Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of
Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a frequently identified cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. It has been proved to be a causative agent in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, antibiotic-associated colitis, and pseudomembraneous colitis. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of C.difficile- associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients with nosocomial diarrhea. The 942 hospitalized patients stool samples with nosocomial diarrhea were collected at three hospitals in Tehran from Dec 2002 to Feb 2004.All the stool samples were cultured and in 97 (prevalence: 10.9% samples grew C.difficile that 57 (prevalence: 6.1% isolates were toxigenic by cytotoxicity assay and so 57 patients had C.difficile- associated diarrhea. Results of statistical analysis showed significant difference between the rate of C.difficile associated diarrhea and the patients ages (P<0.05.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high incidence of diarrhea in traveling populations. Norovirus (NV infection is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with 7% of all diarrhea related deaths in the US. However, data on the overall prevalence of NV infection in traveling populations is limited. Furthermore, the prevalence of NV amongst travelers returning to Europe has not been reported. This study determined the prevalence of NV among international travelers returning to Germany from over 50 destinations in and outside Europe. Methods Stool samples of a total of 104 patients with a recent ( Results In our cohort, NV infection was detected in 15.7% of returning travelers with diarrhea. The closer to the date of return symptoms appeared, the higher the incidence of NV, ranging as high as 21.2% within the first four days after return. Conclusions In our cohort, NV infection was shown to be frequent among returning travelers especially in those with diarrhea, with over 1/5 of diarrhea patients tested positive for NV within the first four days after their return to Germany. Due to this prevalence, routine testing for NV infection and hygienic precautions may be warranted in this group. This is especially applicable to patients at an increased risk of spreading the disease, such as healthcare workers, teachers or food-handlers.
What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It ...
The present prospective study revealed a prevalence of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A (CPE) of less than 1%. Routine screening of stool samples for CPE does not appear to be justified in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
... such as fruit juices, sports drinks, caffeine-free soft drinks, and broths. Children with diarrhea should be given ... from street vendors Travelers can drink bottled water, soft drinks, and hot drinks such as coffee or tea. ...
... as lactose, the sugar found in milk and milk products. Some people may have diarrhea if they eat certain types of sugar substitutes in excessive quantities. Reaction to medicines. Antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids containing magnesium can all cause ...
Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H
Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152
Nafissatou Ouédraogo; Jérôme Kaplon; Isidore Juste O Bonkoungou; Alfred Sababénédjo Traoré; Pierre Pothier; Nicolas Barro; Katia Ambert-Balay
Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 201...
Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I M J; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F. J.
Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was...
Sima, Laura C.; Ng, Reuben; Elimelech, Menachem
We present an innovative approach for analyzing diarrheal prevalence data that uses latent variables to model the relationships between multiple, interdependent environmental risk factors, and socioeconomic mediators. This strategy was applied to elucidate diarrheal longitudinal prevalence risk factors in children 1–4 years of age in low-income areas of Jakarta, Indonesia. Through a prospective cohort study, we identified 257 children who had at least one episode of diarrhea. At the onset of ...
Ram K. Chandyo
Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is still common in children under five years of age and may impair their growth and cognitive development. Diarrhea is the second most common reason for seeking medical care for young children in Nepal. However, neither screening programs nor effective preventive measures for anemia and iron deficiencies are in place among children with diarrhea in many developing countries. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency and explore their associations with clinical, socioeconomic, and anthropometric parameters in Nepalese children. This was a cross-sectional study based on 1232 children, six to 35 months old, with acute diarrhea participating in a zinc supplementation trial. The mean (SD hemoglobin was 11.2 g/dL (1.2. Anemia was found in 493 children (40%; this estimate increased to 641 (52% when we adjusted for the altitude of the study area (hemoglobin <11.3 g/dL. One in every three children had depleted iron stores and 198 (16% of the children had both depleted iron stores and anemia, indicating iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of anemia among children presenting with acute diarrhea was high but the degree of severity was mainly mild or moderate. Iron deficiency explained less than half of the total anemia, indicating other nutritional deficiencies inducing anemia might be common in this population.
Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H
To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child family size, child's age and sex, immunization status and received vitamin A supplementation. Moderate levels (level 3) of practice and experience were associated with decreased diarrheal risk (adjusted OR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.75-0.98), but not for ARTIs. Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children child health. PMID:25108503
Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.
Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian chil
Mworozi Edison A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus remains the commonest cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide. Children in developing countries die more because of several factors including poorer access to hydration therapy and greater prevalence of malnutrition. Hitherto, the magnitude of rotavirus disease in Uganda has remained unknown. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children aged 3-59 months admitted with acute diarrhea to paediatric emergency ward of Mulago Hospital, Uganda Methods Three hundred and ninety children, aged between 3-59 months with acute diarrhoea were recruited. The clinical history, socio-demographic characteristics, physical examination findings and laboratory investigations were recorded. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigens using the DAKO IDEIA rotavirus EIA detection kit. Results The prevalence of rotavirus infection was 45.4%. On multivariate analysis rotavirus was significantly associated with a higher education (above secondary level of the mother [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.7]; dehydration [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0] and breastfeeding [OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.0]. Although age was significantly associated with rotavirus on bivariate analysis; this association disappeared on multivariate analysis. No significant association was found between rotavirus infection and nutritional status, HIV status and attendance of day care or school. Conclusions Rotavirus infection is highly prevalent among children with acute diarrhoea admitted to Mulago Hospital in Uganda.
Ouédraogo, Nafissatou; Kaplon, Jérôme; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste O; Traoré, Alfred Sababénédjo; Pothier, Pierre; Barro, Nicolas; Ambert-Balay, Katia
Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263) and without (n = 50) diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-)PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%), adenovirus (31.2%) and genogroup II norovirus (18.2%) were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively). Sapovirus (10.3%), astrovirus (4.9%), genogroup I norovirus (2.7%) and Aichivirus A (0.8%) were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P (36.5%), and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%). Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5%) predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7%) was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C). Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children. PMID:27092779
Full Text Available Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263 and without (n = 50 diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%, adenovirus (31.2% and genogroup II norovirus (18.2% were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively. Sapovirus (10.3%, astrovirus (4.9%, genogroup I norovirus (2.7% and Aichivirus A (0.8% were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P (36.5%, and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%. Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5% predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7% was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C. Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and demography of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colonoscopy in Turkey. METHODS: Between March, 1998 to July, 2005, 129 patients with chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology who had undergone full colonoscopy with no obvious abnormalities were included in the study. Two biopsies were obtained from all colonic segments and terminal ileum for diagnosis of microscopic colitis. On histopathologic examination, criteria for lymphocytic colitis (intraepithelial lymphocyte ≥ 20 per 100 intercryptal epithelial cells, change in surface epithelium, mononuclear infiltration of the lamina propria) and collagenous colitis (subepithelial collagen band thickness ≥ 10 μm) were explored. RESULTS: Lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed in 12 (9%) patients (Female/Male: 7/5, mean age: 45 year, range: 27-63) and collagenous colitis was diagnosed in only 3 (2.5%) patients (all female, mean age: 60 years, range: 54-65). CONCLUSION: Biopsy of Turkish patients with the diagnosis of chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology and normal colonoscopic findings will reveal microscopic colitis in approximately 10% of the patients. Lymphocytic colitis is 4 times more frequent than collagenous colitis in these patients
Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Rajibur; Nahar, Shamsun; Hossain, Shakhaowat; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Golam Faruque, Abu Syed; Azim, Tasnim
Norovirus infections in diarrhea patients attending an urban and a rural hospital in Bangladesh were investigated. A total of 953 fecal specimens from both children and adults collected during 2010-2014 were tested for the presence of norovirus using real time PCR. One fourth (25%) of the specimens were positive for norovirus RNA which was identified both in children and adults. Norovirus was associated with short duration of diarrhea, high abdominal pain, and more moderate to severe dehydration when compared with rotavirus infections. Norovirus GII (69%) was the most prevalent genogroup followed by GI (18%), mixed GI/GII/GIV (11%), and GIV (2%). Among GII genogroup, GII.4 (42%) was the most prevalent genotype followed by GII.3 (21%), GII.6 (7%), GII.7 (6%), and GII.21 (6%). GII.4 and GII.3 strains were frequently identified (82% and 75%, respectively) in children <2 years of age and less commonly (16% and 15%) in adults more than 18 years of age. The present study reinforces the importance of norovirus-associated hospitalizations both in children and adults. The dynamic molecular epidemiology of norovirus requires routine strain surveillance to identify changes in prevailing strains. J. Med. Virol. 88:1742-1750, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27003679
Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha; Delaine La Gatta Carminate; Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá; Iná Pires de Carvalho; Maria Luzia da Rosa e Silva; Júlio Maria Fonseca Chebli
CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: ...
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.
... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...
Selles Sidi Mohammed Ammar; Kouidri Mokhtaria; Belhamiti Belkacem Tahar; Ait Amrane Amar; Benia Ahmed Redha; Bellik Yuva; Hammoudi Si Mohamed; Niar Abdellatif; Boukra Laid
Objective: To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive’s parameters such as age group and sex.Methods:Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay.Results:The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43%associated with GARV), respectively.Conclusions:The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63%neonatal calves’ diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV.
Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.
Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.
Maselle Samwel Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Different groups of viruses have been shown to be responsible for acute diarrhea among children during their first few years of life. Epidemiological knowledge of viral agents is critical for the development of effective preventive measures, including vaccines. Methods In this study we determined the prevalence of the four major enteropathogenic viruses – rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus – was determined in 270 stool samples collected from children aged 0 – 60 months who were admitted with diarrhea in four hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, using commercially available ELISA kits. In addition, the molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus was investigated using reverse transcriptase multiplex polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results At least one viral agent was detected in 87/270 (32.2% of the children. The prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus was 18.1%, 13.7%, 2.6% and 0.4%, respectively. In most cases (62.1% of viruses were detected in children aged 7–12 months. The G and P types (VP7 and VP4 genotypes respectively were further investigated in 49 rotavirus ELISA positive samples. G9 was the predominant G type (81.6%, followed by G1 (10.2% and G3 (0.2%. P was the predominant P type (83.7%, followed by P (0.4% and P (0.2%. The following G and P types were not detected in this study population; G2, G4, G8 G10, P, P and P. The dominating G/P combination was G9P, accounting for 39 (90.7% of the 43 fully characterized strains. Three (6.1% of the 49 rotavirus strains could not be typed. Conclusion Nearly one third of children with diarrhea admitted to hospitals in Dar es Salaam had one of the four viral agents. The predominance of rotavirus serotype G9 may have implication for rotavirus vaccination in Tanzania.
... lead to diarrhea. This problem may be called food poisoning . Certain medicines may also cause diarrhea , including: Some antibiotics Chemotherapy drugs for cancer Laxatives containing magnesium Diarrhea ...
The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...
Minamoto, Yasushi; Dhanani, Naila; Markel, Melissa E; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S
Clostridium perfringens has been suspected as an enteropathogen in dogs. However, its exact role in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in dogs remains unknown. Recent studies suggest the importance of an altered intestinal microbiota in the activation of virulence factors of enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between diarrhea, dysbiosis, and the presence of C. perfringens and its enterotoxin (CPE). Fecal samples were collected prospectively from 95 healthy control dogs and 104 dogs with GI disease and assessed for bacterial abundances and the presence of CPE using quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. C. perfringens was detected in all dogs. Potentially enterotoxigenic C. perfringens were detected in 33.7% (32/95) of healthy control dogs and 48.1% (50/104) diseased dogs, respectively. CPE was detected by ELISA in 1.0% (1/95) of control dogs and 16.3% (17/104) of diseased dogs. Abundances of Fusobacteria, Ruminococcaceae, Blautia, and Faecalibacterium were significantly decreased in diseased dogs, while abundances of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia coli were significantly increased compared to control dogs. The microbial dysbiosis was independent of the presence of the enterotoxigenic C. perfringens or CPE. In conclusion, the presence of CPE as well as fecal dysbiosis was associated with GI disease. However, the presence of C. perfringens was not indicative of GI disease in all cases of diarrhea, and the observed increased abundance of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens may be part of intestinal dysbiosis occurring in GI disease. The significance of an intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with GI disease deserves further attention. PMID:25458422
Shima, Ayaka; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Samosornsuk, Worada; Samosornsuk, Seksun; Mungkornkaew, Narissara; Yamasaki, Shinji
In the present study, we examined the prevalence of Providencia spp. in retail meats and in stool samples from diarrheal patients in Thailand. Providencia-specific (Psp)-PCR amplification was positive for 58% (15/26) of the chicken, 64% (16/25) of the pork, and 68% (17/25) of the beef samples. Subsequently, Providencia strains were isolated from 65% (17/26) of the chicken, 68% (17/25) of the pork, and 72% (18/25) of the beef samples. Although P. alcalifaciens (40-58%) was the most prevalent Providencia strain, P. rettgeri, P. stuartii, and P. rustigianii were also isolated. Of the patient stool samples tested, 7.5% (16/214) had Psp-PCR products, of which 4 were P. alcalifaciens (1.9%), 4 were P. rettgeri (1.9%), and 1 was P. stuartii (0.5%). In conclusion, retail meats were substantially contaminated with Providencia, especially P. alcalifaciens. Therefore, retail meats are possibly the source of Providencia infections in humans. PMID:26370430
Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity Diarreia aguda em crianças hospitalizadas no município de Juiz de Fora, MG: prevalência e fatores de risco associados à gravidade da doença
Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha; Delaine La Gatta Carminate; Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá; Iná Pires de Carvalho; Maria Luzia da Rosa e Silva; Júlio Maria Fonseca Chebli
CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: ...
