and airspaces. The computed tomography (CT) determined extent of lung destruction was related to the number of cells/m(2) surface area by R(2) values that ranged from 0.858 (CD8 cells) to 0.483 (B cells) in the tissue and 0.630 (CD4 cells) to 0.198 (B cells) in the airspaces. These changes were associated with a 5- to 40-fold increase in the number of alveolar epithelial cells expressing adenoviral E1A protein in mild and severe disease, respectively. We conclude that cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation is amplified in severe emphysema and that latent expression of the adenoviral E1A protein expressed by alveolar epithelial cells influenced this amplification process. PMID:11500352

  15. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas, Brazil

    Roberto Damian Pacheco Pinto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Viral conjunctivitis is a common, highly contagious disease that is often caused by an adenovirus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis by analyzing data from a prospective clinical study of 122 consecutively enrolled patients who were treated at the Clinical Hospital of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP after a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis between November 2011 and June 2012. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate all cases of clinically diagnosed infectious conjunctivitis and based on the laboratory findings, the prevalence of adenoviral infections was determined. The incidence of subepithelial corneal infiltrates was also investigated. RESULTS: Of the 122 patients with acute infectious conjunctivitis included, 72 had positive polymerase chain reaction results for adenoviruses and 17 patients developed subepithelial corneal infiltrates (13.93%. CONCLUSIONS: The polymerase chain reaction revealed that the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis was 59% in all patients who presented with a clinical diagnosis of infectious conjunctivitis from November 2011 to June 2012. The prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in the study population was similar to its prevalence in other regions of the world.

  16. Effect of 6-azacytidine on the course of experimental adenoviral infection in newborn Syrian hamsters.

    Zarubalev, V V; Slita, A V; Sukhinin, V P; Nosach, L N; Dyachenko, N S; Povnitsa, O Y; Zhovnovataya, V L; Alexeeva, I V; Palchikovskaya, L I

    2007-02-01

    Adenoviral infection is a serious human pathology leading to respiratory, gastrointestinal and ocular disorders and epidemic outbreaks, especially in children's groups. Here we present the results from an investigation of anti- adenoviral effect of 6-azacytidine (6-AC) both in vitro and in vivo. The selectivity index of 6-AC for adenovirus type 5 in HEp-2 cells was 374, the 50% effective concentration was 0.5 mg/ml. For in vivo investigations we developed a model of disseminated adenoviral infection in newborn Syrian hamsters. The infectious virus was recovered from the liver, kidney, lungs and heart. Application of 6-AC led to a reduced period of the virus presence (7 days in the liver and 4 days in the kidney and heart) and lowered virus titers on day 3 post-inoculation (p.i.) (liver - 2.7 and 4.1, heart - 0 and 3.2, kidney - 0 and 2.4 log(10 )CPD(50)/mg tissue weight, in the presence and absence of 6-AC, respectively). Application of 6-AC to newborn Syrian hamsters led to partial destruction of their splenocytes. The results obtained suggest that 6-AC or 6-ACbased drugs with lower toxicity or applied topically may be suitable for therapy and prevention of adenoviral infection in humans. PMID:17309850

  17. The construction of adenovirus vector carrying human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 gene

    Objective: To construct an adenoviral vector carrying human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) gene for gene therapy. Methods: A recombinant adenovirus (AdhTIMP-2) containing human TIMP-2 cDNA fragment was generated by homologous recombination in BJ5183 bacteria. Recombinant plasmids were screened by alteration of antibiotic. The adenovirus vector was then package and amplified in 293 cells. The expression of TIMP-2 was detected by the techniques of Western blot and RT-PCR. Results: The recombinant adenoviral vector carrying human TIMP-2 was constructed. The titer was 4 x 1011 pfu/ml after purification. The expression of TIMP-2 gene in 293 cells was detected by RT-PCR. After the 293 cells were transfected with AdhTIMP-2 24 hours, TIMP-2 protein could be detected in the medium by Western blot. Conclusions: The recombinant adenoviral vector carrying human TIMP-2 is successfully constructed and paved the way for further application in vascular disease gene therapy

  18. The effects of combining ionizing radiation and adenoviral p53 therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease of the head/neck region, with a 5-year survival level of approximately 65%. To explore gene therapy as a novel approach which might improve outcome, we have shown previously that introduction of human recombinant wild-type p53 mediated by the adenoviral vector (Ad5CMV-p53) was cytotoxic in two human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines (CNE-1 and CNE-2Z). The current work was designed to determine whether this strategy, combined with ionizing radiation (XRT), was more effective than either treatment alone. Methods and Materials: CNE-1, CNE-2Z, and a normal human nasopharyngeal fibroblast strain, KS1, were infected with 2- and 6-plaque-forming units (pfu)/cell of Ad5CMV-p53, respectively. These doses were iso-effective for β-galactosidase activity in the CNE-1 and CNE-2Z cells. XRT was administered 24 h post-infection, and Western blot analyses were conducted for p53, p21WAF1/CIP1, bax, and bcl-2 2 days after XRT. Cell survival was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Presence of DNA ladders reflecting apoptosis was detected using DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: The combination of Ad5CMV-p53 plus XRT (2, 4, and 6 Gy) resulted in an approximately 1-log greater level of cytotoxicity compared to that observed with XRT alone for both NPC cell lines. The two modalities appear to be interacting in a synergistic manner in cancer cells, but not in KS1 fibroblasts. XRT alone stimulated minimal p53 expression in control cells; Ad5CMV-p53 alone induced significant recombinant p53 expression, which was not further enhanced by the addition of XRT. Similar observations were made for p21WAF1/CIP1expression. No changes were observed for bax or bcl-2 expression with any of these treatments. Apoptosis was induced following 4 Gy of XRT alone, but was observed after only 2 Gy when combined with Ad5CMV-p53. Cell cycle analysis indicated that Ad5CMV-p53 infection

  19. Apparent field safety of a raccoon poxvirus-vectored plague vaccine in free-ranging prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), Colorado, USA

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Miller, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) suffer high rates of mortality from plague. An oral sylvatic plague vaccine using the raccoon poxvirus vector (designated RCN-F1/V307) has been developed for prairie dogs. This vaccine is incorporated into palatable bait along with rhodamine B as a biomarker. We conducted trials in August and September 2012 to demonstrate uptake and apparent safety of the RCN-F1/V307 vaccine in two prairie dog species under field conditions. Free-ranging prairie dogs and other associated small rodents readily consumed vaccine-laden baits during field trials with no apparent adverse effects; most sampled prairie dogs (90%) and associated small rodents (78%) had consumed baits. Visual counts of prairie dogs and their burrows revealed no evidence of prairie dog decline after vaccine exposure. No vaccine-related morbidity, mortality, or gross or microscopic lesions were observed. Poxviruses were not isolated from any animal sampled prior to bait distribution or on sites that received placebo baits. We isolated RCN-F1/V307 from 17 prairie dogs and two deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) captured on sites where vaccine-laden baits were distributed. Based on these findings, studies examining the utility and effectiveness of oral vaccination to prevent plague-induced mortality in prairie dogs and associated species are underway.

  20. Pre-existing vector immunity does not prevent replication deficient adenovirus from inducing efficient CD8 T-cell memory and recall responses

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Holst, Peter Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    were generated that provided the foundation for an efficient recall response and protection upon subsequent viral challenge. Furthermore, the transgene specific response could be efficiently boosted by homologous re-immunization. Taken together, these studies indicate that adenoviral vectors can be...

  1. SAFETY

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  2. SAFETY

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  3. Adenoviral p53 gene transfer and gemcitabine in three patients with liver metastases due to advanced pancreatic carcinoma

    Thiede, Christian; Fischer, Rainer; Ehninger, Gerhard; Haag, Cornelie

    2007-01-01

    Background. Current therapies for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas do not improve the life expectancy of patients. Methods. In a non-randomized pilot trail we tested whether a local therapy based upon an adenoviral gene transfer of wild type p53 in combination with gemcitabine administration would be safe in patients with liver metastases due to pancreatic carcinoma. We report on the clinical course of three patients with respect to safety, tolerability and tumor response. Results. Transient grade III toxicities occurred with fever, leucopenia, elevation of AP, ALT, AST, GGT, while grade IV toxicity occurred for bilirubin only. Laboratory tests suggested disseminated intravascular coagulation in all three patients, but fine needle biopsies of liver did not show any histological evidence of thrombus or clot formation. Progression of liver metastases was documented in one and stable disease in another patient two months after treatment. However, a major improvement with regression of the indexed lesion by 80% occurred in a third patient after a single administration of 7.5×1012 viral particles, and time to progression was extended to six months. Conclusion. The combination therapy of viral gene transfer and chemotherapy temporarily controls and diminishes tumor burden. Improvement of the toxicity profile is necessary. Further trials are warranted to improve treatment and life expectancy of patients suffering from fatal diseases such as pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:18333108

  4. About vectors

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  5. Vector analysis

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  6. Toxicology study assessing efficacy and safety of repeated administration of lipid/DNA complexes to mouse lung.