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos
Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds. PMID:26498460
We studied radiolabeled fecal bile acid excretion in 11 normal subjects and 17 patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea for three major purposes: to establish normal values for this test in the presence of increased stool volumes (induced in normal subjects by ingestion of poorly absorbable solutions); to test for bile acid malabsorption in the patients and to correlate this with an independent test of ileal function, the Schilling test; and to compare the results of the bile acid excretion test with the subsequent effect of a bile acid binding agent (cholestyramine) on stool weight. In normal subjects fecal excretion of the radiolabel was increased with increasing stool volumes. As a group, patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea excreted radiolabeled bile acid more rapidly than normal subjects with induced diarrhea (t1/2 56 +/- 8 vs. 236 +/- 60 h, respectively, p less than 0.005). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between t1/2 of radiolabeled bile acid and Schilling test results in these patients. Although 14 of 17 patients absorbed labeled taurocholic acid less well than any of the normal subjects with comparable volumes of induced diarrhea, cholestyramine had no statistically significant effect on stool weight in the patient group, and in none of the patients was stool weight reduced to within the normal range. In summary, most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea have bile acid malabsorption (as measured by fecal excretion of labeled bile acid), but they do not respond to cholestyramine therapy with a significant reduction in stool weight. Although the significance of these findings was not clearly established, the most likely interpretation is that bile acid malabsorption is a manifestation of an underlying intestinal motility or absorptive defect rather than the primary cause of diarrhea
... You also can take a medicine called loperamide (brand name: Imodium). However, if you have bloody diarrhea, ... traveler’s diarrhea? Is traveler’s diarrhea common in the country I’m traveling to? If I get traveler’s ...
Imen Ben Salem-Ben Nejma
Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases can be caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. This paper provides a preliminary image of diarrhea with regards to etiology and epidemiologic factors in Tunisian children less than five years of age.Overall, 124 diarrhoeal stools were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea and 54 stool samples from healthy children. All stools were examined for the presence of enteric pathogens.In diarrheagenic children, 107 pathogenic bacteria were isolated (12 Salmonella spp. (9.7% and 95 diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains (76.6%: 29 enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC (23.4%, 15 enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC (12.1%, 17 enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC (13.7%, 26 enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC (21% and 2 enterohemoragic E.coli (EHEC (1.6%. However, in the control group, 23 pathogenic E.coli strains were isolated (42.6%: 8 EAEC (14.8%, 12 EIEC (22.2% and 3 EPEC (5.5%. Among diarrheagenic E.coli (DEC, only ETEC strains were significantly recovered from diarrheagenic children than from healthy controls (P < 0.0003. Group A rotavirus was identified in 33.9% (n=42 of diarrheagenic children and in 11.1% among the control group (n=6. Concerning norovirus, 8.9% (n=11 of the samples collected from diarrheagenic children and 9.2% (n=5 from the control group were positive. The prevalence of rotaviruses and Salmonella spp were also significantly higher in patients with diarrhea than in controls (P = 0.002 and P < 0.019, respectively. Finally, enteropathogenic parasites (Entamoeba coli and cryptosporidium Oocystes were isolated from 4.8% and 9.2% of diarrheagenic and control children, respectively.These results provide baseline data about the relative importance of different enteropathogens in Tunisian children.
Ricardo Jenner Duarte
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos microrganismos são reconhecidos como agentes de diarreia aguda, entre eles, os adenovírus, cuja associação com a doença apresenta variações geográficas e é pouco conhecida no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a presença de adenovírus em fezes de crianças com diarreia aguda e sem diarreia, em Belo Horizonte-MG, e estudar os fatores epidemiológicos associados à adenovirose intestinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O teste imunocromatográfico qualitativo (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bioMérieux foi utilizado para pesquisa de antígenos de adenovírus em amostras fecais obtidas de 268 crianças com diarreia aguda e 124 sem diarreia, em 2005 e 2006, no Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, Belo Horizonte-MG. Dados laboratoriais, clínicos e epidemiológicos foram registrados em banco de dados (SPSS Statistical package, IBM. RESULTADOS: Adenovírus foi detectado nas fezes de 16 crianças (4,1%: 12 (4,5% com diarreia e quatro (3,2% sem diarreia. A virose foi mais comum em meninas e a distribuição etária da infecção foi homogênea. Entre as 16 crianças com infecção pelo vírus, 11 (68,8% tinham até 12 meses de idade. Entretanto, diferença significativa não foi observada para os parâmetros analisados. Distribuição sazonal da infecção por adenovírus não foi detectada. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados demonstram que a prevalência da adenovirose é baixa na população pediátrica no nosso meio.INTRODUCTION: Several microorganisms, among them enteric adenovirus, are widely recognized as etiological agents of acute diarrhea. The association between adenovirus and the disease varies among geographical regions and is poorly known in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of adenovirus in stool samples from children with and without diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG. To study factors associated with enteric adenovirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A qualitative immunochromatographic assay (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bio
Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana
The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. PMID:23267623
... Pool What to Do if You Have Diarrhea Diarrhea and Swimming Diarrhea and swimming don’t mix! ... small amount of pool water to become infected. Diarrhea and Spreading Illness at the Pool Infectious diarrhea ...
Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U
INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding. PMID:14676915
... intolerance (which causes problems after drinking milk and eating other dairy products) Malabsorption syndromes Less common causes of diarrhea include: Carcinoid syndrome Disorders of the nerves that supply the intestines Removal ...
... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevention In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious ...
Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positi...
Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...
When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...
Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.
Conclusions: There is high prevalence of postpartum depression outskirts of Lucknow. Thus it appears pertinent to screen all women for postpartum depression after child-birth in this area so as to improve maternal and child health. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2691-2695
Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas
Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa; Edilberto Nogueira Mendes; Francisco José Penna; Luciano Amedée Péret-Filho; Paula Prazeres Magalhães
Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a t...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the frame of an eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in Swiss livestock, the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could threaten the success of this sanitary measure. Therefore, we conducted serological and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild and domestic ruminants in an alpine environment by questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-two sera out of 1’877 (1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4 were seropositive for BVDV, and a BVDV1 sub genotype h virus was found in a seropositive chamois (0.05%, 95% CI 0.001-0.3. The seropositive animals originated from sub-alpine or alpine regions and significantly more seropositive red deer, chamois and ibex than roe deer were found. There were no statistically significant differences between sampling units, age classes, genders, and sampling years. The obtained prevalences were significantly lower than those documented in livestock, and most positive wild ruminants were found in proximity of domestic outbreaks. Additionally, BVDV seroprevalence in ibex was significantly lower than previously reported from Switzerland. The survey on interspecific interactions revealed that interactions expected to allow BVDV transmission, from physical contacts to non-simultaneous use of the same areas, regularly occur on pastures among all investigated ruminant species. Interactions involving cervids were more often observed with cattle than with small ruminants, chamois were observed with all three domestic species, and ibex interacted mostly with small ruminants. Interactions related to the use of anthropogenic food sources were frequently observed, especially between red deer and cattle in wintertime. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV RNA isolated from an
Addressing epidemiological and public health analytic challenges in outcome and impact research: a commentary on 'Prechewing Infant Food, Consumption of Sweets and Dairy and Not Breastfeeding are Associated with Increased Diarrhea Risk of Ten Month Old Infants'.
Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H
Based on a paper by Conkle et al 2016, in which the authors use a descriptive epidemiological design to examine the relationship of premastication and other dietary behavioral variables to childhood diarrhea in the US, we address larger issues of "plausible causality" and the challenges involved in moving from epidemiological studies to public health policy. Drawing on examples from breastfeeding research and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) research, we discuss the following propositions: 1. Effective outcome analyses require simultaneous investigation of different, even contradictory, pathways; 2. Outcome versus impact assessments require different analytic procedures including context analysis; 3. Impact analysis requires understanding the trade-offs between detrimental and beneficial outcomes in relation to potential interventions; 4. No estimates exist for the likely detrimental and beneficial impacts of banning premastication, much less for their trade-offs. PMID:27229538
Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T
Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are divided into two different species within the pestivirus genus, BVDV type 1 (BVDV1) and BVDV type 2 (BVDV2). Further phylogenetic analysis has revealed subgenotype groupings within the BVDV1 and BVDV2 species. Thus far twelve BVDV1 subgenotypes (BVDV1a throu...
Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.
A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)
... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...
... rice, applesauce, mashed potatoes, dry toast, crackers, eggs, fish, poultry, cottage cheese, and yogurt. These foods are ... him or her what has been done to deal with the diarrhea. If diarrhea is not severe ...
Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases for which patients seek medical help. Most (more than 90%) cases of acute diarrhea are caused by enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses or parasites. Dehydration is the most frequent and most dangerous complication of diarrhea, but it can be managed with relatively simple procedures. Diarrhea in children is stiH a common reason for consulting a doctor and for hospital admission. Intravenous fluids are recommended for children with shock and/or severe de...
郝宝成; 梁剑平; 王学红; 郭文柱; 郭志廷; 杨贤鹏
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that is enzootic in most cattle populations throughout the world. This virus is present throughout the body of persistently infected cattle. In recent years, as more and more common the formation and development of large-scale farming. The jeopardized of Bovine viral diarrhea / mucosal disease for farming industry has become increasingly apparent. The BVDV's morphology of pathogens, genotype classification, hazards, diagnostic tests, the prevalence and prevention and control status were summarized in order to improve the prevention and control system and purification of eliminating the disease provide a reference for the country as soon as possible.%牛病毒性腹泻病由牛病毒性腹泻病毒引起,主要感染牛并引发疾病,呈世界性分布,可造成严重的经济损失.近年来,随着规模化养殖的发展,牛病毒性腹泻病对养殖业的危害日益显现.本文主要对牛病毒性腹泻病的病原特性、基因型分类、危害、诊断检测方法、国内流行情况和防控现状等进行综述,以期为国家尽快建立完善的防控体系和净化消除该病提供参考.
Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity Diarreia aguda em crianças hospitalizadas no município de Juiz de Fora, MG: prevalência e fatores de risco associados à gravidade da doença
Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A
Mohammed Al-Darwish; Walid El Ansari; Abdulbari Bener
Background: To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives: The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-de...
Barennes, Hubert; Phimmasane, Maniphet; Rajaonarivo, Christian
Background Insect consumption (entomophagy) is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species) though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) to assess the prevalence an...
Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas
Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa
Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC. RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em pa
... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Is Hand Washing So Important? Dehydration Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Diarrhea "Stomach Flu" Belly Pain Why ...
Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.
Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.
Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;
To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associations...... between diarrhea and parasite rate, parasite density, or clinical malaria. However, anti-malarials were easily available and frequently used, which was reflected by a 0.7% prevalence of children with a parasite density > 100/200 leukocytes. Thus, the findings do not preclude that diarrhea may be a sign of...
Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na(+)-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25-33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA ((75)SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss. In clinical practice, diagnosis is often based on response to BA sequestrants (e.g., cholestyramine or colesevelam). Diagnostic tests for BA malabsorption (BAM) need to be used more extensively in clinical practice. In the future, farnesoid X receptor agonists that stimulate ileal production of FGF-19 may be alternative treatments of BAD. PMID:24410472
Full Text Available The drug used in diarrhea must be effective in that they reduce the secretion and increase the absorption of the intestinal mucosa. This seems to be only possible with morphine derivatives. But these are not recommended as they may cause ileus. Antibiotics are indicated in only few cases of severe intestinal infections. Other frequently used drugs such as adsorbents are practically of no effect. Thus, rehydration, electrolyte substitution and realimentation remain the most effective method of treatment of acute diarrhea in infants.