    Alton, E W F W; Boyd, A C; Cheng, S H; Davies, J C; Davies, L A; Dayan, A; Gill, D R; Griesenbach, U; Higgins, T; Hyde, S C; Innes, J A; McLachlan, G; Porteous, D; Pringle, I; Scheule, R K; Sumner-Jones, S

    2014-01-01

    For gene therapy to improve lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects, repeated administration of the gene transfer agent over the lifetime of patients is likely to be necessary. This requirement limits the utility of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors (both previously evaluated in CF gene therapy trials) because of induced adaptive immune responses that render repeated dosing ineffective. For CF gene therapy trials, non-viral vectors are currently the only viable option. We previously showed that the cationic lipid formulation GL67A is the most efficient of several non-viral vectors analysed for airway gene transfer. Here, we assessed the efficacy and safety of administering 12 inhaled doses of GL67A complexed with pGM169, a CpG-free plasmid encoding human CFTR complementary DNA, into mice. We show that repeated administration of pGM169/GL67A to murine lungs is feasible, safe and achieves reproducible, dose-related and persistent gene expression (>140 days after each dose) using an aerosol generated by a clinically relevant nebuliser. This study supports progression into the first non-viral multidose lung trial in CF patients. PMID:24196086

  7. Down-regulation of viral replication by adenoviral-mediated expression of siRNA against cellular cofactors for hepatitis C virus

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is currently being evaluated not only as a powerful tool for functional genomics, but also as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for cancer and infectious diseases. Inhibitory effect of siRNA on viral replication has been demonstrated in multiple pathogenic viruses. However, because of the high sequence specificity of siRNA-mediated RNA degradation, antiviral efficacy of siRNA directed to viral genome will be largely limited by emergence of escape variants resistant to siRNA due to high mutation rates of virus, especially RNA viruses such as poliovirus and hepatitis C virus (HCV). To investigate the therapeutic feasibility of siRNAs specific for the putative cellular cofactors for HCV, we constructed adenovirus vectors expressing siRNAs against La, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), subunit gamma of human eukaryotic initiation factors 2B (eIF2Bγ), and human VAMP-associated protein of 33 kDa (hVAP-33). Adenoviral-mediated expression of siRNAs markedly diminished expression of the endogenous genes, and silencing of La, PTB, and hVAP-33 by siRNAs substantially blocked HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Thus, our studies demonstrate the feasibility and potential of adenoviral-delivered siRNAs specific for cellular cofactors in combating HCV infection, which can be used either alone or in combination with siRNA against viral genome to prevent the escape of mutant variants and provide additive or synergistic anti-HCV effects

  8. Microbiota aeróbia conjuntival nas conjuntivites adenovirais Ocular flora in adenoviral conjunctivitis

    Eliane Mayumi Nakano

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a microbiota aeróbica conjuntival em pacientes com quadro clínico de conjuntivite viral aguda. Método: Trinta pacientes entre 18 e 40 anos portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral e 30 pacientes sem a doença foram submetidos à colheita de material da conjuntiva para cultura. Os portadores de conjuntivite adenoviral foram submetidos ao exame até 3 dias após o início dos sintomas. As culturas foram realizadas utilizando-se os meios de ágar-sangue e ágar-chocolate. Pacientes em uso de medicação tópica ou sistêmica, usuários de lentes de contato e aqueles com doença ocular prévia ou doença sistêmica foram excluídos. Resultados: Houve positividade significantemente maior das culturas de conjuntiva nos pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral (33,3%, sendo Haemophylus influenzae em 50% e Streptococcus pneumoniae em 50% quando comparados ao grupo controle (6,6% - Staphylococcus coagulase negativo. O grupo de pacientes com conjuntivite e que apresentaram culturas positivas, não diferiu em nenhum dos critérios clínicos analisados do grupo com culturas negativas. Conclusão: Pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral apresentaram maior freqüência de exames de cultura de amostra de conjuntiva positivas quando comparados aos controles normais. Os pacientes com conjuntivite adenoviral com cultura positiva apresentaram evolução clínica semelhante aos pacientes com cultura negativa. Os agentes isolados na microbiota conjuntival no grupo com conjuntivite foram diferentes do observado no grupo normal. Porém o resultado das culturas não apresentou correlação com a evolução clínica.Purpose: To study the aerobic bacterial conjunctival flora in patients with clinical diagnosis of acute viral conjunctivitis. Method: Thirty patients between 18 and 30 years with acute adenoviral conjunctivitis and 30 normal subjects underwent conjunctival culture examination. Material from the conjunc-tiva of patients with conjunctivitis was

  9. Synthesis and Comparative Study of Anti-Adenoviral Activity of 6-Azacytidine and Its Analogues.

    Alexeeva, Inna; Nosach, Lydia; Palchykovska, Larisa; Usenko, Lyubov; Povnitsa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of synthesis and study of cytotoxicity and the anti-adenoviral activity of new N4-derivatives of 6-azacytidine and its α-L-glycopyranosyl analogues obtained by the simplified one-pot version of the silyl condensation method. The resulting acylated 4-methylmercapto-1,2,4-triazin-3(2Н)-one glycosides then underwent the amination and/or ammonolysis to provide 6-azacytidine glycoside analogues (2-6, 12, 15, 17) and compounds with modifications at both base and sugar fragments (11, 15). The evaluation of cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of new compounds against AdV5 showed high selectivity indexes for N4-methyl-6-azacytidine (2) and N,O-tetraacetyl-6-azacytidine (8). High anti-adenoviral activity of N4-methyl-6-azacytidine as well as very low cytotoxicity may suggest its further investigation as potential compound for the therapy of AdV infection. PMID:26167665

  10. Post-adenoviral parasympathetic dysautonomia in a child: a case report

    Martinez Adalaida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is the first reported case of adenoviral meningoencephalitis that was complicated by persistent parasympathetic dysautonomia, which clinically either stimulated or inhibited its activity. Case presentation A 7-year-old Caucasian girl presented to our hospital in March 2008 with a three day history of upper respiratory infection. Her condition worsened and she was placed on ventilator support for two weeks. Her recovery was complicated by a persistent selective parasympathetic dysautonomia. Her past medical history was unremarkable. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of an adenoviral infection in a child which was complicated after recovery from an acute meningoencephalitis and peripheral neuropathy.

  11. Combining viral vectored and protein-in-adjuvant vaccines against the blood-stage malaria antigen AMA1: report on a phase 1a clinical trial.

    Hodgson, Susanne H; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Rampling, Thomas W; Biswas, Sumi; Poulton, Ian D; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D; Alanine, Daniel Gw; Illingworth, Joseph J; de Cassan, Simone C; Zhu, Daming; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A; Moyle, Sarah; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M; Wu, Yimin; Ellis, Ruth D; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines--chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 and the orthopoxvirus MVA. A variety of promising "mixed-modality" regimens were tested. All volunteers were primed with ChAd63, and then subsequently boosted with MVA and/or protein-in-adjuvant using either an 8- or 16-week prime-boost interval. We report on the safety of these regimens, as well as the T cell, B cell, and serum antibody responses. Notably, IgG antibody responses primed by ChAd63 were comparably boosted by AMA1 protein vaccine, irrespective of whether CPG 7909 was included in the Alhydrogel adjuvant. The ability to improve the potency of a relatively weak aluminium-based adjuvant in humans, by previously priming with an adenoviral vaccine vector encoding the same antigen, thus offers a novel vaccination strategy for difficult or neglected disease targets when access to more potent adjuvants is not possible. PMID:25156127

  12. Characterization of human adenovirus 35 and derivation of complex vectors

    Nabel Gary J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vectors based on human serotype 35 (Ad35 are desirable due to the relatively low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in the human population. The structure of the viral genome and life cycle of Ad35 differs from the better characterized Ad5 and these differences require differences in the strategies for the generation of vectors for gene delivery. Results Sequences essential for E1 and E4 function were identified and removed and the effects of the deletions on viral gene transcription were determined. In addition, the non-essential E3 region was deleted from rAd35 vectors and a sequence was found that did not have an effect on viability but reduced viral fitness. The packaging capacity of rAd35 was dependent on pIX and vectors were generated with stable genome sizes of up to 104% of the wild type genome size. These data were used to make an E1-, E3-, E4-deleted rAd35 vector. This rAd35 vector with multiple gene deletions has the advantages of multiple blocks to viral replication (i.e., E1 and E4 deletions and a transgene packaging capacity of 7.6 Kb, comparable to rAd5 vectors. Conclusions The results reported here allow the generation of larger capacity rAd35 vectors and will guide the derivation of adenovirus vectors from other serotypes.