... ency/patientinstructions/000693.htm When your child has diarrhea To use the sharing features on this page, ... sports drinks is OK. Diet for Children With Diarrhea In many cases, you can continue feeding your ...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...
Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.
This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report notes that the rate…
AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin
Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477
The drug used in diarrhea must be effective in that they reduce the secretion and increase the absorption of the intestinal mucosa. This seems to be only possible with morphine derivatives. But these are not recommended as they may cause ileus. Antibiotics are indicated in only few cases of severe intestinal infections. Other frequently used drugs such as adsorbents are practically of no effect. Thus, rehydration, electrolyte substitution and realimentation remain the most effective method of...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all patients with hospital-acquired diarrhea at Motahari Burn Hospital, Teh- ran, Iran enrolled in this study. We compared patients with a stool sample positive for C. difficile toxin or tracing the antigen in patients who were negative for detection of toxin in their stool sample specimens.Results: Diarrhea developed in 37 patients out of 3200 admitted patients with a mean burn size of 34.8 ±20.1%. Among them, 8 patients had a positive result for C. difficile. The mean time between antibiotic therapy and occurrence of diarrhea was 9.5 ± 6.2 days. Nine (23.7% patients died in the 7.8± 4.2 days, mostly due to co-morbidities. The mean duration of di- arrhea was 3.6 ± 2 days. Twenty two (57.9% patients were treated with oral metronidazol and eleven (28.9% patients were treated with combination of metronidazole and vancomycin, higher rate of combination therapy was seen in Clostridium difficile CDI.Conclusion: Overall, the prevalence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 120/10,000 and 21% of them caused by infection with C. difficile. Presence of peripheral leukocytosis and colitis were the alarm sign for diagnosis of C. difficile infection. Keywords: Hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD, Burn, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI
In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)
Lee, Kwang Jae
Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling design in five cities of China. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire, and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36 was used for assessing health-related quality of life in 20% of the sample. Overall, 248 respondents (1.54% had functional diarrhea and 277 (1.72% had IBS-D. Functional diarrhea was positively associated with increasing age and body mass index (trend test P<0.05. The three most common symptoms for at least 3 weeks in the past months were loose, mushy or watery stools (n = 203, 81.85%, more than three bowel movements a day (n = 100, 40.32% and having to rush to the toilet to have a bowel movement (n = 72, 29.03%. Meaningful impairment was observed in 5 of the 8 SF-36 domains in respondents with functional diarrhea. The demographics are mostly similar between the respondents with functional diarrhea and IBS-D; however, respondents with IBS-D had more frequent symptoms of diarrhea and even lower scores in SF-36 domains than those with functional diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of functional diarrhea in China is substantially lower than that in Western countries and relatively higher than that in other Asian countries. It impaired health-related quality of life, and respondents with IBS-D have even worse quality of life. Further population-based studies are needed to investigate the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and the differences between functional diarrhea and IBS-D.
Nguyen, Trung Vu; Le Van, Phung; Le Huy, Chinh; Weintraub, Andrej
Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of diarrhea in young children worldwide. From March 2001 to April 2002, 836 children less than 5 years of age were investigated in Hanoi, Vietnam. This included 587 children with diarrhea and 249 age-matched controls. Group A rotavirus was identified in 46.7% of the children with diarrhea and 3.6% of the controls, which was a significant difference. Within the diarrhea group, the highest prevalence was seen in children from 13 to 24 months of age, and t...
This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...
Hoar, Bruce R.
Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...
... Consumer Updates The Straight Poop on Kids and Diarrhea Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... that is occurring. back to top Causes of Diarrhea Acute diarrhea (comes on rapidly, is severe, but ...
Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.
Molinari, Bruna Letícia Domingues; Possatti, Flávia; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of severe diarrhea in humans and animals. Five of the nine RV groups (RVA, RVB, RVC, RVE, and RVH) have been previously detected in pigs; however, in pig herds worldwide, most studies highlight diarrhea outbreaks caused by RVA. In the present study, we describe detection and characterization of RV groups A, B, C, and H in fecal samples from pigs with single and mixed infections during a post-weaning diarrhea outbreak. The outbreak occurred in a single pig herd routinely vaccinated with an inactivated commercial vaccine for neonatal diarrhea control that included the RVA OSU (G5P) strain. RVC (78%) was the most prevalent group found in single (34%) and mixed (44%) infections, followed by RVA (46%), RVB (32%), and RVH (18%). Phylogenetic analysis of three RVA strains allowed the characterization of two distinct G/P genotypes represented by G5P and G9P, different from G5P found in vaccines. Regardless of the RV group, mixed infections (54%) were more prevalent than single infections. Detection of RVB or RVH was associated with the presence of other RV groups, suggesting a secondary action of these RV groups in the reported outbreak. The detection of RV groups B, C, and H in the same pig herd suggests that these RVs act as causative agents of diarrhea and should be included in the diagnostic tests of porcine enteric diseases. These data provide new epidemiological information on RV diversity that need to be addressed in future studies for a better understanding and prevention of RV infections. PMID:27599939
Lee, Kun Song; Kang, Dong Soo; Yu, Jeesuk; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Woo Sung
Chronic diarrhea is defined as passing watery stools that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Persistent diarrhea belongs to chronic diarrhea and is a chronic episode of diarrhea of infectious etiology. The etiology of chronic diarrhea is varied. It is important to consider the child's age and clinical manifestations with alarm signals for an application of proper treatments to children with chronic diarrhea. Vicious cycle is present in chronic diarrhea and nutritional rehabilitation can break the v...
Anita Chakravarti; Manisha Jain; Mayank Singh Chauhan; Anju Sharma; Sayani Tewari
Objective:To screen for the presence of mixed infection with rotavirus. Methods:The present study included 140 children aged less than 2 years with acute diarrhea. Fecal samples of all these patients were analyzed for the presence of astroviral antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Also 40 rotavirus positive fecal samples were screened for the presence of astrovirus. Results:In case of acute diarrhea in children the prevalence of astrovirus was around 34%(48/140). It was seen that even in rotavirus positive cases astrovirus co infection was 25%. Conclusions:Astrovirus is a growing problem which is often underrecognised. With the rotavirus vaccine licensure being imminent astrovirus will emerge out as the single most important cause of viral diarrhea.
Wierzba, Thomas F; Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Putnam, Shannon D; Kamal, Karim A; Rozmajzl, Patrick; Ahmed, Salwa F; Fatah, Abdel; Zabedy, Khaled; Shaheen, Hind I; Sanders, John; Frenck, Robert
To identify enteropathogens for vaccine development, we implemented clinic-based surveillance for severe pediatric diarrhea in Egypt's Nile River Delta. Over 2 years, a physician clinically evaluated and obtained stool samples for microbiology from patients with diarrhea and less than 6 years of age. In the first (N = 714) and second clinic (N = 561), respectively, 36% (N = 254) and 46% (N = 260) of children were infected with rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter, or Shigella. When excluding mixed rotavirus-bacterial infections, for the first and second clinic, 23% and 10% had rotavirus-associated diarrhea, and 14% and 17% had ETEC-associated diarrhea, respectively. Campylobacter-associated diarrhea was 1% and 3%, and Shigella-associated diarrhea was 2% and 1%, respectively, for the two clinics. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea peaked in late summer to early winter, while bacterial agents were prevalent during summer. Rotavirus-associated cases presented with dehydration, vomiting, and were often hospitalized. Children with Shigella- or Campylobacter-associated diarrhea reported as watery diarrhea and rarely dysentery. ETEC did not have any clinically distinct characteristics. For vaccine development and/or deployment, our study suggests that rotavirus is of principle concern, followed by ETEC, Shigella, and Campylobacter. PMID:16407360
... Organizations (PDF, 341 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Diarrhea Page Content On this page: What is diarrhea? ... prevented? Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements. ...
Schoster, Angelika; Staempfli, H R; Abrahams, M;
BACKGROUND: Up to 60% of foals develop diarrhea within 6 months after birth. Preventive measures are limited but potentially probiotics could be used. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a newly designed probiotic on the incidence of foal diarrhea in a randomized field trial. ANIMALS: Seventy...... incidence and duration of diarrhea and fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile between treatment and age groups. RESULTS: The overall incidence of diarrhea was 41 of 72 (59%) and did not differ (P = 0.37) between treatment groups. Foals treated with probiotics were more likely to...... develop diarrhea requiring veterinary intervention (P = 0.007). Age had a significant effect on incidence of diarrhea (P < 0.001); foals 8-15 days old having the highest probability of developing diarrhea. Duration of diarrhea and soft feces were not significantly different between groups. The prevalence...
Chao-Pin Li; Yu-Bao Cui; Jian Wang; Qing-Gui Yang; Ye Tian
AIM: To explore the characteristics of diarrhea caused by acaroid mites.METHODS: Acaroid mites in fresh stools of 241 patients with diarrhea were separated by flotation in saturated saline.Meanwhile, skin prick test, total IgE and mite-specific IgE were detected in all patients.RESULTS: The total positive rate of mites in stool samples of the patients was 17.01% (41/241), the positive rates of mites in male and female patients were 15.86 % (23/145)and 18.75 % (18/96), respectively, without significant difference (P＞0.05). The percentage of skin prick test as ″+++″″++ ″″+ ″″±″″-″ was″+++, ″++″,″ +″, ″±″ and ″-″was 9.13 % (22/241), 7.47 %(18/241), 5.81% (14/241), 4.98 % (12/241) and 72.61%(175/241), respectively. The serum levels of total IgE, mitespecific IgE in patients with and without mites in stool samples were (165.72±78.55) IU/ml, (132.44±26.80) IU/ml and (145.22±82.47) IU/ml, (67.35±45.28) IU/ml,respectively, with significant difference (P＜0.01). The positive rate of mites in stool samples in staffs working in traditional Chinese medicine storehouses or rice storehouses (experimental group) was 26.74 % (23/86), which was significantly higher than that (11.61%, 18/155) in people engaged in other professions (X2=8.97, P＜0.01).CONCLUSION: Acaroid mites cause diarrhea and increase serum levels of total IgE and mite-specific IgE of patients,and the prevalence of diarrhea caused by acaroid mites is associated with occupations rather than the gender of patients.
Diarrheal diseases occurring in early life (< 3 years) are an heterogeneous group of abnormalities including gastrointestinal infections, food hypersensitivity and allergy, immune dysregulation, and primary abnormalities of the enterocyte. Diarrhea is a leading cause of illness and death in children younger than 3 years worldwide, causing 1-3 million deaths every year. Despite defining etiology of diarrhea is critical to decide therapy and prevention strategy, the overall prevalence...
Laura M. Lamberti; Sunita Taneja; Sarmila Mazumder; Amnesty LeFevre; Robert E. Black; Fischer Walker, Christa L.
Background To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. Methods We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts a...
Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission
Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil
Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao
The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates
Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.
Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...
Annalisa; Passariello; Gianluca; Terrin; Maria; Elisabetta; Baldassarre; Mario; De; Curtis; Roberto; Paludetto; Roberto; Berni; Canani
AIM:To investigate the frequency,etiology,and current management strategies for diarrhea in newborn.METHODS:Retrospective,nationwide study involving 5801 subjects observed in neonatal intensive care units during 3 years.The main anamnesis and demographic characteristics,etiology and characteristics of diarrhea,nutritional and therapeutic management,clinical outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:Thirty-nine cases of diarrhea(36 acute,3 chronic) were identified.The occurrence rate of diarrhea was 6.72 per 1000 hosp...
Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the di...
Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la
Abdulwahab MA Telmesani
Full Text Available Acute diarrhea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Since the introduction of oral rehydration salts (ORS mortality has dropped to less than 50% worldwide. Low osmolarity ORS improved the outcome and reduced the hospitalization further. Zinc difficiency has been found to be associated with severe episodes of acute diarrhea. Zinc supplement in developing countries did reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea. In addition, Zinc supplement significantly reduced the severity of diarrhea and duration of the episode. In the Americas and Europe, Rota virus vaccine was 90% effective in preventing severe episodes of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. This review concludes that low osmolarilty ORS, zinc supplementation and rotavirus vaccine are major factors in reducing the morbidity, mortality and hospitalization resulting from to acute gastroenteritis in childhood.
Imade, Paul Erhunmwunse; Eghafona, Nosakhare Odeh
Enteric viruses have been shown to be responsible for diarrhea among children during their early childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 0–36 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavirus was 28.3%, adenovirus 19.3%, and norovirus 3.6%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (P < 0.0001). Seasonal pattern of enteric viruses was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The overall coinfection rate was 7.6% and rotavirus-adenovirus coinfection had the highest with 5.4%. Rotavirus was the most prevalent viral agent. Coinfections are not uncommon among the population studied. The most commonly associated clinical symptom of viral diarrhea in this study was vomiting. Viral diagnostic tests are advocated for primary health care facilities in this locality. PMID:26064123
Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann
This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. PMID:22917167
Vohmann, B; Hoffmann, J C
Chronic diarrhea can be caused by multiple disease entities. Basic diagnostic tests are required in order to administer specific therapies whenever possible. If no specific treatment can be used, a symptomatic management should be initiated in order to prevent massive electrolyte- and water losses. Substances that can be used are loperamide, cholestyramine, bulking agents, probiotics, anticholinergic agents and in severe cases opioids. If used properly these agents can be prescribed longterm with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24163167
George, Christine Marie; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J; Norman, W Ray; Perry, Henry; Davis, Thomas P; Lindquist, Erik D
This study examined the relationship between childhood diarrhea prevalence and caregiver knowledge of the causes and prevention of diarrhea in a prospective cohort of 952 children Cochabamba, Bolivia. The survey of caregiver knowledge found that more than 80% of caregivers were unaware that hand washing with soap could prevent childhood diarrhea. Furthermore, when asked how to keep food safe for children to eat only 17% of caregivers reported hand washing before cooking and feeding a child. Lack of caregiver awareness of the importance of practices related to hygiene and sanitation for diarrhea prevention were significant risk factors for diarrheal disease in this cohort. The knowledge findings from this study suggest that health promotion in these communities should put further emphasis on increasing knowledge of how water treatment, hand washing with soap, proper disposal of child feces, and food preparation relate to childhood diarrhea prevention. PMID:25311693
Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical
Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs. PMID:27206573
Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar;
A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence of...
Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Bachofen, Claudia
We sequenced the complete genome of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain Carlito. It belongs to the subgenotype 1e that is described in Europe only and represents the second most prevalent subgenotype in Switzerland. This is the first report of a full-length sequence of BVDV-1e.
Rastyani; Alikhani; Sedighi; Kazemi; Farhadi Kohan; Arabestani
Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. ...
Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A. Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H. F. J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably mediated by malabsorption of nutrients. In a prospective cohort study, we aim to compare diarrhea rates in pre-school children with and without Giardia infection. Because the study was conducted in...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an evaluation of the therapeutic potential of different probiotics and their combination with anti – rotavirus antibodies in a mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea. Results Of the six probiotic bacteria tested, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG had the strongest influence in reducing prevalence, duration and severity of diarrhea and was therefore chosen for combination treatment with immunoglobulins. The combination treatment reduced the diarrhea outcome measures significantly, prevented histopathological changes and reduced the virus load in the intestines. Conclusion The advantages associated with immunoglobulins and probiotics based therapy is that the treatment provides a rapid therapeutic effect and is cost efficient. These components do not require special storage conditions and could potentially complement the rehydration therapy that is currently used.
Hafaz Zakky Abdillah
Full Text Available Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency of North Sumatera, from August to November 2009 in children aged 2 months to 14 years. Microscopic stool examinations were undertaken to separate subjects into the acute bacterial or non-bacterial diarrhea groups. Both groups received 10 mg/day of zinc sulphate for subjects aged <6 months or 20 mg/day for those aged ≥6 months for 10 days. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. We performed independent T-test for statistical analysis. Results Sixty-two children participated in this study, with 31 children in the acute bacterial group, and the remainder in the non-bacterial group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in frequency of diarrhea (2.61 vs 2.70 times/day, respectively, P=0.27 or in duration of diarrhea (63.39 vs 66.68 hours, respectively, P=0.06. Conclusion Zinc is not more effective in reducing the severity of acute bacterial diarrhea compared to non-bacterial diarrhea in children. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:334-8.].
... products? Yes Your symptoms may be caused by LACTOSE INTOLERANCE. People who have this condition have trouble digesting ... other dairy products. If you think you have lactose intolerance, talk to your doctor. He or she may ...
The evaluation of the patient with diarrhea can be complex and the treatment challenging. In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed. A simplified 5-step approach to the patient with diarrhea is provided and applied in a case-oriented manner applicable to everyday clinical practice. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define diarrhea, (2) outline various pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea, and (3...
Boekel, G.A.J van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Heijden, J.J. van der; Hoogtanders, K.E.; Hilbrands, L.B.
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event in patients treated with the combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). In case of severe diarrhea, the total exposure to tacrolimus can substantially increase, which is reflected in a rise of the predose trough level (C0). In mild dia
LI Yan-fang; CHEN Chen; NI Zhi-zhen; ZHONG Chen; XIAO Yuan-chun
@@ Diarrhea refers to frequent discharge of loose, even watery stool. In clinic, we used the famous acupuncturist LU Shou-yan's combined acupuncture techniques of along-against, lifting-thrusting and quickslow reinforcing and reducing to treat diarrhea. Now it is reported as follows.
What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I need to ...
Full Text Available Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.
Seo, Hyungil; Park, Sang Hyoung; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun
As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151
Full Text Available With the purpose of an estimation of the contribution of virus activators in the etiological structure of acute intestinal infections in children during the rise of prevalence of acute intestinal infections from 2009 to 2011 there were studied 1050 children admitted to the hospital with diarrheal diseases. It is established, that acute intestinal infections have a viral nature in 56.67% of cases. Thus the leading role belongs to rotaviruses and adenoviruses. Infectious agents of diarrheal diseases are rotaviruses in 28.1 % of cases, adenoviruses - in 17.05 %, and astroviruses - in 11.43 %. The viral monoinfections occur more often, than mixed-infections. The rise of sporadic diseases of viral diarrhea was characterized by seasonal prevalence. For intestinal infections of viral etiology the seasonal rise in a cold season with peak of the rate of diseases of rotaviral infection in April, adenoviral infection in November, and astroviral infection in December is characteristic.
tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...
Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani
Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...
This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)
Benya, R; Damle, P; Mobarhan, S
In this case report we present in detail the complex nature of enteral feeding, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and edema in a critically ill patient. We also discuss the use of a peptide-elemental formula in this patient, who suffered continuous diarrhea for 15 weeks after liver transplantation. Use of this formula was associated with cessation of the diarrhea and permitted adequate nutritional delivery. After 26 weeks of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, extubation was possible. This case illustrates the ineffectiveness of parenteral albumin infusions for treatment of enteral edema and demonstrates the restoration of normal intestinal absorptive capacity when ultrafiltration was instituted and the patient's generalized edematous state was corrected. PMID:2106103
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea varies by context and has important implications for developing appropriate care strategies and estimating burden of disease. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of children under five with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure in order to identify the appropriate health care levels to set up surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases. Methods A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted. Results In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0 and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6, respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1 reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household. Conclusions The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of
Lamberti, Laura M; Fischer Walker, Christa L; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Black, Robert E
Increased diarrheal episode severity has been linked to better 2-week recall and improved care-seeking and treatment among caregivers of children under five. Using cross-sectional data from three Indian states, we sought to assess the relationship between episode severity and the recall, care-seeking, and treatment of childhood diarrhea. Recall error was higher for episodes with onset 8-14 days (31.2%) versus 1-7 days (4.8%) before the survey, and logistic regression analysis showed a trend toward increased severity of less recent compared with more recent episodes. This finding indicates that data collection with 2-week recall underestimates diarrhea prevalence while overestimating the proportion of severe episodes. There was a strong correlation between care-seeking and dehydration, fever, vomiting, and increased stool frequency and duration. Treatment with oral rehydration salts was associated with dehydration, vomiting, and higher stool frequency, and trends were established between therapeutic zinc supplementation and increased duration and stool frequency. However, state and care-seeking sector were stronger determinants of treatment than episode severity, illustrating the need to address disparities in treatment quality across regions and delivery channels. Our findings are of importance to researchers and diarrhea management program evaluators aiming to produce accurate estimates of diarrheal outcomes and program impact in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26033018
CHEN Jie; SUN Xin-ting; ZENG Zheng; YU Yan-yan
Background There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea.Methods This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of ＜0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21-30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%).Conclusions Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus diarrhea susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and five controls)....
@@ On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities. This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:
The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health
Surawicz, Christina M.
Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.
Grellet, Aurélien; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Robin, Coralie; Feugier, Alexandre; Boogaerts, Cassandre; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Grandjean, Dominique; Polack, Bruno
Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies' characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented abnormal feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio=5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7-14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea. PMID:25175676
Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style
Jan S Suchodolski
Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or
Deregt, D; Loewen, K G
Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...
Joshi, P. S.
From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: email@example.com 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This
Full Text Available Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the dietary therapy. 2. Methods of the preparation for use as therapeutics were decoction, pulvis, gruel, medicinal wine, cake, tea, paste and gelatin and etc. 3. Frequently used materials were sesame oil, honey, ear mushroom, shiitake mushroom, kelp, walnut seed, hemp seed, groundnut, glutinous rice, apricot stone, yellow bean peel, radish, potato, spinage, and spring onion. Conclusion : Though dietary therapy for the diarrhea is not based on clinical or experimental data, but through experience. It is mostly based on Yin-Yang and five elements, visceral manifestation, channels and their collateral channels and chinese herbal medicine theories. If we use them properly according to oriental medicine method, it will be effective on treating and preventing the diarrhea.
Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the
Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model
This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned
DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs
This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global
Nooroudien Mohamed; Monique Marais; Juanita Bezuidenhout
AIM: To determine the prevalence of increased in-traepithelial lymphocytes, using immunohistochemistry in patients with normal colonoscopy and near normal biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all non-malig-nant colon mucosal biopsies between 2005 and 2007, reported as normal, chronic inflammation or melanosis coli in patients who were undergoing routine colonos-copy. Immunohistochemistry using CD3 was performed on all mucosal biopsies and an intraepithelial lympho-cyte count (IEL) was determined. Cases with an IEL count of ≥ 20 IELs per 100 surface epithelial cells were correlated with demographic, clinical and follow-up data. A further subgroup was evaluated for lymphocytic colitis.RESULTS: Twenty (8.3%) of 241 cases revealed an IEL count ≥ 20. Six (2.5%) patients were identified as having lymphocytic colitis (P < 0.001), of whom, five were missed on initial evaluation (P = 0.01). Four of these five patients were labeled with diarrhea-predom-inant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On follow-up, three of the remaining 20 cases were diagnosed with malignancy (renal cell carcinoma and myelodysplastic syndrome) and one had an unknown primary tumor with multiple liver metastases. Two cases of collag-enous colitis with an IEL count < 10 were included in this study. Increased IELs were not confined to pa-tients with diarrhea as a primary presenting symptom, but were also present in patients with abdominal pain (n = 7), constipation (n = 3) and loss of weight (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry using CD3 is of value in identifying and quantifying IELs for the pres-ence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.
and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades
Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology
The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards
Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of diarrhea has presented indomitable challenges. A preventive strategy that has received significant interest is zinc supplementation. Existing literature including quantitative meta-analyses and systematic reviews tend to show that zinc supplementation is beneficial however evidence to the contrary is augmenting. We therefore conducted an updated and comprehensive meta-analytical synthesis of the existing literature on the effect of zinc supplementation in prevention of diarrhea. Methods EMBASE®, MEDLINE ® and CINAHL® databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. Effect of zinc supplementation on the following five outcomes was studied: incidence of diarrhea, prevalence of diarrhea, incidence of persistent diarrhea, incidence of dysentery and incidence of mortality. The published RCTs were combined using random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses, meta-regression, cumulative meta-analyses and restricted meta-analyses to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with the afore stated outcomes. Results We found that zinc supplementation has a modest beneficial association (9% reduction with incidence of diarrhea, a stronger beneficial association (19% reduction with prevalence of diarrhea and occurrence of multiple diarrheal episodes (28% reduction but there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for these associations. Age, continent of study origin, zinc salt and risk of bias contributed significantly to between studies heterogeneity. Zinc supplementation did not show statistically significant benefit in reducing the incidence of persistent diarrhea, dysentery or mortality. In most instances, the 95% prediction intervals for summary relative risk estimates straddled unity. Conclusions Demonstrable
Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety
Hibberd, Patricia L.
Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).
Full Text Available Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (<5 years. The prevalence of diarrhea was 16 per 1000 persons among all ages; young children accounted for 44 per 1000 persons. Prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p=.003 among younger males (<15 years compared to that among younger females. In contrast, prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p<.0001 among older females (≥15 years compared to that among older males. An increased risk for diarrhea was observed in young children, males, and those staying in rented houses, lower family members in the house, using non-sanitary toilets, living in the area for short times, living in a community with less educated persons, living in a community with less use of safe water source for drinking, or living close to the hospital. About 80% of those with diarrhea sought care initially from a non-professional healthcare provider. Choice of the professional healthcare provider was driven by age of the patient, educational status of the household head, and hygienic practices by the household. The study reaffirms that young children are at greater risk for diarrhea. Like other developing countries most people in this impoverished setting of Dhaka are less likely to seek care from a professional healthcare provider than from a non-professional healthcare provider, which could be attributed to a higher number of diarrheal deaths among young children in Bangladesh. Dissemination of
Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.
Background - Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably
Lee, Hwa-Young; Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy
Background: Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam.Objective: This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions amon...
Shahriar, Farshid M.; Clark, Edward G.; Janzen, Eugene; West, Keith; Wobeser, Gary
Chronic, antibiotic-resistant pneumonia, sometimes with concurrent polyarthritis, occurs in feedlot cattle in western Canada. The prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and Haemophilus somnus was determined by using immunohistochemical staining of lung and heart tissue from 2 groups of animals with this history. Mycoplasma bovis antigen was present in 44/48 cases submitted between 1995 and 1998 (retrospective group) and 15/16 of cases from 1999 (prospective group), and w...
Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J
Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. PMID:26243695
Zhao, Z-P; Yang, Z; Lin, W-D; Wang, W-Y; Yang, J; Jin, W-J; Qin, A-J
Piglet diarrhea epidemics result in major economic losses for the swine industry. Four viruses are closely linked to porcine diarrhea: porcine kobuvirus (PKV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PRoV). We have conducted an epidemiology study to determine the frequency of infection and co-infection with these viruses in China, and characterized the genetic variation of the isolated PEDV and PKV strains. Stool and intestinal samples (n = 314) were collected from piglets with diarrhea in China from years 2012 to 2014. RT-PCR was used to detect PKV, PEDV, TGEV, and PRoV. Phylogenetic relationships between reference strains and the isolated PEDV and PKV strains were determined based on the M and 3D gene sequence. The rates of infection with PKV, PEDV, TGEV and PRoV were 29.9%, 24.2%, 1.91%, and 0.31%, respectively. Co-infections with PKV and the other three viruses were very common. Co-infection of PKV and PEDV was detected in 15.0% (47/314) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the PKV 3D gene indicated that there were some phylogenetic differences in the PKV strains across regions within China. However, according to the PEDV M gene, strains clustered into three groups and the primary group was distinct from the vaccine strain CV777. This study provides insights in to the prevalence of diarrhea viruses and their prevention and control in China. PMID:26982468
What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...
Faranak Alinejad; Mitra Barati; Mahbobe Satarzadeh Tabrisi; Mohsen Saberi
Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all ...
The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...
McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R
Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...
Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard;
OBJECTIVES:: Infectious diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and deaths, is less prevalent in breast-fed infants compared with infants fed infant formula. The dominant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), α-1,2-fucosyllactose (2’-FL), has structural homology to bacterial adhesion sites in the...... intestine and may in part explain the protective effects of human milk. We hypothesized that 2’-FL prevents diarrhea via competitive inhibition of pathogen adhesion in a pig model for sensitive newborn infants. METHODS:: Intestinal cell studies were coupled with studies on cesarean-delivered newborn pigs (n...
Akinbo, F. O.
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.
National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.
Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…
Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar
Conclusion: Evaluation of patients receiving Milatech standard formula showed that diarrhea wasn’t seen in hospitalized patients. Diarrhea was reported by the nurses may refer to other diarrhea genic causes including of long length of stay, entral duration or medical side effects or infections.
Objective: To determine the frequency and clinical features of Rota virus diarrhea in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Methodology: A total of three hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 5 years, who presented with diarrhea of < 7 days as a primary illness were enrolled. Children with bloody diarrhea or nosocomial gastroenteritis acquired during hospitalization for other disease were not included. Detection of Rota virus in stool was done by enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Out of 300 children, 188 (63%) tested positive and 112 (37%) tested negative for Rota virus. Positive Rota virus cases in 7 - 12 months of age was (n = 34, 18.08%). Overall, 151 (80.3%) children with Rota virus were less than 3 years old. 182 (60.7%) had fever, 118 (39.3%) had vomiting and 156 (82.9%) children had both fever and vomiting. Conclusion: This study shows that Rota virus is a common organism causing diarrhea in children less than 3 years of age. There is a need to incorporate Rota virus vaccine in the national EPI program to decrease the disease burden as highlighted in this study. (author)
Han, Wei; Wang, Huan-Min
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Diarrheal NB is quite rare and is not easy to diagnose in the early stage. Six cases of diarrheal NB in our hospital treated from 1996 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed, including characteristics such as electrolyte imbalance, pathologic features, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunohistochemical staining results, treatment, and prognosis. All patients were boys with 3-8 loose or watery stools each day and routine fecal tests were normal. Abdominal tumors were identified by B-ultrasound. Drugs were ineffective. Three patients underwent surgery, and the remaining three patients received surgery and chemotherapy. Diarrhea stopped after treatment in five patients. Two patients died due to intractable hypokalemia. The tumor was located in the adrenal gland in four patients, in the upper retroperitoneum in one patient, and in the presacral area in one patient. Pathologic findings were NB and ganglioneuroblastoma. Five patients were at clinical stage I-II, and one was at stage III. Four patients survived (followed-up for 6 mo to 4 years). Immunohistochemical staining for VIP was positive. Refractory diarrhea is a paraneoplastic syndrome of NB and is rare. Patients aged 1-3 years who present with chronic intractable diarrhea should be followed closely. Intractable diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dysplasia are the initial clinical manifestations. Increased VIP is characteristic of this disease. Potassium supplementation plays a vital role in the treatment procedure, especially preoperatively. The prognosis of diarrheal NB is good following appropriate treatment. PMID:26167095
Moore, Karen S
Travelers' diarrhea is a common complaint for patients traveling abroad. Onset of illness, symptoms experienced, and the duration of symptoms are greatly impacted by the causative agent. This article explores the causes, prevention recommendations, and treatment methodologies recommended for this common condition. PMID:26474195
... any over-the-counter (OTC) medicine to relieve your symptoms. What types of OTC medicines treat diarrhea? Over-the-counter medicines are medicines you can buy without a prescription from your doctor. Some OTC medicines can help you feel ...
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypersecretory state of gut epithelium induced by toxins secreted by microorganisms is the main mechanism of fluid loss in diarrheal illness. Enkephalins (Endogenous Opioids secreted by gut epithelium have marked pro-absorptive activity and are inactivated by enzyme enkephalinase. Racecadotril, the study drug act by augmenting the levels of enkephalins by inactivating enzyme enkephalinase thus leading to increased intestinal absorption. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of racecadotril in acute watery diarrhea in children. PARTICIPANTS Total of 100 patients who met inclusion criteria in the age group of 6 months to 5 years admitted with acute watery diarrhea and some dehydration were enrolment in the study. Cases were randomly divided into racecadotril and placebo group study outcomes in form of number of stools during first 48 hours of admission, mean daily stool number, total duration of diarrheal illness and recovery time, weight on discharge, volume of oral rehydration solution intake during hospital stay and requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion were observed. RESULTS There was a significant decrease (43.9% in mean number of stools passed per day in racecadotril group when compared to placebo group. Secondary outcome variables, i.e. mean daily stool number, duration of diarrhea and recovery time, total volume of oral rehydration solution during study period, requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion also showed a statically significant difference in two groups. Complications rates were not different in the two groups. CONCLUSION Racecadotril can be used as an adjunctive therapy in acute watery diarrhea
Yan-Fang Zhao; Xiao-Jing Guo; Zhan-Sai Zhang; Xiu-Qiang Ma; Rui Wang; Xiao-Yan Yan; Jia He
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi...
Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong
The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice. PMID:26123958
Marijana Protic; Njegica Jojic; Daniela Bojic; Svetlana Milutinovic; Dusanka Necic; Bozidar Bojic; Petar Svorcan; Miodrag Krstic; Obren Popovic
AIM: To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes,osmotic gap and pH.METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) [40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC);11 with collagenous colitis (CC)]; 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration.RESULTS: Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11±5.38 mmol/L (P＜0.01)and CC 54.14±8.42 mmol/L (P＜0.05) than in CG 34.28±2.98 mmol/L. Potassium concentration in LC 74.65±5.29 mmol/L (P＜0.01) and CC 75.53±8.78 mmol/L (P＜0.05) was significantly less compared to CG 92.67±2.99 mmol/L.Chloride concentration in CC 36.07±7.29 mmol/L was significantly higher than in CG 24.11±2.05 mmol/L (P＜0.05).Forty-four (86.7%) patients had a secretory diarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea.CONCLUSION: Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.
Hannaoui, Erika; Villalobos, Luz; Martínez, Rosa; Maldonado, Antonio; Hagel, Isabel; Bastardo, Jesús
To establish the prevalence of strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) associated to acute diarrhea in children of Cumaná, Venezuela, stool samples were taken from 200 children aged ADEC). From 169 E. coli, isolates we determined by PCR 10.65% positive for EPEC (1.18% "typical", 9.47% "atypical"); ETEC (5.91%); EAEC (1.78 %), EIEC (0.59%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the frequency of each "pathotype" in relation to age, but it did occur when related to the sex (p<0.05). The most relevant clinical features were: fever, vomiting and abdominal pain and the greatest percentage of children affected were of the working and marginal classes. These results shown that the strains of DEC are important etiological agents in acute infectious diarrhea in children of Cumaná. PMID:21365876
Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS, can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to curtail the severity of the episode and prevent further occurrences in the ensuing -two to three months, thereby decreasing the morbidity considerably. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation in pediatric diarrhea and convincingly concludes that zinc supplementation has a beneficial impact on the disease outcome.
Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya
Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple
Chaitali Bajait; Vijay Thawani
Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS), can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to cu...
Issenman, Robert M.
Diarrhea affecting infants and children is an important primary-care problem. Most winter infections are caused by rotavirus, but newer viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens have been discovered. Fluid and electrolyte therapy is the mainstay of therapy. Antiemetic, antibiotic and antidiarrheal medications can usually be avoided. Commercial clear fluid products have been reformulated to allow effective rehydration and maintenance of hydration, thus avoiding hospitalization or use of intrave...
Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea
Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963
Bourée, P; Kouchner, G
Traveler's diarrhea is a very common condition that affects approximately 12 million subjects each year. This disorder is benign but nevertheless interferes with the traveler's plans in 40% of cases. Several drugs have been used for prophylaxis, in association with appropriate precautions concerning food and drink. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cyclines are effective but may induce adverse effects. Nifuroxazide in a dose of 400 mg each day throughout the trip has proved effective. Tolerance was outstanding with no adverse effects. PMID:3534765
Alexander Anthony Rosinski
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, diarrhea caused 0.75 million child deaths, accounting for nearly 12% of all under-five mortality worldwide. Many evidence-based interventions can reduce diarrhea mortality, including oral rehydration solution (ORS, zinc, and improved sanitation. Yet global coverage levels of such interventions remain low. A new scorecard of diarrhea control, showing how different countries are performing in their control efforts, could draw greater attention to the low coverage levels of proven interventions. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 21 experts, purposively sampled for their relevant academic or implementation expertise, to explore their views on (a the value of a scorecard of global diarrhea control and (b which indicators should be included in such a scorecard. We then conducted a ranking exercise in which we compiled a list of all 49 indicators suggested by the experts, sent the list to the 21 experts, and asked them to choose 10 indicators that they would include and 10 that they would exclude from such a scorecard. Finally, we created a "prototype" scorecard based on the 9 highest-ranked indicators. RESULTS: Key themes that emerged from coding the interview transcripts were: a scorecard could facilitate country comparisons; it could help to identify best practices, set priorities, and spur donor action; and it could help with goal-setting and accountability in diarrhea control. The nine highest ranking indicators, in descending order, were ORS coverage, rotavirus vaccine coverage, zinc coverage, diarrhea-specific mortality rate, diarrhea prevalence, proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, proportion with access to improved drinking water, exclusive breastfeeding coverage, and measles vaccine coverage. CONCLUSION: A new scorecard of global diarrhea control could help track progress, focus prevention and treatment efforts on the most effective interventions, establish transparency and
Shelby E Wilson
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To design effective national diarrhea control programs, including oral rehydration solution (ORS and therapeutic zinc supplementation, information is needed on local perceptions of illness, external care seeking behaviors, and home treatment practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey was conducted in the Orodara Health District, Burkina Faso. Caregivers of 10,490 children <27 months were interviewed to assess child diarrhea prevalence and related care practices. Characteristics of households, caregivers, children, and reported illnesses were compared for those caregivers who did or did not recognize the presence of diarrhea, as defined according to clinical criteria (≥ 3 liquid or semi-liquid stools/day. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with illness recognition and treatment. RESULTS: Clinically defined diarrhea was present in 7.6% (95% CI: 7.1-8.1% of children during the 24 hours preceding the survey but recognized by only 55% of caregivers. Over half (55% of the caregivers of 1,067 children with a clinically defined diarrhea episode in the past 14 days sought care outside the home; 78% of those seeking care attended a public sector clinic. Care was sought and treatment provided more frequently for children with fever, vomiting, anorexia, longer illness duration, and those living closer to the health center; and care was sought more frequently for male children. 80% of children with recent diarrhea received some form of treatment; only 24% received ORS, whereas 14% received antibiotics. Zinc was not yet available in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers frequently fail to recognize children's diarrhea, especially among younger infants and when illness signs are less severe. Treatment practices do not correspond with international recommendations in most cases, even when caregivers consult with formal health services. Child caregivers need additional
Luzina, E V; Lareva, N V
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126. The paper discusses the possible risk of developing AAD depending on the class of the antibiotic used, as well as the mechanisms of its development. Infectious diarrhea most frequently results from bacterial overgrowth due to that the obligate intestinal microflora is suppressed by antibacterial drugs. C. difficile, Clostridium perfringers, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Candida spp. are etiological factors in the development of this diarrhea. The severest intestinal lesions include pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) caused by C. difficile. The clinical and endoscopic picture and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of PMC are described. Therapy for this menacing condition is traditionally based on the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the new drug fidaxomycin whose superiority over vancomycin has been demonstrated by a recurrence criterion. The paper discusses in detail other treatment options, including the use of probiotics. PMID:23653946
Chronic diarrhea is a syndrome of great clinical complexity, which is frequently encountered by general physicians, internists and gastroenterologists. Differential diagnosis is very broad and sometime finding the precise cause can be difficult, expensive and frustration. Literature published about this topic lack, in general, adequate controlled studies and for this reason recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment are based upon series of cases, experience of the institutions or expert opinion and not on reasonable evidence. On the other hand, many of the classical diagnostic tests that have survived until now were designed over physiologic foundations and have not been validated extensively with the precision of a clinical test. This limits its acceptance, application and standardization in the daily practice. There is not a general agreement about diagnosis and treatment of chronic diarrhea and many of the experts divert recommendation about their recommendations. The purpose of this paper is to define some general guidelines about the clinical evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea that lead us to a rational approach based upon clinical trials and the appropriate use of the many different tests
Full Text Available Shigellosis is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial dysentery, aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration is especially indicated whenever malnutrition is present. First-line drugs include ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX; however multidrug-resistance has occurred and careful antibiotic selection must be considered in prescribing .When epidemiologic data indicate a rise in resistancy, fluoroquinolones may be used in adults and oral third-generation cephalosporins and nalidixic acid in children. All children (n=2400 with acute diarrhea who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Dr.sheykh Hospital Mashhad, Iran from March 2004 to March 2005 were selected and their stool culture were obtained, then positive cultures (312 cases,13% were evaluated by antibiogram. This study showed that in heavily populated areas of IRAN like Mashhad, 97% shigella strain isolated from children with bloody diarrhea were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and rarely susceptible to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. There is increasing resistance of Shigella to most of the antibiotics in use, and for this reason, careful selection of antibiotics must use considered in each area. Development and use of new drugs are expensive and have severe limitations in the third world. Simple prophylactic alternatives are therefore, required, such as awareness of hygienic child care practices and early promotion of breast feeding. For treatment of shigellosis in infants Ceftriaxon, and in children Nalidixic Acid is recommended.
Diarrhoea is seen with many tumors and following several chemotherapy regimen esp. those containing 5-fluorouracil and high dose folinic acid it causes debility even death, delays cancer treatment, reduces compliance increases cost. It causes dehydration, renal failure volume depletion. Quality of life is worsened and hospitalization may be needed in multifactorial, with secretion; absorption imbalance due to mucosal damage, necrosis or inflammation. Local infection is set up by opportunistic organism and cell necrosis. The large volume of fluid and electrolytes overwhelms colonic absorptive capacity. Agent usually used for treatment is opioids (such as Diphenoxylate / Loperamide]. Bismuth (for inflammatory diarrhea). NSAIDs or alpha 2-agonists. For optimal management, the cause and severity should be assessed and treatment planned. Advice is given about certain dietary restraints and avoidance of some drugs. Fever, infection, dehydration and electrolyte losses are treated, pain relieved. Diphenoxylate / Loperamide (later is more effective; 4 mg, STAT, then 2mg every 4 hours or even 2 hourly) may be used. It is moderately effective in CID. Octreotide is useful in carcinoid. VIPoma, AIDS idiopathic secretary diarrhea, ileostomy, dumping syndrome. It acts directly on epithelial cells to reduce secretin, motilin pancreatic polypeptide. It slows transit time, reduces fluid and electrolyte secretin, increases absorption of electrolytes. It is effective in 5 FU and high dose chemotherapy with a 90% response rates seen after 3 days treatment. High Dose Chemotherapy and total body irradiation - induced diarrhea usually resolves within 72 hours. (author)
Made Ratna Dewi
Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy for treating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children. Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrhea treated with synbiotics vs. placebo. Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglah and Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged 6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus was diagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic group received probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, and prebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. The placebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as the synbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days. Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea was involved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, while that of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6 hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than that of the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001. Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbiotic reduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:74-8.].
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...
Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized
Sh Gheibi; Z Kousehlou; Z Sahebazzamani
Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of...
Jasmina Havranek; Šimun Zamberlin; Iva Dolenčić Špehar; Tamara Prtilo; Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija
Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of different diseases. The results of preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea during last ten years are shown in this paper. The greatest preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria was identified for acute diarrhea in children caused by rotaviruses. Significant, but slightly lower effect of probiotic bacteria was proved for antibiotic associated diarrhea. Positive effect in preventi...
Téllez Sierra, Aleyda
Giardia intestinalis is endemic in Nicaragua and affects children early in their lives. Infected individuals may be asymptomatic or suffer from acute or chronic diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infection in the population of León-Nicaragua was investigated. The presence of Giardia specific secretory antibodies was correlated with protection against disease. Parasite proteins as powerful immunogens were evaluated. By microsco...
Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Suantai, Boonpa; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat
Viral gastroenteritis is a common public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, new viruses causing gastroenteritis have been identified. Among these, Aichivirus has also been proposed as a causative agent of gastroenteritis in human. Most studies have been conducted in infants and children, the information in adults is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and molecular characterization of Aichivirus in adult patients with diarrhea. A total of 332 fecal specimens collected from January to December 2008 were screened for the presence of Aichivirus by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method. Out of 332 fecal specimens tested, Aichivirus was detected with the prevalence of 0.9% (3/332). The data indicate that the prevalence of Aichivirus in adults was as low as those reported in children in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequence revealed that one Aichivirus belonged to genotype A, while other two Aichiviruses were genotype B. In conclusion, this study provided the molecular epidemiological data of Aichivirus circulating in adult patients with diarrhea at low prevalence and the viruses were genetically variable as both genotypes A and B were found in this population. PMID:24536026
Mwambazi Mwate; Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica
Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to Dece...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress
Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S
Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...
Zhu, Xu-Hui; Tian, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Ju; Liu, Wei-Yong; Li, Song; Yu, Wei-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Xiang, Xu; Sun, Zi-Yong
Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Viral infections were mainly identified in infants (0–11 months), whereas bacterial infections were more prevalent in the age of 24–59 months. About 69.8% of samples were positive for at least one pathogen, 51.7% of samples were virus positive, followed by bacteria positive cases (19.4%), and 12.6% of cases displayed co-infections with two viruses or a virus and a bacterium. Rotavirus was the most prevalent pathogen, followed closely by norovirus, while Salmonella was the most commonly isolated bacteria, followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Campylobacter. More than 40% of Salmonella spp. and DEC isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline). Around 10% of Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin simultaneously. Campylobacter spp. displayed high resistance to ciprofloxacin but kept low resistance to azithromycin and doxycycline. Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic
... What to do when you have loose stools (diarrhea) “Diarrhea kept me from going out and doing things. ... human services national institutes of health What is diarrhea? Do you have bowel movements more often than ...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...
Diarrhea in a Border Terrier was associated with inflammatory lesions of the myenteric plexus. This lesion has been documented rarely in dogs. It is speculated that the myenteric plexus lesions were responsible for an autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which resulted in extreme intestinal hypermotility and subsequent diarrhea. Suggested tests for dogs suspected to have autonomic dysfunction are given
Lee, Nelson; Martin C W Chan; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K.W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K.S.; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Cockram, C.S.; Sung, Joseph J Y; Leung, Wai K
Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.
Full Text Available A case of cytomegalovirus (CMV colitis mimicking travelers’ diarrhea following short-term travel is reported. The patient was a Croatian man visiting Korea for work. He presented with fever and severe bloody diarrhea. He was diagnosed with a primary CMV infection complicated with CMV colitis and hemolytic anemia and recovered with antiviral therapy and concomitant steroid therapy.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...
Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Gaonkar, Narayan T; Bhatt, Gneyaa S
In spite of continued efforts, India is still lagging behind in achieving its MDG goals. The objectives of this study were to identify stake-holders who have a role to play in childhood diarrhea management, to identify gaps in childhood diarrhea management and to propose strategic options for relieving these gaps. Bottleneck analysis exercise was carried out based on the Tanahashi model in six High Priority Districts (HPDs) of Gujarat in period between July-November 2013. The major bottlenecks identified for Childhood Diarrhea management were poor demand generation, unsafe drinking water, poor access to improved sanitation facility and lack of equitable distribution and replenishment mechanisms for Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) packets and Zinc tablets till the front-line worker level. The main strategic options that were suggested for relieving these bottlenecks were Zinc-ORS roll out in scale-up districts, develop Information Education Communication/Behaviour Change Communication (IEC/BCC) plan for childhood diarrhea management at state/district level, use of Drug Logistics Information Management System (DLIMS) software for supply chain management of Zinc-ORS, strengthening of chlorination activity at household level, monitoring implementation of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan (NBA) for constructing improved sanitation facilities at household level and to develop an IEC/BCC plan for hygiene promotion and usage of sanitary latrines. Use of Zinc tablets need to be intensified through an effective scale-up. Adequate demand generation activity is needed. There is need to address safe drinking water and improved sanitation measures at household levels. Multi-sectoral engagements and ownership of Zinc-ORS program is the need of the hour. PMID:27340871
Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.
Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.
Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and young children as well as an important determinant of growth faltering in the world. Significant proportions of children who suffer from diarrhea are malnourished with depleted micronutrient stores. Diarrhea also leads to excess loss of micronutrients such as zinc and copper. Methods: This study was a clinical trial. The samples were collected from the children admitted. The children were randomly assigned to zinc and control groups among which zinc group received 2 mg/kg of zinc supplementation daily. A questionnaire was utilized as the research instrument containing the demographic information as well as number of stools and duration of admission. Results: After starting supplementation, the mean duration of diarrhea was 3.7±0.95 days in the zinc group and 4.6±1.8 days in the control group, showing a significant difference (P0.05 except on the sixth day. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in admitted 1-60 month old children but has no effects on severity of acute diarrhea except on the sixth day of diarrhea duration.