  13. Post-adenoviral parasympathetic dysautonomia in a child: a case report

    Martinez Adalaida; McLoughlin Terence F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This is the first reported case of adenoviral meningoencephalitis that was complicated by persistent parasympathetic dysautonomia, which clinically either stimulated or inhibited its activity. Case presentation A 7-year-old Caucasian girl presented to our hospital in March 2008 with a three day history of upper respiratory infection. Her condition worsened and she was placed on ventilator support for two weeks. Her recovery was complicated by a persistent selective paras...

  14. Inhibition of apoptosis reduces immunogeneic potential of adenoviral-treated syngeneic liver grafts.

    Puellmann, Kerstin; Beham, Alexander; Kienle, Klaus; Vogel, Mandy; Schlitt, Hans Juergen; Jauch, Karl Walter; Rentsch, Markus

    2006-11-27

    Effects of adenoviral therapy and reduced apoptosis on immune response were investigated in a rat liver transplantation model after prolonged ischemia-reperfusion. Liver donors were treated i.v. either with an adenoviral construct, expressing bcl-2, green-fluorescent-protein, or doxycyclin. Intrahepatic apoptosis was assessed by terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. The intrahepatic presence of CD4, CD8a, CD163, immunoglobulin (Ig)beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and myeloperoxidase (MPO) was quantified by realtime polymerase chain reaction at 24 hours and seven days after transplantation. Bcl-2 expression abrogated the TNF-alpha elevation and reduced apoptosis of hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells as compared to advCMV green fluorescent protein. No effects on CD4, CD8a, CD163 and MPO expression were noticed in bcl-2 pretreated livers, whereas Igbeta was slightly enhanced compared to controls. Adenoviral infected liver grafts trigger an immune response but reduced apoptosis resulted in down-regulation of TNF-alpha. Thus, bcl-2 transfer might simultaneously reduce graft ischemia reperfusion injury and immunogenicity. PMID:17130789

  15. Elementary vectors

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  16. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  17. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  18. Specific interaction between adenoviral 55-kDa E1B protein and in vivo produced p53 fusion proteins.

    Chumakov, A; Koeffler, H P

    1993-09-15

    Several protein fusion systems have been used in recent years to study protein-protein and DNA-protein interactions. Most of them use bacterially produced proteins which have several inherent disadvantages, notably, the absence of correct post-translational modifications and the frequent insolubility of recombinant proteins. We sought to develop a system to study proteins interacting with the nuclear phosphoprotein p53, which is believed to be a tumor suppressor. To prepare fusions of p53, we developed a convenient system that permits both in vivo and in vitro production and easy affinity purification of peptides and protein fragments as glutathione-transferase fusions. We placed the coding sequence of the Schistosoma japonica glutathione S-transferase (GST) under the control of the strong CMV/T7 promoter and SV40 splice and polyadenylation signals. An extensive polylinker (MCS) at the 3' end of the GST gene is preceded by the sequence encoding the cleavage site of the site-specific protease. We cloned the complete coding sequences of human wild-type p53, as well as p53 mutants representing all four mutational hotspots (codons 141, 175, 248, and 273), into our expression vector. In vitro transcription using the upstream T7 promoter and translation in reticulocyte lysates form an easy way to produce hybrid proteins; affinity purification on a glutathione-agarose column removes proteins that are present in reticulocyte lysates. We have also studied specific in vivo interactions of human p53 with the adenoviral 55-kDa E1B protein by transfecting expression constructs of GST-p53 fusions into human Ad5-transformed 293 cells. PMID:8406015

  19. Induction of fibroblasts to neurons through adenoviral gene delivery

    Fengxi Meng; Siye Chen; Qinglong Miao; Kechun Zhou; Qicheng Lao; Xiaohui Zhang; Wenyi Guo; Jianwei Jiao

    2012-01-01

    Dear Editor,The direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to neurons [1] was developed while many scientists were interested in neuronal differentiation using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) [2].This direct reprogramming skips a pluripotent state,making patient- and/or disease-specific cell therapy much faster and more feasible.Recent reports have indicated that mouse or human fibroblasts could be directly converted to a number of different cell types,such as cardiomyocytes,blood progenitor cells,hepatocyte-like cells,neural progenitors and specific dopaminergic neurons [3-9].However,all of the studies in this field have employed the retroviral or lentiviral vector delivery system.

  20. Safety and efficacy of factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in murine and canine hemophilia B models by adeno-associated viral vector serotype 1

    Arruda, Valder R.; Schuettrumpf, Joerg; Herzog, Roland W; Nichols, Timothy C.; Robinson, Nancy; Lotfi, Yasmin; Mingozzi, Federico; Xiao, Weidong; Couto, Linda B.; High, Katherine A.

    2003-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors (serotype 2) efficiently transduce skeletal muscle, and have been used as gene delivery vehicles for hemophilia B and for muscular dystrophies in experimental animals and humans. Recent reports suggest that AAV vectors based on serotypes 1, 5, and 7 transduce murine skeletal muscle much more efficiently than AAV-2, with reported increases in expression ranging from 2-fold to 1000-fold. We sought to determine whether this increased efficacy could be observe...

  1. Ex-vivo evaluation of gene therapy vectors in human pancreatic (cancer) tissue slices

    Michael A van Geer; Koert FD Kuhlmann; Conny T Bakker; Fibo JW ten Kate; Ronald PJ Oude Elferink; Piter J Bosma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To culture human pancreatic tissue obtained from small resection specimens as a pre-clinical model for examining virus-host interactions.METHODS: Human pancreatic tissue samples (malignant and normal) were obtained from surgical specimens and processed immediately to tissue slices.Tissue slices were cultured ex vivo for 1-6 d in an incubator using 95% O2. Slices were subsequently analyzed for viability and morphology. In addition the slices were incubated with different viral vectors expressing the repor ter genes GFP or DsRed.Expression of these reporter genes was measured at 72 h after infection.RESULTS: With the Krumdieck tissue slicer, uniform slices could be generated from pancreatic tissue but only upon embedding the tissue in 3% low melting agarose. Immunohistological examination showed the presence of all pancreatic cell types. Pancreatic normal and cancer tissue slices could be cultured for up to 6 d, while retaining viability and a moderate to good morphology. Reporter gene expression indicated that the slices could be infected and transduced efficiently by adenoviral vectors and by adeno associated viral vectors, whereas transduction with lentiviral vectors was limited. For the adenoviral vector, the transduction seemed limited to the peripheral layers of the explants.CONCLUSION: The presented sys tem al lows reproducible processing of minimal amounts of pancreatic tissue into slices uniform in size, suitable for pre-clinical evaluation of gene therapy vectors.

  2. Adenovirus hexon modifications influence in vitro properties of pseudotyped human adenovirus type 5 vectors.

    Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Jing, Liu; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used human adenovirus (HAdV)-5-based vectors are restricted by their tropism and pre-existing immunity. Here, we characterized novel HAdV-5 vectors pseudotyped with hypervariable regions (HVRs) and surface domains (SDs) of other HAdV types. Hexon-modified HAdV-5 vectors (HV-HVR5, HV-HVR12, HV-SD12 and HV-SD4) could be reconstituted and amplified in human embryonic kidney cells. After infection of various cell lines, we measured transgene expression levels by performing luciferase reporter assays or coagulation factor IX (FIX) ELISA. Dose-dependent studies revealed that luciferase expression levels were comparable for HV-HVR5, HV-SD12 and HV-SD4, whereas HV-HVR12 expression levels were significantly lower. Vector genome copy numbers (VCNs) from genomic DNA and nuclear extracts were then determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Surprisingly, determination of cell- and nuclear fraction-associated VCNs revealed increased VCNs for HV-HVR12 compared with HV-SD12 and HV-HVR5. Increased nuclear fraction-associated HV-HVR12 DNA molecules and decreased transgene expression levels were independent of the cell line used, and we observed the same effect for a hexon-modified high-capacity adenoviral vector encoding canine FIX. In conclusion, studying hexon-modified adenoviruses in vitro demonstrated that HVRs but also flanking hexon regions influence uptake and transgene expression of adenoviral vectors. PMID:26519158

  3. Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade.

    Romero, M I; Smith, G M

    1998-12-01

    This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function. PMID:10023440

  4. Biodistribution and Toxicological Safety of Adenovirus Type 5 and Type 35 Vectored Vaccines Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), Ebola, or Marburg Are Similar Despite Differing Adenovirus Serotype Vector, Manufacturer's Construct, or Gene Inserts

    Sheets, Rebecca L.; Stein, Judith; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; Andrews, Charla; Nason, Martha; He, Bin; Koo, Edward; Trotter, Holly; Duffy, Chris; Manetz, T. Scott; Gomez, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Vaccine Research Center has developed vaccine candidates for different diseases/infectious agents (including HIV-1, Ebola, and Marburg viruses) built on an adenovirus vector platform, based on adenovirus type 5 or 35. To support clinical development of each vaccine candidate, pre-clinical studies were performed in rabbits to determine where in the body they biodistribute and how rapidly they clear, and to screen for potential toxicities (intrinsic and immunotoxicities). The vaccines biodi...