Yang Bai; Ying-Chun Dai; Jian-Dong Li; Jun Nie; Qing Chen; Hong Wang; Yong-Yu Rui; Ya-Li Zhang; Shou-Yi Yu
AIM: During emergency period, infectious diseases can bea major threat to military forces. During field training insouthern China, diarrhea is the main cause of nonbattleinjury. To evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrheain emergency period, we collected clinical and epidemiologicaldata from the People′s Liberation Army (PLA) during fieldtraining in southern China.METHODS: From September 25 to October 2 1997, 2636military personnel were investigated. Fecal sample cultures for lapactic pathogens were obtained from 103 military personnel with diarrhea. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 103 cases and 206 controls to evaluate the association between illness and potential risk factors. At the same time,another questionnaire of 1:4 case-case control was administered to 22 severe cases (each severe case paired 4 mild cases).RESULTS: The training troop′s diarrhea incidence rate was significantly higher than that of garrison. The diarrhea incidence rate of officers was significantly lower than that of soldiers. A lapactic pathogen was identified in 63.1% (65/103) of the troops with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli(35.0%) and plesiomona shigelloides (16.5%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin and ceftazidine. However, almost all of them were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,oxytetracycline, doxycycline, furazolidone, ampicillin and cloromycetin to a different degree. Risk factors associated with diarrhea includediidrinking raw water, eating outside,contacting diarrhea patients, lacking sanitation, depression,lacking sleep, which were established by multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. In addition, the unit incidence rate was associated with the density of flies and the average daily boiled water available by regression and discriminate analysis.CONCLUSION: A series of risk factors are associated with the incidence rate of diarrhea. Our
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...
Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs. PMID:26597189
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea... paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible calves (five vaccinates and three controls) shall...
Kalantar E; Solatni J; Khosravi B; Salehi A
Objective:Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries.The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with childhood diarrhea is Escherichia coli.A one-year prospec-tive study was carried out in Sanandaj to determine the prevalence and roles of the different E.coli pathotypes in children less than five years of age with acute diarrhea.Methods:Rectal swab were collected prospectively from children with acute diarrhea and transported to the Department of Microbiology,School of Medicine, KUMS,Sanandaj during 2008.The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee.Results:During this study period,rectal swabs were investigated from a total of 466 children 1 to 144 months of age (mean, 29.97 months ±S.D)with diarrhea.Among the children,191 (41%,191 /466)were girls,and 275 (59%,275 /466)were boys.The age-specific incidence rates of acute diarrhea among children 13 -24 and 1-12 months of age were 37.37% (37 /99)and 26.26 % (26 /99),respectively,during the study period.A total of 99 strains of E.coli were detected.EPEC 59 (59.59%)and EIEC 22 (22.22%),were the most commonly found Escherichia coli strains detected in stools from children.Disk diffusion testing showed E.coli strains resistance to tetracycline (89.89 %),chloramphenicol (88.88%),Ampicillin (79.79%),Amoxi-cillin (75.75%)and Ceficime (75.75%).Among risk factors like age,sex,haemoglubin,father's and moth-er's education,food and weight of children only mother's education was significant (P =0.018).Conclusion:In most of the clinical laboratories in Iran,E.coli does not considered as an etiologic agent responsible for di-arrhea.Results in this study revealed that E.coli should be considered as an etiologic agent causing acute di-arrhea among children.We therefore,recommend the routine isolation and identification of E.coli strains in all the clinical laboratories in Sanandaj.Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in Sanandaj need upda-ting.
... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Issues > Conditions > Abdominal > Diarrhea ... amounts of urine again. Reminder–Do's and Don'ts Do Watch for signs ...
Cholestyramine is a non-absorbable ion-exchange resin which specifically binds bile salts. We have treated seven patients with acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea that was refractory to the usual methods of control with cholestyramine. In each case, the diarrhea was controlled with cholestyramine. This observation supports previous experimental work with animals which indicated that bile salts contribute to the genesis of radiation-induced diarrhea. Cholestyramine is well-tolerated, but should not be administered with certain oral medications. The results of this small series are preliminary, but point the way toward a more extensive clinical trial to define the usefulness of cholestyramine in the treatment of refractory acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea
Full Text Available Persistent diarrhea (i.e. acute episodes lasting more than 14 days has been recognized by the WHO as a major public health problem in developing countries and a research topic of high priority. Persistent diarrhea is often associated with malnutrition, growth faltering, and a substantial risk of mortality in children below 5 years of age. Reported incidence and case-fatality rates from persistent diarrhea vary substantially. Substantial disagreement exists regarding definition, incidence and various putative risk factors. Resolution of such measurement related problems will allow for an accurate estimate of the force of morbidity and mortality from presistent diarrhea, while the elucidation of its risk factors will simplify policy making and the tailoring of intervention programs.
Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung
Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the...
Zaman, Qamruz; Khan, Imtiaz
Diarrhea is a worldwide problem facing both developing countries and developed countries, especially in pediatric population. Because of shortage of health facilities and lack of good food in developing countries, it is known fact that developing countries are facing this death taking problem more. The main purpose of this study was to examine the various factors which affect the recovery time of diarrhea. A multiple linear regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a model. The...
Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) is a disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), an ubiquitous, easily transmitted virus with worldwide distribution. The majority of postnatal infections with BVDV are nonclinical, with biphasic temperature elevation and leucopenia followed by a spesific immune response measurable by serum neutralisation test. The infection can be diagnosed serologically or virologically and the disease is recognized by clinical signs and pathological lesions. Diseas...
Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Torborg, L L; Collett, M S
Bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA was translated in a reticulocyte cell-free protein synthesizing system. The purified, 8.2-kilobase, virus-specific RNA species was unable to serve an an efficient message unless it was denatured immediately before translation. In this case, several polypeptides, ranging in molecular weight from 50,000 to 150,000 and most of which were immunoprecipitated by bovine viral diarrhea virus-specific antiserum, were synthesized in vitro. When polyribosomes were used to...
Mellado-Ferreiro, M; Jarne-Betrán, V; Arteaga-Mazuelas, M; Abínzano-Guillén, M L
Chronic diarrhea caused by infection in immunocompetent patients is an infrequent condition in developed countries, although certain pathogens,generally parasites (Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli,Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Strongyloides, Ameba,Trichuris and Schistosoma) and some bacteria (Aeromonas,Plesiomonas, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis)can cause persistent diarrhea.We present the case of a patient who showed Salmonella typhimurium in his stool culture and recovered following treatment with levofloxacin for 7 days. PMID:27125610
Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar; Mahdieh Pouryazdanpanah; Zahra Ganie Far; Saba Ghazanfari; Abdolreza Norouzy
Introduction: Malnutrition is common in intensive care unit, occurring in (30% to 50%) of hospitalized patients. To prevent malnutrition, nutritionists recommend industrials formula for patients who cannot eat but with functional gastrointestinal track, But due to verbal nurse`s reports standard enteral formula is inducing diarrhea. In this study our purpose is to evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with standard Enteral Nutrition (EN) formula intake. Materials and ...
Beaugerie, Laurent; Sokol, Harry
Acute diarrhea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid fecal matter from the bowel, lasting less than 14 days. More than three millions cases of acute diarrhea, presumably due to intestinal infections, are seen in general practice every year in France. Most of the cases are benign and resolve under symptomatic treatment within 3 days, without need for biological tests or antibiotics. In special contexts (septicemic syndrome, visible blood in stools, severe dehydration, patients at risk of severe sepsis [valvulopathy]), biologic tests and probabilist antibiotic treatment are required. Hygiene, rehydration and diet recommendations are always part of the treatment of acute diarrhea, in addition to the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea and other digestive symptoms. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is clinically benign in most cases, and attributed to transient dysbiosis of gut microbiota. In the remaining cases, diarrhea is the clinical expression of intestinal infection by Clostridium difficile, that should be treated with metronidazole, or the clinical expression of a Klebsiella oxytoca-associated colitis that usually spontaneously resolves after stopping antibiotics. PMID:23253255
Stallmach, A; Hagel, S; Lohse, A W
Infectious diarrhea is very common; its severity ranges from uncomplicated, self-limiting courses to potentially life-threatening disease. A rapid diagnostic workup providing detailed information on the suspected pathogen should be performed only in patients at risk, analyzing one single stool sample for Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Norovirus. In the presence of risk factors, such as a history of antibiotic exposure within the last 3 months, testing for Clostridium difficile should be performed. Immunocompetent patients do not require specific antibiotic therapy. Exceptions exist in patients with severe comorbidities, immunodeficiency, fever/SIRS, and in patients with Shigella or C. difficile infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment should be considered in patients with fever and/or bloody diarrhea and in patients at risk. In patients with traveler's diarrhea, microbiological diagnosis is required only in patients with fever, bloody diarrhea, prolonged course of disease (more than 5 days), severe clinical course with hypotension or dehydration, and during outbreaks. In these patients one single fecal sample should be collected for stool cultures of Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella, as well as microscopic examination for amoebiasis and Giardiasis. The main therapeutic measure for infectious diarrhea is sufficient oral rehydration. As in community-acquired diarrhea, azithromycin or ciprofloxacin are recommended-taking into account local antimicrobial resistance in the country of travel and possible side effects. PMID:26573083
Laura M Lamberti
Full Text Available To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state–specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two–weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.4–19.3 and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4–3.9, but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7–4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7–1.2. Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted care–giver demand generation activities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjuvant therapy to ORT with probiotic bacteria for infants with acute watery diarrhea has been under active investigation. Most studies have been done in the developed world showing benefit only for viral mild gastroenteritis. We evaluated the effect of a milk formula containing one billion (109 cfu/ml of Lactobacillus casei strain GG (LGG upon duration and severity of diarrhea in infants in an environment with more severe acute diarrhea, where etiologic agents other than rotavirus are involved more frequently, and where mixed infections are more prevalent. Methods Male infants aged 3–36 months brought for treatment of acute watery diarrhea of less than 48 hours were eligible. After rehydration was completed with the WHO's oral rehydration solution, patients were randomly assigned to receive a milk formula either containing LGG or not. Stool volume was periodically measured using a devise suited to collect stools separate from urine. Duration of diarrhea was estimated based on stools physical characteristics. Results Eighty nine patients received the placebo milk formula and ninety received the LGG containing formula. Both groups were comparable in their baseline characteristics. Total stool output was significantly larger (p = 0.047 in the LGG group (247.8 ml/kg than in the placebo group (195.0 ml/kg. No significant differences were found in duration of diarrhea (58.5 hours with LGG vs. 50.4 hours with placebo, rate of treatment failure (21.1% with LGG vs. 18.0% with placebo, and proportion of patients with unresolved diarrhea after 120 hours (12.2% with LGG vs. 12.5% with placebo. The rate of stools with reducing substances after 24 hours of treatment increased significantly in both groups (from 41.4% to 72.2% with LGG and from 45.9% to 68.0% with placebo. Conclusion This study did not show a positive effect of LGG on the clinical course of acute watery diarrhea. Positive beneficial effects of LGG, as had been reported
Acute diarrhea and pneumonia are the two largest killers of under-five children in the world. Zinc, used in management of acute diarrhea and Amoxicillin, used in community acquired pneumonia, feature in the list of 13 Life Saving Commodities for Women's and Children Health by the UN Commission. Zinc has caught wide scientific attention for the conceptual promise it has to offer for prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhea. This presentation focuses on author's research on the mechanisms by which zinc might contribute to the pathogenesis of acute diarrhea and the degree of success achieved in diarrhea control and treatment by zinc supplementation including its impact on mortality. However, emerging evidence in terms of controlled studies in humans beckons a more complete understanding of the mechanistic basis for zinc supplementation. Current evidence indicates that studies specifically addressing the variability in response to zinc supplementation need to be undertaken to better comprehend these mechanisms. Similarly, the author presented her research that examined the role of oral amoxicillin in community management of severe pneumonia in children and the need to assess its universal efficacy in all children with severe pneumonia. PMID:25731896
Žutić Jadranka; Ašanin Jelena; Mišić D.; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila; Milić N.; Ašanin Ružica; Stojanović Dragica; Žutić M.
Among different pathogens, enterotoxic E. coli (ETEC) has been for many years an important etiological agent in the occurrence of digestive system disease of newborn animals. In counties with developed pig breeding (farming), including our country, diarrhea in the neonatal period, caused by ETEC strains is one of the most present and economically most significant diseases. The aim of this investigation wais to determine the prevalence of ETEC strains in pig...