  5. Vector analysis

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  6. Evaluation of the immune response to recombinant DNA vaccine and adenoviral vaccine co-expressing the M1 and HA genes of H5N1 influenza virus in mice.

    Guo, Jianqiang; Yao, Lihong; Chen, Aijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Jinqi; Xu, Pengwei; Zhang, Zhiqing

    2011-06-01

    In order to evaluate the response to vector-expressed M1 and HA genes of influenza virus in mice, we prepared recombinant plasmid pStar-M1/HA and recombinant adenovirus Ad-M1/HA containing both the full-length matrix protein 1(M1) and hemagglutinin (HA) genes of human H5N1 influenza virus strain A/Anhui/1/2005. We then combined the DNA vaccine and adenoviral vaccine in immunization of BALB/c mice with a prime-boost regime. We immunized the mice with DNA vaccine at day 0 and 28 and with recombinant adenoviral vaccines at day 14 and 42. We took blood samples before each injection and 14 days after the final injection for detection of humoral immune responses. At day 56, we sacrificed the mice and collected splenocytes for detection of cellular immune responses. ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay showed that specific IgG Abs against H5N1 influenza virus was induced in serum of the immunized mice. ELISPOT results confirmed that the specific cellular immune responses were successfully induced against the M1 and HA proteins of H5N1 influenza virus. This study provides new strategy for development of novel influenza vaccines. PMID:22034816

  7. Efficient generation of double heterologous promoter controlled oncolytic adenovirus vectors by a single homologous recombination step in Escherichia coli

    Wildner Oliver

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising agents for the multimodal treatment of cancer. However, tumor-selectivity is crucial for their applicability in patients. Recent studies by several groups demonstrated that oncolytic adenoviruses with tumor-/tissue-specific expression of the E1 and E4 genes, which are pivotal for adenoviral replication, have a specificity profile that is superior to viruses that solely target the expression of E1 or E4 genes. Presently the E1 and E4 regions are modified in a time consuming sequential fashion. Results Based on the widely used adenoviral cloning system AdEasy we generated a novel transfer vector that allows efficient and rapid generation of conditionally replication-competent adenovirus type 5 based vectors with the viral E1 and E4 genes under the transcriptional control of heterologous promoters. For insertion of the promoters of interest our transfer vector has two unique multiple cloning sites. Additionally, our shuttle plasmid allows encoding of a transgene within the E1A transcription unit. The modifications, including E1 mutations, are introduced into the adenoviral genome by a single homologous recombination step in Escherichia coli. Subsequently infectious viruses are rescued from plasmids. As a proof-of-concept we generated two conditionally replication-competent adenoviruses Ad.Ki•COX and Ad.COX•Ki with the promoters of the Ki-67 protein and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 driving E1 and E4 and vice versa. Conclusion We demonstrated with our cloning system efficient generation of double heterologous promoter controlled oncolytic adenoviral vectors by a single homologous recombination step in bacteria. The generated viruses showed preferential replication in tumor cells and in a subcutaneous HT-29 colon cancer xenograft model the viruses demonstrated significant oncolytic activity comparable with dl327.

  8. A novel adenovirus vector for easy cloning in the E3 region downstream of the CMV promoter

    Orfanoudakis Georges; Boulade-Ladame Charlotte; Mailly Laurent; Deryckere François

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The construction of expression vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), usually based on homologous recombination, is time consuming as a shuttle plasmid has to be selected before recombination with the viral genome. Here, we describe a method allowing direct cloning of a transgene in the E3 region of the Ad5 genome already containing the immediate early CMV promoter upstream of three unique restriction sites. This allowed the construction of recombinant adenoviral gen...

  9. Intranasal Boosting with an Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine Markedly Enhances Protection by Parenteral Mycobacterium bovis BCG Immunization against Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Santosuosso, Michael; McCormick, Sarah; Zhang, Xizhong; Zganiacz, Anna; Xing, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A (AdAg85A) as a boost vaccine. Since we recently demonstrated that a single intranasal but not intramuscular immunization with AdAg85A was able to...

  10. Cloning vector

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  11. Testing gene therapy vectors in human primary nasal epithelial cultures.

    Cao, Huibi; Ouyang, Hong; Ip, Wan; Du, Kai; Duan, Wenming; Avolio, Julie; Wu, Jing; Duan, Cathleen; Yeger, Herman; Bear, Christine E; Gonska, Tanja; Hu, Jim; Moraes, Theo J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which codes for a chloride/bicarbonate channel in the apical epithelial membranes. CFTR dysfunction results in a multisystem disease including the development of life limiting lung disease. The possibility of a cure for CF by replacing defective CFTR has led to different approaches for CF gene therapy; all of which ultimately have to be tested in preclinical model systems. Primary human nasal epithelial cultures (HNECs) derived from nasal turbinate brushing were used to test the efficiency of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector expressing CFTR. HD-Ad-CFTR transduction resulted in functional expression of CFTR at the apical membrane in nasal epithelial cells obtained from CF patients. These results suggest that HNECs can be used for preclinical testing of gene therapy vectors in CF. PMID:26730394

  12. Equivalent Vectors

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  13. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development.

  14. Codon optimization of the adenoviral fiber negatively impacts structural protein expression and viral fitness.

    Villanueva, Eneko; Martí-Solano, Maria; Fillat, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage adaptation of lytic viruses to their hosts is determinant for viral fitness. In this work, we analyzed the codon usage of adenoviral proteins by principal component analysis and assessed their codon adaptation to the host. We observed a general clustering of adenoviral proteins according to their function. However, there was a significant variation in the codon preference between the host-interacting fiber protein and the rest of structural late phase proteins, with a non-optimal codon usage of the fiber. To understand the impact of codon bias in the fiber, we optimized the Adenovirus-5 fiber to the codon usage of the hexon structural protein. The optimized fiber displayed increased expression in a non-viral context. However, infection with adenoviruses containing the optimized fiber resulted in decreased expression of the fiber and of wild-type structural proteins. Consequently, this led to a drastic reduction in viral release. The insertion of an exogenous optimized protein as a late gene in the adenovirus with the optimized fiber further interfered with viral fitness. These results highlight the importance of balancing codon usage in viral proteins to adequately exploit cellular resources for efficient infection and open new opportunities to regulate viral fitness for virotherapy and vaccine development. PMID:27278133

  15. Disseminated adenoviral infection masquerading as lower urinary tract voiding dysfunction in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Aboumohamed, Ahmed; Flechner, Stuart M; Chiesa-Vottero, Andres; Srinivas, Titte R; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-11-01

    Viral infections continue to cause significant morbidity in immunosuppressed kidney transplant patients. Although cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and polyoma "BK" virus are more frequently encountered, the Adenovirus can cause multi-organ system infections, and may be difficult to diagnose because it is not often considered in the initial work up in kidney transplant recipients. We present an unusual case of a kidney recipient 1 year post-transplant with disseminated adenoviral infection, who had an initial presentation of lower urinary tract voiding dysfunction with hematuria and sterile pyuria. This progressed to a severe tubulointerstitial nephritis and acute kidney injury that improved with reduction of immunosuppression. Serial blood viral loads are useful for monitoring the course of infection. Urinary adenoviral infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis whenever a kidney transplant recipient presents with unexplained lower tract voiding dysfunction, hematuria, and sterile pyuria. The allograft kidney and bladder can be targets of viral proliferation. Early diagnosis with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy is essential to clear the virus and maintain allograft function. PMID:23816478

  16. Down-regulation of IL-8 expression in human airway epithelial cells through helper-dependent adenoviral-mediated RNA interference

    Huibi CAO; Anan WANG; Bernard MARTIN; David R.KOEHLER; Pamela L.ZEITLIN; A.Keith TANAWELL; Jim HU

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 is a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor and a crucial mediator in neutrophil-dependent inflammation.Various cell types produce IL-8, either in response to external stimuli such as cytokines or bacterial infection, or after malignant transformation. Anti-IL-8 strategies have been considered for anti-inflammatory therapy. In this paper we demonstrate that the RNA interference technique can be used to efficiently down-regulate IL-8 protein expression in airway epithelial cells. We used a helper-dependent adenoviral vector to express a small hairpin (sh)RNA targeting human IL-8 in cultured airway epithelial cells (IB3-1, Cftr-/-; C38, Cftr-corrected) stimulated with TNF-α, IL-1 β or heat-inactivated Burkholderia cenocepacia. Stimulated IL-8 expression in IB3-1 and C38 cells was significantly reduced by shRNA expression. The shRNA targeting IL-8 had no effect on the activation of NF-κB, or on the protein levels of Iκ B or IL-6, suggesting that this anti-IL-8 strategy was highly specific, and therefore may offer potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  17. Molecular and macromolecular alterations of recombinant adenoviral vectors do not resolve changes in hepatic drug metabolism during infection

    Croyle Maria A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this report we test the hypothesis that long-term virus-induced alterations in CYP occur from changes initiated by the virus that may not be related to the immune response. Enzyme activity, protein expression and mRNA of CYP3A2, a correlate of human CYP3A4, and CYP2C11, responsive to inflammatory mediators, were assessed 0.25, 1, 4, and 14 days after administration of several different recombinant adenoviruses at a dose of 5.7 × 1012 virus particles (vp/kg to male Sprague Dawley rats. Wild type adenovirus, containing all viral genes, suppressed CYP3A2 and 2C11 activity by 37% and 39%, respectively within six hours. Levels fell to 67% (CYP3A2 and 79% (CYP2C11 of control by 14 days (p ≤ 0.01. Helper-dependent adenovirus, with all viral genes removed, suppressed CYP3A2 (43% and CYP2C11 (55% within six hours. CYP3A2 remained significantly suppressed (47%, 14 days, p ≤ 0.01 while CYP2C11 returned to baseline at this time. CYP3A2 and 2C11 were reduced by 45 and 42% respectively 6 hours after treatment with PEGylated adenovirus, which has a low immunological profile (p ≤ 0.05. CYP3A2 remained suppressed (34%, p ≤ 0.05 for 14 days while CYP2C11 recovered. Inactivated virus suppressed CYP3A2 activity by 25–50% for 14 days (p ≤ 0.05. CYP2C11 was affected similar manner but recovered by day 14. Microarray and in vitro studies suggest that changes in cellular signaling pathways initiated early in virus infection contribute to changes in CYP.

  18. Immunization With AFP + GM CSF Plasmid Prime and AFP Adenoviral Vector Boost in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hepatoma; Liver Cancer, Adult; Liver Cell Carcinoma; Liver Cell Carcinoma, Adult; Cancer of Liver; Cancer of the Liver; Cancer, Hepatocellular; Hepatic Cancer; Hepatic Neoplasms; Hepatocellular Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neoplasms, Hepatic; Neoplasms, Liver

  19. Adenoviral-based foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine: evaluation of new vectors expressing serotype O in bovines

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), an antigenically variable virus, is considered the most important infectious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Recently serotypes A and O have been the cause of major outbreaks. We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine...

  20. Vector geometry

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  1. Introduction of optical reporter gene into cancer and immune cells using lentiviral vector

    For some applications such as gene therapy or reporter gene imaging, a gene has to be introduced into the organism of interest. Adenoviral vectors are capable of transducing both replicating and non-dividing cells. The adenoviral vectors do not integrate their DNA into host DNA, but do lead to an immune response. Lentiviruses belong to the retrovirus family and are capable of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an example of a lentavirus. A disabled HIV virus has been developed and could be used for in vivo gene delivery. A portion of the viral genome which encodes for accessory proteins canbe deleted without affecting production of the vector and efficiency of infection. Lentiviral delivery into various rodent tissues shows sustained expression of the transgene of up to six months. Furthermore, there seems to be little or no immune response with these vectors. These lentiviral vectors hold significant promise for in vivo gene delivery. We constructed lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc) and eGFP. Fluc-eGFP fusion gene was inserted into multiple cloning sites of pLentiM1.3 vector. Reporter gene (Fluc-eGFP) was designed to be driven by murine CMV promoter with enhanced efficacy of transgene expression as compared to human CMV promoter. We transfected pLenti1.3-Fluc into human cervix cancer cell line (HeLa) and murine T lymphocytes. We also constructed adenovirus encoding Fluc and transfected to HeLa and T cells. This LentiM1.3-Fluc was transfected into HeLa cells and murine T lymphocytes in vitro, showing consistent expression of eGFP under the fluorescence microscopy from the 2nd day of transfection. Firefly luciferase reporter gene was not expressed in immune cells when it is mediated by adenovirus. Lentivirus was validated as a useful vector for both immune and cancer cells

  2. Introduction of optical reporter gene into cancer and immune cells using lentiviral vector

    Min, Jung Joon; Le, Uyenchi N.; Moon, Sung Min; Heo, Young Jun; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Schoole of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    For some applications such as gene therapy or reporter gene imaging, a gene has to be introduced into the organism of interest. Adenoviral vectors are capable of transducing both replicating and non-dividing cells. The adenoviral vectors do not integrate their DNA into host DNA, but do lead to an immune response. Lentiviruses belong to the retrovirus family and are capable of infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an example of a lentavirus. A disabled HIV virus has been developed and could be used for in vivo gene delivery. A portion of the viral genome which encodes for accessory proteins canbe deleted without affecting production of the vector and efficiency of infection. Lentiviral delivery into various rodent tissues shows sustained expression of the transgene of up to six months. Furthermore, there seems to be little or no immune response with these vectors. These lentiviral vectors hold significant promise for in vivo gene delivery. We constructed lentiviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc) and eGFP. Fluc-eGFP fusion gene was inserted into multiple cloning sites of pLentiM1.3 vector. Reporter gene (Fluc-eGFP) was designed to be driven by murine CMV promoter with enhanced efficacy of transgene expression as compared to human CMV promoter. We transfected pLenti1.3-Fluc into human cervix cancer cell line (HeLa) and murine T lymphocytes. We also constructed adenovirus encoding Fluc and transfected to HeLa and T cells. This LentiM1.3-Fluc was transfected into HeLa cells and murine T lymphocytes in vitro, showing consistent expression of eGFP under the fluorescence microscopy from the 2nd day of transfection. Firefly luciferase reporter gene was not expressed in immune cells when it is mediated by adenovirus. Lentivirus was validated as a useful vector for both immune and cancer cells.

  3. Preclinical Safety and Efficacy of in Situ REIC/Dkk-3 Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Sakaguchi,Masakiyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The preclinical safety and therapeutic efficacy of adenoviral vectors that express the REIC/Dkk-3 tumor suppressor gene (Ad-REIC was examined for use in prostate cancer gene therapy. The Ad-human (h and mouse (m REIC were previously demonstrated to induce strong anti-cancer effects in vitro and in vivo, and we herein report the results of two in vivo studies. First, intra-tumor Ad-hREIC administration was examined for toxicity and therapeutic effects in a subcutaneous tumor model using the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Second, intra-prostatic Ad-mREIC administration was tested for toxicity in normal mice. The whole-body and spleen weights, hematological and serum chemistry parameters, and histological evaluation of tissues from throughout the body were analyzed. Both experiments indicated that there was no significant difference in the examined parameters between the Ad-REIC-treated group and the control (PBS- or Ad-LacZ-treated group. In the in vitro analysis using PC3 cells, a significant apoptotic effect was observed after Ad-hREIC treatment. Confirming this observation, the robust anti-tumor efficacy of Ad-hREIC was demonstrated in the in vivo subcutaneous prostate cancer model. Based on the results of these preclinical experiments, we consider the adenovirus-mediated REIC/Dkk-3 in situ gene therapy to be safe and useful for the clinical treatment of prostate cancer.

  4. Combining Viral Vectored and Protein-in-adjuvant Vaccines Against the Blood-stage Malaria Antigen AMA1: Report on a Phase 1a Clinical Trial

    Susanne H. Hodgson; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Milne, Kathryn H; Thomas W Rampling; Biswas, Sumi; Ian D Poulton; Miura, Kazutoyo; Douglas, Alexander D.; Alanine, Daniel GW; Illingworth, Joseph J.; de Cassan, Simone C.; ZHU, DAMING; Nicosia, Alfredo; Long, Carole A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective vaccines against difficult disease targets will require the identification of new subunit vaccination strategies that can induce and maintain effective immune responses in humans. Here we report on a phase 1a clinical trial using the AMA1 antigen from the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite delivered either as recombinant protein formulated with Alhydrogel adjuvant with and without CPG 7909, or using recombinant vectored vaccines—chimpanzee adenovir...

  5. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available TRIAL DESIGN: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported. METHODS: Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination. RESULTS: Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate

  6. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H+/K+ ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H+/K+ ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H+/K+ ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H+/K+ ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  7. Vector velocimeter

    2012-01-01

    generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator for...

  8. Protective immunity against botulism provided by a single dose vaccination with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    Zeng, Mingtao; Xu, Qingfu; Elias, Md.; Pichichero, Michael E.; Simpson, Lance L.; Leonard A. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins cause botulism, a neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals. We constructed a replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding a synthesized codon-optimized gene for expression of the heavy chain C-fragment (HC50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C). This recombinant human serotype 5 adenoviral vector (Ad5) was evaluated as a genetic vaccine candidate against botulism caused by BoNT/C in a mouse model. A one-time intramuscular injection with 105 to 2 × 107 pfu of adeno...