Suthienkul, O; Aiumlaor, P; Siripanichgon, K; Eampokalap, B; Likhanonsakul, S; Utrarachkij, F; Rakue, Y
The incidence of bacterial diarrhea in AIDS patients has increased steadily and has led to enormous medical and public health problems. In this study, the clinical data together with 350 rectal swab samples each from AIDS patients with diarrhea (APD) and non-AIDS patients with diarrhea (NAPD), were collected and examined for bacterial enteropathogens at the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Hospital (BIDH), Nonthaburi, Thailand from May to December 1996. Patients were matched by age and sex. The majority of these patients were male (79%, 554/700), aged between 15 and 34 years (70.9%). The study found that the isolation rates of bacterial enteropathogens causing diarrhea in APD (18%, 62/350) were considerably lower than those in NAPD (43%, 152/350) (pvtl and vt2. No V. cholerae strains were detected in APD. The least effective antibiotics were ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Antibiotic resistant patterns of the isolated organisms were similar from both groups. The results from this study might be useful in Thailand in the diagnosis and management of clinical cases of bacterial diarrhea, especially APD. PMID:11485080
P Delia; G Sansotta; V Donate; P Frosina; G Messina; C De Renzis; G Famularo
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a high-potency probiotic preparation on prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea in cancer patients.METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Four hundred and ninety patients who underwent adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy after surgery for sigmoid, rectal, or cervical cancer were assigned to either the high-potency probiotic preparation VSL#3 (one sachet t.i.d.,) or placebo starting from the first day of radiation therapy. Efficacy endpoints were incidence and severity of radiation-induced diarrhea, daily number of bowel movements, and the time from the start of the study to the use of loperamide as rescue medication.RESULTS: More placebo patients had radiation-induced diarrhea than VSL#3 patients (124 of 239 patients, 51.8%, and 77 of 243 patients, 31.6%; P < 0.001) and more patients given placebo suffered grade 3 or 4 diarrhea compared with VSL#3 recipients (55.4% and 1.4%, P < 0.001). Daily bowel movements were 14.7 ± 6 and 5.1 ± 3 among placebo and VSL#3 recipients (P < 0.05), and the mean time to the use of loperamide was 86 ± 6 h for placebo patients and 122 ± 8 h for VSL#3 patients (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Probiotic lactic acid-producing bacteria are an easy, safe, and feasible approach to protect cancer patients against the risk of radiation-induced diarrhea.
Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis
Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; D'elia, Mirella Lauria; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Álvaro Roberto; Leal, Rodrigo Costa; Cavalcanti, Guilherme; Pereira, Pedro Lúcio Lithg; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria
The aim of this study is to report a case of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The animal, a 24-month-old male, was referred to the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS) with a history of having been run over and tibia and fibula fractures. After a surgery to repair the fractures, the ocelot underwent antibiotic therapy with two doses of sodium cefovecin, during which he presented with diarrhea. A stool sample was positive for A/B toxins by a cytotoxicity assay, and a toxigenic strain of C. difficile was isolated. No other enteropathogens were detected. The association between the history, clinical signs and laboratory exams confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report confirms C. difficile as a potential pathogen for wild felids and suggests that the C. difficile-associated diarrhea should be considered in diarrhea cases, especially when the clinical signs began after antimicrobial use. PMID:23467074
Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc deficiency is commonly prevalent in children in developing countries and plays a role in decreased immunity and increased risk of infection. Preventive zinc supplementation in healthy children can reduce mortality due to common causes like diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. The main objective was to determine all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing countries for preventive zinc supplementation. Data sources/ review methods A literature search was carried out on PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the WHO regional databases to identify RCTs on zinc supplementation for greater than 3 months in children less than 5 years of age in developing countries and its effect on mortality was analyzed. Results The effect of preventive zinc supplementation on mortality was given in eight trials, while cause specific mortality data was given in five of these eight trials. Zinc supplementation alone was associated with a statistically insignificant 9% (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.01 reduction in all cause mortality in the intervention group as compared to controls using a random effect model. The impact on diarrhea-specific mortality of zinc alone was a non-significant 18% reduction (RR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.05 and 15% for pneumonia-specific mortality (RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.11. The incidence of diarrhea showed a 13% reduction with preventive zinc supplementation (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.94 and a 19% reduction in pneumonia morbidity (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.90. Keeping in mind the direction of effect of zinc supplementation in reducing diarrhea and pneumonia related morbidity and mortality; we considered all the outcomes for selection of effectiveness estimate for inclusion in the LiST model. After application of the CHERG rules with consideration to quality of evidence and rule # 6, we used the most conservative estimates as a surrogate for mortality. We, therefore
Perry Hookman; Jamie S Barkin
A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to twothirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficileassociated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate
Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Sadeghi, Amin; Moradi, Mohammad
Aim: This study aims to determine the serogroup distribution and molecular diagnosis, as well as antimicrobial resistance profiles among Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Kerman, southeast of Iran. Background: Shigella species are frequent cause of bacterial dysentery worldwide. Previous studies have been reported that S. sonnei and S. flexneri are the most prevalent serogroups in various parts of Iran. Patients and methods: A total of 624 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with diarrhea from June 2013 to August 2014. Biochemical and serological characterizations were performed for identifying Shigella spp. In addition, the multiplex PCR assay was carried out for the detection and differentiation of three pathogenic Shigella spp. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Fifty six (9%) Shigella strains were isolated from stool samples. The most common species were S. flexneri 31(55.4%), followed by S .sonnei 18(32.1%) and S. boydii 7(12.5%). S. dysentery was not detected in the present study. All the isolates that identified by serological test as Shigella spp. were confirmed by the multiplex PCR method. The highest rate of resistance was observed for ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole antibiotics with 52(92.9%) resistant, followed by tetracycline 44(78.6%) and cefotaxime 33(58.9%). All Shigella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. A significant relationship was found between the Shigella species and cefotaxime resistance (p<0.05). Conclusion: S. flexneri was found as the most prevalent serogroup causing shigellosis. The high rate of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins limits the treatment options available for the management of shigellosis in Kerman, Iran.
Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan
Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required. PMID:27154218
Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct
Although diarrhea is the predominant bowel dysfunction in as many as one-third of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it is unclear whether there is a specific disorder of intestinal fluid or electrolyte secretion in IBS. Diarrhea is generally considered a result of accelerated colonic transit in patients with IBS. Although a primary secretory diathesis has not been well-documented in patients with IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D), several mechanisms that could potentially contribute to intestinal secretion have been reported. Some of these mechanisms also influence motor and secretory dysfunctions that contribute to the pathophysiology of IBS-D. We review the evidence supporting secretion in IBS-D caused by peptides and amines produced by enteroendocrine cells or submucosal neurons, enterocyte secretory processes, and intraluminal factors (bile acids and short-chain fatty acids). Understanding these mechanisms and developing clinical methods for their identification could improve management of patients with IBS-D. PMID:25041862
Maçin, Salih; Kaya, Filiz; Çağdaş, Deniz; Hizarcioglu-Gulsen, Hayriye; Saltik-Temizel, Inci Nur; Tezcan, İlhan; Demir, Hülya; Ergüven, Sibel; Akyön, Yakut
The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea and clarify the importance of these parasitic pathogens in such cases. A total of 60 pediatric patients with chronic diarrhea between June 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled in the study. Out of 60 stool samples, five were positive for Giardia lamblia, two, Dientamoeba fragilis, and one, Blastocystis hominis. One stool sample was positive for Entamoeba hartmanni and B. hominis, another one was positive for G. lamblia and B. hominis, another, G. lamblia and E. hartmanni and one sample was positive for Enterobius vermicularis, D. fragilis and B. hominis together. Parasitic infection, which decreases quality of life and increases susceptibility to other infections, should not be neglected, particularly in patients with chronic diarrhea. Accurate diagnosis decreases morbidity and mortality in patients with parasite infection. PMID:27322863
Langa, Jerónimo S; Thompson, Ricardo; Arnaldo, Paulo; Resque, Hugo Reis; Rose, Tatiana; Enosse, Sonia M; Fialho, Alexandre; de Assis, Rosane Maria Santos; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi
Acute diarrhea disease caused by Rotaviruses A (RVA) is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 years old in developing countries. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September, 2011 to determine the proportion of acute diarrhea caused by RVA. A total of 254 stool specimens were collected from children ≤5 years old with acute diarrhea, including outpatients (222 children) and inpatients (32 children), in three local health centers in Chókwè District, Gaza Province, South of Mozambique. RVA antigens were detected using enzyme immunoassay (EIA); the RVA G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR or analysis sequencing. Sixty (24%) out of 254 fecal specimens were positive for RVA by EIA; being 58 (97%) from children ≤2 years of age. RVA prevalence peaks in June and July (coldest and drier months) and the G[P] binary combination observed were G12P (57%); G1P (9%); G12P (6%); and 2% for each of the following genotypes: G1P, G2P G4P, and G9P. Non-Typeable (NT) G and/or P genotypes were observed as follows: G12P [NT] (6%); G1P [NT], G3P[NT] and GNTP[NT] (4%). Considering the different GP combinations, G12 represented 67% of the genotypes. This is the first data showing the diversity of RVA genotypes in Mozambique highlighting the epidemiological importance of these viruses in acute diarrhea cases in children ≤2 years old. In addition, these findings will provide a baseline data before the introduction of the RVA monovalent (Rotarix(®) ) vaccine in the National Immunization Program in September 2015. J. Med. Virol. 88:1751-1758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27003797
Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of diarrhea. Materials and Methods: We conduct a systematic review through January 2014, for randomized controlled trials relevant to effect of zinc on diarrhea in children. We searched the MeSH terms zinc, acute gastroenteritis and children from various databases of Cochrane Library and PubMed, then clinical trials done in South-West Asia, selected for making written. Results: In recent years, several studies have reported the therapeutic effect of zinc supplementation on diarrheal diseases that was beneficial on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration. In some countries in West Asia such as Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in clinical trials showed a faster improvement in acute gastroenteritis in children less than five years. But in some countries, such as Turkey, this effect was not significant. Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies. Global attempts should is increased to support recommended regimen of therapeutic zinc by WHO in all areas. Keywords: Acute Gastroenteritis, Children, Zinc, South-West Asia.
There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)
There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)
White, Mary B; Rajagopalan, Shobita; Yoshikawa, Thomas T
Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection. Appropriate preventive measures and judicious use of antibiotics can help mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infection. PMID:27394020
Kalaf, Rasha Noori; Elahmer, Omar R.; Zorgani, Abdulaziz A.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw
The most common cause of acute diarrhea in young children in developed and developing countries are rotaviruses. In developing countries, it is estimated that 20-70% of hospitalizations and close to one million children below the age of five die annually because of rotavirus infections. Of the seven groups (A-G) of rotaviruses, group A is usually the cause of rotavirus-associated diarrhea. Infections due to rotaviruses occur via the fecal-oral route. Previous studies from Libya showed that ro...
Shimokawa, Chikako; Kabir, Mamun; Taniuchi, Mami; Mondal, Dinesh; Kobayashi, Seiki; Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Sobuz, Shihab U.; Senba, Masachika; Houpt, Eric; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Hamano, Shinjiro
Background.Entamoeba moshkovskii is prevalent in developing countries and morphologically indistinguishable from pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar. It is not known if E. moshkovskii is pathogenic.
WU Tong-fa; SHI Bing-pei
To treat 50 cases of chronic diarrhea by laser point-radiation on Shenque (CV 8 ), Tianshu (ST25), Zusanli (ST 36) and Point Anti-diarrhea with low power He-Ne laser. The total effective rate was 96%.
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Ogbo PU; Aina BA; Aderemi-Williams RI
Background: Acute diarrhea in children leads to dehydration and death if not appropriately managed. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating diarrhea with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), fluids and foods. Proper management is hinged on accurate assessment of patients to identify the acute watery diarrhea. Objective: To compare the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists in the management of acute diarrhea in children with their observed practice. Methods: This study w...
Koo, Hoonmo L.; Herbert L. DuPont; Huang, David B.
Travelers’ diarrhea is a common illness among international travelers from developed to developing countries. Travelers’ diarrhea is caused by ingestion of contaminated food and water. Bacteria are the primary cause of travelers’ diarrhea. In most surveys, the most common diarrheal pathogen identified is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. There are several antimicrobial agents available for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea including rifaximin which is approved in the United States for the ...