  9. Possible applications for replicating HIV 1 vectors

    Das, Atze T.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Berkhout, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery some 25 years ago, much has been learned about HIV type 1 and the molecular details of its replication cycle. This insight has been used to develop lentiviral vector systems that have advantages over conventional retroviral vector systems. For safety reasons, the lentiviral vector systems are replication incompetent and the risk of generating a replication competent virus has been minimized. Nevertheless, there may be certain applications for replication competent HIV base...

  10. Aerosolized adenovirus-vectored vaccine as an alternative vaccine delivery method

    Roy Chad J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conventional parenteral injection of vaccines is limited in its ability to induce locally-produced immune responses in the respiratory tract, and has logistical disadvantages in widespread vaccine administration. Recent studies suggest that intranasal delivery or vaccination in the respiratory tract with recombinant viral vectors can enhance immunogenicity and protection against respiratory diseases such as influenza and tuberculosis, and can offer more broad-based generalized protection by eliciting durable mucosal immune responses. Controlled aerosolization is a method to minimize vaccine particle size and ensure delivery to the lower respiratory tract. Here, we characterize the dynamics of aerosolization and show the effects of vaccine concentration on particle size, vector viability, and the actual delivered dose of an aerosolized adenoviral vector. In addition, we demonstrate that aerosol delivery of a recombinant adenoviral vaccine encoding H1N1 hemagglutinin is immunogenic and protects ferrets against homologous viral challenge. Overall, aerosol delivery offers comparable protection to intramuscular injection, and represents an attractive vaccine delivery method for broad-based immunization campaigns.

  11. Preparation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells for the Purpose of Calcium Imaging, Cell Injury Measurements, and Adenoviral Infection

    Orabi, Abrahim I.; Muili, Kamaldeen A.; Wang, Dong; Jin, Shunqian; Perides, George; Husain, Sohail Z.

    2013-01-01

    The pancreatic acinar cell is the main parenchymal cell of the exocrine pancreas and plays a primary role in the secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the pancreatic duct. It is also the site for the initiation of pancreatitis. Here we describe how acinar cells are isolated from whole pancreas tissue and intracellular calcium signals are measured. In addition, we describe the techniques of transfecting these cells with adenoviral constructs, and subsequently measuring the leakage of lactate de...

  12. Development of peritoneal tumor-targeting vector by in vivo screening with a random peptide-displaying adenovirus library.

    Takeshi Nishimoto

    Full Text Available The targeting of gene transfer at the cell-entry level is one of the most attractive challenges in vector development. However, attempts to redirect adenovirus vectors to alternative receptors by engineering the capsid-coding region have shown limited success, because the proper targeting ligands on the cells of interest are generally unknown. To overcome this limitation, we have constructed a random peptide library displayed on the adenoviral fiber knob, and have successfully selected targeted vectors by screening the library on cancer cell lines in vitro. The infection of targeted vectors was considered to be mediated by specific receptors on target cells. However, the expression levels and kinds of cell surface receptors may be substantially different between in vitro culture and in vivo tumor tissue. Here, we screened the peptide display-adenovirus library in the peritoneal dissemination model of AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. The vector displaying a selected peptide (PFWSGAV showed higher infectivity in the AsPC-1 peritoneal tumors but not in organs and other peritoneal tumors as compared with a non-targeted vector. Furthermore, the infectivity of the PFWSGAV-displaying vector for AsPC-1 peritoneal tumors was significantly higher than that of a vector displaying a peptide selected by in vitro screening, indicating the usefulness of in vivo screening in exploring the targeting vectors. This vector-screening system can facilitate the development of targeted adenovirus vectors for a variety of applications in medicine.

  13. Therapeutic induction of angiogenesis by direct myocardial administration of an adenovirus vector encoding human hepatocyte growth factor gene and its safety

    WU Danli; ZHANG Yourong; LAO Miaofen; YUAN Lizhen; WANG Lan; HA Xiaoqin; WU Zuze(WU Cutse)

    2004-01-01

    After the study in vitro and in rats, we assessed further the effects and safety of local angiogen therapy using intramyocardial delivery of an adenovirus carrying hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in a canine ischemia model. The angiogenic activity of Ad-HGF was evaluated from three aspects. First, the augmentation of collateral vessel development was assessed by angiography 30 d after surgery. The results showed that the density of collateral vessels in treated group was higher than that of control group. Secondly, infarct size was evaluated by TTC staining and image analysis. The results showed that the infarct size of treated group was smaller than that of control group. Thirdly, the myocardial regional blood flow was determined by the method of colored microspheres. The results showed that the blood flow recovered to the level before ligation in treated group, but that of the control group was lower than normal level. In addition, during the study of chronic toxicity, we tested the anti-adenovirus antibodies by neutralization method. The antibodies yielded after the fourth injection decreased slowly from peak level and disappeared 12 weeks after drug withdrawal. Overall, Ad-HGF can promote angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium and reduce infarct size.So this method may be considered as a therapeutic angiogenesis induction strategy for ischemic disease including myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease. At the same time, Ad-HGF could induce the yield of anti-adenovirus antibodies to neutralize adenovirus, which may be the mechanism of adenovirus clearance.

  14. 'Advanced' generation lentiviruses as efficient vectors for cardiomyocyte gene transduction in vitro and in vivo.

    Bonci, D; Cittadini, A; Latronico, M V G; Borello, U; Aycock, J K; Drusco, A; Innocenzi, A; Follenzi, A; Lavitrano, M; Monti, M G; Ross, J; Naldini, L; Peschle, C; Cossu, G; Condorelli, G

    2003-04-01

    Efficient gene transduction in cardiomyocytes is a task that can be accomplished only by viral vectors. Up to now, the most commonly used vectors for this purpose have been adenoviral-derived ones. Recently, it has been demonstrated that lentiviral vectors can transduce growth-arrested cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, a modified form of lentiviral vector (the 'advanced' generation), containing an mRNA-stabilizer sequence and a nuclear import sequence, has been shown to significantly improve gene transduction in growth-arrested cells as compared to the third-generation vector. Therefore, we tested whether the 'advanced' generation lentivirus is capable of infecting and transducing cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo, comparing efficacy in vitro against the third-generation of the same vector. Here we report that 'advanced' generation lentiviral vectors infected most (>80%) cardiomyocytes in culture, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and FACS analyses: in contrast the percentage of cardiomyocytes infected by third-generation lentivirus was three- to four-fold lower. Moreover, 'advanced' generation lentivirus was also capable of infecting and inducing stable gene expression in adult myocardium in vivo. Thus, 'advanced' generation lentiviral vectors can be used for both in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies in the cardiomyocyte. PMID:12692591

  15. Adenovirus type 35-vectored tuberculosis vaccine has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in healthy, BCG-vaccinated, QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold (+) Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis.

    Walsh, Douglas S; Owira, Victorine; Polhemus, Mark; Otieno, Lucas; Andagalu, Ben; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waitumbi, John; Hawkridge, Anthony; Shepherd, Barbara; Pau, Maria Grazia; Sadoff, Jerald; Douoguih, Macaya; McClain, J Bruce

    2016-05-01

    In a Phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety of AERAS-402, an adenovirus 35-vectored TB vaccine candidate expressing 3 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) immunodominant antigens, in subjects with and without latent Mtb infection. HIV-negative, BCG-vaccinated Kenyan adults without evidence of tuberculosis, 10 QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-G)(-) and 10 QFT-G(+), were randomized 4:1 to receive AERAS-402 or placebo as two doses, on Days 0 and 56, with follow up to Day 182. There were no deaths, serious adverse events or withdrawals. For 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(-) and 1 AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subject, there were 3 self-limiting severe AEs of injection site pain: 1 after the first vaccination and 1 after each vaccination, respectively. Two additional severe AEs considered vaccine-related were reported after the first vaccination in AERAS-402 QFT-G(+) subjects: elevated blood creatine phosphokinase and neutropenia, the latter slowly improving but remaining abnormal until study end. AERAS-402 was not detected in urine or throat cultures for any subject. In intracellular cytokine staining studies, curtailed by technical issues, we saw modest CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to Mtb Ag85A/b peptide pools among both QFT-G(-) and (+) subjects, with trends in the CD4+ T cells suggestive of boosting after the second vaccine dose, slightly more so in QFT-G(+) subjects. CD4+ and CD8+ responses to Mtb antigen TB10.4 were minimal. Increases in Adenovirus 35 neutralizing antibodies from screening to end of study, seen in 50% of AERAS-402 recipients, were mostly minimal. This small study confirms acceptable safety and tolerability profiles for AERAS-402, in line with other Phase 1 studies of AERAS-402, now to include QFT-G(+) subjects. PMID:27026148

  16. GSH depletion enhances adenoviral bax-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    Honda, Tsuyoshi; Coppola, Simona; Ghibelli, Lina; Cho, Song H; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Spurgers, Kevin B; Brisbay, Shawn M; Roth, Jack A; Meyn, Raymond E; Fang, Bingliang; McDonnell, Timothy J

    2004-04-01

    The utility of dominant acting proapoptotic molecules to induce cell death in cancer cells is being evaluated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. We recently developed a binary adenoviral expression system to enable the efficient gene transfer of Bax and other proapoptotic molecules. Using this system, overexpression of Bax protein in four non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, H1299, A549, H226 and H322, was evaluated. The H322 line exhibited significant resistance to Bax-induced cell death compared to the other cell lines. H322 cells had the highest level of glutathione (GSH). GSH levels were significantly decreased following buthionine sulfoximine treatment and this coincided with enhanced apoptosis induction by Ad-Bax in H322 cells. GSH depletion enhanced Bax protein translocation to mitochondrial membranes. These findings suggest that the redox status may be a determinant of Bax-mediated cell death and that manipulation of intracellular thiols may sensitize cells to apoptosis by facilitating Bax insertion into mitochondrial membranes. PMID:15002033

  17. Highly efficient adenoviral transduction of pancreatic islets using a microfluidic device.

    Silva, Pamuditha N; Atto, Zaid; Regeenes, Romario; Tufa, Uilki; Chen, Yih Yang; Chan, Warren C W; Volchuk, Allen; Kilkenny, Dawn M; Rocheleau, Jonathan V

    2016-08-01

    Tissues are challenging to genetically manipulate due to limited penetration of viral particles resulting in low transduction efficiency. We are particularly interested in expressing genetically-encoded sensors in ex vivo pancreatic islets to measure glucose-stimulated metabolism, however poor viral penetration biases these measurements to only a subset of cells at the periphery. To increase mass transfer of viral particles, we designed a microfluidic device that holds islets in parallel hydrodynamic traps connected by an expanding by-pass channel. We modeled viral particle flow into the tissue using fluorescently-labelled gold nanoparticles of varying sizes and showed a penetration threshold of only ∼5 nm. To increase this threshold, we used EDTA to transiently reduce cell-cell adhesion and expand intercellular space. Ultimately, a combination of media flow and ETDA treatment significantly increased adenoviral transduction to the core of the islet. As proof-of-principle, we used this protocol to transduce an ER-targeted redox sensitive sensor (eroGFP), and revealed significantly greater ER redox capacity at core islet cells. Overall, these data demonstrate a robust method to enhance transduction efficiency of islets, and potentially other tissues, by using a combination of microfluidic flow and transient tissue expansion. PMID:27378588

  18. Comparison of Efficacy of Two Different Topical 0.05% Cyclosporine A Formulations in the Treatment of Adenoviral Keratoconjunctivitis-Related Subepithelial Infiltrates.

    Bayraktutar, Betül N; Uçakhan, Ömur Ö

    2016-01-01

    Subepithelial infiltrates secondary to adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis may persist for years and cause blurred vision, halos, glare, and photophobia. These infiltrates arise from immune reaction against the virus, and few studies have reported topical cyclosporine A to be effective in the treatment of subepithelial infiltrates. Herein, we describe a patient with adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis-related subepithelial infiltrates who did not respond to treatment with a new topical cyclosporine A emulsion prepared with castor oil (Depores 0.05%; Deva İlaç, Kocaeli, Turkey), while the FDA-approved nanoemulsion formulation provided improvement in symptoms and reduced the inflammatory reaction (Restasis 0.05%; Allergan, Irvine, Calif., USA). PMID:27065851

  19. A novel adenovirus vector for easy cloning in the E3 region downstream of the CMV promoter

    Orfanoudakis Georges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The construction of expression vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5, usually based on homologous recombination, is time consuming as a shuttle plasmid has to be selected before recombination with the viral genome. Here, we describe a method allowing direct cloning of a transgene in the E3 region of the Ad5 genome already containing the immediate early CMV promoter upstream of three unique restriction sites. This allowed the construction of recombinant adenoviral genomes in just one step, reducing considerably the time of selection and, of course, production of the corresponding vectors. Using this vector, we produced recombinant adenoviruses, each giving high-level expression of the transgene in the transduced cells.

  20. Hybrid nonviral/viral vector systems for improved piggyBac DNA transposon in vivo delivery.

    Cooney, Ashley L; Singh, Brajesh K; Sinn, Patrick L

    2015-04-01

    The DNA transposon piggyBac is a potential therapeutic agent for multiple genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Recombinant piggyBac transposon and transposase are typically codelivered by plasmid transfection; however, plasmid delivery is inefficient in somatic cells in vivo and is a barrier to the therapeutic application of transposon-based vector systems. Here, we investigate the potential for hybrid piggyBac/viral vectors to transduce cells and support transposase-mediated genomic integration of the transposon. We tested both adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as transposon delivery vehicles. An Ad vector expressing hyperactive insect piggyBac transposase (iPB7) was codelivered. We show transposase-dependent transposition activity and mapped integrations in mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo from each viral vector platform. We also demonstrate efficient and persistent transgene expression following nasal delivery of piggyBac/viral vectors to mice. Furthermore, using piggyBac/Ad expressing Cystic Fibrosis transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR), we show persistent correction of chloride current in well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells derived from CF patients. Combining the emerging technologies of DNA transposon-based vectors with well-studied adenoviral and AAV delivery provides new tools for in vivo gene transfer and presents an exciting opportunity to increase the delivery efficiency for therapeutic genes such as CFTR. PMID:25557623

  1. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  2. Kochen-Specker vectors

    We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, Hn, n≥3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found

  3. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF ADENOVIRAL TRANSDUCTION OF AN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR POSITIVE CELL LINE WITH AN MMTV-LUC REPORTER FOR ENDOCRINE SCREENING

    Standardization and Validation of Adenoviral Transduction of an Androgen Receptor Positive Cell Line with an MMTV-Luc Reporter for Endocrine Screening P. Hartig, K . Bobseine, M. Cardon, C. Lambright and L. E. Gray, Jr. USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC...

  4. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (vectorization and parallelization). Progress report fiscal 1998

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)

  5. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (vectorization and parallelization). Progress report fiscal 1998

    Ishizuki, Shigeru; Kawai, Wataru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo; Adachi, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Nobuo [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)

  6. Adenoviral-mediated p53 transgene expression sensitizes both wild-type and null p53 prostate cancer cells in vitro to radiation

    Purpose/Objective: The effect of adenoviral-mediated p53 transgene expression on the radiation response of two human prostate cancer cell lines, the p53wild-type LNCaP and p53null PC3 lines, was examined. The objective was to determine if this vector sensitizes cells to radiation independently of their p53 status. Methods and Materials: A recombinant adenovirus-5 vector (RPR/INGN 201, Introgen Therapeutics, Houston, TX) containing a CMV promoter and wild-type p53-cDNA (Ad5-p53) was used to facilitate p53 transgene expression. A multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10-40 viral particles per cell was used, based on Ad5/CMV/lacz infection and staining for the β-galactosidase reporter gene product. Clonogenic assays were performed to evaluate the degree of sensitization to radiation of viral-transduced cells compared with irradiated nontransduced controls. The relative efficacy of these treatments to induce apoptotic cell death was determined using the TUNEL assay. Results: The delivery of Ad5-p53 (10 MOI) reduced control plating efficiency from 36.5% to 0.86% in the LNCaP cell line and from 75.1% to 4.1% in the PC3 cell line. After correcting for the effect of Ad5-p53 on plating efficiency, the surviving fraction after 2 Gy (SF2) of gamma-irradiation was reduced over 2.5-fold, from 0.187 to 0.072, with transgene p53 expression in the LNCaP cell line. Surviving fraction after 4 Gy (SF4) was reduced over 4.5-fold, from 0.014 to 0.003, after Ad5-p53 treatment. In the PC3 cell line, Ad5-p53 (40 MOI) reduced SF2 over 1.9-fold from 0.708 to 0.367, and SF4 over 6-fold from 0.335 to 0.056. In both the LNCaP and PC3 cell lines, the combination of Ad5-p53 plus radiation (2 Gy) resulted in supra-additive apoptosis (∼20% for LNCaP and ∼15% for PC3 at 50 MOI), above that seen from the addition of the controls; control vector Ad5-pA plus RT (0.15% for LNCaP and 1.44% for PC3), Ad5-p53 alone (28.6% for LNCaP and 21.7% for PC3), RT alone (0% for LNCaP and 0.23% for PC3), or Ad5-p

  7. Concise vector analysis

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  8. VectorBase

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  9. Custodial vector model

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  10. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  11. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  12. Vector-borne Infections

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  13. Recent progress in polymer-based gene delivery vectors

    HUANG Shiwen; ZHUO Renxi

    2003-01-01

    The gene delivery system is one of the three components of a gene medicine, which is the bottle neck of current gene therapy. Nonviral vectors offer advantages over the viral system of safety, ease of manufacturing, etc. As important nonviral vectors, polymer gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention and have begun to show increasing promising. In this review, the fundamental and recent progress of polymer-based gene delivery vectors is reviewed.

  14. Partial protection against H5N1 influenza in mice with a single dose of a chimpanzee adenovirus vector expressing nucleoprotein.

    Roy, Soumitra; Kobinger, Gary P; Lin, Jianping; Figueredo, Joanita; Calcedo, Roberto; Kobasa, Darwyn; Wilson, James M

    2007-09-28

    The development of adenoviral vectors based on non-human serotypes such as the chimpanzee adenovirus simian adenovirus 24 (AdC7) may allow for their utilization in populations harboring neutralizing antibodies to common human serotypes. Because adenoviral vectors can be used to generate potent T cell responses, they may be useful as vaccines against pandemic influenza such as may be caused by the H5N1 strains that are currently endemic in avian populations. The influenza nucleoprotein (NP) is known to provide MHC Class I restricted epitopes that are effective in evoking a cytolytic response. Because there is only low sequence variation in NP sequences between different influenza strains, a T cell vaccine may provide heterosubtypic protection against a spectrum of influenza A strains. An AdC7 vector expressing the influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 NP was tested for its efficacy in protecting BALB/c mice against two H5N1 strains and compared to a conventional human adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine. The AdC7 NP vaccine elicited a strong anti-NP T cell response. When tested in a mouse challenge model, there was improved survival following challenge with two strains of H5N1 that have caused human outbreaks, Vietnam/1203/04 and Hong Kong/483/97, although the improved survival reached statistical significance only with the strain from Vietnam. PMID:17728024

  15. Vectorization and improvement of nuclear codes, (2)

    Two nuclear codes, three dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis code 'SPARKLE' and two dimensional disruption thermal analysis code 'DREAM', have been vectorized. The Cray version of high energy radiation Monte Carlo elaborate system 'HERMES' has been converted to the Fujitsu MSP version. Reactor safety Analysis code 'RELAP5/MOD3' has been modified to assign its variables to the extended memory area of Fujitsu MSP operating system. We have obtained the speedup of 4.1-4.8 and 1.6 for the vectorized SPARKLE and DREAM, respectively, on the Fujitsu VP2600/10 in the vector execution compared with the scalar execution. In this report, outlines of the codes, techniques used in the vectorization and modification of the codes, and their performance are presented. (author)

  16. Covariantised Vector Galileons

    Hull, Matthew; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-01-01

    Vector galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an ADM approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a `beyond Horndeski' theory involving vector degrees of freedom, that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyse a Higgs mechanism for generating vector galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantisation.

  17. Vaccine Safety

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  18. Enhancement of Mucosal Immunogenicity of Viral Vectored Vaccines by the NKT Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide as Adjuvant

    Shailbala Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccination strategies, specifically viral vectors encoding vaccine immunogens are effective at priming strong immune responses. Mucosal routes offer practical advantages for vaccination by ease of needle-free administration, and immunogen delivery at readily accessible oral/nasal sites to efficiently induce immunity at distant gut and genital tissues. However, since mucosal tissues are inherently tolerant for induction of immune responses, incorporation of adjuvants for optimal mucosal vaccination strategies is important. We report here the effectiveness of alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a synthetic glycolipid agonist of natural killer T (NKT cells, as an adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of vaccine antigens delivered using viral vectors by mucosal routes in murine and nonhuman primate models. Significant improvement in adaptive immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues was observed by including α-GalCer adjuvant for intranasal immunization of mice with vesicular stomatitis virus vector encoding the model antigen ovalbumin and adenoviral vectors expressing HIV env and Gag antigens. Activation of NKT cells in systemic and mucosal tissues along with significant increases in adaptive immune responses were observed in rhesus macaques immunized by intranasal and sublingual routes with protein or adenovirus vectored antigens when combined with α-GalCer adjuvant. These results support the utility of α-GalCer adjuvant for enhancing immunogenicity of mucosal vaccines delivered using viral vectors.

  19. Lentiviral Vector Mediated Claudin1 Silencing Inhibits Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells

    Xianqi Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate worldwide. Several viral vectors including lentiviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors have been used in gene therapy for various forms of human cancer, and have shown promising effects in controlling tumor development. Claudin1 (CLDN1 is a member of the tetraspan transmembrane protein family that plays a major role in tight junctions and is associated with tumor metastasis. However, the role of CLDN1 in breast cancer is largely unexplored. In this study, we tested the therapeutic potential of silencing CLDN1 expression in two breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cell lines using lentiviral vector mediated RNA interference. We found that a CLDN1 short hairpin (shRNA construct efficiently silenced CLDN1 expression in both breast cancer cell lines, and CLDN1 knockdown resulted in reduced cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. Furthermore, silencing CLDN1 inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT by upregulating the epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and downregulating mesenchymal markers, smooth muscle cell alpha-actin (SMA and Snai2. Our data demonstrated that lentiviral vector mediated CLDN1 RNA interference has great potential in breast cancer gene therapy by inhibiting EMT and controlling tumor cell growth.

  20. Index Sets and Vectorization

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  1. Adenoviral-mediated localized CTLA-4Ig gene expression induces long-term allograft pancreas survival and donor-specific immune tolerance in rats

    2008-01-01

    T cell activation following alloantigen recognition plays a critical role in the development of the rejection in all solid organ, tissue and cell transplantation. A recombinant molecule, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody (CTLA-4Ig), is known to induce to T-cell into "anergy" by blocking the costimulatory B7-CD28 interaction. Either systemic or localized administration of CTLA-Ig has been shown to prolong allograft survival and induce donor-specific tolerance in some transplant models. In this study, we characterized the expression and immunosuppressive effectiveness of adenoviral-mediated CTLA-4Ig gene transfer. We demonstrated transduction of the allografts with AdCTLA-41g resulted in localized expression, permanent graft survival and stable donor-specific tolerance. In addition, by performing simultaneous dual-organ transplantation, we targeted on immunosuppression through a local expression of CTLA-4Ig via adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into pancreatic allografts.

  2. Adenoviral transduction of human acid sphingomyelinase into neo-angiogenic endothelium radiosensitizes tumor cure.

    Branka Stancevic

    Full Text Available These studies define a new mechanism-based approach to radiosensitize tumor cure by single dose radiotherapy (SDRT. Published evidence indicates that SDRT induces acute microvascular endothelial apoptosis initiated via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase translocation to the external plasma membrane. Ensuing microvascular damage regulates radiation lethality of tumor stem cell clonogens to effect tumor cure. Based on this biology, we engineered an ASMase-producing vector consisting of a modified pre-proendothelin-1 promoter, PPE1(3x, and a hypoxia-inducible dual-binding HIF-2α-Ets-1 enhancer element upstream of the asmase gene, inserted into a replication-deficient adenovirus yielding the vector Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x-ASMase. This vector confers ASMase over-expression in cycling angiogenic endothelium in vitro and within tumors in vivo, with no detectable enhancement in endothelium of normal tissues that exhibit a minute fraction of cycling cells or in non-endothelial tumor or normal tissue cells. Intravenous pretreatment with Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x-ASMase markedly increases SDRT cure of inherently radiosensitive MCA/129 fibrosarcomas, and converts radiation-incurable B16 melanomas into biopsy-proven tumor cures. In contrast, Ad5H2E-PPE1(3x-ASMase treatment did not impact radiation damage to small intestinal crypts as non-dividing small intestinal microvessels did not overexpress ASMase and were not radiosensitized. We posit that combination of genetic up-regulation of tumor microvascular ASMase and SDRT provides therapeutic options for currently radiation-incurable human tumors.

  3. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep

    Carr, D. J.; J. M. Wallace; Aitken, R. P.; Milne, J. S.; Martin, J. F.; Zachary, I. C.; Peebles, D. M.; David, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus vector (Ad)-mediated over-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165(5 x 10(10)particles/ml, 10 ml, n =17) or Sali...

  4. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  5. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  6. On harmonic vector fields

    Konderak, Jerzy J.

    1992-01-01

    A tangent bundle to a Riemannian manifold carries various metrics induced by a Riemannian tensor. We consider harmonic vector fields with respect to some of these metrics . We give a simple proof that a vector field on a compact manifold is harmonic with respect to the Sasaki metric on TM if and only if it is parallel. We also consider the metrics II and I + II on a tangent bundle (cf. [YI]) and harmonic vector fields generated by them.

  7. Vectors and their applications

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  8. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  9. Monopole vector spherical harmonics

    Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem

  10. Monopole vector spherical harmonics

    Weinberg, Erick J

    1994-01-01

    Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem.