WorldWideScience

Sample records for addresses real-world problems

  1. Real-World Solutions for Real-World Collaboration Problems

    Macklin, Alexius Smith; Fosmire, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Are you finding collaboration with faculty difficult to initiate? How about a new approach? Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instruction method that investigates and resolves messy, real-world dilemmas. This workshop demonstrates how librarians at Purdue University worked with faculty to incorporate information literacy skills into course content using PBL.

  2. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense supp

  3. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on student perceptions of 24 graduate student internships funded in 2007-2008 by York University's Knowledge Mobilization (KMb) Unit. These internships provided opportunities for students to engage in research with community agencies around real world problems. Design/methodology/approach: The principal…

  4. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem......This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...

  5. Real world problem solving and quality of life in older people

    Gilhooly, M.; Gilhooly, K; Phillips, LH; Harvey, D.; Brady, A; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined relationships between quality of life (QoL) in older people and cognitive functioning in both abstract and real-world problem solving. Design. Contributions of levels of mental, physical and social activities, self-rated and objective health status, self-rated cognitive functioning, socio-economic status, gender, real-world and abstract problem solving were examined in a regression study of factors related to QoL in older people. Method. Participants (N...

  6. Matheuristics for robust optimization: application to real-world problems

    Toklu, Nihat Engin; Gambardella, Luca Maria; Montemanni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In the field of optimization, the perspective that the problem data are subject to uncertainty is gaining more and more interest. The uncertainty in an optimization problem represents the measurement errors during the phase of collecting data, or unforeseen changes in the environment while implementing the optimal solution in practice. When the uncertainty is ignored, an optimal solution according to the mathematical model can turn out to be far from optimal, or even infeasible in realit...

  7. Problems of Music Information Retrieval in the Real World.

    Byrd, Donald; Crawford, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Considers some of the most fundamental problems in music information retrieval, challenging the common assumption that searching on pitch alone is likely to be satisfactory for all purposes. Discusses special issues related to polyphonic music, user-interface issues, and the notion of relevance for music information retrieval. (Contains 52…

  8. Analyzing Student Modeling Cycles in the Context of a "Real World" Problem

    Schorr, Roberta Y.; Amit, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    Many students do not apply their real world intuitions and sense-making abilities when solving mathematics problems in school. In an effort to better understand how to help students draw upon these valued resources, we investigate the manner in which the solution to a particular problem activity is repeatedly re-interpreted by a student. This is…

  9. Applying strategic multiagent planning to real-world travel sharing problems

    Hrnčíř, Jan; Rovatsos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Travel sharing, i.e., the problem of finding parts of routes which can be shared by several travellers with different points of departure and destinations, is a complex multiagent problem that requires taking into account individual agents' preferences to come up with mutually acceptable joint plans. In this paper, we apply state-of-the-art planning techniques to real-world public transportation data to evaluate the feasibility of multiagent planning techniques in this domain. The potential a...

  10. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  11. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  12. The swath segment selection problem: extending AI search techniques to a novel real-world problem

    Knight, R.; Smith, B.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the Swath Segment Selection problem (SSSP). The SSSP consists of a constrained geometric covering problem and a capacitated resource problem. It comes from the real-life problem of scheduling on- and off-times for air or space-borne instruments that image a target by flying over and collecting a swath of information.

  13. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  14. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Robert Cherinka; Joe Prezzama

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" enviro...

  15. Testing the US Integrated Ocean Observing System Data Discovery and Distribution Infrastructure with Real-World Problems

    Snowden, D. P.; Signell, R.; Knee, K.; Kupiec, J.; Bird, A.; Fratantonio, B.; Koeppen, W.; Wilcox, K.

    2014-12-01

    The distributed, service-oriented architecture of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS) has been implemented mostly independently by US IOOS partners, using different software approaches and different levels of compliance to standards. Some uniformity has been imparted by documenting the intended output data formats and content and service interface behavior. But to date, a rigorous testing of the distributed system of systems has not been done. To assess the functionality of this system, US IOOS is conducting a system integration test (http://github.com/ioos/system-test) that evaluates whether the services (i.e. SOS, OPeNDAP, WMS, CS/W) deployed to the 17 Federal partners and 11 Regional Associations can solve real-world problems. Scenarios were selected that both address IOOS societal goals and test different functionality of the data architecture. For example, one scenario performs an assessment of water level forecast skill by prompting the user for a bounding box and a temporal extent, searching metadata catalogs via a Catalog Services for the Web (CS/W) interface to discover available sea level observations and model results, extracting data from the identified service endpoints (either OPeNDAP or SOS), interpolating both modeled and observed data onto a common time base, and then comparing the skill of the various models. Other scenarios explore issues such as hypoxia and wading bird habitats. For each scenario, the entire workflow (user input, search, access, analysis and visualization) is captured in an IPython Notebook on GitHub. This allows the scenarios to be self-documenting as well as reproducible by anyone, using free software. The Python packages required to run the scenarios are all available on GitHub and Conda packages are available on binstar.org so that users can easily run the scenarios using the free Anaconda Python distribution. With the advent of hosted services such as Wakari, it is possible for anyone to reproduce these

  16. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  17. Learning to train neural networks for real-world control problems

    Feldkamp, Lee A.; Puskorius, G. V.; Davis, L. I., Jr.; Yuan, F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, our group has concentrated on the application of neural network methods to the training of controllers for real-world systems. This presentation describes our approach, surveys what we have found to be important, mentions some contributions to the field, and shows some representative results. Topics discussed include: (1) executing model studies as rehearsal for experimental studies; (2) the importance of correct derivatives; (3) effective training with second-order (DEKF) methods; (4) the efficacy of time-lagged recurrent networks; (5) liberation from the tyranny of the control cycle using asynchronous truncated backpropagation through time; and (6) multistream training for robustness. Results from model studies of automotive idle speed control serve as examples for several of these topics.

  18. Connecting school and community with science learning: Real world problems and school-community partnerships as contextual scaffolds

    Bouillion, Lisa M.; Gomez, Louis M.

    2001-10-01

    A challenge facing many schools, especially those in urban settings that serve culturally and linguistically diverse populations, is a disconnection between schools and students' home communities, which can have both cognitive and affective implications for students. In this article we explore a form of connected science, in which real-world problems and school-community partnerships are used as contextual scaffolds for bridging students' community-based knowledge and school-based knowledge, as a way to provide all students opportunities for meaningful and intellectually challenging science learning. The potential of these scaffolds for connected science is examined through a case study in which a team of fifth-grade teachers used the student-identified problem of pollution along a nearby river as an interdisciplinary anchor for teaching science, math, language arts, and civics. Our analysis makes visible how diverse forms of knowledge were able to support project activities, examines the consequences for student learning, and identifies the features of real-world problems and school-community partnerships that created these bridging opportunities.

  19. Integer Formulation and Data Analysis of a Real-World Course Timetabling Problem

    Khang T.T.M. Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, educational timetabling problems are considered to be challenging and attractive to operation research community in recent years. In this paper, we investigate a course timetabling problem in practice by introducing an integer formulation and data analysis of this problem. Fourteen data instances are taken from Faculty of Information Technology, University of Science in Vietnam. Thirteen measurements are used to analyze the hardness of these instances.

  20. Simulation-based Optimization of a Real-world Travelling Salesman Problem Using an Evolutionary Algorithm with a Repair Function

    Anna Syberfeldt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-world case study of optimizing waste collection in Sweden. The problem, involving approximately 17,000 garbage bins served by three bin lorries, is approached as a travelling salesman problem and solved using simulation-based optimization and an evolutionary algorithm. To improve the performance of the evolutionary algorithm, it is enhanced with a repair function that adjusts its genome values so that shorter routes are found more quickly. The algorithm is tested using two crossover operators, i.e., the order crossover and heuristic crossover, combined with different mutation rates. The results indicate that the order crossover is superior to the heuristics crossover, but that the driving force of the search process is the mutation operator combined with the repair function.

  1. Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind

    Juan Carlos Olabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n=242 was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in mathematics, participants were introduced to a taxonomic tool for the description of K-12 Math problems. The tool allows the identification, decomposition and description of Type-A problems, the characteristic ones in the traditional curriculum, and of Type-B problems in the new paradigm. The workshops culminated with a set of surveys where participants were asked to assess both the current and the new proposed paradigms. The surveys in this study revealed that according to the majority of participants: (i The K-12 Mathematics curricula are designed to teach students exclusively the resolution of Type-A problems; (ii real life Math problems respond to a paradigm of Type-B problems; and (iii the current Math curriculum should be modified to include this new paradigm.

  2. Colibri: An International Blended Learning Experience based on Real-World Problems

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Kuran, Sükrü; Frick, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    students in 2015. It contains both course and project activities. In this paper we describe our experiences from the project work, from the initial formulation of the project problems by the companies, over the organisation of the seminars and virtual collaboration phase to the final exams. The whole...

  3. Design-based science and the transfer of science knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills

    Fortus, David Leon

    Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks

  4. Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Understanding: Using Geographic Information Systems to Mediate Urban High School Students' Real-World Problem Solving

    DeBay, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    To explore student mathematical self-efficacy and understanding of graphical data, this dissertation examines students solving real-world problems in their neighborhood, mediated by professional urban planning technologies. As states and schools are working on the alignment of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), traditional…

  5. Real-world outcomes

    Askehave, Inger; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational...... of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners. The discussion will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross-border company and the possible implications of this for organizational collaboration...... collaboration. This way, we hope to demonstrate that the practical applicability of our findings becomes one of shedding light on potential problems and providing advice (which may be considered an important aim of discourse-based research) instead of making specific recommendations on issues of practice beyond...

  6. Alice in the Real World

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  7. Connecting Students to the Real World: Developing Gifted Behaviors through Service Learning

    Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Chancey, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning in today's classrooms can be disconnected from students' real world experiences. Providing students the opportunity to address real-world problems may provide avenues for students to engage in their communities while developing academic skills and knowledge. Additionally, for students whose interests are piqued by the nature of their…

  8. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization for Real-World Delivery Problems Based on Real Time and Predicted Traffic in Wide Area Road Network

    Junichi Ochiai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to real-world delive ry problems for home delivery services where a large number of roads exist in cities and the tra ffic on the roads rapidly changes with time. The methodology for finding the shortest-travel-tim e tour includes a hybrid meta-heuristic that combines ant colony optimization with Dijkstra’s al gorithm, a search technique that uses both real-time traffic and predicted traffic, and a way to use a real-world road map and measured traffic in Japan. Experimental results using a map of central Tokyo and historical traffic data indicate that the proposed method can find a better solution than conventional methods.

  9. Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications

    Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...

  10. Theory- and evidence based interventions for children with conduct problems : exploring applicability and underlying assumptions in real world settings

    2009-01-01

    Severe child conduct problems (aggressive, disruptive, destructive, oppositional, non-compliant and antisocial behavior) are predictive of serious and violent offences, substance use problems, mental health problems and domestic violence later in life (Moffitt, 2006). Left untreated, as many as 50% to 75% of the children with severe and early conduct problems will exhibit antisocial behavior in adolescence (Nixon, 2002). However, early trajectories of conduct problems can be altered (Brestan ...

  11. Comparing the cognitive differences resulting from modeling instruction: Using computer microworld and physical object instruction to model real world problems

    Oursland, Mark David

    This study compared the modeling achievement of students receiving mathematical modeling instruction using the computer microworld, Interactive Physics, and students receiving instruction using physical objects. Modeling instruction included activities where students applied the (a) linear model to a variety of situations, (b) linear model to two-rate situations with a constant rate, (c) quadratic model to familiar geometric figures. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze achievement differences between students (a) receiving different methods of modeling instruction, (b) with different levels of beginning modeling ability, or (c) with different levels of computer literacy. Student achievement was analyzed quantitatively through a three-factor analysis of variance where modeling instruction, beginning modeling ability, and computer literacy were used as the three independent factors. The SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) assessment framework was used to design written modeling assessment instruments to measure the students' modeling achievement. The same three independent factors were used to collect and analyze the interviews and observations of student behaviors. Both methods of modeling instruction used the data analysis approach to mathematical modeling. The instructional lessons presented problem situations where students were asked to collect data, analyze the data, write a symbolic mathematical equation, and use equation to solve the problem. The researcher recommends the following practice for modeling instruction based on the conclusions of this study. A variety of activities with a common structure are needed to make explicit the modeling process of applying a standard mathematical model. The modeling process is influenced strongly by prior knowledge of the problem context and previous modeling experiences. The conclusions of this study imply that knowledge of the properties about squares improved the students

  12. Real-world outcomes

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to reflections on or even change in their social practices? The...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross......-border software company and the possible implications of these constructions for organizational collaboration. Special attention will be paid to the reflexive processes which took place as we, the researchers, discussed the findings of our analyses with a group of managers, the practitioners, during one specific...

  13. An architectural blueprint for a real-world internet

    Gluhak A.; Hauswirth M.; Krco S.; Stojanovic N.; Bauer M; Nielsen R.; Haller S.; Prasad N; Reynolds V; Corcho O.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among these systems is limited. To address these issues and to speed up development and deployment while at the same time reduce development and maintenance costs, reference architectures are an appropriate too...

  14. Multi-stage thermal-economical optimization of compact heat exchangers: A new evolutionary-based design approach for real-world problems

    The complicated task of design optimization of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) have been effectively performed by using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the recent years. However, mainly due to difficulties of handling extra variables, the design approach has been based on constant rates of heat duty in the available literature. In this paper, a new design strategy is presented where variable operating conditions, which better represent real-world problems, are considered. The proposed strategy is illustrated using a case study for design of a plate-fin heat exchanger though it can be employed for all types of heat exchangers without much change. Learning automata based particle swarm optimization (LAPSO), is employed for handling nine design variables while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. For handling the constraints, a novel feasibility based ranking strategy (FBRS) is introduced. The numerical results indicate that the design based on variable heat duties yields in more cost savings and superior thermodynamics efficiency comparing to a conventional design approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has shown a superior performance in finding the near-optimum solution for this task when it is compared to the most popular evolutionary algorithms in engineering applications, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). - Highlights: • Multi-stage design of heat exchangers is presented. • Feasibility based ranking strategy is employed for constraint handling. • Learning abilities added to particle swarm optimization

  15. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  16. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO...

  17. Curricular Orientations to Real-World Contexts in Mathematics

    Smith, Cathy; Morgan, Candia

    2016-01-01

    A common claim about mathematics education is that it should equip students to use mathematics in the "real world". In this paper, we examine how relationships between mathematics education and the real world are materialised in the curriculum across a sample of eleven jurisdictions. In particular, we address the orientation of the…

  18. Indexing real-world data using semi-structured documents

    A. R. Schmidt; Windhouwer, M.A.; Kersten, Martin

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of deriving meaningful semantic index information for a multi-media database using a semi-structured docu-ment model. We show how our framework, called {em feature grammars, can be used to (1)~exploit third-party interpretation modules for real-world unstructured components, and (2)~use context-free grammars to convert such poorly or unstructured input to semi-structured output. The basic idea is to enrich context-free grammars with special symbols called detectors, whi...

  19. Shopping in the Real World

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim of ...

  20. Field balancing in the real world

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  1. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  2. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN COMPLEX REAL WORLD DOMAINS: A REVIEW

    Samiksha Mahajan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning is an area of Machine Learning inspired by behaviorist psychology based on the mechanism of learning from rewards. RL does not require prior knowledge and automatically get optimal policy with the help of knowledge obtained by trial-and-error and continuous interaction with the dynamic environment. In complex real world domains implementing RL algorithms is the major practical problem due to the large and continuous space. It can give rise to problems like Curse of Dimensionality, Partial Observability Problem, Credit Structuring Problem, Generalization and Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma. This paper gives an introduction to Reinforcement Learning, discusses its basic model and system structure, and discusses the problems faced while implementing RL algorithms in complex real world domains. At last but not the least this paper briefly describes the techniques which can make the working of RL process easier in the complex domains. It concludes with research scope of RL in complex real world.

  3. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector. PMID:26353201

  4. Real-world reasoning toward scalable, uncertain spatiotemporal, contextual and causal inference

    Goertzel, Ben; Coelho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The general problem addressed in this book is a large and important one: how to usefully deal with huge storehouses of complex information about real-world situations. Every one of the major modes of interacting with such storehouses - querying, data mining, data analysis - is addressed by current technologies only in very limited and unsatisfactory ways. The impact of a solution to this problem would be huge and pervasive, as the domains of human pursuit to which such storehouses are acutely relevant is numerous and rapidly growing. Finally, we give a more detailed treatment of one potential

  5. Solving real world problems with mechanical engineering

    Shea, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Planes, trains, and automobiles-these are just some of the many achievements of mechanical engineering. This volume will show readers that they do not have to know complex equations to appreciate the impact the field has had on the world. Accessible text introduces young readers to the machines and engines that power the devices, vehicles, and appliances they encounter on a daily basis. Boxes explain important terms and concepts of mechanics and encourage readers to think critically. The book ends with a guided activity that invites readers to don the hat of a mechanical engineer and build the

  6. An Architectural Blueprint for a Real-World Internet

    Gluhak, Alex; Hauswirth, Manfred; Krco, Srdjan; Stojanovic, Nenad; Bauer, Martin; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Haller, Stephan; Prasad, Neeli R.; Reynolds, Vinny; Corcho, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among these...

  7. An Architectural Blueprint for a Real-World Internet

    Gluhak, Alex; Hauswirth, Manfred; Krco, Srdjan;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among...

  8. CODA performance in the real world

    The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments the authors found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year the authors have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. They discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software

  9. CODA Performance in the Real World

    The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments we found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year we have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. We discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software

  10. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  11. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  12. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  13. Challenges in real world optimisation using evolutionary computing

    Tiwari, Ashutosh; Roy, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    Challenges in real world optimisation using evolutionary computing With rising global competition, it is becoming increasingly more important for industry to optimise its activities. However, the complexity of real-life optimisation problems has prevented industry from exploiting the potential of optimisation algorithms. Industry has therefore relied on either trial-and-error or over- simplification for dealing with its optimisation problems. This has led to the loss of oppo...

  14. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN COMPLEX REAL WORLD DOMAINS: A REVIEW

    Samiksha Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning is an area of Machine Learning inspired by behaviorist psychology based on the mechanism of learning from rewards. RL does not require prior knowledge and automatically get optimal policy with the help of knowledge obtained by trial-and-error and continuous interaction with the dynamic environment. In complex real world domains implementing RL algorithms is the major practical problem due to the large and continuous space. It can give rise to problems like Curse of Dime...

  15. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  16. Finite-temperature chiral transition in real-world QCD?

    I present and discuss the first physics results of a Langevin simulation of finite-temperature QCD with a realistic current quark spectrum. Up to several caveats which will need to be addressed by future studies, our present results suggest that there is a first-order chiral restoration phase transition in real-world QCD, that it is driven by the light condensate and that it should be accompanied by a partial restoration of U(1)A symmetry. (orig.)

  17. Real-World Font Recognition Using Deep Network and Domain Adaptation

    Wang, Zhangyang; Yang, Jianchao; Jin, Hailin; Shechtman, Eli; Agarwala, Aseem; Brandt, Jonathan; Huang, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    We address a challenging fine-grain classification problem: recognizing a font style from an image of text. In this task, it is very easy to generate lots of rendered font examples but very hard to obtain real-world labeled images. This real-to-synthetic domain gap caused poor generalization to new real data in previous methods (Chen et al. (2014)). In this paper, we refer to Convolutional Neural Networks, and use an adaptation technique based on a Stacked Convolutional Auto-Encoder that expl...

  18. Pervasive Sensing: Addressing the Heterogeneity Problem

    Pervasive sensing is characterized by heterogeneity across a number of dimensions. This raises significant problems for those designing, implementing and deploying sensor networks, irrespective of application domain. Such problems include for example, issues of data provenance and integrity, security, and privacy amongst others. Thus engineering a network that is fit-for-purpose represents a significant challenge. In this paper, the issue of heterogeneity is explored from the perspective of those who seek to harness a pervasive sensing element in their applications. A initial solution is proposed based on the middleware construct.

  19. Language Learning for Real-World Context

    Burk, Jenifer Jones

    2016-01-01

    This portfolio contains the beliefs about language learning and teaching that the author possesses. The portfolio is based on the author’s experiences as a language learner and a language teacher. The main theme of the portfolio is to enable students to use the language learned in the classroom in real-world contexts. The first section comprises the author’s teaching philosophy, emphasizing the role of the teacher, student, and environment. Following the teaching philosophy are three artif...

  20. Predicting Complexity Perception of Real World Images.

    Corchs, Silvia Elena; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Bricolo, Emanuela; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict the complexity perception of real world images. We propose a new complexity measure where different image features, based on spatial, frequency and color properties are linearly combined. In order to find the optimal set of weighting coefficients we have applied a Particle Swarm Optimization. The optimal linear combination is the one that best fits the subjective data obtained in an experiment where observers evaluate the complexity of real world scenes on a web-based interface. To test the proposed complexity measure we have performed a second experiment on a different database of real world scenes, where the linear combination previously obtained is correlated with the new subjective data. Our complexity measure outperforms not only each single visual feature but also two visual clutter measures frequently used in the literature to predict image complexity. To analyze the usefulness of our proposal, we have also considered two different sets of stimuli composed of real texture images. Tuning the parameters of our measure for this kind of stimuli, we have obtained a linear combination that still outperforms the single measures. In conclusion our measure, properly tuned, can predict complexity perception of different kind of images. PMID:27336469

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  2. Real World Learning: a critical analysis

    Jan Činčera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the so called “Hand model”, invented as a part of The Real World learning international project. The aim of the model was to provide guidance for outdoor environmental education programs. In the analysis, it is suggested that the model suffers from inconsistency between its efforts to establish quality criteria consistent with self-directed, emancipatory learning, and its instrumental ambition to promote behavioral change. In the same way, the model provides a new point of view on outdoor environmental education programs, namely on values and frames communicated by the programs.

  3. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  4. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  5. PLANNING SOLUTIONS IN THE REAL WORLD

    Fernando Zacarias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years,researchers have made significant progress on robot planning, leading to impressive realtime planners for such challenging tasks as driving, flying, walking, and manipulating objects. In this paper we present a novel architecture to support applications in artificial intelligence in environments fully observable, i.e. in classical planning.On the other hand, we developed ASP-based applications that allowgoing of classical planning to a dynamic planning, according to the real world execution through logic programming where answer sets correspond to solutions, similar to of answer set programming. Furthermore, our systems allow online planning and replanning, depending on whether plan requires revision during execution and replan accordingly.

  6. Real World Connections in High School Mathematics Curriculum and Teaching

    Gökhan Karakoç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Making real world connections in mathematics curricula and in teaching mathematics is generally viewed favorably within the educational community, however, little empirical research has examined how and why to use real world connections in mathematics education based on the views of experts. This study describes the feasibility of the use of real world connections according to high school mathematics teachers and academicians of mathematics education. Opinions of high school mathematics teachers (n=16 and academicians (n=8 about advantages, disadvantages, and examples of real world connections are elicited and reported. Teachers and academicians report several advantages of the use of real world connections in teaching mathematics as well as its disadvantages and limitations. Suggestions about dealing with limiting factors for using real world connections are also reported. Keywords: Mathematics curriculum, real world connections, mathematics teaching

  7. Cascade Probability Control to Mitigate Bufferbloat under Multiple Real-World TCP Stacks

    Hoang-Linh To

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistently full buffer problem, commonly known as bufferbloat, causes unnecessary additional latency and throughput degradation whenever congestion happens in Internet. Several proposed queue management schemes, with the debloat mission, are almost based on the modification of one-loop feedback control where the instability and bad transient behavior are still big challenges. In this paper, we present a cascade probability control scheme using margin optimal method to address such challenges under different kinds of real-world TCP stacks. Simulation results guarantee the measured round trip time tracking to a low value of delay (e.g., ≈180 ms under TCP Reno, and ≈130 ms under TCP Cubic and ≈50% delay reduction in comparison to current deployed queue management schemes in network devices.

  8. Searching the real world using stationary and mobile object detection

    Funk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates a new form of search engine, which enables the user to search for objects in the real world, just like traditional search engines locate resources on the Internet. A search engine for the real world is a step towards an Internet of Things, where real-world objects become visible to computer systems. In order to being nonintrusive, the tracking of objects is done using visual object detection. It is examined whether instrumenting the environment or instrumenting the us...

  9. Impact Of Real-World Driving Characteristics On Vehicular Emissions

    Nesamani, K S; Subramanian, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    With increase in traffic volume and change in travel related characteristics, vehicular emissions and energy consumption have increased significantly since two decades in India. Current models are not capable of estimating vehicular emissions accurately due to inadequate representation of real-world driving. The focus of this paper is to understand the level of Indian Driving cycle (IDC) in representing the real-world driving and to assess the impact of real-world driving on vehicular emissio...

  10. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Juste, Pierre St.; Boykin, P. Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existi...

  11. 5th International Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks

    Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop  was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...

  12. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  13. Calculating Biodiversity in the Real World

    Schen, Melissa; Berger, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    One of the standards for life science addressed in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) is "Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics" (HS-LS2). A critical concept included in this core idea is biodiversity. To show competency, students are expected to design investigations, collect data, and…

  14. Mapping the Importance of the Real World

    Davida, Barberá-Tomás Davida; Fernando, Jiménez-Sáez; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Recent empirical findings have questioned the use of patent citations as a measure. This points to the need of validation of patent citations methodologies, which we address by testing a recent methodology for studying technological evolution, namely connectivity analysis of citation networks. We...

  15. Real-world ballistics: A dropped bucket

    Hogg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    I discuss an apparently simple ballistics problem: the time it takes an object to fall a small vertical distance near the surface of the Earth. It turns out to be not so simple; I spend a great deal of time on the quantitative assessment of the assumptions involved, especially with regards to the influence of the air. The point is \\emph{not} to solve the problem; indeed I don't even end up solving the problem exactly. I introduce dimensional analysis to perform all of the calculations approxi...

  16. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

  17. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    None

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  18. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Per Backlund; Tom Ziemke; Robert Ramberg; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.; Mikael Lebram

    2013-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone...

  19. Perception of Real-World Without a Language

    Buoiano, Dr. Giancarlo; Betti, Dr. Mario; Bongioanni, Dr. Paolo

    2002-01-01

    Perception of Real-World Without a Language Gian Carlo Buoiano C§, Mario Betti * and Paolo Bongioanni § §Neuroscience Dpt., University of Pisa; *CESER Center of Mental Health (Lucca), Italy C Corresponding author: Giancarlo Buoiano Via del Morello 8 Bargecchia I-55040 Corsanico (LU) Italy e-mail: Abstract The aim of this study is to show how real-world knowledge works without language. Lelio is a 76-year-old man ...

  20. Reinforcement Learning in Robotics: Applications and Real-World Challenges

    Petar Kormushev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In robotics, the ultimate goal of reinforcement learning is to endow robots with the ability to learn, improve, adapt and reproduce tasks with dynamically changing constraints based on exploration and autonomous learning. We give a summary of the state-of-the-art of reinforcement learning in the context of robotics, in terms of both algorithms and policy representations. Numerous challenges faced by the policy representation in robotics are identified. Three recent examples for the application of reinforcement learning to real-world robots are described: a pancake flipping task, a bipedal walking energy minimization task and an archery-based aiming task. In all examples, a state-of-the-art expectation-maximization-based reinforcement learning is used, and different policy representations are proposed and evaluated for each task. The proposed policy representations offer viable solutions to six rarely-addressed challenges in policy representations: correlations, adaptability, multi-resolution, globality, multi-dimensionality and convergence. Both the successes and the practical difficulties encountered in these examples are discussed. Based on insights from these particular cases, conclusions are drawn about the state-of-the-art and the future perspective directions for reinforcement learning in robotics.

  1. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S.; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others’ popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets’ sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity–social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity–valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members’ popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  2. Properties of four real world collaboration--competition networks

    Fu, Chun-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Lian; He, Da-Ren

    2009-03-01

    Our research group has empirically investigated 9 real world collaboration networks and 25 real world cooperation-competition networks. Among the 34 real world systems, all the 9 real world collaboration networks and 6 real world cooperation-competition networks show the unimodal act-size distribution and the shifted power law distribution of degree and act-degree. We have proposed a collaboration network evolution model for an explanation of the rules [1]. The other 14 real world cooperation-competition networks show that the act-size distributions are not unimodal; instead, they take qualitatively the same shifted power law forms as the degree and act-degree distributions. The properties of four systems (the main land movie film network, Beijing restaurant network, 2004 Olympic network, and Tao-Bao notebook computer sale network) are reported in detail as examples. Via a numerical simulation, we show that the new rule can still be explained by the above-mentioned model. [1] H. Chang, B. B. Su, et al. Phsica A, 2007, 383: 687-702.

  3. Risk communication in the real world

    As people become more sensitive to health and environmental issues, effective communication of workplace risks becomes more important for both employers and their employees. Risk communication must be given in a clear, simple format that addresses the individual employee's work environment. It must also be provided in a manner that indicates to the employees that the company cares about their safety. Failure to provide this information may result in ineffective communication and reduced company credibility. By using events and issues from the employees every day life, these issues can be effectively managed. (author)

  4. Creative Brains: Designing in the Real World

    Vinod Goel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of designing artifacts is a creative activity. It is proposed that, at the cognitive level, one key to understanding design creativity is to understand the array of symbol systems designers utilize. These symbol systems range from being vague, imprecise, abstract, ambiguous, and indeterminate (like conceptual sketches, to being very precise, concrete, unambiguous, and determinate (like contract documents. The former types of symbol systems support associative processes that facilitate lateral (or divergent transformations that broaden the problem space, while the latter types of symbol systems support inference processes facilitating vertical (or convergent transformations that deepen of the problem space. The process of artifact design requires the judicious application of both lateral and vertical transformations. This leads to a dual mechanism model of design problem-solving comprising of an associative engine and an inference engine. It is further claimed that this dual mechanism model is supported by an interesting hemispheric dissociation in human prefrontal cortex. The associative engine and neural structures that support imprecise, ambiguous, abstract, indeterminate representations are lateralized in the right prefrontal cortex, while the inference engine and neural structures that support precise, unambiguous, determinant representations are lateralized in the left prefrontal cortex. At the brain level, successful design of artifacts requires a delicate balance between the two hemispheres of prefrontal cortex.

  5. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la actualidad y el futuro y anticipar lo venidero, posiblemente sin un holocausto nuclear y terminando la APGM sin consecuencias negativas que pudieran dar lugar a una Auténtica Segunda Guerra Mundial. Nuestro mundo también se afirma está experimentando una transición de un amplio contexto histórico basado en la globalización eurocéntrica a otra no eurocéntrica, que puede ser no capitalista.______________________ABSTRACT:In this article the problematic of the First Real World War (FRWW is discussed in the light of Emerging Nuclear Holocaust. This discussion begins with an overview of Warren W. Wagars science-faction novel A Short History of Future and related some fifty years transition period conceived within world-systems analysis and as that of a major bifurcation by Immanuel Wallerstein. It may thus be possible to pass into the future sooner than anticipated and reconstruct the passage of history, actuality and future in actuality and nearer than anticipated future, possibly without a Nuclear Holocaust and it may be possible to end the FRWW without further negative regressions into the past and without a Second Real World War. Our common world is also experiencing a transition from a broad historical context of Eurocentric globalization into a non-Eurocentric one, which may also be non-capitalistic.  

  6. Characterizing the Effects of Driver Variability on Real-World Vehicle Emissions

    Holmén, Britt; Niemeier, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies on real-world automobile emissions measurements have not adequately addressed the question of whether driving style affects emission levels. In this study, we hypothesized that given the same experimental conditions and a random selection of drivers, the variability associated with individual driving styles (e.g. intensity or duration of acceleration events) would produce statistically significant differences in measured emissions. To test this driver variability hypothesis, we...

  7. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve...... Denmark this paper provides empirical evidence that the number of memberships in voluntary com¬mon-interest associations - i.e. the propensity to choose the cooperative strategy of joining this type of associations - is indeed positively and significantly related to the individual’s social capital...

  8. Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems

    Harpine, Elaine Clanton

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…

  9. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  10. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  11. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  12. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  13. Reconstruction of a real world social network using the Potts model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    Cristian eBisconti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, aiming at the reconstruction of a networked structure from observations of the states of the nodes in the network.The inverse Potts model, normally applied to observations of quantum states, is here addressed to observations of the node states in a network and their (anticorrelations, thus inferring interactions as links connecting the nodes. Adopting the Bethe approximation, such an inverse problem is known to be tractable.Within this operational framework, we discuss and apply this network-reconstruction method to a small real-world social network, where it is easy to track statuses of its members: the Italian parliament, adopted as a case study. The dataset is made of (cosponsorships of law proposals by parliament members. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  14. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian; Biddle, Robert; Vist, Elise

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  15. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  16. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    Stefan Dowiasch

    2015-02-01

    Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance.

  17. Addressing micropollution by linking problem characteristics to policy instruments

    Metz, Florence

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes micropollution as a policy problem and which policy instruments are adequate to regulate micropollution, given the specific problem features? In this article, problem characteristics of micropollution are systematically analyzed and linked to potential policy solutions.

  18. The Expectations view on fiscal policy - An experiment using real world data

    Bernasconi, Michele; Kirchkamp, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    To understand the effect of fiscal policy on the private sector we have to comprehend how expectations about fiscal variables are formed. However, little is known about the way people form expectations about fiscal variables: no undercutting theory exists, not to say empirical evidence. The problem is that “expectations are unobservable” (Bertola and Drazen [BD93, p.16]). We generate observable expectations using a combination of laboratory experiments and real world data from several Europea...

  19. Vehicle-based studies of driving in the real world: The hard truth?

    Carsten, O; KIRCHER, K; Jamson, S

    2013-01-01

    Real-world studies of driving behaviour and safety have face validity and have the distinct advantage of focussing on driving in its natural habitat. But their very naturalism can lead to problems with confounds and with noise in the data. This paper reviews the three major categories of on-road studies - controlled observation, field operational tests and naturalistic driving studies - and discusses the major applications of each study type. It also assesses some of the methodological issues...

  20. Effect of a cataract simulation on clinical and real world vision.

    Elliott, D B; Bullimore, M A; Patla, A E; Whitaker, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Many reports have indicated that some patients with cataract can retain good visual acuity but complain of significant visual problems. This is the first in a series of papers trying to determine what causes these symptoms and whether other clinical tests can predict the real world vision loss. METHODS: The effect of a cataract simulation with a similar angular distribution of light scatter as real cataract on clinical (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glar...

  1. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  2. Mobile Urban Drama - Interactive Storytelling in Real World Environments

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing...

  3. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  4. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  5. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon; Bocewicz, Grzegorz

    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The paper...... proposes an approach composing of: a mobile robot system design (“Little Helper”), an appropriate and comprehensive industrial application (multiple-part feeding tasks), an implementation concept for industrial environments (the bartender concept), and a real-time heuristics integrated into Mission...... Planning and Control software to schedule the mobile robot in the industrial application. Results from the real-world implementation show that “Little Helper” is capable of successfully serving four part feeders in three production cells within a given planning horizon using the best schedule generated...

  6. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The paper...... proposes an approach composing of: a mobile robot system design (“Little Helper”), an appropriate and comprehensive industrial application (multiple-part feeding tasks), an implementation concept for industrial environments (the bartender concept), and a real-time heuristics integrated into Mission...... Planning and Control software to schedule the mobile robot in the industrial application. Results from the real-world implementation show that “Little Helper” is capable of successfully serving four part feeders in three production cells within a given planning horizon using the best schedule generated...

  7. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    Tang, John; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study contain...

  8. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  9. Model-Based Gait Enrolment in Real-World Imagery

    Wagg, David K; Nixon, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to gait extraction that is capable of reliable operation on real-world imagery. Hierarchies of shape and motion are employed to yield relatively modest computational demands, avoiding the high-dimensional search spaces associated with complex models. Anatomical data is used to generate shape models consistent with normal human body proportions. Mean gait data is used to create prototype gait motion models, which are adapted to fit individual subjects. Accurac...

  10. Algorithms for analyzing and mining real-world graphs

    Takes, Frank Willem

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about algorithms for analyzing large real-world graphs (or networks). Examples include (online) social networks, webgraphs, information networks, biological networks and scientific collaboration and citation networks. Although these graphs differ in terms of what kind of information the objects and relationships represent, it turns out that the structure of each these networks is surprisingly similar. For computer scientists, there is an obvious challenge to design efficient al...

  11. Using the real world to develop nurses' skills

    J. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Student nurses develop skills in observation, communication and reflection, as well as public health knowledge while walking in neighbourhoods near the hospitals where they will practise. This article explains an award-winning innovative teaching approach to enable students to use the real world as a learning environment. On their walk, students apply learning about social determinants of health to develop their understanding of communities and how they change.

  12. Parallel symbolic execution for automated real-world software testing

    Bucur, Stefan; Ureche, Vlad; Zamfir, Cristian; Candea, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Cloud9, a platform for automated testing of real-world software. Our main contribution is the scalable parallelization of symbolic execution on clusters of commodity hardware, to help cope with path explosion. Cloud9 provides a systematic interface for writing "symbolic tests" that concisely specify entire families of inputs and behaviors to be tested, thus improving testing productivity. Cloud9 can handle not only single-threaded programs but also multi-threaded and dis...

  13. Against pragmatism: on efficacy, effectiveness and the real world

    Kitsios Georgios; Kent David M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Explanatory and pragmatic trials represent ends of a continuum of attitudes about clinical trial design. Recent literature argues that pragmatic trials are more informative about clinical care in the real world. Although there is place for more pragmatic studies to inform clinical practice and health policy decision-making, we are concerned that it is generally under-appreciated that extrapolating the results of broadly inclusive pragmatic trials to the care of real patients may ofte...

  14. Hybrid Powertrain Simulation Based on Real-world Reference Data

    Gilabert Cozar, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study is the automated computation of exhaust gas emissions from timerelated measuring data sets. For the determination of the exhaust gas emissions in real world conditions, the test vehicle was equipped with a new On Board Measurement (OBM) system. The raw data provided by the OBM must be post processed to describe the vehicle performance. It is required to find out faulty data sets, to correct them, then to calculate necessary variables and to draw diagrams. In...

  15. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Saldaña-Salazar, U J

    2016-01-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs--Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  16. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  17. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  18. Predicting real-world functional milestones in schizophrenia.

    Olsson, Anna-Karin; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Helldin, Lars

    2016-08-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that often causes impairments in major areas of functioning, and most patients do not achieve expected real-world functional milestones. The aim of this study was to identify which variables of demography, illness activity, and functional capacity predict patients' ability to attain real-world functional milestones. Participants were 235 outpatients, 149 men and 86 women, diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Our results showed that younger patients managed to achieve a higher level of functioning in educational level, marital status, and social contacts. Patients' functional capacity was primarily associated with educational level and housing situation. We also found that women needed less support regarding housing and obtained a higher level of marital status as compared with men. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering current symptoms, especially negative symptoms, and remission stability over time, together with age, duration of illness, gender, educational level, and current functional capacity, when predicting patients' future real-world functioning. We also conclude that there is an advantage in exploring symptoms divided into positive, negative, and general domains considering their probable impact on functional achievements. PMID:27235985

  19. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Hu Zuliu

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  20. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  1. A Few Examples of ISPs Addressing Specific Reactor Safety Problems

    Four International Standard Problems which were related to safety reactor problems are briefly discussed. ISP-20 (Steam Generator Tube Rupture in DOEL 2) is a unique ISP as it is based on a real incident which occurred in a commercial Power Plant. This ISP clearly illustrated the special problems of an ISP based on a real plant, namely limited access to precise plant data, some lack in the detailed knowledge of sensor behaviour, etc. ISP-26 (ROSA IV-LSTF small break test) was an open ISP. A qualitatively good prediction of the measured events was obtained even if some modelling deficiencies were identified. ISP-27 (BETHSY Exp. 9.1 B) was a blind ISP. All important trends observed during the test were qualitatively calculated by most computer codes. However, some deficiencies in calculating some variables were evident. ISP-33 (PACTEL Natural Circulation) was an exercise with a test facility modelled on the basis of a Russian VVER 440 and with participations from Eastern and Western organisations. ISP-33 was a double-blind exercise. The simulation of some variables caused some problems although they were in principle not too complicated. Post-test calculations demonstrated significant improvements. For all the four ISPs, the influence of the code user was evident and caused some scatter in the results. A specific study was performed in ISP-26 to clarify from where those user effects were coming. The reactor safety problems related to those ISPs are detailed and the specific contribution of the ISPs to bring solutions is discussed.

  2. Addressing communications between Regulatory Body and TSO: perceptions and problems

    The use of TSO assistance by the Regulatory Bodies is a way of facing the complexity of the technology and issues to be dealt with in the licensing and controlling process in the nuclear area. Although both TSO and Regulatory Body are well prepared and adjusted, the nature and environment of TSO work is rather different from the regulators. Some of the TSO members act as a consultant, giving expert advice to the regulators in a specific subject, some are in charge of inspections and audits, others do the job together with the regulators. The way that a TSO member perceives the work to be done, however, often creates different perspectives for questions related to the licensing and controlling process. These perceptions are usually a source of problems between the two partners, regulators and TSO members. In this paper some of this kind of problems are raised and suggestions of how to deal with them are proposed for discussion. (author)

  3. HYDRAFLOW : a novel approach in addressing flow assurance problems

    Azarinezhad, R.; Chapoy, A.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. for Petroleum Engineering, Centre for Gas hydrate Research

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a new method to prevent hydrate plugs which are particularly problematic for offshore production and flow lines. The current methods of avoiding hydrate blockages are based on preventing solid formation by injecting thermodynamic or kinetic inhibitors outside the hydrate stability zone. However, these techniques are neither economical nor practical. The newly patented HYDRAFLOW cold flow assurance technology is based on allowing hydrates to form, but preventing their agglomeration and pipeline blockage. It is based on the concept of converting most or all of the gas phase into hydrates in the presence of excess water, and then transferring them in the form of hydrate slurry in the pipeline. In HYDRAFLOW, anti-agglomerants prevent hydrate crystals from agglomerating, thus eliminating the need for expensive thermal or chemical inhibition strategies. The technology involves a loop concept whereby the liquid phase plays a role of carrier fluid, collecting produced fluids from various wells and delivering them to the production unit prior to being recycled. This study addressed the issue of recycling the anti-agglomerants in the context of the loop concept. The distribution of anti-agglomerant components between different phases were measured. The performance of the residual anti-agglomerants in the free water phase and of its components absorbed in the oil or hydrate phase were also evaluated. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  5. Addressing the problem of ADHD medication as neuroenhancements.

    Graf, William D; Miller, Geoffrey; Nagel, Saskia K

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand, production, and consumption are a) the inclusion of milder ADHD diagnoses; b) the vast marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry; and c) the illegal diversion of controlled ADHD medication to consumers seeking stimulants as neuroenhancements. Rapidly rising rates of any neurological disorder - especially a behaviorly-defined disorder closely linked to potent medications currently prescribed to more than 5% of the population - deserves ongoing scrutiny. Major social and ethical problems arise from vague-symptom medicalization, neurological disorder trivialization, medication overuse, and controlled substances diversion to healthy persons for nonmedical purposes. We argue against the 'spectrumization' of ADHD in an effort to curtail further diagnosis creep. PMID:24738763

  6. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  7. Computability in context computation and logic in the real world

    Cooper, S Barry

    2011-01-01

    Computability has played a crucial role in mathematics and computer science, leading to the discovery, understanding and classification of decidable/undecidable problems, paving the way for the modern computer era, and affecting deeply our view of the world. Recent new paradigms of computation, based on biological and physical models, address in a radically new way questions of efficiency and challenge assumptions about the so-called Turing barrier. This volume addresses various aspects of the ways computability and theoretical computer science enable scientists and philosophers to deal with m

  8. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    Mumford, David

    2010-01-01

    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  9. Precise perception of virtual object position in real world

    Lin Liping; Wu Pingdong; Huang Jie; Li Jian

    2009-01-01

    There is a deviation between actual and theoretical perceived positions of virtual object in stereoscopic display. Therefore, methods for precise position perception in real world are proposed in this paper. The causes for the deviation are analyzed on the basis of geometrical optics. Then deviation corrections are performed by error compensation with mathematic method and by remodeling virtual viewpoint dynamically with the movement of physical viewpoint. Experimental results show that these methods can reduce the position deviation to less than 10 millimeter, meeting the requirements for direct manipulation in multi-sensory virtual environment.

  10. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...

  11. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    Korn, Matthias

      Our understanding of users' everyday practices in their natural contexts is still very limited. Insights are often only available from studies conducted outside of the context itself. I propose a new approach to study use situated in real-world everyday mobile contexts (at the time and place...... where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which...

  12. Face Recognition: Perspectives from the Real-World

    Mandal, Bappaditya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze some of our real-world deployment of face recognition (FR) systems for various applications and discuss the gaps between expectations of the user and what the system can deliver. We evaluate some of our proposed algorithms with ad-hoc modifications for applications such as FR on wearable devices (like Google Glass), monitoring of elderly people in senior citizens centers, FR of children in child care centers and face matching between a scanned IC/passport face image ...

  13. Virtual context - relating media objects to their real world subjects

    Rutledge, L.; Ballegooij, van, A.R.; Eliëns, A.

    2000-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is sometimes used to give the user an immersive, three-dimensional sense of a real-world setting. VR is also sometimes used for information visualization, taking advantage of the perceptual characteristics of VR to convey information. This paper presents the Dam Square Virtual Context, a Web-based VR that is a combination of both these uses. This VR presents mock-ups of both Dam Square in the city of Amsterdam and the city's largest museum, the Rijksmuseum. This VR convey...

  14. Against pragmatism: on efficacy, effectiveness and the real world

    Kitsios Georgios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Explanatory and pragmatic trials represent ends of a continuum of attitudes about clinical trial design. Recent literature argues that pragmatic trials are more informative about clinical care in the real world. Although there is place for more pragmatic studies to inform clinical practice and health policy decision-making, we are concerned that it is generally under-appreciated that extrapolating the results of broadly inclusive pragmatic trials to the care of real patients may often be as problematic as extrapolating the results of narrowly focused explanatory or efficacy trials. Simplistic interpretation of pragmatic trials runs the risk of driving harmful policies.

  15. TRAX - Real-World Tracking of Moving Objects

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2007-01-01

    accuracy. This paper presents the TRAX tracking system that supports several techniques capable of tracking the current positions of moving objects with guaranteed accuracies at low update and communication costs in real-world settings. The techniques are readily relevant for practical applications, but......Range of mobile services rely on knowing the current positions of populations of so-called moving objects. In the ideal setting, the positions of all objects are known always and exactly. While this is not possible in practice, it is possible to know each object's position with a certain guaranteed...

  16. Real-world speech recognition with neural networks

    Barnard, Etienne; Cole, Ronald; Fanty, Mark; Vermeulen, Pieter J. E.

    1995-04-01

    We describe a system based on neural networks that is designed to recognize speech transmitted through the telephone network. Context-dependent phonetic modeling is studied as a method of improving recognition accuracy, and a special training algorithm is introduced to make the training of these nets more manageable. Our system is designed for real-world applications, and we have therefore specialized our implementation for this goal; a pipelined DSP structure and a compact search algorithm are described as examples of this specialization. Preliminary results from a realistic test of the system (a field trial for the U.S. Census Bureau) are reported.

  17. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  18. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  19. Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  20. Developing mobile LIBS solutions for real world applications

    Li, Qun; Li, Jing; Bakeev, Katherine; Wang, Sean

    2015-06-01

    We present a new type of handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectrometer for developing mobile atomic spectroscopy solutions for real world applications. A micro diode-pumped passive Q-switched solid-state laser with high repetition rate of well above 1 kHz in comparison to 1-10 Hz as used in a traditional LIBS instrument is employed to produce a train of laser pulses. The laser beam is further fast scanned over a pre-defined area, hence generating several hundreds of micro-plasmas per second at different locations. Synchronized miniature CCD array spectrometer modules collect the LIBS signal and generate LIBS spectra. By adjusting the integration time of the spectrometer to cover a plurality of periods of the laser pulse train, the spectrometer integrates the LIBS signal produced by this plurality of laser pulses. Hence the intensity of the obtained LIBS spectrum can be greatly improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This unique feature of the high repetition rate laser based LIBS system allows it to measure elements at trace levels, hence reducing the limit of detection (LOD). The increased signal intensity also lessens the sensitivity requirement for the optical spectrometer. In addition, the energy of the individual laser pulse can be reduced in comparison to traditional LIBS system to obtain the same signal level, making the laser pulse less invasive to the sample. The typical measurement time is within 1 second. Several examples of real world applications will be presented.

  1. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  2. Hyperbolicity Measures "Democracy" in Real-World Networks

    Borassi, Michele; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. In our interpretation, a network with small hyperbolicity is "aristocratic", because it contains a small set of vertices involved in many shortest paths, so that few elements "connect" the systems, while a network with large hyperbolicity has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. We prove mathematically the soundness of this interpretation, and we derive its consequences by analyzing a large dataset of real-world networks. We confirm and improve previous results on hyperbolicity, and we analyze them in the light of our interpretation. Moreover, we study (for the first time in our knowledge) the hyperbolicity of the neighborhood of a given vertex. This allows to define an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks, like most social or peer-to-peer ne...

  3. Using "Real World" Examples in the Teaching of Chemistry--A Symposium.

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Defines "real world" examples providing rationale for incorporating them into chemistry teaching. Topic areas of papers include: chemistry in a watershed, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), consumer chemistry, culinary chemistry, using real world examples in a laboratory program, projects relating real world chemistry to high school students, and…

  4. 'Real-world' atrial fibrillation management in Europe

    Proietti, Marco; Laroche, Cécile; Opolski, Grzegorz;

    2016-01-01

    Cardiology guideline-adherent therapy. Whether these 'real-world' observations on patients managed by European cardiologists extend to 2 years remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this report from the EORP-AF General Registry Pilot Phase, we provide data on the 2-year follow-up outcomes. Consistent...... with the 1-year follow-up report, only a small proportion of patients were symptomatic (24.9%), with minor differences between the different AF subtypes. Persistence of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy remains high at 2-years, with ∼80% of patients treated with OAC. The prescribing rates of non......-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are progressively increasing (13.7% at 2 years). Rate and rhythm control approaches remained consistent across the entire follow-up observation. Overall mortality rates remained high, with 5.0% of patients dead during the 2-year follow-up, mostly due to...

  5. Lighting Model of the Real World in Augmented Reality

    周雅; 闫达远; 赵虎

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a lighting model of the real world is one of the critical aims in an augmented reality (AR) system. The theory of lighting modeling used in computer graphics(CG) is applied in this study. The position of the real light-source is first conjectured from light and shade of the registration image element by element using a ray tracking algorithm. Then the virtual light-source and virtual fiducial are constructed in the CG environment, in which, the Phong model is used to draw the light effect. By comparing the CG scene with the real image, one can modify the pareters of the lighting model over and over again, until the lighting effect of the CG scene is close enough to that of the real image. It is proved that this method works well in the indoor AR system. The method can be used feasibly in most applications with some improvements.

  6. Real-World Quantum Sensors: Evaluating Resources for Precision Measurement

    Quantum phenomena present in many experiments signify nonclassical behavior, but do not always imply superior performance. Quantifying the enhancement achieved from quantum behavior needs careful analysis of the resources involved. We analyze the case of parameter estimation using an optical interferometer, where increased precision can in principle be achieved using quantum probe states. Common performance measures are examined and some are shown to overestimate the improvement. For the simplest experimental case we compare the different measures and exhibit this overestimation explicitly. We give the preferred analysis of these experiments and calculate benchmark values for experimental parameters necessary to realize a precision enhancement. Our analysis shows that unambiguous real-world enhancements in optical quantum metrology with fixed photon number are yet to be attained.

  7. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  8. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN REAL WORLD NOISY ENVIRONMENT

    Urmila Shrawankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that, speech recognition systems perform well when the system is used in conditions similar to the one used to train the acoustic models. However, mismatches degrade the performance. In adverse environment, it is very difficult to predict the category of noise in advance in case of real world environmental noise and difficult to achieve environmental robustness. After doing rigorous experimental study it is observed that, a unique method is not available that will clean the noisy speech as well as preserve the quality which have been corrupted by real natural environmental (mixed noise. It is also observed that only back-end techniques are not sufficient to improve the performance of a speech recognition system. It is necessary to implement performance improvement techniques at every step of back-end as well as front-end of the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR model. Current recognition systems solve this problem using a technique called adaptation. This study presents an experimental study that aims two points, first is to implement the hybrid method that will take care of clarifying the speech signal as much as possible with all combinations of filters and enhancement techniques. The second point is to develop a method for training all categories of noise that can adapt the acoustic models for a new environment that will help to improve the performance of the speech recognizer under real world environmental mismatched conditions. This experiment confirms that hybrid adaptation methods improve the ASR performance on both levels, (Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR improvement as well as word recognition accuracy in real world noisy environment.

  9. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification.

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets. PMID:26599713

  10. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.

    2015-12-01

    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  11. Optimizing the leveraging of real-world data to improve the development and use of medicines.

    Berger, Marc L; Lipset, Craig; Gutteridge, Alex; Axelsen, Kirsten; Subedi, Prasun; Madigan, David

    2015-01-01

    Health research, including health outcomes and comparative effectiveness research, is on the cusp of a golden era of access to digitized real-world data, catalyzed by the adoption of electronic health records and the integration of clinical and biological information with other data. This era promises more robust insights into what works in health care. Several barriers, however, will need to be addressed if the full potential of these new data are fully realized; these will involve both policy solutions and stakeholder cooperation. Although a number of these issues have been widely discussed, we focus on the one we believe is the most important-the facilitation of greater openness among public and private stakeholders to collaboration, connecting information and data sharing, with the goal of making robust and complete data accessible to all researchers. In this way, we can better understand the consequences of health care delivery, improve the effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, and develop advancements in health technologies. Early real-world data initiatives illustrate both potential and the need for future progress, as well as the essential role of collaboration and data sharing. Health policies critical to progress will include those that promote open source data standards, expand access to the data, increase data capture and connectivity, and facilitate communication of findings. PMID:25595243

  12. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. -- To effectively use toxicity testing data from lab tests with oils and chemically dispersed oils, researchers must follow standardized testing protocols

  13. Scheduling optimization of a real-world multi product pipeline network; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes de dutos

    Boschetto, Suelen N.; Felizari, Luiz C.; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Lueders, Ricardo; Arruda, Lucia V.R. de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar; Bernardo, Luiz F.J. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work develops an optimization structure to aid the operational decision-making of scheduling activities in a real world pipeline network. The proposed approach is based on a decomposition method to address complex problems with high computational burden. The Pre-analysis makes a previous evaluation of a batch sequencing, getting information to be entered into optimization block. The continuous time Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) model gets such information and calculates the scheduling. The models are applied to a pipeline network that connects different areas including refineries, terminals, and final clients. Many oil derivatives (e.g. gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha) can be sent or received in this network. The computational burden to determine a short-term scheduling within the considered scenario is a relevant issue. Many insights have been derived from the obtained solutions, which are given in a reduced computational time for oil industrial-size scenarios. (author)

  14. Using Bounding-Surrounding Boxes Method for Fish Tracking in Real World Underwater Observation

    Yi-Haur Shiau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a rapid and efficient fish tracking method suitable for real world automatic underwater fish observation. Based on fish tracking, biologists are able to observe fish and their ecological environment. A distributed real-time underwater video stream system has been developed in Taiwan for large-scale, long-term ecological observation. In addition, not only does the system archive video data, but also incorporates data analysis. However, it is difficult to discriminate moving fish from drift water plants due to the severe drift of water plants caused by the water flow in real world underwater environments. Thus, fish tracking is complicated in unconstrained water. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a bounding-surrounding boxes method, which enables integration with state-of-the-art tracking methods for fish tracking in this paper. According to the method, fixing cameras must be used so that the moving fish are classified as foreground objects and are tracked, whereas the drifting water plants are classified as the background objects and are removed from the tracked objects. It enables the efficient, rapid removal of irrelevant information (non-fish objects from large-scale fish video data. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve high accuracy.

  15. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  16. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  17. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  18. Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications

    Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.

  19. Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Model with Multiple Feature Fusion for Binary Facial Attribute Classification in Real-World Face Videos.

    Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces [1] of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively. PMID:26415152

  20. Clustering, simulation, and neural networks in real-world applications

    Padgett, Mary Lou; Josephson, Eleanor M.; White, C. R.; Duffield, Don W.

    1995-04-01

    Real-world applications of neural networks often involve simulation and clustering. Reduction of subjective decisions and increasing the potential for real-time automation of cluster evaluation is a target of the cluster check (CC) method suggested here. CC quantitatively assess the variation within a cluster, produces a `central' pattern for a cluster which is robust in the presence of wide variation and skewed data, and suggests a measure for the distance between clusters. Such a measure of the effectiveness of a segmentation scheme is helpful in many applications, including traditional analysis, neural systems, fuzzy systems and evolutionary systems. This work reports successful use of the CC and companion analytic procedures to measure the consistency of movement of neuroanatomical tracer down neural pathways associated with injection sites (tract tracing). Opposite injection sites produce distinctive L shaped accumulations of tracer in different locations. Consistency of pathways for particular injection sites varies from 0.10 to 0.20 out of a possible 0.80. The pathway rejected by the nonparametric statistics and subdivided by Kohonen's self organizing map (SOM) measures 0.20. These quantitative results are consistent with the expert qualitative inspection traditionally accepted in the study of neuronanatomy of the rat olfactory bulb and tubercle. This work suggests further application of the CC and companion techniques to fault detection, identification and recovery of systems for control of diabetes and systems for control of missiles. Use of managerial decisions in the supervisory portions of these systems may also be facilitated by the consistency measure and distance metric allowing reinforcement of consistent decisions and focus on areas needing reconsideration. Automation of such procedures may facilitate real-time, robust and fault-tolerant control by adding a capability for evaluation needed for automated reinforcement and/or selection in neural

  1. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD, TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  2. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  3. Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2008-01-01

    To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine...

  4. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  5. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based...

  6. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  7. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians. PMID:20508803

  8. A real-world way to manage real options.

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions. PMID:15029793

  9. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; NIEC, LARISSA N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this interven...

  10. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage their resourc...

  11. The value of surrogate endpoints for predicting real-world survival across five cancer types.

    Shafrin, Jason; Brookmeyer, Ron; Peneva, Desi; Park, Jinhee; Zhang, Jie; Figlin, Robert A; Lakdawalla, Darius N

    2016-04-01

    Objective It is unclear how well different outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) perform in predicting real-world cancer survival. We assess the ability of RCT overall survival (OS) and surrogate endpoints - progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) - to predict real-world OS across five cancers. Methods We identified 20 treatments and 31 indications for breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer that had a phase III RCT reporting median OS and median PFS or TTP. Median real-world OS was determined using a Kaplan-Meier estimator applied to patients in the Surveillance and Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (1991-2010). Performance of RCT OS and PFS/TTP in predicting real-world OS was measured using t-tests, median absolute prediction error, and R(2) from linear regressions. Results Among 72,600 SEER-Medicare patients similar to RCT participants, median survival was 5.9 months for trial surrogates, 14.1 months for trial OS, and 13.4 months for real-world OS. For this sample, regression models using clinical trial OS and trial surrogates as independent variables predicted real-world OS significantly better than models using surrogates alone (P = 0.026). Among all real-world patients using sample treatments (N = 309,182), however, adding trial OS did not improve predictive power over predictions based on surrogates alone (P = 0.194). Results were qualitatively similar using median absolute prediction error and R(2) metrics. Conclusions Among the five tumor types investigated, trial OS and surrogates were each independently valuable in predicting real-world OS outcomes for patients similar to trial participants. In broader real-world populations, however, trial OS added little incremental value over surrogates alone. PMID:26743800

  12. Real-world battery duty profile of a neighbourhood electric vehicle

    Devie, Arnaud; VINOT, Emmanuel; Pelissier, Serge; Venet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The study of traction batteries real-world usage in vehicular applications faces a handful of serious challenges. To date, we are unable to accurately predict the cycle life of a battery under real-world operating conditions. There are a couple of reasons for that; on the one hand, the battery technology evolves rapidly whereas the battery cycle life testing requires large amounts of time and on the second hand, we know little about real-world duty profile of batteries. The work presented her...

  13. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  14. Learning Algebra by Example in Real-World Classrooms

    Booth, Julie L.; Oyer, Melissa H.; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana; Elliot, Andrew J.; Barbieri, Christina; Augustine, Adam; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Math and science textbook chapters invariably supply students with sets of problems to solve, but this widely used approach is not optimal for learning; instead, more effective learning can be achieved when many problems to solve are replaced with correct and incorrect worked examples for students to study and explain. In the present study, the…

  15. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  16. OCA Oracle Database 11g database administration I : a real-world certification guide

    Ries, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Developed as a practical book, ""Oracle Database 11g Administration I Certification Guide"" will show you all you need to know to effectively excel at being an Oracle DBA, for both examinations and the real world. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to become an Oracle DBA, pass the Oracle Database Administration I exam, and use those skills in the real world to manage secure, high performance, and highly available Oracle databases.

  17. Accuracy of mean-field theory for dynamics on real-world networks

    Gleeson, James P.; Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Porter, Mason A.; Murcha, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, and this is particularly true for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. In this paper, we compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate that the accuracy of such theory depends no...

  18. Real-world and specific to vehicle driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    ANDRE, M; Joumard, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the European research project ARTEMIS, a set of representative real-world driving cycles has been developed, to ensure a coherency between the pollutant emissions measurements conducted in the frame of the ARTEMIS project and of on-going national campaigns and to enable the integration of all the resulting emission data in the European systems of emission inventory. The 3 real-world ARTEMIS driving cycles (urban, rural road and motorway) represent the observed European drivi...

  19. Information Access in a Multilingual World: Transitioning from Research to Real-World Applications

    Gey, Fredric; Karlgren, Jussi; Kando, Noriko

    2009-01-01

    This report constitutes the proceedings of the workshop on Information Access in a Multilingual World: Transitioning from Research to Real-World Applications}, held at SIGIR 2009 in Boston, July 23, 2009. Multilingual Information Access (MLIA) is at a turning point wherein substantial real-world applications are being introduced after fifteen years of research into cross-language information retrieval, question answering, statistical machine translation and named entity recognition. Previous...

  20. The orbitofrontal cortex, real-world decision making, and normal aging.

    Denburg, Natalie L; Cole, Catherine A; Hernandez, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Wallace, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    The present series of three studies aims at investigating the hypothesis that some seemingly normal older persons have deficits in reasoning and decision making due to dysfunction in a neural system which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortices. This hypothesis is relevant to the comprehensive study of aging, and also addresses the question of why so many older adults fall prey to fraud. To our knowledge, this work represents the first of its kind to begin to identify, from an individual-differences perspective, the behavioral, psychophysiological, and consumer correlates of defective decision making among healthy older adults. Our findings, in a cross-sectional sample of community-dwelling participants, demonstrate that a sizeable subset of older adults (approximately 35-40%) perform disadvantageously on a laboratory measure of decision making that closely mimics everyday life, by the manner in which it factors in reward, punishment, risk, and ambiguity. These same poor decision makers display defective autonomic responses (or somatic markers), reminiscent of that previously established in patients with acquired prefrontal lesions. Finally, we present data demonstrating that poor decision makers are more likely to fall prey to deceptive advertising, suggesting compromise of real-world judgment and decision-making abilities. PMID:17872394

  1. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. PMID:25968276

  2. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão;

    2013-01-01

    The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing of the...

  3. Adaptive internal state space construction method for reinforcement learning of a real-world agent.

    Samejima, K; Omori, T

    1999-10-01

    One of the difficulties encountered in the application of the reinforcement learning to real-world problems is the construction of a discrete state space from a continuous sensory input signal. In the absence of a priori knowledge about the task, a straightforward approach to this problem is to discretize the input space into a grid, and to use a lookup table. However, this method suffers from the curse of dimensionality. Some studies use continuous function approximators such as neural networks instead of lookup tables. However, when global basis functions such as sigmoid functions are used, convergence cannot be guaranteed. To overcome this problem, we propose a method in which local basis functions are incrementally assigned depending on the task requirement. Initially, only one basis function is allocated over the entire space. The basis function is divided according to the statistical property of locally weighted temporal difference error (TD error) of the value function. We applied this method to an autonomous robot collision avoidance problem, and evaluated the validity of the algorithm in simulation. The proposed algorithm, which we call adaptive basis division (ABD) algorithm, achieved the task using a smaller number of basis functions than the conventional methods. Moreover, we applied the method to a goal-directed navigation problem of a real mobile robot. The action strategy was learned using a database of sensor data, and it was then used for navigation of a real machine. The robot reached the goal using a smaller number of internal states than with the conventional methods. PMID:12662650

  4. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  5. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.;

    2003-01-01

    Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real worl...... geo-referencing of content is important, it is even more important to relate content to the transportation infrastructure. In addition, several sophisticated, integrated representations of the infrastructure are needed....

  6. Advanced Knowledge of the Solution in Quantum Algorithms Addressing Structured Problems

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that quantum correlation, between selection of the problem on the part of Bob and read out of the solution on the part of Alice, can explain the quantum speed up. All is like Alice's read out contributed to selecting the problem, which becomes Alice knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution. This explanation, developed for unstructured data-base search, was coarsely extended to the quantum algorithms that address structured problems. Now, thanks to a more general representation of Alice's advanced knowledge of the solution, we provide a detailed explanation of the mechanism of the speed up also for the latter algorithms. This should significantly increase the plausibility of our argument.

  7. Water from Space: Real World Opportunities and Far Away Promises

    Tayebi, N.; Garcia, L. E.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.

    2015-12-01

    A Global Initiative on Remote Sensing for Water Resources Management (Water RS) was launched in October 2013, financed by the World Bank's Water Partnership Program (WPP[1]) of the Global Water Program. It aims, among other things, to put together and disseminate, in collaboration with the Bank's operational staff as well as external partners, a clear picture of the potential role of Earth Observations (EO) in solution approaches to address particular water-related issues.The initiative focuses on the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the EO products to be used by decision makers in water related management and planning contexts. To make informed decisions, the client needs to know about the potential and the limitations of practical application of remote sensing technology and products, through informed recommendations and the development of practical, result-oriented tools. Thus, the objective of the Water RS initiative is to address this issue by taking a two-phase approach focusing respectively on: (i) identifying demand and priorities of the users while raising awareness on the potential and limitation of RS tools and (ii) bridging the gap between science and development of operational projects.While the first phase has come to completion, the second phase is being designed to tackle some of the reasons why there have been rather limited applications in the developing world (World Bank clients), such as: incentive issues, implementation capacity, costs and financing, and the overall issue of "How to do it?. An overview of the initiative and the lessons learned to date will be presented, setting the stage for muti-partner discussions. [1] The Water Partnership Program (WPP) is a longstanding alliance between the World Bank and the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Austria.

  8. Optimization of cancer chemotherapy on the basis of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: from patients enrolled in clinical trials to those in the 'real world'.

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Yasutsuna

    2014-01-01

      Cytotoxic anticancer drugs are the most challenging therapeutic agents among all medicines with relatively narrow efficacy profiles. Therefore, medical oncologists have to practically manage the risk of severe toxic effects to optimize treatment outcomes. Dose and treatment-schedule recommendations for cytotoxic anticancer agents are determined on the basis of clinical trials. Patients enrolled in clinical trials are those likely to receive the drug in clinical practice, excluding those with conditions such as organ dysfunction, obesity, advanced age, or comorbidity. On the other hand, the 'real world' includes large numbers of such patients who do not meet the eligibility criteria of clinical trials. However, there is a paucity of data from sufficiently powered pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies to support dosage recommendations in such patients. Consequently, dose levels and treatment schedules for chemotherapy in these subjects are somewhat arbitrary and not evidence-based. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of patients in the 'real world' are needed to address this issue. In this review article, we describe general aspects of clinical pharmacology in cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials and those in the 'real world,' and introduce recent findings regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of irinotecan and S-1 in 'real world' cancer patients. PMID:24256625

  9. Network Coding Designs Suited for the Real World

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Network coding (NC) has attracted tremendous attention from the research community due to its potential to significantly improve networks' throughput, delay, and energy performance as well as a means to simplify protocol design and naturally providing security support. The possibilities in code d...... practical pitfalls, this paper seeks to identify key ingredients to a successful design, critical and common limitations to most intra-session NC systems as well as promising techniques and ideas to guide future models and research problems grounded on practical concerns....

  10. Physical modeling of real-world slingshots for accurate speed predictions

    Yeats, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the physics and modeling of latex-rubber slingshots. The goal is to get accurate speed predictions inspite of the significant real world difficulties of force drift, force hysteresis, rubber ageing, and the very non- linear, non-ideal, force vs. pull distance curves of slingshot rubber bands. Slingshots are known to shoot faster under some circumstances when the bands are tapered rather than having constant width and stiffness. We give both qualitative understanding and numerical predictions of this effect. We consider two models. The first is based on conservation of energy and is easier to implement, but cannot determine the speeds along the rubber bands without making assumptions. The second, treats the bands as a series of mass points subject to being pulled by immediately adjacent mass points according to how much the rubber has been stretched on the two adjacent sides. This is a classic many-body F=ma problem but convergence requires using a particular numerical technique. It gives accurate p...

  11. Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world

    Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger cars by using the data reported by real-world drivers on the internet voluntarily. The sales-weighted average fuel consumption of new cars in China in 2009 was 7.80 L/100 km in laboratory and 9.02 L/100 km in real-world, representing a difference of 15.5%. For the 153 individual car models examined, the real-world fuel consumption rates were -8 to 60% different from the test values. The simulation results of the International Vehicle Emission model show that the real-world driving cycles in 22 selected Chinese cities could result in -8 to 34% of changes in fuel consumption compared to the laboratory driving cycle. Further government effort on fuel consumption estimates adjustment, local driving cycle development, and real-world data accumulation through communication with the public is needed to improve the accuracy of the labeling policy. - Research highlights: → China requires new cars sold to show the test fuel use levels on window labels. → Real-world fuel consumption rates of cars are 15.5% higher than the label values. → Discrepancy between the test cycle and real conditions is a major cause for the gap. → China should adjust the estimates, collect fuel use data, and develop driving cycles. → More official and academic efforts are needed to improve the labeling policy.

  12. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM) a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la act...

  13. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  14. Mixtures in the real world: The importance of plant self-defense toxicants, mycotoxins, and the human diet

    A perusal of research presented at the Annual Society of Toxicology Meetings, or in nearly any toxicology journal, will show that the overwhelming emphasis of toxicology research is on synthetic chemistries. Because of substantial potency and exposure to natural chemicals, the overwhelming focus on synthetic chemistries cannot lead to a realistic understanding of chemical risk to the general population. Natural chemicals, simply because of their abundance and potency, may be as likely to be a public health concern and to be involved in chemical interactions (natural:natural, natural:pharmaceutical; or natural:synthetic) as are environmental levels of synthetic chemicals. All plants have a mix of natural self-defense chemistries and mycotoxins that, when tested in a manner comparable to synthetic pesticides, cause the entire spectrum of toxic effects. As a further complication, plants also escalate much of their self-defense chemistry when attacked by insects and fungi, and damaged crops often have higher mycotoxins levels. Effective crop protection will typically reduce the plant's levels of self-defense toxicants and mycotoxins, but may add residues of synthetic pesticides or add some other risk variable. In addition, cooking may also alter the food chemistry (e.g., acrylamide). The mixtures toxicologist needs to address the real world mixture of natural and synthetic chemicals. Public policy on crop-food safety cannot be sensibly guided without these data and large voids in our understanding of risks from real-world mixtures cannot be in the public interest

  15. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults.

    Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E

    2015-09-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants - not adults - were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world. PMID:25438618

  16. Haemophilia in a real-world setting: the value of clinical experience in data collection.

    Dolan, Gerry; Iorio, Alfonso; Jokela, Vuokko; Juusola, Kristian; Lassila, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    At the 8th Annual Congress of the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) held in Helsinki, Finland, in February 2015, Pfizer sponsored a satellite symposium entitled: 'Haemophilia in a real-world setting: The value of clinical experience in data collection' Co-chaired by Riitta Lassila (Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland) and Gerry Dolan (Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK); the symposium provided an opportunity to explore the practical value of real-world data in informing clinical decision-making. Gerry Dolan provided an introduction to the symposium by describing what is meant by real-world data (RWD), stressing the role RWD can play in optimising patient outcomes in haemophilia and highlighting the responsibility of all stakeholders to collaborate in continuous data collection. Kristian Juusola (Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland) then provided personal experience as a haemophilia nurse around patient views on adherence to treatment regimes, and how collecting insights into real-world use of treatment can shape approaches to improving adherence. The importance of elucidating pharmacokinetic parameters in a real-world setting was then explored by Vuokko Jokela (Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland). Finally, Alfonso Iorio (McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) highlighted the importance of quality data collection in translating clinical reality into scientific advances. PMID:26809546

  17. A modified harmony search method for environmental/economic load dispatch of real-world power systems

    Highlights: • A combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) model is proposed. • The proposed model considers practical constraints of real-world power systems. • A new modified harmony search algorithm proposed to solve non-convex CEELD. • The proposed algorithm is tested by applying it to solve seven test systems. - Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is one of the basic and important optimization problems in a power system. However, considering practical constraints of real-world power systems such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, valve loading effects, multi-fuel options, spinning reserve and transmission system losses in ELD problem makes it a non-convex optimization problem, which is a challenging one and cannot be solved by traditional methods. Moreover, considering environmental issues, results in combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) problem that is a multiobjective optimization model with two non-commensurable and contradictory objectives. In this paper, a modified harmony search algorithm (MHSA) proposed and applied to solve ELD and CEELD problem considering the abovementioned constraints. In the proposed MHSA, a new improvising method based on wavelet mutation together with a new memory consideration scheme based on the roulette wheel mechanism are proposed which improves the accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness of the classical HSA. Performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated by applying it to solve various test systems having non-convex solution spaces. To Show the effectiveness of the proposed method, obtained results compared with classical harmony search algorithm (HSA) and some of the most recently published papers in the area

  18. How Accurate is Mean-Field Theory for Dynamics on Real-World Networks?

    Gleeson, James P; Ward, Jonathan; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, particularly for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. We compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate using synthetic networks that the accuracy of the theory not only depends on the mean degree of the networks but also depends fundamentally on the mean first-neighbor degree. We show, unexpectedly, that mean-field theory can give accurate results for disassortative real-world networks even when the mean degree is as low as $z=4$.

  19. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  20. Investigating affordances of virtual worlds for real world B2C e-commerce

    Tran, Minh; Minocha, Shailey; Roberts, Dave; Laing, Angus; Langdridge, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds are three-dimensional (3D) online persistent multi-user environments where users interact through avatars. The literature suggests that virtual worlds can facilitate real world business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. However, few real world businesses have adopted virtual worlds for B2C e-commerce. In this paper, we present results from interviews with consumers in a virtual world to investigate how virtual worlds can support B2C e-commerce. A thematic analysis of the data was c...

  1. EXAMINING THE MOVEMENTS OF MOBILE NODES IN THE REAL WORLD TO PRODUCE ACCURATE MOBILITY MODELS

    TANWEER ALAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All communication occurs through a wireless median in an ad hoc network. Ad hoc networks are dynamically created and maintained by the individual nodes comprising the network. Random Waypoint Mobility Model is a model that includes pause times between changes in destination and speed. To produce a real-world environment within which an ad hoc network can be formed among a set of nodes, there is a need for the development of realistic, generic and comprehensive mobility models. In this paper, we examine the movements of entities in the real world and present the production of mobility model in an ad hoc network.

  2. Expanding the Reach of Physics-Engaging Students in Interdisciplinary Research Involving complex, real-world situation

    Bililign, Solomon

    2014-03-01

    Physics plays a very important role in most interdisciplinary efforts and can provide a solid foundation for students. Retention of students in STEM areas can be facilitated by enhanced interdisciplinary education and research since students are strongly attracted to research with societal relevance and show increasing enthusiasm about problems that have practical consequences. One such area of research is a collaborative Earth System Science. The Earth System is dynamic and complex. It is comprised of diverse components that interact. By providing students the opportunities to work in interdisciplinary groups on a problem that reflects a complex, real-world situation they can see the linkages between components of the Earth system that encompass climate and all its components (weather precipitation, temperature, etc.) and technology development and deployment of sensors and sensor networks and social impacts. By involving students in the creation of their own personalized professional development plan, students are more focused and engaged and are more likely to remain in the program.

  3. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  4. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  5. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom

    Livingston, C.

    2012-04-01

    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  6. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation

  7. Learning Local Binary Patterns for Gender Classification on Real-World Face Images

    Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gender recognition is one of fundamental face analysis tasks. Most of the existing studies have focused on face images acquired under controlled conditions. However, real-world applications require gender classification on real-life faces, which is much more challenging due to significant appearance

  8. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars

    Kadijk, G.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment reveals that NOx emissions of a number of tested Euro 6 diesel passenger vehicles are significantly higher under real-world conditions than would be expected on the basis of the Euro 6 standard. The Euro 6 standa

  9. Getting Ready for the Real World: Student Perspectives on Bringing Industry Collaboration into the Classroom

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learning through industry collaborations is critical in decreasing the gap between the real world and the academic environment. Working on challenges drawn from industry can increase students' knowledge and future employability, thus enhancing labor force preparation. This study explored students' perceptions (n = 110) of the benefits…

  10. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  11. Real Worlds and Ivory Towers: A Survey of Top Creative Directors.

    Kendrick, Alice; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveys the creative directors from 173 top United States advertising agencies regarding advertising education. Discusses their remarks regarding academe, "executional" issues (conceptual ability and skills), and professional issues (students' ability to sell themselves and to function in the real world). (SR)

  12. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British…

  13. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  14. Real world thirty-day mortality in female patients with acute myocardial infarction from Beijing

    宋雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the gender differences on the short-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial in-farction in the real world.Methods A total of 471 consecutive patients[male 368 (78.1%) and female103 (21.9%) ]with acute myocardial infarction<72 hours in cardiac care unit were included.The clinical data,

  15. The social robot architecture: towards sociality in a real world domain

    Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Duffy, Brian R.; O'Hare, G. M. P.; Collier, Rem

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present an architecture which commissions agent-based deliberation without sacrificing the reactive qualities necessary in a real world domain, and which is situated within a social landscape through the use of an Agent Communication Language. peer-reviewed

  16. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  17. An Information Extraction Core System for Real World German Text Processing

    Neumann, G; Baur, J; Becker, M; Braun, C

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes SMES, an information extraction core system for real world German text processing. The basic design criterion of the system is of providing a set of basic powerful, robust, and efficient natural language components and generic linguistic knowledge sources which can easily be customized for processing different tasks in a flexible manner.

  18. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are

  19. Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600 was initially observed in pressure water reactors (PWR's) in 1971 in steam generator tubes. Since that time PWSCC occurrences have increased dramatically spreading to many more Alloy 600 components within the reactor coolant system (RCS), including upper and lower reactor vessel head penetrations, dissimilar metal butt welds, instrumentation nozzles, and pressurizer heaters and sleeves. The impact to the nuclear industry has been profound in its effects on outage time and repair/replacement costs. Other effects experienced by the plants include added scrutiny by the regulatory agencies and public concern of plant operations. Throughout this dilemma, Framatome ANP has provided engineering, inspection and repair aid to the worldwide Utilities. Inspection techniques once thought adequate required improvements in not only detection and sizing, but also in accessibility and coverage. Emergent repairs over the last several years have placed high demands on personnel training and equipment availability. Framatome ANP continues to produce innovative weld repair approaches with faster repair times, lower dose and longer component life. Repair applications combine the latest in welding techniques with advancements in tool design. In anticipation of future challenges and proactive resolution of present problems, Framatome ANP has devoted global resources toward corrective approaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies

  20. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  1. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  2. Ubiquitousness of link-density and link-pattern communities in real-world networks

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2011-01-01

    Community structure appears to be an intrinsic property of many complex real-world networks. However, recent work shows that real-world networks reveal even more sophisticated modules than classical cohesive (link-density) communities. In particular, networks can also be naturally partitioned according to similar patterns of connectedness between the nodes, revealing link-pattern communities. We here propose a balanced propagation based algorithm that can extract both link-density and link-pattern communities, without any prior knowledge of the true structure. The algorithm was first validated on different classes of synthetic benchmark networks with community structure, and also on random networks. We have then further applied the algorithm to different social, information, technological and biological networks, where it indeed reveals meaningful (composites of) link-density and link-pattern communities. The results thus seem to imply that, similarly as link-density counterparts, link-pattern communities app...

  3. Node-weighted interacting network measures improve the representation of real-world complex systems

    Wiedermann, Marc; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Network theory provides a rich toolbox consisting of methods, measures, and models for studying the structure and dynamics of complex systems found in nature, society, or technology. Recently, it has been pointed out that many real-world complex systems are more adequately mapped by networks of interacting or interdependent networks, e.g., a power grid showing interdependency with a communication network. Additionally, in many real-world situations it is reasonable to include node weights into complex network statistics to reflect the varying size or importance of subsystems that are represented by nodes in the network of interest. E.g., nodes can represent vastly different surface area in climate networks, volume in brain networks or economic capacity in trade networks. In this letter, combining both ideas, we derive a novel class of statistical measures for analysing the structure of networks of interacting networks with heterogeneous node weights. Using a prototypical spatial network model, we show that th...

  4. Universal underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both spaces. The model is validated using big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the universal underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  5. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  6. Efficient Algorithm for Computing Link-based Similarity in Real World Networks

    Cai, Yuanzhe; Cong, Gao; Xu, Jia;

    2009-01-01

    Similarity calculation has many applications, such as information retrieval, and collaborative filtering, among many others. It has been shown that link-based similarity measure, such as SimRank, is very effective in characterizing the object similarities in networks, such as the Web, by exploiting...... the object-to-object relationship. Unfortunately, it is prohibitively expensive to compute the link-based similarity in a relatively large graph. In this paper, based on the observation that link-based similarity scores of real world graphs follow the power-law distribution, we propose a new approximate...... algorithm, namely Power-SimRank, with guaranteed error bound to efficiently compute link-based similarity measure. We also prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Extensive experiments conducted on real world datasets and synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms Sim...

  7. Forecasting of Processes in Complex Systems for Real-World Problems

    Pelikán, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2014), s. 567-589. ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : complex systems * data assimilation * ensemble forecasting * forecasting * global solar radiation * judgmental forecasting * multimodel forecasting * pollution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2014

  8. Large-scale set partitioning problems: some real-world instances hide a beneficial structure

    Coslovich, Luca; Pesenti, Raffaele; Ukovich, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Nagrinėjamos didelių matematinių aibių dalijimo problemos. Autorių tikslas – atskleisti praktines matematinių aibių dalijimo problemas, kurių pasitaiko konteinerių vežimo versle. Aprašomi du eksperimentai, atlikti kompiuteriu. Atliekant pirmąjį eksperimentą, realiai aibės perdalijimo problemai spręsti buvo pritaikyti euristinis ir keli tikslūs sprendimo metodai. Atliekant antrąjį, tie patys metodai pritaikyti naudojant duomenis iš Beasley operacijų tyrimų bibliotekos. Gauti rezultatai palygin...

  9. Review Essay: Is it Real? Problems and Prospects of Research in "the Real World"

    Forte, Maximilian C.

    2002-01-01

    Dieses Handbuch vermittelt einen sehr nützlichen Überblick über verschiedene Strategien, Methoden und Forschungsdesigns in den Sozialwissenschaften, wobei der Autor die Kombination von quantitativen und qualitativen Forschungsmethoden im Sinne eines kritisch-realistischen Paradigmas thematisiert. Den Leser(inne)n wird zunächst ein Überblick über die Debatten zu den verschiedenen Forschungsansätzen – von positivistischen bis zu relativistischen Positionen – gegeben; der Autor setzt sich selbst...

  10. Enhancing student learning: On-line interactive laboratory for modelling of real world control system applications

    Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Dormido, Sebastián; Vlacic, Ljubo

    2011-01-01

    Teaching an introductory course on control systems to undergraduate students often seeks elaborations on real engineering world control system applications to assist students in grasping theoretical concepts. In this paper, the newly developed animated and interactive control systems tutorials are presented. The paper shows that this teaching approach helps students in bridging the gap between the classical control techniques and the real world applications. The course evaluations undertaken ...

  11. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plötz, Patrick; Funke, Simon; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual ...

  12. Audience measurement of digital signage: Quantitative study in real-world environment using computer vision

    Ravnik, Robert; Solina, Franc

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of digital signage audience measurement using computer vision. We developed a camera-enhanced digital signage display that acquires audience measurement metrics with computer vision algorithms. Temporal metrics of a person’s dwell time, display in-view time and attention time are extracted. The system also determines demographic metrics of the gender and age group. The digital signage display was deployed in a real-world environment of a clothing boutique, wher...

  13. Performance analysis of Xen virtual machines in real-world scenarios

    Heissler, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of the performance benchmarks of the Open Source hypervisor Xen. The study focuses on the network related performance as well as on the application related performance of multiple virtual machines that were running on the same Xen hypervisor. The comparison was carried out using a self-developed benchmark suite that consists of easily available Open Source tools. The goal is to measure the performance of the hypervisor in typical real-world application scenarios wh...

  14. Learning Local Binary Patterns for Gender Classification on Real-World Face Images

    C. Shan

    2011-01-01

    Gender recognition is one of fundamental face analysis tasks. Most of the existing studies have focused on face images acquired under controlled conditions. However, real-world applications require gender classification on real-life faces, which is much more challenging due to significant appearance variations in unconstrained scenarios. In this paper, we investigate gender recognition on real-life faces using the recently built database, the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW). Local Binary Patt...

  15. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    Matthes Gerrit; Stengel Dirk; Frank Matthias; Beirau Melissa; Schmucker Uli; Ekkernkamp Axel; Seifert Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction) was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-sev...

  16. Mobile Interaction with the Real World: An Evaluation and Comparison of Physical Mobile Interaction Techniques

    Rukzio, Enrico; Leichtenstern, Karin; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Mobile devices are more and more used for mobile interactions with things, places and people in the real world. However, so far no studies have discussed which interaction techniques are preferred by users in different contexts. This paper presents an experimental comparison of four different physical mobile interaction techniques: touching, pointing, scanning and usermediated object interaction. To evaluate these techniques across different scenarios and to collect real usage data,...

  17. New Teaching Environments Near Real-World-Like Laboratories for Power Engineering

    Holbøll, Joachim; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark offers educations within power engineering at all levels: bachelor, master and PhD. Relevant bachelor programs use the CDIO educational framework, which allows the students to learn engineering fundaments in a context of conceiving, designing, implementing, and operating real-world systems. The tool to be presented here is mainly establishment of teaching facilities at the Technical University of Denmark adjacent to the research facilities and where nearnes...

  18. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Wigal, Sharon B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking a...

  19. Assessing the benefits of auditory training to real-world listening: identifying appropriate and sensitive outcomes

    Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory training is an intervention that aims to improve auditory performance and help alleviate the difficulties associated with hearing loss. To be an effective intervention, any task-specific learning needs to transfer to functional benefits in real-world listening. The present study aimed to identify optimal outcome measures to assess the benefits of auditory training for people with hearing loss. Thirty existing hearing-aid users with mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss trained on ...

  20. Affine Realizations for Levy Driven Interest Rate Models with Real-World Forward Rate Dynamics

    Eckhard Platen; Stefan Tappe

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the existence of affine realizations for interest rate term structure models driven by Levy processes. Using as numeraire the growth optimal portfolio, we model the interest rate term structure under the real-world probability measure, and hence, we do not need the existence of an equivalent risk-neutral probability measure. Furthermore, we include finite dimensional external factors, thus admitting a stochastic volatility structure.

  1. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN DISEASED AND CONTROL PARTICIPANTS

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Tippin, Jon; Lee, John D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated real world driver errors and sleepiness in 66 drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and 34 matched controls (24 younger and 22 older). Driving errors and driver state were derived from analyses of video data from “black-box” event recorders. Sleep fragmentation data in OSA was derived from actigraphy for 15 days prior to beginning standard treatment (positive airway pressure, PAP) and 15 days after beginning PAP treatment. Prior to starting PAP, OSAs appeared sleepie...

  2. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF REAL-WORLD DRIVING BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING FOCAL BRAIN LESIONS

    Thompson, Kelsey; Read, Katherine; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with circumscribed brain injuries, such as those caused by stroke or focal trauma, return to driving after a period of acute recovery. These persons often have chronic residual cognitive deficits that may impact on driving safety, but little is known about their driving behavior in the real world. Extant studies tend to rely on driving simulators or controlled on-road drives. These methods of observation are not able to capture the complexities of the typical driving environment...

  3. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Jacqueline C Snow; Skiba, Rafal M.; Taylor C Coleman; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. He...

  4. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Jacqueline C Snow; Skiba, Rafal M.; Coleman, Taylor L.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here ...

  5. Experimenting with ecosystem interaction networks in search of threshold potentials in real-world marine ecosystems

    Thrush, S. F.; Hewitt, J E; Parkes, S; Lohrer, A.M.; Pilditch, C.A.; Woodin, S.A.; Wethey, D. S.; Chiantore, M.; Asnaghi, V; de Juan, S.; Kraan, C.; Rodil, I.; Savage, C; Van Colen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Thresholds profoundly affect our understanding and management of ecosystem dynamics, but we have yet to develop practical techniques to assess the risk that thresholds will be crossed. Combining ecological knowledge of critical system interdependencies with a large-scale experiment, we tested for breaks in the ecosystem interaction network to identify threshold potential in real-world ecosystem dynamics. Our experiment with the bivalves Macomona liliana and Austrovenus stutchburyi on marine s...

  6. Hostility in the real world and online: the effect of internet addiction, depression, and online activity.

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yi; Huang, Chun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-11-01

    Hostility online has not been evaluated by an empirical investigation. This study aims to evaluate (a) the difference between hostility in the real world and that online and (b) whether the difference is associated with Internet addiction, depression, or online activities. A total of 2,348 college students (1,124 males and 1,224 females) were recruited and completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and the questionnaire for online activity. Further, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Chinese version-short form was utilized to evaluate hostility in both real and virtual worlds. The results demonstrated that the levels of all four dimensions of hostility were lower when getting online than those in the real world. Subjects with Internet addiction had higher hostility both in the real world and online as do subjects with depression. Further, college students with Internet addiction had increased expressive hostility behavior and those with depression had decreased hostility cognition, hostility affection, and suppressive hostility behavior when getting online. Lastly, the buffering effect of the Internet on hostility was attenuated among subjects paying the most online time in chatting, and those using the Internet mainly for online gaming had higher expressive hostility behavior not only in the real world but also online. These results suggest that attention should be paid to interventions concerning aggressive behavior among subjects with Internet addiction or online gaming and chatting. On the other hand, depressed college students would be less hostile after entering the Internet. It is suggested that the Internet would be one possible interactive media to provide intervention for depression. PMID:21476897

  7. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    Tom V Smulders

    2015-05-01

    These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  8. Addressing the Small Market Problem for Canadian NHL Franchises: On-site Gaming as a New Revenue Stream

    Daniel S. Mason

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies the unique problems faced by Canadian small market (CSM) franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL). While featuring characteristics similar to other major leagues in North America, CSM franchises are also burdened by currency and taxation issues that favor US-based teams, as well as a reliance on gate revenues, which have exacerbated the problem for NHL teams. Three general alternatives devised to address the small market problem are introduced in this paper: (1) al...

  9. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making). PMID:24559028

  10. Performance Evaluation of Super-Resolution Reconstruction Methods on Real-World Data

    L. J. van Vliet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a super-resolution (SR reconstruction method on real-world data is not easy to measure, especially as a ground-truth (GT is often not available. In this paper, a quantitative performance measure is used, based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD. The TOD measure, simulating a real-observer task, is capable of determining the performance of a specific SR reconstruction method under varying conditions of the input data. It is shown that the performance of an SR reconstruction method on real-world data can be predicted accurately by measuring its performance on simulated data. This prediction of the performance on real-world data enables the optimization of the complete chain of a vision system; from camera setup and SR reconstruction up to image detection/recognition/identification. Furthermore, different SR reconstruction methods are compared to show that the TOD method is a useful tool to select a specific SR reconstruction method according to the imaging conditions (camera's fill-factor, optical point-spread-function (PSF, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  11. Addressing Substance Abuse Problems Among TANF Recipients A Guide for Program Administrators

    2000-01-01

    Provides information to help program administrators and staff understand substance abuse problems, identify welfare recipients with these problems, understand the treatment system, and integrate treatment into a work-focused welfare program.

  12. Preferred Psychological Internet Resources for Addressing Anxiety Disorders, Parenting Problems, Eating Disorders, and Chemical Dependency.

    Morse, Laura; Doran, Matt; Simonin, Danielle; Smith, Allyson; Maloney, Colleen; Wright, Cara; Underwood, Michelle; Hoppel, Andrea; O'Donnell, Shannon; Chambliss, Catherine

    Although the Internet offers information about psychological problems and support resources for behavioral health problems, the quality of this information varies widely. So as to offer guidance in this area, preferred sites pertaining to anxiety disorders, parenting problems, eating disorders, and chemical dependency were analyzed. A total of 365…

  13. Addressing the Spectrum of Adolescent Weight-Related Problems: Engaging Parents and Communities

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…

  14. A comparison of global optimization algorithms with standard benchmark functions and real-world applications using Energy Plus

    Kamph, Jerome Henri; Robinson, Darren; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of computer algorithms to identify combinations of parameters which optimise the energy performance of buildings. For such problems, the objective function can be multi-modal and needs to be approximated numerically using building energy simulation programs. As these programs contain iterative solution algorithms, they introduce discontinuities in the numerical approximation to the objective function. Metaheuristics often work well for such problems, but their convergence to a global optimum cannot be established formally. Moreover, different algorithms tend to be suited to particular classes of optimization problems. To shed light on this issue we compared the performance of two metaheuristics, the hybrid CMA-ES/HDE and the hybrid PSO/HJ, in minimizing standard benchmark functions and real-world building energy optimization problems of varying complexity. From this we find that the CMA-ES/HDE performs well on more complex objective functions, but that the PSO/HJ more consistently identifies the global minimum for simpler objective functions. Both identified similar values in the objective functions arising from energy simulations, but with different combinations of model parameters. This may suggest that the objective function is multi-modal. The algorithms also correctly identified some non-intuitive parameter combinations that were caused by a simplified control sequence of the building energy system that does not represent actual practice, further reinforcing their utility.

  15. "In vivo" spam filtering: A challenge problem for data mining

    Fawcett, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Spam, also known as Unsolicited Commercial Email (UCE), is the bane of email communication. Many data mining researchers have addressed the problem of detecting spam, generally by treating it as a static text classification problem. True in vivo spam filtering has characteristics that make it a rich and challenging domain for data mining. Indeed, real-world datasets with these characteristics are typically difficult to acquire and to share. This paper demonstrates some of these characteristic...

  16. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance ...

  17. Computer mediated communication and disability support: addressing barriers to study for undergraduate distance learners with long-term health problems

    Debenham, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    This work explores barriers to study encountered by undergraduate distance learners with long-term health problems. It considers ways in which problems identified in an Exploratory Study might be addressed. These include fatigue, difficulties with handwriting, academic and social isolation, together with a need for better interactive communication with support agencies. The student perspective is explored in depth. The essential finding is that the adoption of an Autonomy approach when using ...

  18. ODEL can address the Reality-Problems of Agriculturists’ Post Graduation in Bangladesh

    . Q. M. Bazlur RASHID

    2009-10-01

    , Agricultural Statistics, Ag. Cooperation & Ag. Marketing, Rural Development etc. the application of ODEL has not yet been found employed in anywhere except, a few recent endeavours under a limited scope in the Asian countries like India (IGNOU. ODEL extends the learning and self-development opportunities to those beyond the access to the conventional system due to professional, familial, economic, geographical etc. restrictions. The scenario is more acute especially in case of the applied science like Agriculture in Agriculture-dependent developing country like Bangladesh where the tool may be potential alternative to address the postgraduate agricultural education, the acute problem of a vast number of target group seeking higher studies. Bangladesh is one of the most thickly populated and agriculture dependent developing countries of the world, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU established in 1962 is only the premier seat of higher agricultural education and research in the country offering Masters and Doctoral degrees through the conventional face to face class room system. Since its establishment out of the total passed out bachelors (BSc Ag. so far till July 2007 only 31.29% Masters and 0.64% PhDs have been produced. Bangladesh has recently been connected to the information super-highway through submarine cables. As a result, along with BTTB private companies already could ramify their ICT-based business orientations in different sectors like banking, transportation, administration etc. The use of computer and the long-ranged, portable electronic device with the telephone and the cell phone networks are widely used now a day. Under the circumstances, for better and progressive existence in the competitive global context it should be concentrated on its special attention to the ICT-based ODEL as a pragmatic focal issue with a view to transforming the ever increasing vast population potential into more productive force, so as to solve the higher agricultural

  19. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO2/km and the annual CO2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  20. Real-world vehicle emission factors in Chinese metropolis city--Beijing

    WANG Qi-dong; HE Ke-bin; HUO Hong; James Lents

    2005-01-01

    The dynamometer tests with different driving cycles and the real-world tests are presented. Results indicated the pollutants emission factors and fuel consumption factor with ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle usually take the lowest value and with real world driving cycle occur the highest value, and different driving cycles will lead to significantly different vehicle emission factors with the same vehicle.Relative to the ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle, the increasing rate of pollutant emission factors of CO, NOx and HC are - 0.42-2.99,- 0.32-0.81 and - 0.11-11 with FTP75 testing, 0.11-1.29, - 0.77-0.64 and 0.47-10.50 with Beijing 1997 testing and 0.25-1.83,0.09-0.75 and - 0.58-1.50 with real world testing. Compared to the carburetor vehicles, the retrofit and MPI + TWC vehicles' pollution emission factors decrease with different degree. The retrofit vehicle (Santana) will reduce 4.44%-58.44% CO, - 4.95%-36.79% NOx, - 32.32%-33.89% HC, and - 9.39%-14.29% fuel consumption, and especially that the MPI + TWC vehicle will decrease CO by 82.48%-91.76%, NOx by 44.87%-92.79%, HC by 90.00%-93.89% and fuel consumption by 5.44%-10.55%. Vehicles can cause pollution at a very high rate when operated in high power modes; however, they may not often operate in these high power modes.In analyzing vehicle emissions, it describes the fraction of time that vehicles operate in various power modes. In Beijing, vehicles spend 90% of their operation in low power modes or decelerating.

  1. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  2. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects.

    Snow, Jacqueline C; Skiba, Rafal M; Coleman, Taylor L; Berryhill, Marian E

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent). We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects vs. color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition. PMID:25368568

  3. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Jacqueline C Snow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent. We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects versus color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  4. Analysis of finite element models for head injury investigation: reconstruction of four real-world impacts.

    Franklyn, Melanie; Fildes, Brian; Zhang, Liying; Yang, King; Sparke, Laurie

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that both excessive linear and rotational accelerations are the cause of head injuries. Although the head injury criterion has been beneficial as an indicator of head injury risk, it only considers linear acceleration, so there is a need to consider both types of motion in future safety standards. Advanced models of the head/brain complex have recently been developed to gain a better understanding of head injury biomechanics. While these models have been verified against laboratory experimental data, there is a lack of suitable real-world data available for validation. Hence, using two computer models of the head/brain, the objective of the current study was to reconstruct four real-world crashes with known head injury outcomes in a full-vehicle crash laboratory, simulate head/brain responses using kinematics obtained during these reconstructions, and to compare the results predicted by the models against the actual injuries sustained by the occupant. Cases where the occupant sustained no head injuries (AIS 0) and head injuries of severity AIS 4, AIS 5, and multiple head injuries were selected. Data collected from a 9-accelerometer skull were input into the Wayne State University Head Injury Model (WSUHIM) and the NHTSA Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon). The results demonstrated that both models were able to predict varying injury severities consistent with the difference in AIS injury levels in the real-world cases. The WSUHIM predicted a slightly higher injury threshold than the SIMon, probably due to the finer mesh and different software used for the simulations, and could also determine regions of the brain which had been injured. With further validation, finite element models can be used to establish an injury criterion for each type of brain injury in the future. PMID:17096266

  5. Addressing the Intercultural via Task-Based Language Teaching: Possibility or Problem?

    East, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A frequent weakness of communicative approaches to foreign language teaching is a neglect of the intercultural dimension. Cultural knowledge is often treated as an addendum which focuses on learning facts about the target country. This article explores whether task-based language teaching (TBLT) can successfully address the intercultural…

  6. Addressing the Regression Test Problem with Change Impact Analysis for Ada

    Jones, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    The regression test selection problem--selecting a subset of a test-suite given a change--has been studied widely over the past two decades. However, the problem has seen little attention when constrained to high-criticality developments and where a "safe" selection of tests need to be chosen. Further, no practical approaches have been presented for the programming language Ada. In this paper, we introduce an approach to solving the selection problem given a combination of both static and dyn...

  7. Real World NET, C#, and Silverlight Indispensible Experiences from 15 MVPs

    Evjen, Bill; Balassy, Gyorgy; Gleeren, Gill; Giard, David; Golesh, Alex; Grossnicklaus, Kevin; Jenkins, Caleb; Juday, Jeffrey; Lele, Vishwas; Likness, Jeremy; Millett, Scott; Nagel, Christian; Yöndem , Daron; Weyer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A team of MVP authors guides you through the .NET 4 Framework Written by a group of experienced MVPs, this unparalleled book delves into the intricate-and often daunting-world of .NET 4. Each author draws from a particular area of expertise to provide invaluable information on using the various .NET 4, C# 4, Silverlight 4, and Visual Studio tools in the real world. The authors break down the vast .NET 4 Framework into easily digestible portions to offer you a strong foundation on what makes .NET such a popular and successful framework for building a wide range of solutions.Breaks down the .NET

  8. All You Can Eat or Breaking a Real-World Contactless Payment System

    Kasper, Timo; Silbermann, Michael; Paar, Christof

    We investigated a real-world contactless payment application based on mifare Classic cards. In order to analyze the security of the payment system, we combined previous cryptanalytical results and implemented an improved card-only attack with customized low-cost tools, that is to our knowledge the most efficient practical attack to date. We found several flaws implying severe security vulnerabilities on the system level that allow for devastating attacks including identity theft and recharging the amount of money on the cards. We practically verify and demonstrate the attacks on the commercial system.

  9. Accessing numeric data via flags and tags: A final report on a real world experiment

    Kottenstette, J. P.; Freeman, J. E.; Staskin, E. R.; Hargrave, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is reported which: extended the concepts of data flagging and tagging to the aerospace scientific and technical literature; generated experience with the assignment of data summaries and data terms by documentation specialists; and obtained real world assessments of data summaries and data terms in information products and services. Inclusion of data summaries and data terms improved users' understanding of referenced documents from a subject perspective as well as from a data perspective; furthermore, a radical shift in document ordering behavior occurred during the experiment toward proportionately more requests for data-summarized items.

  10. Mobile computing deployment and management real world skills for Comptia Mobility+ certification and beyond

    Bartz, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Mobile computing skills are becoming standard in the IT industry Mobile Computing Deployment and Management: Real World Skills for CompTIA Mobility+ Certification and Beyond is the ultimate reference for mobile computing. Certified Wireless Network Expert Robert J. Bartz guides IT and networking professionals through the fundamental and advanced concepts of mobile computing, providing the information and instruction necessary to get up to speed on current technology and best practices. The book maps to the CompTIA Mobility+ (MB0-001) exam, making it an ideal resource for those s

  11. Real World SharePoint 2010 Indispensable Experiences from 22 MVPs

    Hillier, Scot; Bishop, Darrin; Bleeker, Todd; Bogue, Robert; Bosch, Karine; Brotto, Claudio; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Drisgill, Randy; Lapointe, Gary; Medero, Jason; Molnar, Agnes; O'Brien, Chris; Klindt, Todd; Poelmans, Joris; Rehmani, Asif; Ross, John; Swan, Nick; Walsh, Mike; Williams, Randy; Young, Shane; Macori, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Proven real-world best practices from leading Microsoft SharePoint MVPsSharePoint enables Web sites to host shared workspaces and is a leading solution for Enterprise Content Management. The newest version boasts significant changes, impressive enhancements, and new features, requiring developers and administrators of all levels of experience to quickly get up to speed on the latest changes. This book is a must-have anthology of current best practices for SharePoint 2010 from 20 of the top SharePoint MVPs. They offer insider advice on everything from installation, workflow, and Web parts to bu

  12. Understanding the GOLD 2011 Strategy as applied to a real-world COPD population

    Vestbo, J.; Vogelmeier, C.; Small, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Study objectives: The aim of this analysis was to understand the implications of the GOLD 2011 multidimensional system for the assessment and management of COPD, using data from a real-world observational study. Methods: Data were drawn from the Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Programme, a...... risk groups. The highest proportions of patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were in group D. However, a considerable proportion of patients in low risk groups were receiving ICS/long-acting beta(2) agonists. Conclusions: Our analysis confirmed the relationship between higher symptomatic...

  13. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    DiMarzio, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  14. Master the Challenge of Generating OpenDRIVE Road Networks based on Real World Data

    Richter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    More and more use cases demanding real world scenarios in driving simulators e.g. for testing and validation purpose. On the one hand to build these manually isn’t time and cost efficient and error-prone. On the other hand the amount of available digital spatial data is increasing. Thus it should be used for generating simulation environments and road networks. Due to the different data sources one has to take care of their different properties for pre-processing and fusion of the data. This ...

  15. Test-driving EvoSpaces: software visualisation in the real world

    Marmier, Raphaël; Dugerdil, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    EvoSpaces is a prototype software visualisation tool that represents the source code of an application as a city in 3D. The size and shape of the buildings are mapped to software metrics. A special “night mode” allows visualising execution traces as rays of light between buildings. Our mission was to try EvoSpaces on an industrial-sized real world application. The first part of this work consisted in adapting EvoSpaces to a new database schema, generate metrics on the code of our target appli...

  16. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  17. Project Manager Street Smarts A Real World Guide to PMP Skills

    Zaval, Linda Kretz

    2011-01-01

    The perfect workbook for project managers and PMP exam candidates seeking practical experience New project managers and students pursuing the Project Management Professional certification are looking for practical experience to solidify their skills. The step-by-step tasks presented in this book offer them an opportunity to practice the common tasks project managers face in the real world. The authors, both expert project management trainers and consultants, explore each phase of project management: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing the project, with in-depth

  18. ADDRESSING COMPLEX SPATIAL DECISION PROBLEMS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS: THE INTELLIGENT SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (SDSS) APPROACH

    Kostas Tolidis; Efi Dimopoulou

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of land use planning and land policy making for mountain regions, considered as regions with specific characteristics (natural, cultural, etc.), but also development constraints. Spatial decision making in such regions is characterized by complexity (semi-structured spatial decision problems) and multiplicity of problems. These indicate the need for qualitative information in support of the decision-making process, in order to improve effectiveness in decision m...

  19. Incorporating Natural Helpers to Address Service Disparities for Young Children with Conduct Problems

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; NIEC, LARISSA N.; Barnet, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high levels of unmet need among historically underserved young children with conduct problems, this paper outlines some of the key issues involved in incorporating natural helpers into the delivery of parenting interventions for the treatment of conduct problems among historically underserved children. Strategies for the selection and training of natural helpers are discussed along with challenges that might be encountered in these processes. Directions for future research ...

  20. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Shope, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    READING, WRITING, & ENACTING SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL LITERATURE: Mimewrighting applies the art of mime as an interpretive springboard to integrate conceptual understanding across all content areas. Mimewrighting guides students to read and express complex ideas in carefully crafted movement integrations, mediating experience, so that students obtain an intuitive grasp of difficult and abstract ideas. THE PROBLEM: Reading science writing presents obstacles for middle and high school students, to the point that many students are turned OFF to science altogether. A typical science abstract, written for colleagues, is as densely packed with concept-laden words as a black hole is densely packed with matter- and just as mysterious. What reads to a science colleague as a richly crafted paragraph, from which a myriad of elegantly interrelated concepts can unfold to point to the significance and context of the study at hand, reads as jabberwocky nonsense to the uninitiated student. So, how do we turn such kids (and teachers) back ON to the inquiry-driven desire to seek out challenging and educative experiences? How do we step up to the national challenge to prepare ALL students adequately for the REAL-WORLD demands of science, technology, engineering, math, (STEM) and communications? How do we help kids read, write, and understand scientific and technical literature? AN UNCONVENTIONAL ANSWER: Mimewrighting applies the classic art of mime to unpack the meaning of science writing. We help students view the text as sequences of action, scenarios that can be enacted theatrically for understanding. HOW DOES IT WORK? READ ALOUD, MIME ALONG: It's as simple as read aloud and mime along. And as complex, in that it requires taking the time to acknowledge each concept packed into the passage. Three opening sentences might involve twenty minutes of mimewrighting activity to ensure that students apprehend the patterns, perceive the relationships, and comprehend the dynamics of such a

  1. Addressing the last mile problem - the transport impacts of collection/delivery points

    Song, Liying; Cherrett, Tom; McLeod, Fraser; Guan, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The impacts of failed first-time home deliveries on additional carrier journeys (repeat deliveries) and customer trips (to retrieve goods from carrier depots) are of increasing concern to e-retailers and are assessed in this paper. The attended collection and delivery point (CDP) concept is one solution to first-time delivery failures, using a variety of outlets (e.g., convenience stores, petrol stations, post offices) as alternative addresses to receive deliveries. By using a database of hou...

  2. Phase Space Reconstruction from Econommic Time Series Data: Improving Models of Complex Real-World Dynamic Systems

    Ray Huffaker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  Failure of economic models to anticipate the global financial crisis illustrates the need for modeling to better capture complex real-world dynamics. Conventional models—in which economic variables evolve toward equilibria or fluctuate about equilibria in response to exogenous random shocks—are ill-equipped to portray complex real-world dynamics in which economic variables may cycle aperiodically along low-dimensional ‘strange attractors’. We present a method developed in the physics literature—‘phase space reconstruction’—that reconstructs strange attractors present in real-world dynamical systems using time series data on a single variable. Phase space reconstruction provides pictures of real-world dynamics that can guide model specification.

  3. Real-World Objects Are Not Represented as Bound Units: Independent Forgetting of Different Object Details from Visual Memory

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Brady, Timothy Francis; Konkle, Talia A.; Oliva, Aude

    2013-01-01

    Are real-world objects represented as bound units? Although a great deal of research has examined binding between the feature dimensions of simple shapes, little work has examined whether the featural properties of real-world objects are stored in a single unitary object representation. In a first experiment, we found that information about an object's color is forgotten more rapidly than the information about an object's state (e.g., open, closed), suggesting that observers do not forget obj...

  4. Principles of Water Flow in Real-World Soils and Related Imbalances

    Lin, H.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneities, structures, interfaces, roughness, and organisms in multiphase soil systems make the real-world soil deviated significantly from the continuum assumption. The first principle of water flow in porous media came to light in the 19th century, known as the Darcy's law, which was later modified by E. Buckingham to describe unsaturated water flow in soils. This principle is essentially a macroscopic view of steady-state water flux being linearly proportional to hydraulic gradient and hydraulic conductivity. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which describes the minimum pressure gradient needed to initiate water flow through the soil-air interface. This principle can be extended to provide a more cohesive explanation to a number of soil hydrologic phenomena related to various interfaces and microscopic features (such as hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and flow through layered soils). The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, where a combined macroscopic and microscopic view portrays mosaic-like complex flow regimes in heterogeneous soils in which imbalance seems to be common leading to widespread preferential flow. The dynamic interaction between preferential flow and matrix flow under changing conditions results in complex, evolving flow networks that are embedded in the matrix of land surface and subsurface. Quantification and integration of these flow principles can lead to improved prediction of water flow in real-world soils and landscapes.

  5. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  6. Platoon Interactions and Real-World Traffic Simulation and Validation Based on the LWR-IM.

    Ng, Kok Mun; Reaz, Mamun Bin Ibne

    2016-01-01

    Platoon based traffic flow models form the underlying theoretical framework in traffic simulation tools. They are essentially important in facilitating efficient performance calculation and evaluation in urban traffic networks. For this purpose, a new platoon-based macroscopic model called the LWR-IM has been developed in [1]. Preliminary analytical validation conducted previously has proven the feasibility of the model. In this paper, the LWR-IM is further enhanced with algorithms that describe platoon interactions in urban arterials. The LWR-IM and the proposed platoon interaction algorithms are implemented in the real-world class I and class II urban arterials. Another purpose of the work is to perform quantitative validation to investigate the validity and ability of the LWR-IM and its underlying algorithms to describe platoon interactions and simulate performance indices that closely resemble the real traffic situations. The quantitative validation of the LWR-IM is achieved by performing a two-sampled t-test on queues simulated by the LWR-IM and real queues observed at these real-world locations. The results reveal insignificant differences of simulated queues with real queues where the p-values produced concluded that the null hypothesis cannot be rejected. Thus, the quantitative validation further proved the validity of the LWR-IM and the embedded platoon interactions algorithm for the intended purpose. PMID:26731745

  7. Paper based Flexible and Conformal SERS Substrate for Rapid Trace Detection on Real-world Surfaces

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Chang; Tian, Limei

    2011-03-01

    One of the important but often overlooked considerations in the design of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for trace detection is the efficiency of sample collection. Conventional designs based on rigid substrates such as silicon, alumina, and glass resist conformal contact with the surface under investigation, making the sample collection inefficient. We demonstrate a novel SERS substrate based on common filter paper adsorbed with gold nanorods, which allows conformal contact with real-world surfaces, thus dramatically enhancing the sample collection efficiency compared to conventional rigid substrates. We demonstrate the detection of trace amounts of analyte (140 pg spread over 4 cm2) by simply swabbing the surface under investigation with the novel SERS substrate. The hierarchical fibrous structure of paper serves as a 3D vasculature for easy uptake and transport of the analytes to the electromagnetic hot spots in the paper. Simple yet highly efficient and cost effective SERS substrate demonstrated here brings SERS based trace detection closer to real-world applications. We acknowledge the financial support from Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University.

  8. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  9. Towards measuring brain function on groups of people in the real world.

    Alan Gevins

    Full Text Available In three studies, EEGs from three groups of participants were recorded during progressively more real world situations after drinking alcoholic beverages that brought breath alcohol contents near the limit for driving in California 30 minutes after drinking. A simple equation that measured neurophysiological effects of alcohol in the first group of 15 participants performing repetitive cognitive tasks was applied to a second group of 15 operating an automobile driving simulator, and to a third group of 10 ambulatory people recorded simultaneously during a cocktail party. The equation derived from the first group quantified alcohol's effect by combining measures of higher frequency (beta and lower frequency (theta power into a single score. It produced an Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve of .73 (p<.05; 67% sensitivity in recognizing alcohol and 87% specificity in recognizing placebo. Applying the same equation to the second group operating the driving simulator, AUC was .95, (p<.0001; 93% sensitivity and 73% specificity, while for the cocktail party group AUC was .87 (p<.01; 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. EEG scores were significantly related to breath alcohol content in all studies. Some individuals differed markedly from the overall response evident in their respective groups. The feasibility of measuring the neurophysiological effect of a psychoactive substance from an entire group of ambulatory people at a cocktail party suggests that future studies may be able to fruitfully apply brain function measures derived under rigorously controlled laboratory conditions to assess drug effects on groups of people interacting in real world situations.

  10. Electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention in real-world driving

    Haufe, Stefan; Kim, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Il-Hwa; Sonnleitner, Andreas; Schrauf, Michael; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The fact that all human action is preceded by brain processes partially observable through neuroimaging devices such as electroencephalography (EEG) is currently being explored in a number of applications. A recent study by Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001) demonstrates the possibility of performing fast detection of forced emergency brakings during driving based on EEG and electromyography, and discusses the use of such neurotechnology for braking assistance systems. Since the study was conducted in a driving simulator, its significance regarding real-world applicability needs to be assessed. Approach. Here, we replicate that experimental paradigm in a real car on a non-public test track. Main results. Our results resemble those of the simulator study, both qualitatively (in terms of the neurophysiological phenomena observed and utilized) and quantitatively (in terms of the predictive improvement achievable using electrophysiology in addition to behavioral measures). Moreover, our findings are robust with respect to a temporary secondary auditory task mimicking verbal input from a fellow passenger. Significance. Our study serves as a real-world verification of the feasibility of electrophysiology-based detection of emergency braking intention as proposed in Haufe et al (2011 J. Neural Eng. 8 056001).

  11. BRAIN INJURY BIOMECHANICS IN REAL WORLD VEHICLE ACCIDENT USING MATHEMATICAL MODELS

    YANG Jikuang; XU Wei; OTTE Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating brain injury mechanisms and predicting head injuries in real world accidents. For this purpose, a 3D human head finite element model (HBM-head) was developed based on head-brain anatomy. The HBM head model was validated with two experimental tests. Then the head finite element(FE) model and a multi-body system (MBS) model were used to carry out reconstructions of real world vehicle-pedestrian accidents and brain injuries. The MBS models were used for calculating the head impact conditions in vehicle impacts. The HBM-head model was used for calculating the injury related physical parameters, such as intracranial pressure, stress, and strain. The calculated intracranial pressure and strain distribution were correlated with the injury outcomes observed from accidents. It is shown that this model can predict the intracranial biomechanical response and calculate the injury related physical parameters. The head FE model has good biofidelity and will be a valuable tool for the study of injury mechanisms and the tolerance level of the brain.

  12. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    Zachariou, Nicky; Expert, Paul; Takayasu, Misako; Christensen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network. PMID:26606143

  13. Generalised Sandpile Dynamics on Artificial and Real-World Directed Networks.

    Nicky Zachariou

    Full Text Available The main finding of this paper is a novel avalanche-size exponent τ ≈ 1.87 when the generalised sandpile dynamics evolves on the real-world Japanese inter-firm network. The topology of this network is non-layered and directed, displaying the typical bow tie structure found in real-world directed networks, with cycles and triangles. We show that one can move from a strictly layered regular lattice to a more fluid structure of the inter-firm network in a few simple steps. Relaxing the regular lattice structure by introducing an interlayer distribution for the interactions, forces the scaling exponent of the avalanche-size probability density function τ out of the two-dimensional directed sandpile universality class τ = 4/3, into the mean field universality class τ = 3/2. Numerical investigation shows that these two classes are the only that exist on the directed sandpile, regardless of the underlying topology, as long as it is strictly layered. Randomly adding a small proportion of links connecting non adjacent layers in an otherwise layered network takes the system out of the mean field regime to produce non-trivial avalanche-size probability density function. Although these do not display proper scaling, they closely reproduce the behaviour observed on the Japanese inter-firm network.

  14. Haptograph Representation of Real-World Haptic Information by Wideband Force Control

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Irie, Kouhei; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Artificial acquisition and reproduction of human sensations are basic technologies of communication engineering. For example, auditory information is obtained by a microphone, and a speaker reproduces it by artificial means. Furthermore, a video camera and a television make it possible to transmit visual sensation by broadcasting. On the contrary, since tactile or haptic information is subject to the Newton's “law of action and reaction” in the real world, a device which acquires, transmits, and reproduces the information has not been established. From the point of view, real-world haptics is the key technology for future haptic communication engineering. This paper proposes a novel acquisition method of haptic information named “haptograph”. The haptograph visualizes the haptic information like photograph. The proposed haptograph is applied to haptic recognition of the contact environment. A linear motor contacts to the surface of the environment and its reaction force is used to make a haptograph. A robust contact motion and sensor-less sensing of the reaction force are attained by using a disturbance observer. As a result, an encyclopedia of contact environment is attained. Since temporal and spatial analyses are conducted to represent haptic information as the haptograph, it is possible to be recognized and to be evaluated intuitively.

  15. Ecosystem services and cooperative fisheries research to address a complex fishery problem

    The St. Louis River represents a complex fishery management problem. Current fishery management goals have to be developed taking into account bi-state commercial, subsistence and recreational fisheries which are valued for different characteristics by a wide range of anglers, as...

  16. Analysis of Arguments Constructed by First-Year Engineering Students Addressing Electromagnetic Induction Problems

    Almudi, Jose Manuel; Ceberio, Mikel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the quality of arguments used by first-year engineering university students enrolled in a traditional physics course dealing with electromagnetic induction and related problem solving where they had to assess whether the electromagnetic induction phenomenon would occur. Their conclusions were analyzed for the relevance of the…

  17. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  18. Addressing Bullying Problems in Irish Schools and in Cyberspace: A Challenge for School Management

    Corcoran, Lucie; Mc Guckin, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Background: School management, in Ireland and also internationally, are currently faced with the problem of peer aggression among students both in a traditional school context and in a cyber context. Although Irish school principals are obliged to implement policy and procedures to counter bullying among students, there is a need for guidance that…

  19. Addressing Problems of Conceptualization and Construct Validity in Researching Teachers' Job Satisfaction.

    Evans, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Ambiguity in the meaning of job satisfaction has caused construct validity problems in research. A series of small-scale studies of teachers suggested a distinction between job fulfillment and job comfort as well as a need for understanding how job satisfaction is interpreted by researchers. (SK)

  20. Promoting Health by Addressing Basic Needs: Effect of Problem Resolution on Contacting Health Referrals

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Members of vulnerable populations have heightened needs for health services. One advantage of integrating health risk assessment and referrals into social service assistance systems such as 2-1-1 is that such systems help callers resolve problems in other areas (e.g., housing). Callers to 2-1-1 in Missouri (N = 1,090) with at least one behavioral…

  1. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  2. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  3. Problem-based Science Inquiry : : Challenges and Possibilities for Addressing 21st Century Skills

    Nariman, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is a mixed methods exploratory case study on the implementation of problem-based inquiry. The trend of technological changes have created a wave of global change, brought new understanding of learning, and requires a shift in education to develop and accommodate proficiency in 21st century skills and competencies. As a result, in many countries, including the United States, the push to benchmark educational standards is in place to prepare students for success in college and...

  4. Addressing students' difficulties with Faraday's law: A guided problem solving approach

    Zuza Elosegi, Kristina; Almudí García, José Manuel; Leniz Ereño, Ane; Guisasola Aranzabal, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article proposes an interactive teaching sequence introducing the topic of electromagnetic induction. The sequence has been designed based on contributions fr...

  5. What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly alig...

  6. Teacher pedagogical knowledge in mathematics: a tool for addressing learning problems

    A.K. Tsafe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to give a pedagogical role a classroom teacher is suppose to play in disseminating and imparting of mathematical knowledge. To achieve this, the paper focuses on the concept of teacher pedagogy, pedagogical knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK and mathematical pedagogical knowledge. Problems encountered by teachers as a consequence of mathematical pedagogy have been closely looked at, and possible solutions offered.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia among children: Addressing a global public health problem within a Canadian context

    Christofides, Anna; Schauer, Claudia; Zlotkin, Stanley H.

    2005-01-01

    Despite current Canadian pre- and perinatal nutrition programs, the prevalence of both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is very high among young Aboriginal children from Canada’s remote north. The major risk factors for IDA include prolonged consumption of evaporated cow’s milk, chronic infection and prolonged exclusive breastfeeding. In the present article, the authors discuss IDA as a significant public health problem in Canadian Aboriginal communities. Whereas the prevalenc...

  8. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  9. Engaging science in a climate of values: tools for animal scientists tasked with addressing ethical problems.

    Croney, C C; Anthony, R

    2010-04-01

    In the United States, escalating concerns about current farm animal science and production methods have resulted not only in increased food animal protection policies, but also in animal welfare legislation. Animal scientists and industry leaders are apprehensive that such policies may be driven primarily by emotion and a lack of scientific understanding, and thus may have unforeseen consequences. However, decisions about animal care, and particularly animal welfare, cannot be made solely on the basis of science because the potential effects on producers, animals, and concerned citizens and the implications for the environment and on food prices must also be considered. Balancing the interests and values of all stakeholders in regard to animal welfare problems has presented a considerable challenge. Ethical accounting processes, such as the Ethical Matrix and the ethics assessment process by Campbell, offer models to combine socioethical concerns with relevant factual information, thereby facilitating decision making that is ethically responsible and that offers viable solutions. A case study is used to illustrate application of the ethics assessment process by Campbell that includes identification of the ethical problems, the embedded values, the relevant facts, and moral tests that can be applied. Awareness of these emerging ways of examining ethics that offer real solutions to conflicts of interests and not merely "one size fits all" answers should be an asset to animal and poultry scientists. PMID:19854996

  10. Can Go address the multicore issues of today and the manycore problems of tomorrow?

    Current High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) libraries and frameworks were written before multicore systems became widely deployed and used. From this environment, a 'single-thread' processing model naturally emerged but the implicit assumptions it encouraged are greatly impairing our abilities to scale in a multicore/manycore world. While parallel programming - still in an intensive phase of R and D despite the 30+ years of literature on the subject - is an obvious topic to consider, other issues (build scalability, code clarity, code deployment and ease of coding) are worth investigating when preparing for the manycore era. Moreover, if one wants to use another language than C++, a language better prepared and tailored for expressing concurrency, one also needs to ensure a good and easy reuse of already field-proven libraries. We present the work resulting from such investigations applied to the Go programming language. We first introduce the concurrent programming facilities Go is providing and how its module system addresses the build scalability and dependency hell issues. We then describe the process of leveraging the many (wo)man-years put into scientific Fortran/C/C++ libraries and making them available to the Go ecosystem. The ROOT data analysis framework, the C-BLAS library and the Herwig-6 MonteCarlo generator will be taken as examples. Finally, performances of the tools involved in a small analysis written in Go and using ROOT I/O library will be presented.

  11. Experiences from Real-World Deployment of Context-Aware Technologies in a Hospital Environment

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Mogensen, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    discuss our experiences from an ongoing deployment of a suite of context-aware technologies and applications in a hospital environment, including a context-awareness infrastructure, a location tracking system, and two context-aware applications running on interactive wall displays and mobile phones. Based......Context-aware computing is a central concept in ubiquitous computing and many suggestions for context-aware technologies and applications have been proposed. There is, however, little evidence on how these concepts and technologies play out in a real-world setting. In this paper we describe and...... on an analysis of the use of these systems, we observe that many of the ideas behind context-aware computing are valid, and that the context-aware applications are useful for clinicians in their work. By reflecting on the nature of the designed context-aware technologies, we present a model which...

  12. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Amanda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  13. Listing All Maximal Cliques in Large Sparse Real-World Graphs

    Eppstein, David

    2011-01-01

    We implement a new algorithm for listing all maximal cliques in sparse graphs due to Eppstein, L\\"offler, and Strash (ISAAC 2010) and analyze its performance on a large corpus of real-world graphs. Our analysis shows that this algorithm is the first to offer a practical solution to listing all maximal cliques in large sparse graphs. All other theoretically-fast algorithms for sparse graphs have been shown to be significantly slower than the algorithm of Tomita et al. (Theoretical Computer Science, 2006) in practice. However, the algorithm of Tomita et al. uses an adjacency matrix, which requires too much space for large sparse graphs. Our new algorithm opens the door for fast analysis of large sparse graphs whose adjacency matrix will not fit into working memory.

  14. Estimating risk aversion, Risk-Neutral and Real-World Densities using Brazilian Real currency options

    José Fajardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Liu et al. (2007 approach to estimate the optionimplied Risk-Neutral Densities (RND, real-world density (RWD, and relative risk aversion from the Brazilian Real/US Dollar exchange rate distribution. Our empirical application uses a sample of exchange-traded Brazilian Real currency options from 1999 to 2011. Our estimated value of the relative risk aversion is around 2.7, which is in line with other articles for the Brazilian Economy. Our out-of-sample results showed that the RND has some ability to forecast the Brazilian Real exchange rate, but when we incorporate the risk aversion, the out-of-sample performance improves substantially.

  15. Performance analysis of Xen virtual machines in real-world scenarios

    Heissler, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of the performance benchmarks of the Open Source hypervisor Xen. The study focuses on the network related performance as well as on the application related performance of multiple virtual machines that were running on the same Xen hypervisor. The comparison was carried out using a self-developed benchmark suite that consists of easily available Open Source tools. The goal is to measure the performance of the hypervisor in typical real-world application scenarios when used for "mass virtual hosting", such as hosting solutions of so called virtual private servers for small-to-medium sized businesses environments. The results of the benchmarks show, that the tested Xen setup offers good performance with respect to network traffic stress tests, but only 75% of the performance of the non-virtualized reference environment. This application performance score decreases as more virtual machines are running simultaneously.

  16. The transition in the ventral stream from feature to real-world entity representations.

    Orban, Guy A; Zhu, Qi; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: (1) ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, (2) area TE in the monkey and its homolog LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, (3) TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs), and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homolog, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE, and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations. PMID:25071663

  17. The transition in the ventral stream from features to real world entities representations.

    GuyAOrban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: 1 ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, 2 area TE in the monkey and its homologue LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, 3 TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs, and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homologue, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  18. From the ideal to the real world: a phenomenological inquiry into student sojourners' reentry adaptation.

    Hsiao, Feilin

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examines the thematic structure of reentry transition for international music therapy graduates who have returned home after studying in the United States. Emphasis is placed upon career development. Standardized open-ended interviews were used to obtain rich and in-depth descriptions of the participants' experiences. Ten music therapists from six countries participated in the study. The themes that emerged from the data include moving from the ideal to the real world, shifting from the role of student to professional, confronting reality and working through challenges, and achieving personal growth and self-transformation. The dynamics of cross-cultural comparison, confronting the home culture, and redefining music therapy and professional identities within the local cultural context are illustrated via quotations from the participants. Implications and recommendations for music therapy education and career preparation for international graduates are discussed. PMID:22506298

  19. Understanding remission in real-world lupus patients across five European countries.

    Schneider, M; Mosca, M; Pego-Reigosa, J M; Hachulla, E; Teh, L-S; Perna, A; Koscielny, V; Pike, J; Lobosco, S; Apolone, G

    2016-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with increased mortality and significant personal, psychological and socioeconomic consequences. An agreed definition of remission is needed and lacking. We sought to visualize 'remission in SLE' in European patients considered by their physicians to be 'in remission' by comparing the reported symptom burden as reported by treating physicians for patients considered to be 'in remission' and those not considered to be 'in remission'. Data for 1227 patients drawn from a multinational, real-world survey of patients with SLE consulting practising rheumatologists and nephrologists in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK show that physicians classed their patients as 'in remission' despite a considerable ongoing symptom burden and intensive immunosuppressive medication. Patients considered to be 'in remission' still had a mean of 2.68 current symptoms vs 5.48 for those considered to be not 'in remission' (p definitions for remission among patients with SLE. PMID:26635245

  20. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service.

    Winfree, Rachael; Fox, Jeremy W; Williams, Neal M; Reilly, James R; Cariveau, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for large-scale, associational data. Here, we use a novel analytical approach, the Price equation, to partition the contribution to ecosystem services made by species richness, composition and abundance in four large-scale data sets on crop pollination by native bees. We found that abundance fluctuations of dominant species drove ecosystem service delivery, whereas richness changes were relatively unimportant because they primarily involved rare species that contributed little to function. Thus, the mechanism behind our results was the skewed species-abundance distribution. Our finding that a few common species, not species richness, drive ecosystem service delivery could have broad generality given the ubiquity of skewed species-abundance distributions in nature. PMID:25959973

  1. Effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking in real-world rear-end crashes.

    Fildes, B; Keall, M; Bos, N; Lie, A; Page, Y; Pastor, C; Pennisi, L; Rizzi, M; Thomas, P; Tingvall, C

    2015-08-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) technology in current model passenger vehicles, based on real-world crash experience. The validating vehicle safety through meta-analysis (VVSMA) group comprising a collaboration of government, industry consumer organisations and researchers, pooled data from a number of countries using a standard analysis format and the established MUND approach. Induced exposure methods were adopted to control for any extraneous effects. The findings showed a 38 percent overall reduction in rear-end crashes for vehicles fitted with AEB compared to a comparison sample of similar vehicles. There was no statistical evidence of any difference in effect between urban (≤60 km/h) and rural (>60 km/h) speed zones. Areas requiring further research were identified and widespread fitment through the vehicle fleet is recommended. PMID:25935427

  2. From the pens to the field: real-world wildlife contraception.

    Turner, John W; Rutberg, Allen T

    2013-12-01

    There are only two nonlethal approaches with which to manage wildlife populations: remove excess individuals or decrease reproductive rates. In the case of wild horse management, the latter has already been shown to be a more humane and less costly approach. Contraception has been known for many years to be effective in wild horses with regard to both fertility and population alteration. Field testing under real-world management situations is a critical aspect of wildlife contraception assessment. Field testing also requires documentation to justify eventual large-scale use of fertility control in population management. Furthermore, it is likely that full support by the managing agencies and acceptance of fertility control by the public will not occur until success has been demonstrated at the population level in the field. Because the transition from laboratory and captive animal trials to the real world of field research and testing of management potential in free-ranging wildlife is both essential and difficult, we identify considerations for optimizing success in the field, especially for controlling wild horse and white-tailed deer populations. This study identified the following categories for assessment: 1) field-specific logistics and tactics (including access to and identification of horses, censuses, pregnancy testing, and behavior monitoring), 2) training of field personnel and managers (including vaccine biology, preparation and delivery, and basic field methodology), 3) essential field considerations for enabling management (including population variables, environmental variables, and modeling), and 4) pitfalls of field contraception. In this assessment, we will highlight the capability for coincident pursuit of research and management and will explore field considerations applicable to many species where fertility control has potential as a management tool. PMID:24437090

  3. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    Matthes Gerrit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-seven pedestrians (of which 19 males with a mean 37.1 years of age were included in the study. The mean collision speed was 49.5 km/h (SD 13.7, range, 28 - 93. The mean ISS (31.0, SD 25.4 and the 24% fatality rate indicate a substantial trauma load. The most common AIS 4+ injuries were to the head (23 subjects, followed by chest (8, pelvis (4, and abdomen (2. An association of impact side and injury side (right/left was found for abdominal, chest, pelvic, and upper limb injuries. Primary head impacts were documented on the windscreen (19 subjects, hood (10, A-pillar (2, and edge of the car roof (2. With bivariate analysis, a significant increase of MAIS 4+ head injury risk was found for collision speeds of >40 km/h (OR 9.00, 95% CI 1.96-41.36. Conclusion The real-world data from this study is in agreement with previous findings from biomechanical models and other simulations. This data suggest that there may be reason to include further pedestrian regulations in EuroNCAP.

  4. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  5. Targeted learning in real-world comparative effectiveness research with time-varying interventions.

    Neugebauer, Romain; Schmittdiel, Julie A; van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-06-30

    In comparative effectiveness research (CER), often the aim is to contrast survival outcomes between exposure groups defined by time-varying interventions. With observational data, standard regression analyses (e.g., Cox modeling) cannot account for time-dependent confounders on causal pathways between exposures and outcome nor for time-dependent selection bias that may arise from informative right censoring. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to fit marginal structural models (MSMs) has commonly been applied to properly adjust for these expected sources of bias in real-world observational studies. We describe the application and performance of an alternate estimation approach in such a study. The approach is based on the recently proposed targeted learning methodology and consists in targeted minimum loss-based estimation (TMLE) with super learning (SL) within a nonparametric MSM. The evaluation is based on the analysis of electronic health record data with both IPW estimation and TMLE to contrast cumulative risks under four more or less aggressive strategies for treatment intensification in adults with type 2 diabetes already on 2+ oral agents or basal insulin. Results from randomized experiments provide a surrogate gold standard to validate confounding and selection bias adjustment. Bootstrapping is used to validate analytic estimation of standard errors. This application does the following: (1) establishes the feasibility of TMLE in real-world CER based on large healthcare databases; (2) provides evidence of proper confounding and selection bias adjustment with TMLE and SL; and (3) motivates their application for improving estimation efficiency. Claims are reinforced with a simulation study that also illustrates the double-robustness property of TMLE. PMID:24535915

  6. Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems

    Uddin, Rizwan

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

  7. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  8. ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MAXIMAL CLIQUE SIZE FOR THE VERTICES IN REAL-WORLD NETWORK GRAPHS AND CORRELATION STUDIES

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The high-level contributions of this paper are as follows: We modify an existing branch-andbound based exact algorithm (for maximum clique size of an entire graph to determine the maximal clique size that the individual vertices in the graph are part of. We then run this algorithm on six real-world network graphs (ranging from random networks to scale-free networks and analyze the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices in these graphs. We observe five of the six real-world network graphs to exhibit a Poisson-style distribution for the maximal clique size of the vertices. We analyze the correlation between the maximal clique size and the clustering coefficient of the vertices, and find these two metrics to be poorly correlated for the real-world network graphs. Finally, we analyze the Assortativity index of the vertices of the real-world network graphs and observe the graphs to exhibit positive assortativity with respect to maximal clique size and negative assortativity with respect to node degree; nevertheless, we observe the Assortativity index of the real-world network graphs with respect to both the maximal clique size and node degree to increase with decrease in the spectral radius ratio for node degree, indicating a positive correlation between the maximal clique size and node degree.

  9. Integrating Real-time, Real-world Geoscience Experiences into Classroom Instruction with EarthLabs and the JOIDES Resolution

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved

  10. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  11. Real-world educational experience through project-oriented graduate classes in collaboration with industry

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2007-04-01

    There is a need for a motivated and innovative work force for the U.S. aerospace industry. The education of such engineers and scientists typically revolves around a fundamental knowledge of basic important technologies, such as the mechanics relevant to orbit-design, structures, avionics, and many others. A few years ago, the University of Michigan developed a Masters of Engineering program that provides students with skills that are not taught as part of a typical engineering curriculum. This program is focused on open problem solving, space systems, and space policy, as well as other classes that further their understanding of the connections between technologies and the nontechnical aspects of managing a space mission. The value of such an education is substantially increased through a direct connection to industry. An innovative problem-oriented approach has been developed that enables direct connections between industry and classroom teaching. The class works as a system study group and addresses problems of interest to and defined by a company with a specific application. We discuss such an application, a near-space lidar wind measurement system to enhance weather predictions, as well as the approach taken to link educational rationales.

  12. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment

    Pai MC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Chyi Pai,1,2 Hany Aref,3 Nazem Bassil,4 Nagaendran Kandiah,5 Jae-Hong Lee,6 AV Srinivasan,7 Shelley diTommaso,8 Ozgur Yuksel81Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 2Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan; 3Department of Neurology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Saint Georges Hospital Medical Center, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; 6Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Songpa-gu, Seoul, South Korea; 7The Tamil Nadu Dr MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 8Novartis Pharma AG, Postfach, Basel, SwitzerlandPurpose: Rivastigmine transdermal patch has shown higher caregiver satisfaction and greater preference than oral formulation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. However, there is limited literature available related to caregiver preference or treatment compliance in real-world clinical settings. To date, no such data are available from Asia and the Middle East, which account for a sizeable proportion of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment preference and compliance with oral and transdermal medications in daily clinical practice in an ethnically diverse patient population from Asia and the Middle East with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.Patients and methods: RECAP (Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease was a 24-week, multicenter, prospective, noninterventional study. Two treatment cohorts were observed during the study: oral (cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine and transdermal (rivastigmine patch. Caregiver preference, physician preference, and patient compliance were evaluated at week 24.Results: A total of 978 of 1

  13. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects—after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition—underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN). Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3) = 4.137, p meditation, and other contemplative therapies. The results encourage exploring these techniques' capability to improve mood in randomized controlled studies and patients. Smartphone-based micro-interventions are promising to modify mood in real-world settings, complementing other psychotherapeutic interventions, in line with

  14. Validation of the Derogatis Stress Profile using laboratory and real world data.

    Dobkin, P L; Pihl, R O; Breault, C

    1991-01-01

    The Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP) is unique among the numerous measures of 'stress' in that it incorporates the interactional model of Lazarus and Folkman in a multidimensional structure. Derogatis has studied the psychometric properties of the DSP but its validity has not been demonstrated in the 'real world' nor has it been related to psychophysiological data. The present investigation was aimed at testing the validity of the DSP in these two areas. Forty-three men between the ages of 18 and 30 years completed the DSP, the Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), the Life Experiences Survey (LES), the Profile of Mood States (bipolar form), and the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI). Participants were exposed to stressors in a laboratory setting as well as in the field while their heart rate was being monitored. Results supported the validity of the DSP, in part. The correlation between the DSP and JPI anxiety scores was significant as was the correlation between the DSP and the daily depression scores. The correlation between the Total Stress Score (TSS) of the DSP and DHS was significant as were the correlations between the TSS and LES scores. Moreover, the DSP scores were related to heart rate reactivity both in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:1801040

  15. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  16. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Karuna Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  17. Flat world versus real world : where is weathering the most important ?

    Godderis, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges are a key driver of the Earth climates. Acting on a large range of timescales, they modulate the atmospheric and oceanic circulations but also plays a crucial role in regulating the geological carbon cycle through their impacts on erosion and continental weathering. Since the 90's, there is an ongoing debate about the role of the mountain uplift on the long term global cooling of the Earth climate. Mountain ranges are thought to enhance silicate weathering and the associated CO2 consumption. But this has been repeatedly questioned in the recent years. Here we present a new method for modeling the spatial distribution of both physical erosion and coupled chemical weathering. The IPSL ocean-atmosphere model calculates the continental climate, which is used to force the erosion/weathering model. We first compare the global silicate weathering for two geographical configurations: the present-day world with mountain ranges, and a world where all mountains have been removed. Depending on the chosen formalism for silicate weathering and on the climate changes linked to the removal of mountains, it can be higher in the flat world than in the real world, or up to 5 times weaker. In the second part of the talk, we will explore the role of the Hercynian mountain range on the onset and demise of the late Paleozoic ice age, within the context of the Pangea assembly.

  18. [Real world study of Dengzhan xixin injection in treatment of cerebral infarction with medication].

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cheng, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2014-09-01

    To analysis of Dengzhan Xixin injection (DZI) in treatment of cerebral infarction (EBHM) in the real world population characteristics and concomitant medication. By selecting the 20 hospital information system (HIS) used in the database of DZI and primary diagnosis of 2 484 cases of cerebral infarction patients information, use the Apriori algorithm to construct the model, using Clementine 12.0 analysis, cerebral infarction complicating diseases, commonly used drug combination analysis of DZI. The results showed that patients with more males than females (1.63: 1); age > 46 in older persons, treatment 7-14 days accounted for the majority of patients with hypertension, cerebral infarction, diabetes, coronary heart disease and other diseases; common drug combination can be divided into seven categories: medicine of antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel hydrogen), hypolipidemic drugs (atorvastatin, probucol), calcium channel blockers (cinepazide), cerebral protection drugs (laci staw), to improve cerebral circulation drugs (alprostadil), other traditional Chinese medicine injection (Shuxuetong injection, Xueshuantong), treatment with underlying disease: nifedipine, metoprolol, isosorbide dinitrate etc. The clinical cure rate and improvement rate of 97.60%. The next step needs to be combined with clinical practice, carry out analysis of effectiveness and safety of the combination scheme, and provide reference for clinical rational drug use. PMID:25532393

  19. Web Browser History Detection as a Real-World Privacy Threat

    Janc, A

    2010-01-01

    Web browser history detection using CSS $visited$ styles has long been dismissed as an issue of marginal impact. However, due to recent changes in Web usage patterns, coupled with browser performance improvements, the long-standing issue has now become a significant threat to the privacy of Internet users. In this paper we analyze the impact of CSS-based history detection and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting practical attacks with minimal resources. We analyze Web browser behavior and detectability of content loaded via standard protocols and with various HTTP response codes. We develop an algorithm for efficient examination of large link sets and evaluate its performance in modern browsers. Compared to existing methods our approach is up to 6 times faster, and is able to detect up to 30,000 visited links per second. We present a novel Web application capable of effectively detecting clients’ browsing histories and discuss real-world results obtained from 271,576 Internet users. Our results indicat...

  20. How do students implement collaborative testing in real-world contexts?

    Wissman, Kathryn T; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has explored the effects of collaborative testing, showing costs and benefits during learning and for subsequent memory. However, no prior research is informative about whether and how students use collaborative testing in real-world contexts. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the current research was to explore the extent to which students use collaborative testing during self-regulated learning. We conducted three surveys (n = 692 across three samples) asking students about their use of collaborative testing, with a particular interest in conditions under which students report implementing collaborative testing. Among the key outcomes, a majority of students reported using collaborative testing when studying in a group. Additionally, students reported that key term definitions are the material most often used during collaborative testing. Students are also more motivated to use testing and believe testing is more effective and more fun when implemented in a group versus alone. Outcomes also shed light on metacognitive components of collaborative testing, with the student asking (versus answering) the question making the monitoring judgement whereas both students make the control decision about when to terminate practice. We discuss ways in which the collaborative memory literature can be extended to support more successful student learning. PMID:25643007

  1. Geochemical fingerprinting: 40 years of analytical development and real world applications

    Geochemical fingerprinting is a rapidly expanding discipline in the earth and environmental sciences. It is anchored in the recognition that geological processes leave behind chemical and isotopic patterns in the rock record. Many of these patterns, informally referred to as geochemical fingerprints, differ only in fine detail from each other. For this reason, the approach of fingerprinting requires analytical data of very high precision and accuracy. It is not surprising that the advancement of geochemical fingerprinting occurred alongside progress in geochemical analysis techniques. In this brief treatment, a subjective selection of drivers behind the analytical progress and its implications for geochemical fingerprinting are discussed. These include the impact of the Apollo lunar sample return program on quality of geochemical data and its push towards minimizing required sample volumes. The advancement of in situ analytical techniques is also identified as a major factor that has enabled geochemical fingerprinting to expand into a larger variety of fields. For real world applications of geochemical fingerprinting, in which large sample throughput, reasonable cost, and fast turnaround are key requirements, the improvements to inductively-coupled-plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry were paramount. The past 40 years have witnessed how geochemical fingerprinting has found its way into everyday applications. This development is cause for celebrating the 40 years of existence of the IAGC.

  2. Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Data

    Cedric De Cauwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle and its energy consumption. Real-world data of EV energy consumption are used to construct the energy consumption calculation models. Based on the vehicle dynamics equation as underlying physical model, multiple linear regression is used to construct three models. Each model uses a different level of aggregation of the input parameters, allowing predictions using different types of available input parameters. One model uses aggregated values of the kinematic parameters of trips. This model allows prediction with basic, easily available input parameters such as travel distance, travel time, and temperature. The second model extends this by including detailed acceleration data. The third model uses the raw data of the kinematic parameters as input parameters to predict the energy consumption. Using detailed values of kinematic parameters for the prediction in theory increases the link between the statistical model and its underlying physical principles, but requires these parameters to be available as input in order to make predictions. The first two models show similar results. The third model shows a worse fit than the first two, but has a similar accuracy. This model has great potential for future improvement.

  3. Common EEG features for behavioral estimation in disparate, real-world tasks.

    Touryan, Jon; Lance, Brent J; Kerick, Scott E; Ries, Anthony J; McDowell, Kaleb

    2016-02-01

    In this study we explored the potential for capturing the behavioral dynamics observed in real-world tasks from concurrent measures of EEG. In doing so, we sought to develop models of behavior that would enable the identification of common cross-participant and cross-task EEG features. To accomplish this we had participants perform both simulated driving and guard duty tasks while we recorded their EEG. For each participant we developed models to estimate their behavioral performance during both tasks. Sequential forward floating selection was used to identify the montage of independent components for each model. Linear regression was then used on the combined power spectra from these independent components to generate a continuous estimate of behavior. Our results show that oscillatory processes, evidenced in EEG, can be used to successfully capture slow fluctuations in behavior in complex, multi-faceted tasks. The average correlation coefficients between the actual and estimated behavior was 0.548 ± 0.117 and 0.701 ± 0.154 for the driving and guard duty tasks respectively. Interestingly, through a simple clustering approach we were able to identify a number of common components, both neural and eye-movement related, across participants and tasks. We used these component clusters to quantify the relative influence of common versus participant-specific features in the models of behavior. These findings illustrate the potential for estimating complex behavioral dynamics from concurrent measures from EEG using a finite library of universal features. PMID:26748290

  4. Why is binocular rivalry uncommon? Discrepant monocular images in the real world

    Derek Henry Arnold

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available When different images project to corresponding points in the two eyes they can instigate a phenomenon called binocular rivalry (BR, wherein each image seems to intermittently disappear such that only one of the two images is seen at a time. Cautious readers may have noted an important caveat in the opening sentence – this situation can instigate BR, but usually it doesn’t. Unmatched monocular images are frequently encountered in daily life due to either differential occlusions of the two eyes or because of selective obstructions of just one eye, but this does not tend to induce BR. Here I will explore the reasons for this and discuss implications for BR in general. It will be argued that BR is resolved in favour of the instantaneously stronger neural signal, and that this process is driven by an adaptation that enhances the visibility of distant fixated objects over that of more proximate obstructions of an eye. Accordingly, BR would reflect the dynamics of an inherently visual operation that usually deals with real-world constraints.

  5. Bridging Real World Semantics to Model World Semantics for Taxonomy Based Knowledge Representation System

    Ju-Hum Kwon; Chee-Yang Song; Chang-Joo Moon; Doo-Kwon Baik

    2005-01-01

    As a mean to map ontology concepts, a similarity technique is employed. Especially a context dependent concept mapping is tackled, which needs contextual information from knowledge taxonomy. Context-based semantic similarity differs from the real world similarity in that it requires contextual information to calculate similarity. The notion of semantic coupling is introduced to derive similarity for a taxonomy-based system. The semantic coupling shows the degree of semantic cohesiveness for a group of concepts toward a given context. In order to calculate the semantic coupling effectively, the edge counting method is revisited for measuring basic semantic similarity by considering the weighting attributes from where they affect an edge's strength. The attributes of scaling depth effect, semantic relation type, and virtual connection for the edge counting are considered. Furthermore, how the proposed edge counting method could be well adapted for calculating context-based similarity is showed. Thorough experimental results are provided for both edge counting and context-based similarity. The results of proposed edge counting were encouraging compared with other combined approaches, and the context-based similarity also showed understandable results. The novel contributions of this paper come from two aspects.First, the similarity is increased to the viable level for edge counting. Second, a mechanism is provided to derive a contextbased similarity in taxonomy-based system, which has emerged as a hot issue in the literature such as Semantic Web, MDR,and other ontology-mapping environments.

  6. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 μg m-3, while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4 mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha-1 year-1 above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha-1 year-1. Ammonia concentrations, >8 μg m-3 have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status. - Exposure to NH3 reduces stress resistance and increases visible damage in mature Calluna

  7. Motor vehicle crash-related subdural hematoma from real-world head impact data.

    Urban, Jillian E; Whitlow, Christopher T; Edgerton, Colston A; Powers, Alexander K; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2012-12-10

    Abstract Approximately 1,700,000 people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of hospitalization from TBI. Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common intracranial injury that occurs in MVCs associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study, SDH volume and midline shift have been analyzed in order to better understand occupant injury by correlating them to crash and occupant parameters. Fifty-seven head computed tomography (CT) scans were selected from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) level 3+ SDH. Semi-automated methods were used to isolate the intracranial volume. SDH and additional occupant intracranial injuries were segmented across axial CT images, providing a total SDH injury volume. SDH volume was correlated to crash parameters and occupant characteristics. Results show a positive correlation between SDH volume and crash severity in near-side and frontal crashes. Additionally, the location of the resulting hemorrhage varied by crash type. Those with greater SDH volumes had significantly lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores at the crash site in near-side crashes. Age and fracture type were found to be significant contributors to SDH volume. This study is a volumetric analysis of real world brain injuries and known MVC impacts. The results of this study demonstrate a relationship among SDH volume, crash mechanics, and occupant characteristics that provide a better understanding of the injury mechanisms of MVC-associated TBI. PMID:22928543

  8. Efficiency of attack strategies on complex model and real-world networks

    Bellingeri, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of attack strategies to network nodes when targeting several complex model and real-world networks. We tested 5 attack strategies, 3 of which were introduced in this work for the first time, to attack 3 model (Erdos and Renyi, Barabasi and Albert preferential attachment network, and scale-free network configuration models) and 3 real networks (Gnutella peer-to-peer network, email network of the University of Rovira i Virgili, and immunoglobulin interaction network). Nodes were removed sequentially according to the importance criterion defined by the attack strategy. We used the size of the largest connected component (LCC) as a measure of network damage. We found that the efficiency of attack strategies (fraction of nodes to be deleted for a given reduction of LCC size) depends on the topology of the network, although attacks based on the number of connections of a node and betweenness centrality were often the most efficient strategies. Sequential deletion of nodes in decreasin...

  9. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings.

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating. PMID:26275843

  10. A method of assessing the efficacy of memory rehabilitation techniques using a "real-world" memory task: learning a computer language.

    Prevey, M L; Delaney, R C; De l'Aune, W; Mattson, R H

    1991-01-01

    A software program developed to assess the effectiveness of memory rehabilitation techniques is described. This project addresses current weaknesses in the research literature on memory rehabilitation: 1) remediation strategies are evaluated in terms of performance on a practical, real-world memory task, rather than a laboratory learning task; 2) the program allows maximum flexibility in assessing a wide variety of remediation strategies and training schedules; and, 3) the software, which provides sensitive outcome measures and detailed feedback about performance, is adaptable to the needs of patients with widely varying degrees of memory impairment. The results of a demonstration project are included to illustrate the use of this technology in determining the usefulness of different mnemonic strategies for patients with specific patterns of memory deficit. The importance of assessing maintenance of rehabilitation training over time is stressed. PMID:1941650

  11. A Familiar-Size Stroop Effect: Real-World Size Is an Automatic Property of Object Representation

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    When we recognize an object, do we automatically know how big it is in the world? We employed a Stroop-like paradigm, in which two familiar objects were presented at different visual sizes on the screen. Observers were faster to indicate which was bigger or smaller on the screen when the real-world size of the objects was congruent with the visual…

  12. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source ap

  13. Bleeding risk in 'real world' patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison of two established bleeding prediction schemes in a nationwide cohort

    Olesen, J B; Lip, G Y H; Hansen, P R;

    2011-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is a double-edged sword, because it decreases the risk of stroke at the cost of an increased risk of bleeding. We compared the performance of a new bleeding prediction scheme, HAS-BLED, with an older bleeding prediction scheme, ......, HEMORR(2)HAGES, in a cohort of 'real-world' AF patients....

  14. Comparison and Extension of Existing 3D Propagation Models with Real-World Effects Based on Ray-tracing

    Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard;

    2014-01-01

    far, by changing antenna beam orientation like antenna tilting or when users are distributed in the third dimension (height) in multi-floor scenarios. Ray tracing based generated propagation maps that show the realistic propagation effect are used as 3D real world reference for investigation and model...

  15. Brief Report: Relationship between Self-Awareness of Real-World Behavior and Treatment Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Verhoeven, E. W. M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H. J. C.; Oudshoorn, J.; van der Sijde, A.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at start of treatment was related with an increase in…

  16. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond.

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E. Alatis); "Some Notes on the…

  17. Particle number concentration near road traffic in Amsterdam (the Netherlands): Comparison of standard and real-world emission factors

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Zandveld, P.; Verhagen, H.; Stelwagen, U.; Jonge de, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, NOx and particle number concentration (PNC) at an urban background and a traffic location were measured in the city of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Modelled and measured contributions to NOx and PNC at the traffic location were used to derive real-world PN emission factors for average urban road traffic. The results for NOx were applied to validate our approach. The real-world PN emission factors (#.km-1) were 2.9E+14 (urban road) and 3E+14 (motorway). These values were at least a factor eight higher than dynamometer-based PN emission factors from COPERT 4 and HBEFA databases. The real-world PN emission factors were used to model the contribution to PNC near road traffic in 2014. This was two to three times higher than the PNC urban background along urban roads over 20,000 vehicles per day and near motorways. The discrepancy between dynamometer-based and real-world emission factors demonstrates the need for more PNC observations to assess actual PN emissions from road traffic.

  18. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    Hedden, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  19. Addressing safety issues through a joint industry programme; Traiter des problemes de securite a travers un programme industriel commun

    Pool, G.; Williams, T.P. [BG Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, A.M. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    In an increasingly fragmented gas market, the focus for national gas safety may not rest with one major utility or gas supplier but may be spread across many companies. There will also be many new organisations in a liberalized gas industry with varying views on the needs and benefits of safety related technology development but all agree there is a need to ensure that the good safety record of gas as a domestic fuel is maintained. The number of carbon monoxide (CO) incidents is not decreasing significantly despite an increased awareness of the problem. As a consequence, a two-year joint industry programme addressing issues related to carbon monoxide has been established, co-ordinated by BG Technology and supported by gas organisations, government agencies, manufacturers and suppliers across Europe and the World. The 2-year 2 pound million programme has been constructed as twelve separate projects addressing issues such as the reporting and analysis of domestic incidents, improved service or installation practice, CO alarm reliability and information dissemination. The paper gives results and achievements of the programme, through new techniques, standards, procedures or equipment and demonstrates how the gas industry can work together to meet common safety objectives. (authors)

  20. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  1. Scaling up multi-camera tracking for real-world deployment

    Raja, Yogesh; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-10-01

    A user-assisted multi-camera tracking system employing several key novel methodologies has previously been shown to be highly effective in assisting human users in tracking targets of interest through industry-standard-LIDS multi-camera benchmark data.1 A prototype system was developed in order to test and evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. In this paper, we develop this system further in order to improve tracking accuracy and further facilitate scalability to arbitrary numbers of camera views across much larger spatial areas and different locations. Specifically, we describe the following three areas of improvement: (1) dynamic learning mechanisms apply user feedback in adapting internal models to improve performance over time; (2) modular design and hardware acceleration techniques are explored with a view to real-time performance, extensive configurability to leverage available hardware and scalability to larger datasets; and (3) re-design of the user interface for deployment as a secure asynchronous remote web-based service. We conduct an extensive evaluation of the system in terms of: (1) tracking performance; and (2) the speed of the system in computation and in usage over a network. We use a newly collected real-world dataset significantly more challenging than i-LIDS, which comprises six cameras covering two London Underground stations. We show that: (1) dynamic learning is effective; (2) the user-assisted paradigm retains its effectiveness with this significantly more challenging dataset; (3) large-scale deployment and real-time computation is feasible due to linear scalability; (4) context-aware user search strategies and external non-visual information can aid search convergence; and (5) storage and querying of meta-data is a bottleneck to be overcome.

  2. Stable operation of a Secure QKD system in the real-world setting

    Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-06-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) now steps forward from the proof of principle to the validation of the practical feasibility. Nevertheless, the QKD technology should respond to the challenges from the real-world such as stable operation against the fluctuating environment, and security proof under the practical setting. We report our recent progress on stable operation of a QKD system, and key generation with security assurance. A QKD system should robust to temperature fluctuation in a common office environment. We developed a loop-mirror, a substitution of a Faraday mirror, to allow easy compensation for the temperature dependence of the device. Phase locking technique was also employed to synchronize the system clock to the quantum signals. This technique is indispensable for the transmission system based on the installed fiber cables, which stretch and shrink due to the temperature change. The security proof of QKD, however, has assumed the ideal conditions, such as the use of a genuine single photon source and/or unlimited computational resources. It has been highly desirable to give an assurance of security for practical systems, where the ideal conditions are no longer satisfied. We have constructed a theory to estimate the leakage information on the transmitted key under the practically attainable conditions, and have developed a QKD system equipped with software for secure key distillation. The QKD system generates the final key at the rate of 2000 bps after 20 km fiber transmission. Eavesdropper's information on the final key is guaranteed to be less than 2-7 per bit. This is the first successful generation of the secure key with quantitative assurance of the upper bound of the leakage information. It will put forth the realization of highly secure metropolitan optical communication network against any types of eavesdropping.

  3. Estimating risk aversion, Risk-Neutral and Real-World Densities using Brazilian Real currency options

    José Fajardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Liu et al. (2007 approach to estimate the optionimplied Risk-Neutral Densities (RND, real-world density (RWD, and relative risk aversion from the Brazilian Real/US Dollar exchange rate distribution. Our empirical application uses a sample of exchange-traded Brazilian Real currency options from 1999 to 2011. Our estimated value of the relative risk aversion is around 2.7, which is in line with other articles for the Brazilian Economy. Our out-of-sample results showed that the RND has some ability to forecast the Brazilian Real exchange rate, but when we incorporate the risk aversion, the out-of-sample performance improves substantially.Este artigo usa a abordagem de Liu et al. (2007 para estimar a densidade neutra ao risco, densidade do mundo real e a aversão relativa ao risco da distribuição da taxa de câmbio Dólar/Real. Na estimação foi utilizada uma amostra de opções Dólar/Real negociadas embolsa entre 1999 e 2011. O valor estimado para a aversão relativa ao risco foi de 2,7, em linha com outros artigos que também estimaram este parâmetro para a economia brasileira. A avaliação fora da amostra mostrou que a densidade neutra ao risco possui alguma habilidade para prever a taxa de câmbio Dólar/Real, mas quando o parâmetro de aversão ao risco é incorporado, a performance fora da amostra melhora substancialmente.

  4. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions.

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2013-10-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes. PMID:24015835

  5. Preparing Laboratory and Real-World EEG Data for Large-Scale Analysis: A Containerized Approach

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Makeig, Scott; Robbins, Kay A.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain–computer interface models. However, the absence of standardized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the difficulty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a “containerized” approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of annotating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-)analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS) comprises three data “Levels,” each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP) pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1) data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2) suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are increasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at www.eegstudy.org and a central catalog of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at studycatalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to enable data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org). PMID:27014048

  6. How successful is secondary prevention for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the real world

    Objective: To document the effects of secondary prevention on different risk factors in the real world situation. Methodology: It was a cross sectional comparative study carried out at a referral cardiac clinic in Peshawar from January 2010 to December 2010. Study subjects presenting with at least 6 months follow up were included from different parts of Khyber Pukhtunkhawa. All patients with positive history or objective evidence of CAD were enrolled. Study subjects were divided in two groups based on the fact that either taking or had stopped medication for the duration of the study period. Study variables were levels of lipids, glucose, blood pressure (BP), smoking and obesity. Results: A total of 843 patients were included in the study. Males were 70.4 % (593). Mean age was 58.74 +- 10.6 years. Patients taking regular medicine were 69.03% while 30.97% had stopped their medicine for at least three months. Diabetics, hypertensive and positive family history for CAD were 33.4%, 50.25% and 24% respectively. When compared to patient who had stopped medicine, mean systolic BP (p= 0.014), diastolic BP (p= 0.05), mean Cholesterol (p=0.000), mean LDL (p=0.000), mean HDL (p=0.000) and HbA1c% (p=0.049), was well controlled in patients who were taking medicine regularly. Mean BMI (p=0.786), triglycerides and smoking (p=0.761) had no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Blood pressure, serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, as well as HbA1c% were reduced with little effect on serum TGs, BMI and smoking in those who were taking medicine regularly compared to those who had stopped. (author)

  7. How does a real-world child psychiatric clinic diagnose and treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Yuki, Kumi; Bhagia, Jyoti; Mrazek, David; Jensen, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate child and adolescent psychiatrists’ (CAPs) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) diagnoses and treatments in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: The medical records of 69 ADHD children (mean age = 9.5 years), newly referred to the ADHD clinic, were reviewed for their scores of parent- and teacher-reported Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales (VADRSs), CAPs’ diagnoses of ADHD and ODD, and CAPs’ treatment recommendations. Among 63 ADHD subjects who completed both parent and teacher VADRSs, we examined the agreement of the parent and teacher VADRSs. We also examined the concurrent validity of CAPs’ ODD diagnoses against the results from the VADRSs. In addition, we compared CAPs’ treatment recommendations against established ADHD and ODD guidelines. RESULTS: Among 63 ADHD subjects, the majority of the subjects (92%) met full ADHD diagnostic criteria at least in one setting (parent or teacher) on the VADRSs. Nearly half of the patients met full ADHD diagnostic criteria in two settings (parent and teacher). Relatively low agreement between the parent and teacher VADRSs were found (95%CI: -0.33 to 0.14). For 29 children who scored positive for ODD on the rating scales, CAPs confirmed the ODD diagnosis in only 12 of these case-positives, which is considered as a fair agreement between CAPs and VADRSs (95%CI: 0.10-0.53). For 27 children with no ODD diagnosis made by either CAP or VADRS, more than half of them were recommended for medication only. In contrast, where CAPs made the diagnosis of ODD, or where the parent or teacher VADRS was positive for ODD, almost all of the patients received recommendations for medication and behavior therapy. CONCLUSION: CAPs’ ADHD diagnoses have strong concurrent validity against valid rating scales, but ADHD’s most common comorbid condition - ODD - may be under-recognized. PMID:27014602

  8. External validation of the SEDAN score: The real world practice of a single center

    Sombat Muengtaweepongsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH is the most serious adverse event in stroke patients who received i.v. rt-PA and is usually associated with poor outcomes. The SEDAN score is built up to predict sICH. We aim to externally validate the SEDAN score in Thai patients from single center in the real world practice. Methods: The SEDAN score of stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA at Thammasat University Hospital from January 2010 to June 2012 was calculated. Patients were divided into three groups including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (AsICH and no intracerebral hemorrhage (NoICH. The primary outcome of analyses was sICH. Each parameter of the SEDAN score and correlation between score and sICH were analyzed with univariate and multivariate model. Results: 295 patients (18.6% of stroke admission were treated with i.v. rt-PA. 13 patients (4.4% had sICH and 31 patients (10.4% had AsICH. Baseline blood sugar >12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10(SEDAN were associated with sICH by univariate analysis (P value = 0.018, 12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10 were 1.248, 2.503, 1.107, 1.532 and 1.263 respectively. Conclusions: The SEDAN score was practical to use and predictive in Thai population. Each parameter of the SEDAN score was an independent risk factor for sICH after treatment with i.v. rt-PA.

  9. Preparing Laboratory and Real-World EEG Data for Large-Scale Analysis: A Containerized Approach.

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Makeig, Scott; Robbins, Kay A

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface models. However, the absence of standardized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the difficulty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a "containerized" approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of annotating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-)analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS) comprises three data "Levels," each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP) pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1) data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2) suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are increasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at www.eegstudy.org and a central catalog of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at studycatalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to enable data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org). PMID:27014048

  10. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  11. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  12. Using ecotechnology to address water quality and wetland habitat loss problems in the Mississippi basin: a hierarchical approach.

    Day, John W; Yañéz Arancibia, Alejandro; Mitsch, William J; Lara-Dominguez, Ana Laura; Day, Jason N; Ko, Jae-Young; Lane, Robert; Lindsey, Joel; Lomeli, David Zarate

    2003-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the environment at continental and global scales. An example of this is the Mississippi basin where there has been a large scale loss of wetlands and water quality deterioration over the past century. Wetland and riparian ecosystems have been isolated from rivers and streams. Wetland loss is due both to drainage and reclamation, mainly for agriculture, and to isolation from the river by levees, as in the Mississippi delta. There has been a decline in water quality due to increasing use of fertilizers, enhanced drainage and the loss of wetlands for cleaning water. Water quality has deteriorated throughout the basin and high nitrogen in the Mississippi river is causing a large area of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi delta. Since the causes of these problems are distributed over the basin, the solution also needs to be distributed over the basin. Ecotechnology and ecological engineering offer the only ecologically sound and cost-effective method of solving these problems. Wetlands to promote nitrogen removal, mainly through denitrification but also through burial and plant uptake, offer a sound ecotechnological solution. At the level of the Mississippi basin, changes in farming practices and use of wetlands for nitrogen assimilation can reduce nitrogen levels in the River. There are additional benefits of restoration of wetland and riverine ecosystems, flood control, reduction in public health threats, and enhanced wildlife and fisheries. At the local drainage basin level, the use of river diversions in the Mississippi delta can address both problems of coastal land loss and water quality deterioration. Nitrate levels in diverted river water are rapidly reduced as water flows through coastal watersheds. At the local level, wetlands are being used to treat municipal wastewater. This is a cost-effective method, which results in improved water quality, enhanced wetland productivity and increased accretion. The

  13. A virtual observatory in a real world: building capacity for an uncertain future

    Blair, Gordon; Buytaert, Wouter; Emmett, Bridget; Freer, Jim; Gurney, Robert; Haygarth, Phil; McDonald, Adrian; Rees, Gwyn; Tetzlaff, Doerthe

    2010-05-01

    Environmental managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to accommodate growing expectations of environmental well-being, while subject to maturing regulation, constrained budgets and a public scrutiny that expects easier and more meaningful access. To support such a challenge requires new tools and new approaches. The VO is a new initiative from the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for these new tools and approaches. The VO is at an early stage and we first evaluate the role of existing ‘observatories' in the UK and elsewhere both to learn good practice (and just as valuable - errors) and to define boundaries. A series of exemplar ‘big catchment science questions' are posed - distinguishing between science and society positions - and the prospects for their solution are assessed. The VO vision of being driven by these questions is outlined as are the seven key ambitions namely: i. being driven by the need to contribute to the solution of major environmental issues that impinge on, or link to, catchment science ii. having the flexibility and adaptability to address future problems not yet defined or fully clarified iii. being able to communicate issues and solutions to a range of audiences iv. supporting easy access by a variety of users v. drawing meaningful information from data and models and identifying the constraints on application in terms of errors, uncertainties, etc vi. adding value and cost effectiveness to current investigations by supporting transfer and scale adjustment thus limiting the repetition of expensive field monitoring addressing essentially the same issues in varying locations vii. promoting effective interfacing of robust science with a variety of end users by using terminology or measures familiar to the user (or required by regulation), including financial and carbon accounting, whole life or fixed period costing, risk as probability or as disability adjusted life years

  14. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Nima Bigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  15. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    Peng X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X Peng,1 P Sun,2 D Novick,1 J Andrews,1 S Sun2 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Kailo Research Group, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009. Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results: Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years, percentage of women (87%–88%, and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis. In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%. The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05, any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05, and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05. From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort

  16. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  17. Application of A3MCNPTM to radiation shielding problems

    This paper briefly discusses the theory of the A3MCNPTM code and its application to three real-world shielding/fixed-source problems; including PWR cavity dosimetry, DPA estimation at a BWR core-shroud weld, and dose estimation at the surface of a storage cask. These problems all address major concerns of nuclear utilities and are very important for the continued safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The paper demonstrates that A3MCNPTM, with its automated variance reduction capability, is able to solve these problems in a relatively short time with modest computational resources, while significantly reducing the engineer's time and effort for performing these calculations. (orig.)

  18. What is missing from the Spoken English classroom? : The gap between classroom learning and real world application

    高宇

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by many English learners is taking the knowledge learnt in the classroom and applying it to real world situations.Simply participating in class does not guarantee that a student will be able to cope in real world interactions,especially in casual or informal settings.Many structured teaching materials in classroom have missed out significant elements which reflect the nature of informal communication.Several factors will be discussed here that could affect the quality of spoken language teaching materials in the classroom.These include the structure and content of teaching materials and classroom activities,the types of external resources used in class or recommended as a complementary learning tools,and the way that specific skills are taught.Identifying these areas of weaknessallows students to develop the practical skills to independently bridge the gap between classroom activities and real life interactions.

  19. What is missing from the Spoken English classroom?:The gap between classroom learning and real world application

    高宇

    2015-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by many English learners is taking the knowledge learnt in the classroom and applying it to real world situations.Simply participating in class does not guarantee that a student will be able to cope in real world interactions, especially in casual or informal settings. Many structured teaching materials in classroom have missed out significant elements which reflect the nature of informal communication.Several factors will be discussed here that could affect the quality of spoken language teaching materials in the classroom.These include the structure and content of teaching materials and classroom activities, the types of external resources used in class or recommended as a complementary learning tools, and the way that specific skills are taught.Identifying these areas of weaknessallows students to develop the practical skills to independently bridge the gap between classroom activities and real life interactions.

  20. SAIMeR: Self-adapted method for the identification of metastable states in real-world time series

    Vega, Iliusi; Conrad, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of time series analysis with recurrence networks, we introduce SAIMeR, a heuristic self-adapted method that determines the elusive recurrence threshold and identifies metastable states in complex time series. To identify metastable states as well as the transitions between them, we use graph theory concepts and a fuzzy partitioning clustering algorithm. We illustrate SAIMeR by applying it to three real-world time series and show that it is able to identify metastable states in real-world data with noise and missing data points. Finally, we suggest a way to choose the embedding parameters used to construct the state space in which this method is performed, based on the analysis of how the values of these parameters affect two recurrence quantitative measurements: recurrence rate and entropy.

  1. Big data to smart data in Alzheimer's disease: Real-world examples of advanced modeling and simulation.

    Haas, Magali; Stephenson, Diane; Romero, Klaus; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Zach, Neta; Geerts, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Many disease-modifying clinical development programs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to date, and development of new and advanced preclinical models that generate actionable knowledge is desperately needed. This review reports on computer-based modeling and simulation approach as a powerful tool in AD research. Statistical data-analysis techniques can identify associations between certain data and phenotypes, such as diagnosis or disease progression. Other approaches integrate domain expertise in a formalized mathematical way to understand how specific components of pathology integrate into complex brain networks. Private-public partnerships focused on data sharing, causal inference and pathway-based analysis, crowdsourcing, and mechanism-based quantitative systems modeling represent successful real-world modeling examples with substantial impact on CNS diseases. Similar to other disease indications, successful real-world examples of advanced simulation can generate actionable support of drug discovery and development in AD, illustrating the value that can be generated for different stakeholders. PMID:27327540

  2. Teaching water sustainability and STEM concepts using in-class, online, and real-world multiplayer simulations

    Moysey, S. M.; Hannah, A. C.; Miller, S.; Mobley, C.

    2013-12-01

    the students in a sophomore level course demonstrated that the use of the game positively enhanced student engagement and interest in the course. We adapted the same base concepts to a real-world setting where players must physically collect water from a contaminated surface water source, represented by a swimming pool where many players can access the resource simultaneously, and a clean groundwater source, represented by a barrel where only one player at a time can obtain water from a pump. Additionally, water is recharged to groundwater (i.e., the barrel) at a fixed rate, thus over pumping can cause the water table to drop and cause the well to go dry. Players must therefore grapple between health risks associated with contaminants and the mass balance problems caused by groundwater mining. This version of the game received positive reviews from girls in grades 6-9 participating in a STEM summer camp.

  3. Fixation sequences in imagery and in recognition during the processing of pictures of real-world scenes

    Humphrey, Katherine; Underwood, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thirty photographs of real-world scenes were presented for encoding, and half the participants then performed a recognition test, deciding whether each of 60 images were old (from the original set) or new. The other participants performed an imagery task immediately after encoding each of the 30 images. After completing this task, the recognition group then performed the imagery task in response to prompts that were unique verbal descriptors, and the imagery group performed the recognition ta...

  4. If the real world were irrelevant, so to speak: The role of propositional truth-value in counterfactual sentence comprehension

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Martin, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Propositional truth-value can be a defining feature of a sentence's relevance to the unfolding discourse, and establishing propositional truth-value in context can be key to successful interpretation. In the current study, we investigate its role in the comprehension of counterfactual conditionals, which describe imaginary consequences of hypothetical events, and are thought to require keeping in mind both what is true and what is false. Pre-stored real-world knowledge may therefore intrude u...

  5. The ethology of empathy: a taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers

    Stephanie D. Preston; Robert B. Stansfield

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people's response to life stressors varies widely—from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown—variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with ...

  6. Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

    Thiry Nancy; Devriese Stephan; Neyt Mattias; Van den Bruel Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tiotropium is reimbursed since March 2004 in Belgium for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Questions however remain on this product's value for money. The purpose of this study is to calculate tiotropium's cost-effectiveness under real-world conditions. Methods Strengths of both observational and RCT data were combined in a model. A large longitudinal (2002-2006) observational dataset of regular tiotropium users (56 321 patients) was analysed t...

  7. Modelling market diffusion of electric vehicles with real world driving data. Part I: Model structure and validation

    Plötz, Patrick; Gnann, Till; Wietschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The future market diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) is of great importance for transport related green house gas emissions and energy demand. But most studies on the market diffusion of EVs focus on average driving patters and neglect the great variations in daily driving of individuals present in real-world driving data. Yet these variations are important for EVs since range limitations and the electric driving share of plug-in hybrids strongly impact the economic evaluation and consumer ...

  8. An Integrated Knowledge Base for Modelling and Predicting Vehicle Real-world Emissions as a Function of Driving Behaviour Kinematics

    Rapone, Mario; Della Ragione, Livia; Meccariello, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate modelling approach was developed by Istituto Motori to model and predict vehicle real-world emissions. Complex driving kinematics is represented by two blocks of variables, which require the development of a hierarchical multiblock emission model, where the two blocks of variables represent overall and instantaneous features of each driving cycle associated to a trip. The multiblock model was applied to analyze and model emissions of the large database b...

  9. Cyclosporine in psoriasis: comparison of a 25-year real-world Italian experience to current European guidelines.

    Altomare, Gianfranco; Ayala, Fabio; Bardazzi, Federico; Bellia, Gilberto; Chimenti, Sergio; Colombo, Delia; Flori, Maria L; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Micali, Giuseppe; Parodi, Aurora; Peris, Ketty; Vena, Gino A

    2016-08-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) is an effective and safe therapeutic option in various dermatoses in both adults and children. Over the last 25 years, Italian dermatologists have gained relevant experience about the use of CsA in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and an Italian Consensus Conference has recently provided recommendations in adult patients. A comparison between these real-world indications and current European guidelines is hereby provided. PMID:25786483

  10. Real world programs, real world strategies, real world successes

    Hogan, K. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a very brief overview of market opportunities for using energy efficient technology. A brief summary of greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change concludes that the threat of global warming must be taken seriously. It is stated that there are numerous technologies available which can reduce energy use by up to 50%, while offering attractive rates of return. Market analysis has identified a trillion dollar market for high efficiency products and services over the next decade. Three main areas of business opportunity for capitalizing on the growing market for energy efficiency are identified: (1) using efficient energy technology in-house, (2) marketing energy efficient products, and (3) international markets.

  11. Effect of short-term exposure to stereoscopic three-dimensional flight displays on real-world depth perception

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Parrish, Russell V.; Williams, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    High-fidelity color pictorial displays that incorporate depth cues in the display elements are currently available. Depth cuing applied to advanced head-down flight display concepts potentially enhances the pilot's situational awareness and improves task performance. Depth cues provided by stereopsis exhibit constraints that must be fully understood so depth cuing enhancements can be adequately realized and exploited. A fundamental issue (the goal of this investigation) is whether the use of head-down stereoscopic displays in flight applications degrade the real-world depth perception of pilots using such displays. Stereoacuity tests are used in this study as the measure of interest. Eight pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both nonstereo and stereo 3-D head-down pathway-in-the-sky displays. At this decision height of each approach (where the pilot changes to an out-the-window view to obtain real-world visual references) the pilots changed to a stereoacuity test that used real objects. Statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures (data for a control condition of no exposure to any electronic flight display compared with data for changes from nonstereo and from stereo displays) reveals no significant differences for any of the conditions. Therefore, changing from short-term exposure to a head-down stereo display has no more effect on real-world relative depth perception than does changing from a nonstereo display. However, depth perception effects based on sized and distance judgements and on long-term exposure remain issues to be investigated.

  12. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors. PMID:25851082

  13. Clinical characteristics and selection of treatment modality for patients with vitreomacular traction: real-world implementation of NICE guidance (TA297)

    Pritchard, Edward William James; Ilyas, Shams-Ulislam; Amar, Soha Khaled; Yang, Yit Chuin; Narendran, Nirodhini

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the qualitative aspects in patient selection and the quantitative impact of disease burden in real world treatment of vitreomacular traction (VMT) and implementation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance (TA297). Methods A monocentric, retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging over a 3 month period. Patients with VMT in at least one eye were identified for further data collection on laterality, visual acuity, symptoms, presence of epiretinal membrane, macular hole and treatment selection. Results A total of 3472 patients underwent OCT imaging with a total of 6878 eyes scanned. Out of 87 patients, 74 patients had unilateral VMT (38 right, 36 left) and 13 patients had bilateral VMT. Eighteen patients with unilateral VMT satisfied NICE criteria of severe sight problems in the affected eye. Eight were managed for a coexisting pathology, one refused treatment, one patient did not attend, two closed spontaneously, and one received ocriplasmin prior to the study start date. Only two patients with unilateral VMT received ocriplasmin and three underwent vitrectomy. Those failing to meet NICE criteria for unilateral VMT were predominantly asymptomatic (n=49) or had coexisting ERM (n=5) or both (n=2). Conclusion Ocriplasmin provides an alternative treatment for patients with symptomatic VMT. Our data shows that the majority of patients with VMT do not meet NICE TA297 primarily due to lack of symptoms. Those meeting NICE criteria, but not treated, tended to have coexisting macular pathology. Variation in patient selection due to subjective factors not outlined in NICE guidance suggests that real world outcomes of ocriplasmin therapy should be interpreted with caution. PMID:26834452

  14. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  15. The evolution of European passenger car characteristics 2000–2010 and its effects on real-world CO2 emissions and CO2 reduction policy

    Τhe European passenger car certification test constitutes the basis for implementation and progress monitoring of the current CO2 abatement policy. The certification test is performed over a single driving cycle, (New European Driving Cycle-NEDC). The dynamics of NEDC and the fact that it does not account for other factors results in CO2 emissions which are non-representative of real-world performance. Using available data from the CO2 monitoring database and literature and employing simple vehicle dynamics model and stochastic techniques, this paper attempts to calculate the average gasoline and diesel passenger car characteristics, investigate how the evolution of certain vehicle characteristics affects real world vehicle performance and to combine the above in order to evaluate the progress in terms of real world emissions and possible correction of existing emission factors. The analysis reveals that reductions over NEDC are generally reflected over real world. There were indications particularly for diesel vehicles that the NEDC—real world CO2 emissions gap gradually widens and that existing emission factors should be amended accordingly. Currently this difference between certification and real world emission is estimated between 20 and 25%. The benefit of diesel vehicles compared to their gasoline equivalents in terms of CO2 emissions appears to reduce. - Highlights: ► We calculated the evolution of average European passenger car characteristics. ► Results of the calculation were used for predicting the real world CO2 emissions. ► Reductions observed over certification are up to a point reflected in real world. ► The certification-real world emissions difference appears to increase in some cases. ► The gap between diesel and gasoline vehicle CO2 emissions is narrowing.

  16. From the Lab to the real world : sources of error in UF {sub 6} gas enrichment monitoring

    Lombardi, Marcie L.

    2012-03-01

    {sub 6} gas enrichment monitors have required empty pipe measurements to accurately determine the pipe attenuation (the pipe attenuation is typically much larger than the attenuation in the gas). This dissertation reports on a method for determining the thickness of a pipe in a GCEP when obtaining an empty pipe measurement may not be feasible. This dissertation studies each of the components that may add to the final error in the enrichment measurement, and the factors that were taken into account to mitigate these issues are also detailed and tested. The use of an x-ray generator as a transmission source and the attending stability issues are addressed. Both analytical calculations and experimental measurements have been used. For completeness, some real-world analysis results from the URENCO Capenhurst enrichment plant have been included, where the final enrichment error has remained well below 1% for approximately two months.

  17. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  18. Effect of lifestyle intervention for people with diabetes or prediabetes in real-world primary care: propensity score analysis

    Gidding Luc G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many lifestyle interventions for patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have been investigated in randomised clinical trial settings. However, the translation of these programmes into primary care seems challenging and the prevalence of T2DM is increasing. Therefore, there is an urgent need for lifestyle programmes, developed and shown to be effective in real-world primary care. We evaluated a lifestyle programme, commissioned by the Dutch government, for patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in primary care. Methods We performed a retrospective comparative medical records analysis using propensity score matching. Patients with prediabetes or T2DM were selected from ten primary healthcare centres. Patients who received the lifestyle intervention (n = 186 were compared with a matched group of patients who received usual care (n = 2632. Data were extracted from the electronic primary care records. Propensity score matching was used to control for confounding by indication. Outcome measures were exercise level, BMI, HbA1c, fasting glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and the follow-up period was one year. Results There was no significant difference at follow-up in any outcome measure between either group. The reduction at one year follow-up of HbA1c and fasting glucose was positive in the intervention group compared with controls, although not statistically significant (-0.12%, P = 0.07 and -0.17 mmol/l, P = 0.08 respectively. Conclusions The effects of the lifestyle programme in real-world primary care for patients with prediabetes or T2DM were small and not statistically significant. The attention of governments for lifestyle interventions is important, but from the available literature and the results of this study, it must be concluded that improving lifestyle in real-world primary care is still challenging.

  19. Is game immersion just another form of selective attention? An empirical investigation of real world dissociation in computer game immersion

    Jennett, C. I.

    2010-01-01

    When your daughter is playing video-games and you call her to dinner but she fails to respond, do you assume she heard you and ignored you? Everyday descriptions of game immersion suggest that the real world dissociation experienced by gamers could be an extreme form of selective attention. If this were the case, this would mean that your daughter really did not hear you call, due to the complexity of the game environment and a lack of available cognitive resources. This thesis...

  20. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  1. Ultra-thin strut cobalt chromium bare metal stent usage in a complex real-world setting. (SOLSTICE Registry)

    Suttorp, M.J.; Stella, P. R.; Dens, J.; McKenzie, J. M.; Park, K. S.; Frambach, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report clinical follow-up at 6 months after implantation of the ultra-thin strut cobalt chromiumSolarFlex stent in a real-world setting. Methods and results Patients (n=240) with single or multiple vessel coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at four sites in Europe were enrolled in the SOLSTICE (SolarFlex Stent in Routine Clinical Practice) registry. Follow-up at 6 months was 100%. Diabetes was present in 29% of the patients, 30% presented with ac...

  2. Ultra-thin strut cobalt chromium bare metal stent usage in a complex real-world setting. (SOLSTICE registry)

    Suttorp, M.J.; Stella, P. R.; Dens, J.; McKenzie, J. M.; Park, K. S.; Frambach, P.; [...

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report clinical follow-up at 6 months after implantation of the ultra-thin strut cobalt chromium SolarFlex stent in a real-world setting. Methods and results Patients (n = 240) with single or multiple vessel coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at four sites in Europe were enrolled in the SOLSTICE (SolarFlex Stent in Routine Clinical Practice) registry. Follow-up at 6 months was 100 %. Diabetes was present in 29 % of the patients, 30 % presented w...

  3. The Salford Lung Study protocol: a pragmatic, randomised phase III real-world effectiveness trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Bakerly, Nawar Diar; Woodcock, Ashley; New, John P; Gibson, J Martin; Wu, Wei; Leather, David; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Background New treatments need to be evaluated in real-world clinical practice to account for co-morbidities, adherence and polypharmacy. Methods Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ≥40 years old, with exacerbation in the previous 3 years are randomised 1:1 to once-daily fluticasone furoate 100 μg/vilanterol 25 μg in a novel dry-powder inhaler versus continuing their existing therapy. The primary endpoint is the mean annual rate of COPD exacerbations; an electronic med...

  4. A Robotic Game to Evaluate Interfaces used to Show and Teach Visual Objects to a Robot in Real World Condition

    Rouanet, Pierre; Danieau, Fabien; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a real world user study of 4 in- terfaces designed to teach new visual objects to a social robot. This study was designed as a robotic game in order to maintain the user's motivation during the whole experiment. Among the 4 interfaces 3 were based on mediator objects such as an iPhone, a Wiimote and a laser pointer. They also provided the users with different kind of feedback of what the robot is perceiving. The fourth interface was a ges- ture based interface with a...

  5. Spanning trees of the World Trade Web: real-world data and the gravity model of trade

    Skowron, Patryk; Fronczak, Agata; Fronczak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the statistical features of the weighted international-trade network. By finding the maximum weight spanning trees for this network we make the extraction of the truly relevant connections forming the network's backbone. We discuss the role of large-sized countries (strongest economies) in the tree. Finally, we compare the topological properties of this backbone to the maximum weight spanning trees obtained from the gravity model of trade. We show that the model correctly reproduces the backbone of the real-world economy.

  6. 'Real-world' management and outcomes of patients with paroxysmal vs. non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in Europe

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Laroche, Cecile; Diemberger, Igor;

    2016-01-01

    -morbidities, as well as lower CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores. Patients with first-detected AF (29.9%) had characteristics similar to persistent AF patients (25.9%), but lower use of oral anticoagulants. Patients with permanent AF represented 17.4% of the cohort. At 1 year, the rate of stroke...... during follow-up. Independent predictors of death were age, chronic heart failure, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and physical activity. CONCLUSION: In this 'real-world' contemporary observational registry, patients with non-paroxysmal AF had a worse outcome, in terms of...

  7. Speciation of nitrogen compounds in the tailpipe emissions from a SI car under real world driving conditions.

    Khalfan, A; Li, H.; Andrews, G.

    2014-01-01

    The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with on-board measurement systems such as a FTIR system for gaseous emission, a differential GPS for velocity, altitude and position, thermal couples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Various nitrogen species emissions (NO, NO2, NOx, NH3, HCN and N2O) were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed and employed using two real world driving cycles/routes represen...

  8. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exam 70-668)

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Delivers the information that SharePoint 2010 administrators in the field need most This book shows you how to design, deploy, and implement a SharePoint 2010 environment, providing practical skills and real-world techniques and scenarios you'll be able to apply on the job. You'll not only thoroughly learn SharePoint 2010, but you'll also get up to speed on business continuity and solutions. In addition, those preparing for the MCITP: SharePoint 2010 Administration certification exam 70-668 will find thorough coverage of all exam objectives.Shows you how to design, deploy, administer, and main

  9. Implementation of Solving IP Address Shorting Problem by NAT Technique%NAT技术解决IP地址短缺问题的实现

    孙中廷

    2013-01-01

    With the popularization of information technology and network, the IP address shorting has increasingly become a problem in development. By analysis of the technical principle of network address translate (NAT), the static and dynamic NAT address translation technologies are introduced briefly. In order to the translation process from private address to public address implemented by using the address translation technologies is described in detail from three aspects in order to provide three common implementation models for multiple computers sharing a public address. Aiming at the appearing problems of IP address overlapping, the solutions are presented, in order to provide the effective solutions for IP address shorting problems.%随着信息技术及网络的普及,IP地址短缺问题越来越成为发展中的一个问题。通过对网络地址转换(NAT)技术原理的分析,对静态NAT地址转换技术及动态NAT地址转换技术做了简要介绍;从3个层面详细阐述了运用地址转换技术实现私有地址向公有地址的转换的过程,为多台计算机共享一个公有地址提供3个通用实现模型,并针对出现的IP地址重叠问题给出了解决的方案,为IP地址短缺问题提供了有效的解决方法。

  10. Conceptual Integration of Arithmetic Operations With Real-World Knowledge: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials.

    Guthormsen, Amy M; Fisher, Kristie J; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J

    2016-04-01

    Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)-N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving task, when participants generated labeled answers to semantically aligned and misaligned arithmetic problems (e.g., 6 roses + 2 tulips = ? vs. 6 roses + 2 vases = ?), the second object label in misaligned problems yielded an N400 effect for addition (but not division) problems. In a verification task, when participants judged arithmetically correct but semantically misaligned problem sentences to be "unacceptable," the second object label in misaligned sentences elicited a P600 effect. Thus, depending on task constraints, misaligned problems can show either of two ERP signatures of conceptual disruption. These results show that well-educated adults can integrate mathematical and semantic relations on the rapid timescale of within-domain ERP effects by a process akin to analogical mapping. PMID:25864403

  11. The Orbitofrontal Cortex, Real-World Decision Making, and Normal Aging

    Denburg, Natalie L.; Catherine A. Cole; Hernandez, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H.; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Wallace, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    The present series of three studies aims at investigating the hypothesis that some seemingly normal older persons have deficits in reasoning and decision making due to dysfunction in a neural system which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortices. This hypothesis is relevant to the comprehensive study of aging, and also addresses the question of why so many older adults fall prey to fraud. To our knowledge, this work represents the first of its kind to begin to identify, from an individua...

  12. Simulation based study of battery electric vehicle performance in real world cycles

    Dhand, A.; Pullen, K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The development of battery electric vehicles (BEV) must continue since this offers the leading route towards a zero emission transport system. The fuel flexibility of the BEV offers the greatest potential to utilize power from renewable or low emission sources to be used in the transport system. However the limited range and high cost of the BEV remain important issues to be addressed. The battery is the element which strongly affects the cost and range of the BEV. The batteries offer either ...

  13. The Anarchist in the Library How the Clash Between Freedom and Control Is Hacking the Real World and Crashing the System

    Vaidhyanathan, Siva

    2005-01-01

    From Napster to Total Information Awareness to flash mobs, the debate over information technology in our lives has revolved around a single question: How closely do we want cyberspace to resemble the real world?

  14. Risk neutral and real world densities for the S&P 500 index during the crisis period from 2008 to 2009

    Sun, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Risk neutral and real world densities derived from option prices provide rich source of information for future asset price forecast. Three approaches (mixtures of two lognormals, jump diffusion models and implied volatility function models) are used to estimate risk neutral densities. Both power utility function and beta function are used to transform mixtures of two lognormal risk neutral densities into real world densities. Transformations are estimated by maximizing the l...

  15. Information and meaning revisiting Shannon's theory of communication and extending it to address todays technical problems.

    Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This paper has three goals. The first is to review Shannon's theory of information and the subsequent advances leading to today's statistics-based text analysis algorithms, showing that the semantics of the text is neglected. The second goal is to propose an extension of Shannon's original model that can take into account semantics, where the 'semantics' of a message is understood in terms of the intended or actual changes on the recipient of a message. The third goal is to propose several lines of research that naturally fall out of the proposed model. Each computational approach to solving some problem rests on an underlying model or set of models that describe how key phenomena in the real world are represented and how they are manipulated. These models are both liberating and constraining. They are liberating in that they suggest a path of development for new tools and algorithms. They are constraining in that they intentionally ignore other potential paths of development. Modern statistical-based text analysis algorithms have a specific intellectual history and set of underlying models rooted in Shannon's theory of communication. For Shannon, language is treated as a stochastic generator of symbol sequences. Shannon himself, subsequently Weaver, and at least one of his predecessors are all explicit in their decision to exclude semantics from their models. This rejection of semantics as 'irrelevant to the engineering problem' is elegant and combined with developments particularly by Salton and subsequently by Latent Semantic Analysis, has led to a whole collection of powerful algorithms and an industry for data mining technologies. However, the kinds of problems currently facing us go beyond what can be accounted for by this stochastic model. Today's problems increasingly focus on the semantics of specific pieces of information. And although progress is being made with the old models, it seems natural to develop or

  16. Flex 4 Cookbook Real-world recipes for developing Rich Internet Applications

    Noble, Joshua; Braithwaite, Garth; Casario, Marco; Tretola, Rich

    2010-01-01

    With this collection of proven recipes, you have the ideal problem-solving guide for developing interactive Rich Internet Applications on the Adobe Flash Platform. You'll find answers to hundreds of common problems you may encounter when using Adobe Flex, Flex 4 Framework, or Flash Builder, Adobe's GUI-based development tool. Flex 4 Cookbook has hands-on recipes for everything from Flex basics to solutions for working with visual components and data access, as well as tips on application development, unit testing, and Adobe AIR. Each recipe provides an explanation of how and why it works, an

  17. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: comparisons from real-world clinical experience

    Rodriguez Garzotto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analia Rodriguez Garzotto,1 Oliver Heine,2 Matthew Turner,3 Francisco Rebollo Laserna,4 Andreas Lorenz5 1Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Ctra Andalucía, Madrid, Spain; 2Zentralklinikum Suhl, Suhl, 3Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, Germany; 4Sandoz Farmaceutica SA, Madrid, Spain; 5Frauenarztpraxis, Hildburghausen, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to report real-world data on the relative effectiveness of a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; Binocrit®, and other available ESAs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia.Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from single centers in Spain (n=284 and Germany (n=145. Hemoglobin outcomes, transfusion requirements, and serious drug-related adverse events were assessed for each ESA.Results: Hemoglobin outcomes and transfusion requirements were generally similar in the different ESA treatment groups assessed. No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded in any of the treatment groups.Conclusion: These data confirm the real-world effectiveness and safety of a biosimilar ESA (Binocrit® for the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia.Keywords: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, chemotherapy-induced anemia, biosimilar

  18. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  19. Real-world in-use activity, fuel use, and emissions for nonroad construction vehicles: a case study for excavators.

    Abolhasani, Saeed; Frey, H Christopher; Kim, Kangwook; Rasdorf, William; Lewis, Phil; Pang, Shih-Hao

    2008-08-01

    A study design was developed and demonstrated for deployment of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for excavators. Excavators are among the most commonly used vehicles in construction activities. The PEMS measured nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and opacity-based particulate matter. Data collection, screening, processing, and analysis protocols were developed to assure data quality and to quantify variability in vehicle fuel consumption and emissions rates. The development of data collection procedures was based on securing the PEMS while avoiding disruption to normal vehicle operations. As a result of quality assurance, approximately 90% of the attempted measurements resulted in valid data. On the basis of field data collected for three excavators, an average of 50% of the total nitric oxide emissions was associated with 29% of the time of operation, during which the average engine speed and manifold absolute pressure were significantly higher than corresponding averages for all data. Mass per time emission rates during non-idle modes (i.e., moving and using bucket) were on average 7 times greater than for the idle mode. Differences in normalized average rates were influenced more by intercycle differences than intervehicle differences. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for intercycle variability in real-world in-use emissions to develop more accurate emission inventories. The data collection and analysis methodology demonstrated here is recommended for application to more vehicles to better characterize real-world vehicle activity, fuel use, and emissions for nonroad construction equipment. PMID:18720653

  20. Using agent technology to build a real-world training application

    Cap, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W. van

    2011-01-01

    Using staff personnel for playing roles in simulation-based training (e.g. team mates, adversaries) elevates costs, and imposes organizational constraints on delivery of training. One solution to this problem is to use intelligent software agents that play the required roles autonomously. BDI modeli

  1. Think Tank Synthesis: Bridging the Gap between College Writing Courses and Real World Writing.

    Johns, Lee; And Others

    A continuing problem confronting businesses is the number of college graduates unprepared to write on the job because their communication abilities are meager and their knowledge of the many kinds of writing they must do in the workplace is incomplete. Causes of the gap between college writing instruction and the writing demands in the workplace…

  2. Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases versus the real world and vice versa

    Lohrenz, J.; Waller, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    From the vantage point of builders and operators of Federal mineral-lease-bidding data bases, users are addressed. Users are a polyglot lot of empiricists, mechanists, and theorists. The users' perfect data base would contain all data needed to examine all bidding theories and predict bidders' behavior using the theories. That ideal data base has not been attained. However, even the richly flawed history of these data bases leads one to the not particularly prescient notion that users, with omnipresent complaints about errors in and lack of data, will keep the data bases functioning by using them.

  3. Operations research problems statements and solutions

    Poler, Raúl; Díaz-Madroñero, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide for the first stage of the model formulation, i.e. the definition of a problem. The book is divided into 11 chapters that address the following topics: Linear programming, integer programming, non linear programming, network modeling, inventory theory, queue theory, tree decision, game theory, dynamic programming and markov processes. Readers are going to find a considerable number of statements of operations research applications for management decision-making. The solutions of these problems are provided in a concise way although all topics start with a more developed resolution. The proposed problems are based on the research experience of the authors in real-world com...

  4. Why Has It Taken So Long to Address the Problems Created by Uranium Mining in the Navajo Nation?

    Brugge, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Following the start of uranium mining after World War II, progress toward addressing the hazards it created for workers and nearby communities was slow, taking many decades. This essay asks why it took so long and suggests several factors that might have contributed. PMID:26463258

  5. Real World Practical Considerations for Remote and/or Autonomous Robotic Telescopes

    Gelderman, Richard; Cook, Bruce H.; Harris, Kevin R.

    2011-03-01

    In remote telescope and observatory applications, system reliability becomes critical. Down time is expensive in both repair dollars and lost observing time. Economic trades to less expensive and less reliable solutions frequently become issues of false economy. Also, system metrology and error logging become very beneficial in maintaining the systems and quickly and efficiently identifying and diagnosing problems. Several examples of such lessons learned will be discussed.

  6. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: The Higgs Boson, String Theory, and the Real World

    Kane, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I'll describe how string theory is exciting because it can address most, perhaps all, of the questions we hope to understand about our world: why quarks and leptons make up our world, what forces form our world, cosmology, parity violation, and much more. I'll explain why string theory is testable in basically the same ways as the rest of physics, and why much of what is written about that is misleading. String theory is already or soon being tested in several ways, including correctly predicting the recently observed Higgs boson properties and mass, and predictions for dark matter, LHC physics, cosmological history, and more, from work in the increasingly active subfield ``string phenomenology.''

  7. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media

    Pei, Sen; Andrade, Jose S; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernan A

    2014-01-01

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical ...

  8. Your Project Management Coach Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World

    Biafore, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    A pragmatic approach to project management Many projects fail to deliver on time or on budget, or even to deliver a workable product that satisfies the customer. While good project management goes a long way towards ensuring success, managers often fail to follow the plans they implement. This unique guide helps you understand and successfully handle project management, once and for all. Covering practical ways to solve problems you'll typically face when managing actual projects, this pragmatic book takes you through a full project management lifecycle. You'll find ample tips, tricks, and bes

  9. The real world of western NGOs in sub-saharan African countries

    Zipper, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    “What happens when an NGO admits failure ?” is the question asked by David Damberger, a member of Engineers Without Broaders, a canadian NGO. After the failure of his project in Malawi, he began to work on the learning of NGOs from possible failures. This project work will explore this idea of learning from some failures for western NGOs. The problem statement would be : “what and how NGOs can learn from their failure ?” It will focus only on projects in sub-saharan African countries beca...

  10. Comparative evaluation of 1D and quasi-2D hydraulic models based on benchmark and real-world applications for uncertainty assessment in flood mapping

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Tegos, Aristoteles; Oikonomou, Athanasios; Pagana, Vassiliki; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional hydraulic freeware models (HEC-RAS, LISFLOOD-FP and FLO-2d) are widely used for flood inundation mapping. These models are tested on a benchmark test with a mixed rectangular-triangular channel cross section. Using a Monte-Carlo approach, we employ extended sensitivity analysis by simultaneously varying the input discharge, longitudinal and lateral gradients and roughness coefficients, as well as the grid cell size. Based on statistical analysis of three output variables of interest, i.e. water depths at the inflow and outflow locations and total flood volume, we investigate the uncertainty enclosed in different model configurations and flow conditions, without the influence of errors and other assumptions on topography, channel geometry and boundary conditions. Moreover, we estimate the uncertainty associated to each input variable and we compare it to the overall one. The outcomes of the benchmark analysis are further highlighted by applying the three models to real-world flood propagation problems, in the context of two challenging case studies in Greece.

  11. Preferential inspection of recent real-world events over future events: evidence from eye tracking during spoken sentence comprehension

    PiaKnoeferle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking findings suggest people prefer to ground their spoken language comprehension by focusing on recently-seen events more than anticipating future events: When the verb in NP1-VERB-ADV-NP2 sentences was referentially ambiguous between a recently depicted and an equally plausible future clipart action, listeners fixated the target of the recent action more often at the verb than the object that hadn't yet been acted upon. We examined whether this inspection preference generalizes to real-world events, and whether it is (vs. isn't modulated by how often people see recent and future events acted out. In a first eye-tracking study, the experimenter performed an action (e.g., sugaring pancakes, and then a spoken sentence either referred to that action or to an equally plausible future action (e.g., sugaring strawberries. At the verb, people more often inspected the pancakes (the recent target than the strawberries (the future target, thus replicating the recent-event preference with these real-world actions. Adverb tense, indicating a future versus past event, had no effect on participants' visual attention. In a second study we increased the frequency of future actions such that participants saw 50/50 future and recent actions. During the verb people mostly inspected the recent action target, but subsequently they began to rely on tense, and anticipated the future target more often for future than past tense adverbs. A corpus study showed that the verbs and adverbs indicating past versus future actions were equally frequent, suggesting long-term frequency biases did not cause the recent-event preference. Thus, (a recent real-world actions can rapidly influence comprehension (as indexed by eye gaze to objects, and (b people prefer to first inspect a recent action target (vs. an object that will soon be acted upon, even when past and future actions occur with equal frequency. A simple frequency-of-experience account cannot accommodate these

  12. Managing social–ecological systems under uncertainty: implementation in the real world

    Ana Nuno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions for natural resources are not made in a vacuum; the environmental and ecological conditions as well as the socioeconomic and political contexts affect goals, the choice of interventions, their feasibility, and which outcomes are obtained. Although uncertainty is recognized as a feature of natural resource management, little attention has been given to the uncertainty generated by institutional settings, historical contingency, and individual people's influence. These implementation uncertainties, related to the translation of policy into practice, make it difficult to predict the outcomes of management interventions within social–ecological systems. Using the conservation of species hunted for bushmeat in the Serengeti as a case study, we investigated the challenges and potential barriers to successful implementation of natural resource management policies. We used a mixed-methods approach, combining semistructured interviews with scenario building, social network, and institutional analysis exercises. Using a management strategy evaluation (MSE conceptual framework, we obtained insights into the constraints and opportunities for fulfilling stakeholder aspirations for the social–ecological system, analyzed the multiple roles played by different institutions in the system, and described the interactions between different actor types. We found that the respondents had generally similar views about the current and future status of the Serengeti but disagreed about how to address issues of conservation concern and were more uncertain about the actual outcomes of management interventions. Improving conservation implementation (rather than research, monitoring, or status assessment was perceived as the key priority to be addressed. Institutional barriers were perceived as an important challenge given that the decision-making and implementation processes were broadly distributed across a number of institutions. Conservation

  13. Implementing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the real world: A case study of two mental health centers

    Burns Barbara J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral health services for children and adolescents in the U.S. are lacking in accessibility, availability and quality. Evidence-based interventions for emotional and behavioral disorders can improve quality, yet few studies have systematically examined their implementation in routine care settings. Methods Using quantitative and qualitative data, we evaluated a multi-faceted implementation strategy to implement cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT for depressed adolescents into two publicly-funded mental healthcare centers. Extent of implementation during the study's duration and variables influencing implementation were explored. Results Of the 35 clinicians eligible to participate, 25 (71% were randomized into intervention (n = 11 or usual care (n = 14. Nine intervention clinicians completed the CBT training. Sixteen adolescents were enrolled in CBT with six of the intervention clinicians; half of these received at least six CBT manually-based sessions. Multiple barriers to CBT adoption and sustained use were identified by clinicians in qualitative interviews. Conclusion Strategies to implement evidence-based interventions into routine clinical settings should include multi-method, pre-implementation assessments of the clinical environment and address multiple barriers to initial uptake as well as long-term sustainability.

  14. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media

    Pei, Sen; Muchnik, Lev; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-07-01

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical Society. Furthermore, when the complete global network structure is unavailable, we find that the sum of the nearest neighbors' degree is a reliable local proxy for user's influence. Our analysis provides practical instructions for optimal design of strategies for ``viral'' information dissemination in relevant applications.

  15. Conservation Planning for Biodiversity and Wilderness: A Real-World Example

    Ceauşu, Silvia; Gomes, Inês; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Several of the most important conservation prioritization approaches select markedly different areas at global and regional scales. They are designed to maximize a certain biodiversity dimension such as coverage of species in the case of hotspots and complementarity, or composite properties of ecosystems in the case of wilderness. Most comparisons between approaches have ignored the multidimensionality of biodiversity. We analyze here the results of two species-based methodologies—hotspots and complementarity—and an ecosystem-based methodology—wilderness—at local scale. As zoning of protected areas can increase the effectiveness of conservation, we use the data employed for the management plan of the Peneda-Gerês National Park in Portugal. We compare the approaches against four criteria: species representativeness, wilderness coverage, coverage of important areas for megafauna, and for regulating ecosystem services. Our results suggest that species- and ecosystem-based approaches select significantly different areas at local scale. Our results also show that no approach covers well all biodiversity dimensions. Species-based approaches cover species distribution better, while the ecosystem-based approach favors wilderness, areas important for megafauna, and for ecosystem services. Management actions addressing different dimensions of biodiversity have a potential for contradictory effects, social conflict, and ecosystem services trade-offs, especially in the context of current European biodiversity policies. However, biodiversity is multidimensional, and management and zoning at local level should reflect this aspect. The consideration of both species- and ecosystem-based approaches at local scale is necessary to achieve a wider range of conservation goals.

  16. Transition to life--a sendoff to the real world for graduating medical students.

    Coates, Wendy C; Spector, Tahlia S; Uijtdehaage, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Graduating medical students will enter the workforce, often for the first time. Many have spent the past 20 years as students, receiving financial support from parents, and have not managed real-life issues such as financial planning, real estate, balancing well-being with employment, and integrating into a new community with stressful working conditions. To address a perceived need, we designed an intervention to introduce graduating medical students to financial planning, real estate choices, physician wellness during relocation/internship, and traits of efficient interns. The objectives of this study are to (a) assess baseline experience, knowledge, and comfort of seniors about "real-life" experiences, and (b) assess the efficacy of a 4-hr educational intervention on perceptions of understanding financial planning, real estate choices, intern preparedness, and physician wellness. Acute Care College seniors (classes of 2009 and 2010) attended the intervention after match day and completed a survey to gather demographic data and assess preexisting knowledge and a postintervention survey (1-7 Likert scale). Forty-nine students (45% male; M age = 25.5 years) participated. Prior experiences: 43% no break in education, 51% no full-time job, 38% never signed a rental lease and 94% had not purchased real estate, 90% did not have (or were not aware of having) disability insurance, and 82% had educational debt exceeding $50,000. Following the workshop, students felt more confident in their understanding of life skills topics (real estate, 83%; financial planning, 94%; well-being, 86%). Our workshop assisted in preparing for life after medical school for 98% of the participants. Graduating medical students can gain knowledge about real-life responsibilities and confidence during an educational session prior to starting residency. PMID:22250934

  17. Practicing attachment in the real world: improving maternal insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability at an outpatient community mental health clinic.

    Ziv, Yair; Kaplan, Betty Ann; Venza, Jimmy

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the efficacy of an attachment-based intervention program practiced at an outpatient clinic. Changes in parental insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability were assessed in 32 mother-child dyads from pre- to post-intervention. At both data collection points, mothers were interviewed with the Insightfulness Assessment and the mother-child dyad was observed in play sessions coded with the Emotional Availability Scales. Findings revealed a strong association between maternal insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability, both before and after treatment. In terms of intervention efficacy, positive gains were observed in both insightfulness and dyadic emotional availability from pre- to post-intervention. Mothers who changed their classifications from non-insightful to insightful following the intervention showed the greatest gains in emotional availability. These findings have important implications for the type of interventions and service delivery model that could work in real world clinical settings. PMID:26824790

  18. Net clinical benefit of new oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) versus no treatment in a 'real world' atrial fibrillation population

    Banerjee, A; Lane, D A; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    2012-01-01

    patients with non-valvular AF between 1997-2008, for dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban on the basis of recent clinical trial outcome data for these new OACs. In patients with CHADS2=0 but at high bleeding risk, apixaban and dabigatran 110 mg bid had a positive net clinical benefit. At CHA2DS2-VASc=1......, apixaban and both doses of dabigatran (110 mg and 150 mg bid) had a positive net clinical benefit. In patients with CHADS2 score=1 or CHA2DS2-VASc=2, the three new OACs (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) appear superior to warfarin for net clinical benefit, regardless of risk of bleeding. When risk of...... in AF. Using 'real world' data, our modelling analysis has shown that when the risk of bleeding and stroke are both high, all three new drugs appear to have a greater net clinical benefit compared to warfarin....

  19. Real-world treatment practice in patients with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab: results from the IMAGE study.

    Middleton, Mark R; Dalle, Stéphane; Claveau, Joel; Mut, Pilar; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Plantin, Patrice; Highley, Martin; Kotapati, Srividya; Le, Trong Kim; Brokaw, Jane; Abernethy, Amy P

    2016-07-01

    The therapeutic landscape for advanced melanoma has recently been transformed by several novel agents (immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecular-targeted agents). The prospective, multi-site, observational study IMAGE (ipilimumab: management of advanced melanoma in real practice) included a retrospective cohort to describe real-world treatment prior to approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. This retrospective cohort of patients, who started second-line/subsequent treatment (index therapy) for advanced melanoma within 3 years before ipilimumab approval, was selected randomly by chart review. Collected data included treatment history, patient outcomes, and healthcare resource utilization. All patients had ≥1 year of follow-up data. This analysis included 177 patients from Europe (69%) and North America (31%). The most common index therapies (used alone or in combination) were fotemustine (23%), dacarbazine (21%), temozolomide (14%), and platinum-based chemotherapy (14%). Most patients (89%) discontinued index treatment during the study period; the most common reason was disease progression (59%). Among patients with tumor assessment (153/177; 86%), 2% had complete response, 5% had partial response, and 12% had stable disease on last tumor assessment. At 1-year study follow-up, median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-2.9) and median overall survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 6.5-9.7). During follow-up, 95% of the patients had healthcare visits for advanced melanoma, 74% of whom were hospitalized or admitted to a hospice facility. These results provide insights into patient care with advanced melanoma in the era before ipilimumab and may serve as a benchmark for new agents in future real-world studies. PMID:27118102

  20. Exhaust particle and NOx emission performance of an SCR heavy duty truck operating in real-world conditions

    Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Pirjola, Liisa; Matilainen, Pekka; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-02-01

    Particle and NOx emissions of an SCR equipped HDD truck were studied in real-world driving conditions using the "Sniffer" mobile laboratory. Real-time CO2 measurement enables emission factor calculation for NOx and particles. In this study, we compared three different emission factor calculation methods and characterised their suitability for real-world chasing experiments. The particle number emission was bimodal and dominated by the nucleation mode particles (diameter below 23 nm) having emission factor up to 1 × 1015 #/kgfuel whereas emission factor for soot (diameter above 23 nm that is consistent with the PMP standard) was typically 1 × 1014 #/kgfuel. The effect of thermodenuder on the exhaust particles indicated that the nucleation particles consisted mainly of volatile compounds, but sometimes there also existed a non-volatile core. The nucleation mode particles are not controlled by current regulations in Europe. However, these particles consistently form under atmospheric dilution in the plume of the truck and constitute a health risk for the human population that is exposed to those. Average NOx emission was 3.55 g/kWh during the test, whereas the Euro IV emission limit over transient testing is 3.5 g NOx/kWh. The on-road emission performance of the vehicle was very close to the expected levels, confirming the successful operation of the SCR system of the tested vehicle. Heavy driving conditions such as uphill driving increased both the NOx and particle number emission factors whereas the emission factor for soot particle number remains rather constant.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Drug-Eluting Stents in the Real World: 8-Year Follow-Up

    Pellegrini, Denise Oliveira, E-mail: dennizmo@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Vitor Osório; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Smidt, Luis; Azeredo, Marco Aurélio; Ledur, Priscila; Bodanese, Rodrigo; Sinnott, Leonardo; Moriguchi, Emílio; Caramori, Paulo [Hospital São Lucas PUC, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the 'real world' may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results.

  2. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Uttam Kumar Barick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  3. Technical and biological variance structure in mRNA-Seq data: life in the real world

    Oberg Ann L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background mRNA expression data from next generation sequencing platforms is obtained in the form of counts per gene or exon. Counts have classically been assumed to follow a Poisson distribution in which the variance is equal to the mean. The Negative Binomial distribution which allows for over-dispersion, i.e., for the variance to be greater than the mean, is commonly used to model count data as well. Results In mRNA-Seq data from 25 subjects, we found technical variation to generally follow a Poisson distribution as has been reported previously and biological variability was over-dispersed relative to the Poisson model. The mean-variance relationship across all genes was quadratic, in keeping with a Negative Binomial (NB distribution. Over-dispersed Poisson and NB distributional assumptions demonstrated marked improvements in goodness-of-fit (GOF over the standard Poisson model assumptions, but with evidence of over-fitting in some genes. Modeling of experimental effects improved GOF for high variance genes but increased the over-fitting problem. Conclusions These conclusions will guide development of analytical strategies for accurate modeling of variance structure in these data and sample size determination which in turn will aid in the identification of true biological signals that inform our understanding of biological systems.

  4. Security surveillance challenges and proven thermal imaging capabilities in real-world applications

    Francisco, Glen L.; Roberts, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Uncooled thermal imaging was first introduced to the public in early 1980's by Raytheon (legacy Texas Instruments Defense Segment Electronics Group) as a solution for military applications. Since the introduction of this technology, Raytheon has remained the leader in this market as well as introduced commercial versions of thermal imaging products specifically designed for security, law enforcement, fire fighting, automotive and industrial uses. Today, low cost thermal imaging for commercial use in security applications is a reality. Organizations of all types have begun to understand the advantages of using thermal imaging as a means to solve common surveillance problems where other popular technologies fall short. Thermal imaging has proven to be a successful solution for common security needs such as: ¸ vision at night where lighting is undesired and 24x7 surveillance is needed ¸ surveillance over waterways, lakes and ports where water and lighting options are impractical ¸ surveillance through challenging weather conditions where other technologies will be challenged by atmospheric particulates ¸ low maintenance requirements due to remote or difficult locations ¸ low cost over life of product Thermal imaging is now a common addition to the integrated security package. Companies are relying on thermal imaging for specific applications where no other technology can perform.

  5. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory

    Marina E. Vance

    2015-08-01

    assessments. There are inherent limitations to this type of database, but these modifications to the inventory addressed the majority of criticisms raised in published literature and in surveys of nanotechnology stakeholders and experts. The development of standardized methods and metrics for nanomaterial characterization and labelling in consumer products can lead to greater understanding between the key stakeholders in nanotechnology, especially consumers, researchers, regulators, and industry.

  6. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory.

    Vance, Marina E; Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    are inherent limitations to this type of database, but these modifications to the inventory addressed the majority of criticisms raised in published literature and in surveys of nanotechnology stakeholders and experts. The development of standardized methods and metrics for nanomaterial characterization and labelling in consumer products can lead to greater understanding between the key stakeholders in nanotechnology, especially consumers, researchers, regulators, and industry. PMID:26425429

  7. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  8. The Use of the Ames Test as a Tool for Addressing Problem-Based Learning in the Microbiology Lab

    Eliana Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our environment is full of potential carcinogens such as UV light, industrial pollutants, pesticides, and food additives, among others. It is estimated that 90% of all carcinogens are also mutagens. The Ames test is one of the most common tests for mutagens. In this problem-based learning activity, undergraduate biology students used the Ames test to screen a substance they provided, to see if it could be considered a mutagen. The idea of surveying substances used in everyday life appealed to our students, and helped engage them in this activity.

  9. Using vignettes to assess contributions to the work of addressing child mental health problems in primary care

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Methods Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77 % female, 58 % at their site 10 or more years; 44 % in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Part...

  10. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies

  11. Strategies for the long-term treatment of schizophrenia: real-world lessons from the CATIE trial.

    Meyer, Jonathan M

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a chronic illness necessitating a biopsychosocial model of care that addresses the multiple dimensions of the disease, including coordinated primary care. Current research, including the lessons learned from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study, shows that in addition to education, adherence, and minimizing adverse effects of psychopharmacologic agents, multimodal long-term treatment strategies are needed to address medical comorbidities, substance abuse, and both cognitive and social deficits. Health care professionals have the responsibility to monitor and help prevent adverse medical outcomes related to treatment with antipsychotics, in light of evidence that patients with schizophrenia are at risk for metabolic disorders and are undertreated for highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. These medical problems are particularly challenging in this population due to the chronicity of symptoms, cognitive limitations, social and financial challenges, and compliance issues with recommended medication treatment and therapeutic lifestyle changes. Mental health providers in the United States are now studying models that support the integration of psychiatric and nonpsychiatric medical treatment to address the complexity of multimodal schizophrenia care. PMID:17286525

  12. Addressing learning difficulties in Newtons 1st and 3rd Laws through problem based inquiry using Easy Java Simulation

    Goh, Khoon Song Aloysius; Yip, Kim Wah; Toh, Ping Yong Jeffrey; Lye, Sze Yee

    2013-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to visualize Newtons 1st and 3rd laws, using frictionless constant motion equation and a spring collision equation during impact. Using Physics by Inquiry instructional (PbI) strategy, the simulation and its problem based inquiry worksheet aim to enhance learning of these two Newtonian concepts. We report results from Experimental (N=62 students) and Control (N=67) Groups in 11 multiple choice questions pre and post tests, conducted by three teachers in the school. Results suggest, at 95 percent confidence level, significant improvement for concept of Newtons 1st Law while not so for Newtons 3rd Law. A Focus Group Discussion revealed students confirming the usefulness of the EJS model in visualizing the 1st Law while not so much for the 3rd Law. We speculate the design ideas for constant velocity motion in the computer model coupled with the PbI worksheet did allow for making sense and experiencing of the 1st Law, where traditional pen-paper represen...

  13. Frequency and damping ratio assessment of high-rise buildings using an Automatic Model-Based Approach applied to real-world ambient vibration recordings

    Nasser, Fatima; Li, Zhongyang; Gueguen, Philippe; Martin, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the application of the Automatic Model-Based Approach (AMBA) over actual buildings subjected to real-world ambient vibrations. In a previous paper, AMBA was developed with the aim of automating the estimation process of the modal parameters and minimizing the estimation error, especially that of the damping ratio. It is applicable over a single-channel record, has no parameters to be set, and no manual initialization phase. The results presented in this paper should be regarded as further documentation of the approach over real-world ambient vibration signals.

  14. Real-world characterization and differentiation of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy classification

    Price DB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David B Price,1 Christine L Baker,2 Kelly H Zou,3 Victoria S Higgins,4 James T Bailey,4 James S Pike4 1University of Aberdeen, Division of Applied Health Sciences, Aberdeen, UK; 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, New York, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Statistical Center for Outcomes, Real-World and Aggregate Data, Global Innovative Pharma Business, New York, USA; 4Adelphi Real World, Macclesfield, UK Background: This study aimed to characterize and differentiate the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD strategy 2011 cut points through the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT. Methods: Analysis of COPD patient data from the 2012 Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Program was conducted in Europe and US. Matched data from physicians and patients included CAT and mMRC scores. Receiver operating characteristic curves and kappa analysis determined a cut point for CAT and mMRC alignment and thus defined patient movement (“movers” within GOLD groups A–D, depending on the tool used. Logistic regression analysis, with a number of physician- and patient-reported covariates, characterized those movers. Results: Comparing GOLD-defined high-symptom patients using mMRC and CAT cut points (≥2 and ≥10, respectively, there were 890 (53.65% movers; 887 of them (99.66% moved from less symptomatic GOLD groups A and C (using mMRC to more symptomatic groups B and D (using CAT. For receiver operating characteristic (area under the curve: 0.82, P<0.001 and kappa (maximized: 0.45 recommended CAT cut points of ≥24 and ≥26, movers reduced to 429 and 403 patients, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed variables significantly associated with movers were related to impact on normal life, age, cough, and sleep (all P<0.05. Within movers, direction of movement was significantly associated with the same variables (all P<0

  15. Applying monitoring, verification, and accounting techniques to a real-world, enhanced oil recovery operational CO2 leak

    Wimmer, B.T.; Krapac, I.G.; Locke, R.; Iranmanesh, A.

    2011-01-01

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is being tested for oil fields in the Illinois Basin, USA. While this technology has shown promise for improving oil production, it has raised some issues about the safety of CO2 injection and storage. The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) organized a Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) team to develop and deploy monitoring programs at three EOR sites in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. MVA goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. This paper focuses on the use of MVA techniques in monitoring a small CO2 leak from a supply line at an EOR facility under real-world conditions. The ability of shallow monitoring techniques to detect and quantify a CO2 leak under real-world conditions has been largely unproven. In July of 2009, a leak in the pipe supplying pressurized CO2 to an injection well was observed at an MGSC EOR site located in west-central Kentucky. Carbon dioxide was escaping from the supply pipe located approximately 1 m underground. The leak was discovered visually by site personnel and injection was halted immediately. At its largest extent, the hole created by the leak was approximately 1.9 m long by 1.7 m wide and 0.7 m deep in the land surface. This circumstance provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate the performance of several monitoring techniques including soil CO2 flux measurements, portable infrared gas analysis, thermal infrared imagery, and aerial hyperspectral imagery. Valuable experience was gained during this effort. Lessons learned included determining 1) hyperspectral imagery was not effective in detecting this relatively small, short-term CO2 leak, 2) even though injection was halted, the leak remained dynamic and presented a safety risk concern

  16. The real world mental health needs of heart failure patients are not reflected by the depression randomized controlled trial evidence.

    Phillip J Tully

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International depression screening guidelines in heart failure (HF are partly based on depression treatment efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our aim was to test the external validity of depression RCT criteria in a sample of real-world HF patients. METHODS: HF patients admitted to 3 hospitals in South Australia were referred to a HF psychologist if not already receiving current psychiatric management by psychologist or psychiatrist elsewhere. Screening and referral protocol consisted of the following; (a. Patient Health Questionnaire ≥ 10; (b. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥ 7; (c. positive response to 1 item panic attack screener; (d. evidence of suicidality. Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression. RESULTS: Total 81 HF patients were referred from 404 HF admissions, and 73 were assessed (age 60.6 ± 13.4, 47.9% female. Nearly half (47% met at least 1 RCT exclusion criterion, most commonly personality disorder (28.5%, alcohol/substance abuse (17.8% and high suicide risk (11.0%. RCT ineligibility criteria was more frequent among patients with major depression (76.5% vs. 46.2%, p<.01 and dysthymia (26.5% vs. 7.7%, p = .03 but not significantly associated with anxiety disorders. RCT ineligible patients reported greater severity of depression (M = 16.6 ± 5.0 vs. M = 12.9 ± 7.2, p = .02 and were higher consumers of HF psychotherapy services (M = 11.5 ± 4.7 vs. M = 8.5 ± 4.8, p = .01. CONCLUSION: In this real-world sample comparable in size to recent RCT intervention arms, patients with depression disorders presented with complex psychiatric needs including comorbid personality disorders, alcohol/substance use and suicide risk. These findings suggest external validity of depression screening and RCTs could serve as a basis for

  17. A case study of real-world tailpipe emissions for school buses using a 20% biodiesel blend.

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kuhns, Hampden D; Moosmüller, Hans; Witt, Jay; Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Oliver Chang, M-C; Parthasarathy, Gayathri; Nathagoundenpalayam, Suresh Kumar K; Nikolich, George; Watson, John G

    2007-10-15

    Numerous laboratory studies report carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emission reductions with a slight nitrogen oxides emission increase from engines operating with biodiesel and biodiesel blends as compared to using petroleum diesel. We conducted a field study on a fleet of school buses to evaluate the effects of biodiesel use on gaseous and particulate matter fuel-based emission factors under real-world conditions. The field experiment was carried out in two phases during winter 2004. In January (phase I), emissions from approximately 200 school buses operating on petroleum diesel were measured. Immediately after the end of the first phase measurement period, the buses were switched to a 20% biodiesel blend. Emission factors were measured again in March 2004 (phase II) and compared with the January emission factors. To measure gaseous emission factors we used a commercial gaseous remote sensor. Particulate matter emission factors were determined with a combination of the gaseous remote sensor, a Lidar (light detection and ranging), and transmissometer system developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV, U.S.A. Particulate matter emissions from school buses significantly increased (up to a factor of 1.8) after the switch from petroleum diesel to a 20% biodiesel blend. The fuel used during this campaign was provided by a local distributor and was independently analyzed at the end of the on-road experiment. The analysis found high concentrations of free glycerin and reduced flash points in the B 100 parent fuel. Both measures indicate improper separation and processing of the biodiesel product during production. The biodiesel fuels used in the school buses were not in compliance with the U.S.A. ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard that was finalized in December of 2001. The U.S.A. National Biodiesel Board has formed a voluntary National Biodiesel Accreditation Program for producers and marketers of biodiesel to ensure product quality and

  18. Suitability of Synthetic Driving Profiles from Traffic Micro-Simulation for Real-World Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Hou, Yunfei; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-14

    A shift towards increased levels of driving automation is generally expected to result in improved safety and traffic congestion outcomes. However, little empirical data exists to estimate the impact that automated driving could have on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In the absence of empirical data on differences between drive cycles from present day vehicles (primarily operated by humans) and future vehicles (partially or fully operated by computers) one approach is to model both situations over identical traffic conditions. Such an exercise requires traffic micro-simulation to not only accurately model vehicle operation under high levels of automation, but also (and potentially more challenging) vehicle operation under present day human drivers. This work seeks to quantify the ability of a commercial traffic micro-simulation program to accurately model real-world drive cycles in vehicles operated primarily by humans in terms of driving speed, acceleration, and simulated fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from models of freeway and arterial facilities near Atlanta, Georgia, are compared to empirical data collected from real-world drivers on the same facilities. Empirical and synthetic drive cycles are then simulated in a powertrain efficiency model to enable comparison on the basis of fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from traffic micro-simulation were found to exhibit low levels of transient behavior relative to the empirical data. Even with these differences, the synthetic and empirical data in this study agree well in terms of driving speed and simulated fuel economy. The differences in transient behavior between simulated and empirical data suggest that larger stochastic contributions in traffic micro-simulation (relative to those present in the traffic micro-simulation tool used in this study) are required to fully capture the arbitrary elements of human driving. Interestingly, the lack of stochastic contributions from models of human drivers

  19. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  20. Real-world aspects of the nuclear criticality safety program at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    The nuclear criticality safety (NCS) program at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville (UTK) emphasizes the open-quotes real worldclose quotes in the NCS courses that are offered and also the NCS research that is conducted. Two NCS courses are offered at UTK. The first course is an introduction to the NCS field, which uses the text by Knief and includes an overview of criticality accidents that have actually happened, standards that are currently in use and being developed, and state-of-the-art computer methods and codes. The students learn the same codes, including both theory and application, that are used by most professionals in the NCS field. Thus, if a student accepts a job offer in the NCS area after graduation, he or she is capable of doing productive NCS work the first day on the job. Subcritical limits, hand-calculation methods, current regulations [both U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)] and current practices are also discussed in the introductory course. The second course emphasizes real world experience and is taught by five instructors with over 100 years of combined experience

  1. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland.

    Pirjola, Liisa; Dittrich, Aleš; Niemi, Jarkko V; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Järvinen, Anssi; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 10(14) # (kg fuel)(-1), 6-40 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)(-1), for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions. PMID:26682775

  2. Strategies for Selecting Routes through Real-World Environments: Relative Topography, Initial Route Straightness, and Cardinal Direction.

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that route planners use several reliable strategies for selecting between alternate routes. Strategies include selecting straight rather than winding routes leaving an origin, selecting generally south- rather than north-going routes, and selecting routes that avoid traversal of complex topography. The contribution of this paper is characterizing the relative influence and potential interactions of these strategies. We also examine whether individual differences would predict any strategy reliance. Results showed evidence for independent and additive influences of all three strategies, with a strong influence of topography and initial segment straightness, and relatively weak influence of cardinal direction. Additively, routes were also disproportionately selected when they traversed relatively flat regions, had relatively straight initial segments, and went generally south rather than north. Two individual differences, extraversion and sense of direction, predicted the extent of some effects. Under real-world conditions navigators indeed consider a route's initial straightness, cardinal direction, and topography, but these cues differ in relative influence and vary in their application across individuals.

  3. Variability in Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Emission Factors from Trip-Based Real-World Measurements.

    Liu, Bin; Frey, H Christopher

    2015-10-20

    Using data obtained with portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS) on multiple routes for 100 gasoline vehicles, including passenger cars (PCs), passenger trucks (PTs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), variability in tailpipe emission rates was evaluated. Tier 2 emission standards are shown to be effective in lowering NOx, CO, and HC emission rates. Although PTs are larger, heavier vehicles that consume more fuel and produce more CO2 emissions, they do not necessarily produce more emissions of regulated pollutants compared to PCs. HEVs have very low emission rates compared to tier 2 vehicles under real-world driving. Emission factors vary with cycle average speed and road type, reflecting the combined impact of traffic control and traffic congestion. Compared to the slowest average speed and most congested cycles, optimal emission rates could be 50% lower for CO2, as much as 70% lower for NOx, 40% lower for CO, and 50% lower for HC. There is very high correlation among vehicles when comparing driving cycles. This has implications for how many cycles are needed to conduct comparisons between vehicles, such as when comparing fuels or technologies. Concordance between empirical and predicted emission rates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model was also assessed. PMID:26401623

  4. Vehicular Causation Factors and Conceptual Design Modifications to Reduce Aortic Strain in Numerically Reconstructed Real World Nearside Lateral Automotive Crashes

    Aditya Belwadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic injury (AI leading to disruption of the aorta is an uncommon but highly lethal consequence of trauma in modern society. Most recent estimates range from 7,500 to 8,000 cases per year from a variety of causes. It is observed that more than 80% of occupants who suffer an aortic injury die at the scene due to exsanguination into the chest cavity. It is evident that effective means of substantially improving the outcome of motor vehicle crash-induced AIs is by preventing the injury in the first place. In the current study, 16 design of computer experiments (DOCE were carried out with varying levels of principal direction of force (PDOF, impact velocity, impact height, and impact position of the bullet vehicle combined with occupant seating positions in the case vehicle to determine the effects of these factors on aortic injury. Further, a combination of real world crash data reported in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN database, Finite Element (FE vehicle models, and the Wayne State Human Body Model-II (WSHBM-II indicates that occupant seating position, impact height, and PDOF, in that order play, a primary role in aortic injury.

  5. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  6. [Correlation analysis on combined medication with of Xiyanping injection in treatment of lung infection in real world].

    Yin, Xiu-ping; Xie, Yan-ming; Zhi, Ying-jie; Yang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-fei; Huo, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the regularity in combined medication with Xiyanping injection (Xiyanping for short) in the real world by as- sociation rules. Totally 5 822 patients using Xiyanping injection was collected from the 18 Class III Grade I hospitals nationwide to study the combined medication information of the patient with lung infection and make the analysis by using association rules and Apriori. According to the results, major drugs combined with Xiyanping in treatment of lung infection included compound amino acid, inosine, coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, vitamin C. Common drugs combined with Xiyanping can be divided into 5 categories: nutrition support therapy (vitamin C, compound amino acid) , coenzymes (coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, inosine), expectorants and antiasthmatics (ambroxol, salbutamol, doxofylline), hormones (dexamethasone, budesonide), antibiotics (mainly cefminox). The main combined medicines mostly conformed to the regularity for drugs treating lung infection. In addition, there were two most common medical combination models: the model for Xiyanping combined a single medicine is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy, while the model for Xiyanping combined two or more than two medicines is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy + coenzyme. Pharmacologically, Xiyanping is mostly combined with western medicines with similar pharmacological effects to substitute or supplement the antibiotic effect in treating lung infection. However, further studies shall be conducted for the safety and rationality of the combined medication based on clinical practices, in order to provide reference for clinical medication. PMID:26591539

  7. Treatment of hereditary angioedema with icatibant: efficacy in clinical trials versus effectiveness in the real-world setting.

    Maurer, Marcus; Longhurst, Hilary J; Fabien, Vincent; Li, H Henry; Lumry, William R

    2014-01-01

    Icatibant was efficacious and generally well tolerated for type I or II hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in adults in the phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST)-3 trial. The Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) is an international, observational study assessing icatibant treatment of HAE attacks. We conducted a posthoc analysis to compare for the first time the treatment of HAE type I or II attacks in patients prescribed icatibant in real-world (IOS) versus controlled trial settings (FAST-3). In FAST-3, patients received icatibant administered by health care professionals (HCPs). In IOS, patients self-administered icatibant or were treated by HCPs. Median time to treatment, time to resolution (almost complete resolution [FAST-3] or complete resolution [IOS]), and attack duration in patients who were treated by an HCP were compared between IOS and FAST-3. Descriptive statistical methods compared nonlaryngeal attacks treated less than 12 hours from attack onset. Analysis included 102 patients (376 attacks) from IOS and 43 patients (43 attacks) from FAST-3 (controlled phase). All endpoints were significantly longer for patients in FAST-3 (HCP administration) versus IOS (HCP administration) (p III setting, with a shortened time to symptom resolution and attack duration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00912093 (FAST-3); NCT01034969 (IOS). PMID:25198193

  8. Development of skull fracture criterion based on real-world head trauma simulations using finite element head model.

    Sahoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance an existing finite element (FE) head model with composite modeling and a new constitutive law for the skull. The response of the state-of-the-art FE head model was validated in the time domain using data from 15 temporo-parietal impact experiments, conducted with postmortem human surrogates. The new model predicted skull fractures observed in these tests. Further, 70 well-documented head trauma cases were reconstructed. The 15 experiments and 70 real-world head trauma cases were combined to derive skull fracture injury risk curves. The skull internal energy was found to be the best candidate to predict skull failure based on an in depth statistical analysis of different mechanical parameters (force, skull internal energy), head kinematic-based parameter, the head injury criterion (HIC), and skull fracture correlate (SFC). The proposed tolerance limit for 50% risk of skull fracture was associated with 453mJ of internal energy. Statistical analyses were extended for individual impact locations (frontal, occipital and temporo-parietal) and separate injury risk curves were obtained. The 50% risk of skull fracture for each location: frontal: 481mJ, occipital: 457mJ, temporo-parietal: 456mJ of skull internal energy. PMID:26703363

  9. The influence of base rates on correlations: An evaluation of proposed alternative effect sizes with real-world data.

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike

    2016-09-01

    Correlations are the simplest and most commonly understood effect size statistic in psychology. The purpose of the current paper was to use a large sample of real-world data (109 correlations with 60,415 participants) to illustrate the base rate dependence of correlations when applied to dichotomous or ordinal data. Specifically, we examined the influence of the base rate on different effect size metrics. Correlations decreased when the dichotomous variable did not have a 50 % base rate. The higher the deviation from a 50 % base rate, the smaller the observed Pearson's point-biserial and Kendall's tau correlation coefficients. In contrast, the relationship between base rate deviations and the more commonly proposed alternatives (i.e., polychoric correlation coefficients, AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, and Cohen's d) were less remarkable, with AUCs being most robust to attenuation due to base rates. In other words, the base rate makes a marked difference in the magnitude of the correlation. As such, when using dichotomous data, the correlation may be more sensitive to base rates than is optimal for the researcher's goals. Given the magnitude of the association between the base rate and point-biserial correlations (r = -.81) and Kendall's tau (r = -.80), we recommend that AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, Cohen's d, or polychoric correlations should be considered as alternate effect size statistics in many contexts. PMID:26182856

  10. Impact and Effectiveness of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Real-world Experience.

    Garland, Suzanne M; Kjaer, Susanne K; Muñoz, Nubia; Block, Stan L; Brown, Darron R; DiNubile, Mark J; Lindsay, Brianna R; Kuter, Barbara J; Perez, Gonzalo; Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Saah, Alfred J; Drury, Rosybel; Das, Rituparna; Velicer, Christine

    2016-08-15

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs constitute major public health initiatives worldwide. We assessed the global effect of quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccination on HPV infection and disease. PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles from January 2007 through February 2016 to identify observational studies reporting the impact or effectiveness of 4vHPV vaccination on infection, anogenital warts, and cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Over the last decade, the impact of HPV vaccination in real-world settings has become increasingly evident, especially among girls vaccinated before HPV exposure in countries with high vaccine uptake. Maximal reductions of approximately 90% for HPV 6/11/16/18 infection, approximately 90% for genital warts, approximately 45% for low-grade cytological cervical abnormalities, and approximately 85% for high-grade histologically proven cervical abnormalities have been reported. The full public health potential of HPV vaccination is not yet realized. HPV-related disease remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in developing and developed nations, underscoring the need for HPV vaccination programs with high population coverage. PMID:27230391

  11. Real-world comparison of probe vehicle emissions and fuel consumption using diesel and 5% biodiesel (B5) blend

    An instrumented EURO I Ford Mondeo was used to perform a real-world comparison of vehicle exhaust (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen) emissions and fuel consumption for diesel and 5% biodiesel in diesel blend (B5) fuels. Data were collected on multiple replicates of three standardised on-road journeys: (1) a simple urban route; (2) a combined urban/inter-urban route; and, (3) an urban route subject to significant traffic management. At the total journey measurement level, data collected here indicate that replacing diesel with a B5 substitute could result in significant increases in both NOx emissions (8-13%) and fuel consumption (7-8%). However, statistical analysis of probe vehicle data demonstrated the limitations of comparisons based on such total journey measurements, i.e., methods analogous to those used in conventional dynamometer/drive cycle fuel comparison studies. Here, methods based on the comparison of speed/acceleration emissions and fuel consumption maps are presented. Significant variations across the speed/acceleration surface indicated that direct emission and fuel consumption impacts were highly dependent on the journey/drive cycle employed. The emission and fuel consumption maps were used both as descriptive tools to characterise impacts and predictive tools to estimate journey-specific emission and fuel consumption effects. (author)

  12. Adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient calculation for temporal networks (applied to a real-world pig trade network).

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The average topological overlap of two graphs of two consecutive time steps measures the amount of changes in the edge configuration between the two snapshots. This value has to be zero if the edge configuration changes completely and one if the two consecutive graphs are identical. Current methods depend on the number of nodes in the network or on the maximal number of connected nodes in the consecutive time steps. In the first case, this methodology breaks down if there are nodes with no edges. In the second case, it fails if the maximal number of active nodes is larger than the maximal number of connected nodes. In the following, an adaption of the calculation of the temporal correlation coefficient and of the topological overlap of the graph between two consecutive time steps is presented, which shows the expected behaviour mentioned above. The newly proposed adaption uses the maximal number of active nodes, i.e. the number of nodes with at least one edge, for the calculation of the topological overlap. The three methods were compared with the help of vivid example networks to reveal the differences between the proposed notations. Furthermore, these three calculation methods were applied to a real-world network of animal movements in order to detect influences of the network structure on the outcome of the different methods. PMID:27026862

  13. Effects of idle reduction technologies on real world fuel use and exhaust emissions of idling long-haul trucks.

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao; Villa, Charles

    2009-09-01

    Idling long-haul freight tucks may consume nearly one billion gallons of diesel fuel per year in the U.S. There is a need for real-world data by which to quantify avoided fuel use and emissions attributable to idle reduction techniques of auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Field data were obtained from 20 APU-equipped and SP-compatible trucks observed during 2.8 million miles of travel in 42 states. Base engine fuel use and emission rates varied depending on ambient temperature. APU and SP energy use and emission rates varied depending on electrical load. APUs reduced idling fuel use and CO2 emissions for single and team drivers by 22 and 5% annually, respectively. SP offers greater reductions in energy use of 48% for single drivers, as well as in emissions, except for SO2. APUs were cost-effective for single drivers with a large number of APU usage hours per year, but not for team drivers or for single drivers with low APU utilization rates. The findings support more accurate assessments of avoided fuel use and emissions, and recommendations to encourage greater APU utilization by single drivers and to further develop infrastructure for SP. PMID:19764263

  14. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  15. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth

    Rebecca B. Price

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.

  16. "Why Isn't There a Cure?" Emerging Empathy and Prosocial Behaviors among Middle Childhood Children Responding to Real-World Issue Lessons

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empathy and prosocial behaviors within real-world issues among Korean middle-childhood children living in Australia. Using a qualitative approach, seven students were engaged in six sessions of group or individual activities including five sessions of responding to video vignettes which demonstrated…

  17. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth.

    Price, Rebecca B; Allen, Kristy Benoit; Silk, Jennifer S; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Ryan, Neal D; Dahl, Ronald E; Forbes, Erika E; Siegle, Greg J

    2016-06-01

    Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts. PMID:27010577

  18. A Structured Approach to Teaching Applied Problem Solving through Technology Assessment.

    Fischbach, Fritz A.; Sell, Nancy J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an approach to problem solving based on real-world problems. Discusses problem analysis and definitions, preparation of briefing documents, solution finding techniques (brainstorming and synectics), solution evaluation and judgment, and implementation. (JM)

  19. The role of fantasy contexts in word problems

    Wiest, Lynda

    2001-09-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of different contexts for word problems given to Grade Four and Grade Six students. In particular, the use of fantasy contexts were examined and compared with both adult and children/s real-world contexts. The study found that students expressed an interest in the fantasy contexts, and solved problems using these contexts as well as or better than real-world problems.

  20. The ethology of empathy: a taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers.

    Preston, Stephanie D; Hofelich, Alicia J; Stansfield, R Brent

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people's response to life stressors varies widely-from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown-variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient's and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused) that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful). These types elicited four major emotions in observers [personal distress (PD), empathic concern (EC), horror, pleasure], two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid toward more emotive targets while perspective taking (PT) motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients' speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers. PMID:23986680

  1. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and 'real world' adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey.

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S; Polovina, Marija M; Petranov, Stanislav L; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary 'real-world' AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the 'truly low-risk' patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  2. Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao

    2009-07-01

    Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions. PMID:19645270

  3. EEG-based decoding of error-related brain activity in a real-world driving task

    Zhang, H.; Chavarriaga, R.; Khaliliardali, Z.; Gheorghe, L.; Iturrate, I.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives. Recent studies have started to explore the implementation of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as part of driving assistant systems. The current study presents an EEG-based BCI that decodes error-related brain activity. Such information can be used, e.g., to predict driver’s intended turning direction before reaching road intersections. Approach. We executed experiments in a car simulator (N = 22) and a real car (N = 8). While subject was driving, a directional cue was shown before reaching an intersection, and we classified the presence or not of an error-related potentials from EEG to infer whether the cued direction coincided with the subject’s intention. In this protocol, the directional cue can correspond to an estimation of the driving direction provided by a driving assistance system. We analyzed ERPs elicited during normal driving and evaluated the classification performance in both offline and online tests. Results. An average classification accuracy of 0.698 ± 0.065 was obtained in offline experiments in the car simulator, while tests in the real car yielded a performance of 0.682 ± 0.059. The results were significantly higher than chance level for all cases. Online experiments led to equivalent performances in both simulated and real car driving experiments. These results support the feasibility of decoding these signals to help estimating whether the driver’s intention coincides with the advice provided by the driving assistant in a real car. Significance. The study demonstrates a BCI system in real-world driving, extending the work from previous simulated studies. As far as we know, this is the first online study in real car decoding driver’s error-related brain activity. Given the encouraging results, the paradigm could be further improved by using more sophisticated machine learning approaches and possibly be combined with applications in intelligent vehicles.

  4. Tiotropium's cost-effectiveness for the treatment of COPD: a cost-utility analysis under real-world conditions

    Thiry Nancy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tiotropium is reimbursed since March 2004 in Belgium for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. Questions however remain on this product's value for money. The purpose of this study is to calculate tiotropium's cost-effectiveness under real-world conditions. Methods Strengths of both observational and RCT data were combined in a model. A large longitudinal (2002-2006 observational dataset of regular tiotropium users (56 321 patients was analysed to retrieve the baseline risk for exacerbations and exacerbation-related hospitalisations the year before the first delivery of tiotropium. The relative treatment effect from the UPLIFT (Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium trial was then applied to this baseline risk to reflect the effect of tiotropium treatment and calculate the intervention's incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. Results After 1000 Latin Hypercube simulations, the incremental benefit expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALY gained is on average 0.00048 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.00009 - 0.00092. In combination with a substantial mean incremental cost of €373 per patient (95% CI 279 - 475, this results in an unfavourable average ICER of €1 244 023 (95% CI 328 571 - 4 712 704 per QALY gained. Results were most sensitive to the treatment effect on hospitalisations. Based on our large observational database, up to 89% of the patients were not hospitalised for COPD in the year before the first tiotropium delivery. Conclusions The main cause for tiotropium's unfavourable cost-effectiveness ratio is a combination of a relative high price for tiotropium, a low number of hospitalisations without tiotropium treatment (on average 0.14/year and a non-significant treatment effect (on average 0.94 with respect to avoiding exacerbation-related hospitalisations. From an economic point of view, a revision of reimbursement modalities (e.g. with a lower price

  5. Global sampling to assess the value of diverse observations in conditioning a real-world groundwater flow and transport model

    Delsman, Joost R.; Winters, Pieter; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Lebbe, Luc

    2016-03-01

    The use of additional types of observational data has often been suggested to alleviate the ill-posedness inherent to parameter estimation of groundwater models and constrain model uncertainty. Disinformation in observational data caused by errors in either the observations or the chosen model structure may, however, confound the value of adding observational data in model conditioning. This paper uses the global generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation methodology to investigate the value of different observational data types (heads, fluxes, salinity, and temperature) in conditioning a groundwater flow and transport model of an extensively monitored field site in the Netherlands. We compared model conditioning using the real observations to a synthetic model experiment, to demonstrate the possible influence of disinformation in observational data in model conditioning. Results showed that the value of different conditioning targets was less evident when conditioning to real measurements than in a measurement error-only synthetic model experiment. While in the synthetic experiment, all conditioning targets clearly improved model outcomes, minor improvements or even worsening of model outcomes was observed for the real measurements. This result was caused by errors in both the model structure and the observations, resulting in disinformation in the observational data. The observed impact of disinformation in the observational data reiterates the necessity of thorough data validation and the need for accounting for both model structural and observational errors in model conditioning. It further suggests caution when translating results of synthetic modeling examples to real-world applications. Still, applying diverse conditioning data types was found to be essential to constrain uncertainty, especially in the transport of solutes in the model.

  6. The ethology of empathy: A taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers

    Stephanie D Preston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people’s response to life stressors varies widely—from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown—variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient’s and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful. These types elicited four major emotions in observers (personal distress, empathic concern, horror, pleasure, two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid towards more emotive targets while perspective taking motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients’ speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers.

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

    SAGITOVA ZH; MIRZAMBETOVA ZH.; KUNGOZHANOVA A.

    2015-01-01

    This article observes problem-based learning where students engage complex, challenging problems and collaboratively work toward their resolution. Problem-based learning is about students connecting disciplinary knowledge to real-world problems - the motivation to solve a problem becomes the motivation to learn.

  8. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To achieve public awareness and thorough understanding about expected climate changes and their future implications, ways have to be found to communicate model outputs to the public in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. The newly developed Climate Twins tool tries to fulfil these requirements via an intuitively usable web application, which compares spatial patterns of current climate with future climate patterns, derived from regional climate model results. To get a picture of the implications of future climate in an area of interest, users may click on a certain location within an interactive map with underlying future climate information. A second map depicts the matching Climate Twin areas according to current climate conditions. In this way scientific output can be communicated to the public which allows for experiencing climate change through comparison with well-known real world conditions. To identify climatic coincidence seems to be a simple exercise, but the accuracy and applicability of the similarity identification depends very much on the selection of climate indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges. Too many indicators representing various climate characteristics and too narrow uncertainty ranges will judge little or no area as regions with similar climate, while too little indicators and too wide uncertainty ranges will address too large regions as those with similar climate which may not be correct. Similarity cannot be just explored by comparing mean values or by calculating correlation coefficients. As climate change triggers an alteration of various indicators, like maxima, minima, variation magnitude, frequency of extreme events etc., the identification of appropriate similarity conditions is a crucial question to be solved. For Climate Twins identification, it is necessary to find a right balance of indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges, unless the results will be too vague conducting a

  9. Opening address

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  10. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  11. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  12. No difference in persistence to treatment with atazanavir or darunavir in HIV patients in a real-world setting

    Amanda M Farr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a lack of data comparing the protease inhibitors (PIs atazanavir (ATV and darunavir (DRV in a real-world setting. This study compared persistence (time to switch/discontinuation to therapy between ATV-treated and DRV-treated patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study using US insurance claims for commercially and Medicaid-insured patients. Patients were aged ≥18 years and initiated an ATV- or DRV-based regimen boosted with ritonavir between 7/1/2006 and 3/31/2013, with ≥6 months of continuous enrolment prior to and ≥3 months of continuous enrolment following initiation; patients were required to have ≥1 inpatient or outpatient medical claim with an ICD-9-CM diagnosis code for HIV during that time period of enrolment. Patients with no claims for antiretroviral therapy (ART any time prior to initiation were considered to be ART-naïve. Time to switch/discontinuation was defined as the number of days from initiation of the regimen until earliest of: (1 a ≥30-day continuous gap in therapy in ATV or DRV; (2 a prescription claim for an ART agent that was not part of the initial regimen (with the exception of changes in concomitant nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or the addition of integrase inhibitors; (3 censoring at a ≥30-day continuous gap in therapy in ritonavir; (4 censoring at disenrolment from insurance benefits or (5 censoring at the study end date (9/30/2013 in the commercial data and 12/31/2013 in the Medicaid data. Time to switch/discontinuation was compared using incidence rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for calendar time, patient demographics and clinical characteristics. Results: Table 1 displays the study results and cohort sample sizes. Mean ages across the cohorts were 41–42 years. The proportions of patients who were ART-naïve were 58–59% among the ATV/r cohorts and 53–55% among

  13. Measurements of real-world vehicle CO and NOx fleet average emissions in urban tunnels of two cities in China

    Deng, Yiwen; Chen, Chao; Li, Qiong; Hu, Qinqiang; Yuan, Haoting; Li, Junmei; Li, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Urban tunnels located in the city center areas, can alleviate traffic pressure and provide more convenient traffic for people. Vehicles emit pollutants that are significant contributors to air pollution inside and at the outlet of tunnels. Ventilation is the most widely used method to dilute pollutants in tunnels. To calculate the design required air volume flow accurately, vehicle emissions should be exactly determined. Emission factors are important parameters to estimate vehicle emissions. To characterize carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission factors for a mixed vehicle fleet under real-world driving conditions of urban China, we measured CO and NOX concentrations in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel and Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel in 2012 and 2013. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors were calculated according to tunnel pollutants mass balance models. The results showed that the maximum CO concentration in August was 86 ppm, while in October it was 45 ppm in Shanghai East Yan'an Road tunnel. The maximum concentrations of CO and NOX were 33 ppm and 2 ppm in Changsha Yingpan Road tunnel, respectively. In-use fleet average CO emission factors of East Yan'an Road tunnel, with gradient of -3% ∼ 3%, were 1.266 (±0.889) ∼ 3.974 (±2.189) g km-1 vehicle-1. In-use fleet average CO and NOX emission factors of Yingpan Road tunnel with gradient of -6% ∼ 6% amounted to 0.754 (±0.561) ∼ 6.050 (±5.940) g km-1 vehicle-1 and 0.121 (±0.022) ∼ 0.818 (±0.755) g km-1 vehicle-1, respectively. The dependences of CO and NOX emission on roadway gradient and vehicle speed were found. The average CO and NOX emission factors increased with the ascending of roadway gradient as well as reverse with vehicle speed. These findings provide meaningful reference for ventilation design and environmental assessment of urban tunnels, and further help provide basic data to formulate relevant standards and norms.

  14. Development of real-world driving cycles and estimation of emission factors for in-use light-duty gasoline vehicles in urban areas.

    Hwa, Mei-Yin; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2014-07-01

    This investigation adopts vehicle tracking manner to establish real-world driving patterns and estimates emission factors with dynamometers with 23 traffic-driving variables for 384 in-use light-duty passenger vehicles during non-rush hour. Adequate numbers of driving variables were decided with factor analysis and cluster analysis. The dynamometer tests were performed on FTP75 cycle and five local driving cycles derived from real-world speed profiles. Results presented that local driving cycles and FTP75 cycle were completely different in driving characteristic parameters of typical driving cycles and emission factors. The highest values of emission factor ratios of local driving cycle and FTP75 cycle for CO, NMHC, NO x , CH4, and CO2 were 1.38, 1.65, 1.58, 1.39, and 1.14, respectively. PMID:24526615

  15. Real World Operation of a Complex Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Analysis of Its CO 2 Emissions and Operating Costs

    Federico Millo; Luciano Rolando; Rocco Fuso

    2014-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (pHEVs) could represent the stepping stone to move towards a more sustainable mobility and combine the benefits of electric powertrains with the high range capability of conventional vehicles. Nevertheless, despite the huge potential in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction, the performance of such vehicles has to be deeply investigated in real world driving conditions considering also the CO 2 production related to battery recharge which, on the contrary, is curr...

  16. The MARCOPOLO Study of Ustekinumab Utilization and Efficacy in a Real-World Setting: Treatment of Patients with Plaque Psoriasis in Asia-Pacific Countries

    Youn, Sang Woong; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Theng, Colin; Choon, Siew-Eng; Wiryadi, Benny E.; Pires, Antonio; Tan, Weihao; Lee, Min-Geol; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults. However, factors including efficacy, tolerability, ease of use, and cost burden may affect ustekinumab utilization. Noncompliance may, in turn, affect treatment response. Objective To evaluate ustekinumab utilization in the real-world setting in Asia-Pacific countries. Methods In this phase 4 observational study conducted in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sing...

  17. Thermal degradation of real-world waste plastics and simulated mixed plastics in a two-stage pyrolysis-catalysis reactor for fuel production

    Muhammad, C; Onwudili, JA; Williams, PT

    2015-01-01

    Real-world postconsumer mixed plastics and a simulated mixture of plastics were processed in a two-stage pyrolysis-catalysis fixed bed reactor in the presence of a zeolite HZSM-5 catalyst. In addition, single plastic polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate were also processed in the two-stage reactor. The product yield, composition, and hydrocarbon distribution of the product oil was obtained in relation to plastic type. Noncatalytic pyrolysis of the plastics ...

  18. Real-world Object Recognition with Off-the-shelf Deep Conv Nets: How Many Objects can iCub Learn?

    Pasquale, Giulia; Ciliberto, Carlo; Odone, Francesca; Rosasco, Lorenzo; Natale, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to visually recognize objects is a fundamental skill for robotics systems. Indeed, a large variety of tasks involving manipulation, navigation or interaction with other agents, deeply depends on the accurate understanding of the visual scene. Yet, at the time being, robots are lacking good visual perceptual systems, which often become the main bottleneck preventing the use of autonomous agents for real-world applications. Lately in computer vision, systems that learn suitable visu...

  19. Establishing propositional truth-value in counterfactual and real-world contexts during sentence comprehension: Differential sensitivity of the left and right inferior frontal gyri

    Nieuwland, Mante S.

    2012-01-01

    What makes a proposition true or false has traditionally played an essential role in philosophical and linguistic theories of meaning. A comprehensive neurobiological theory of language must ultimately be able to explain the combined contributions of real-world truth-value and discourse context to sentence meaning. This fMRI study investigated the neural circuits that are sensitive to the propositional truth-value of sentences about counterfactual worlds, aiming to reveal differential hemisph...

  20. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention within 12 Hours to 28 Days of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Real-World Chinese Population

    Xingli Wu; Dingyou Yang; Yusheng Zhao; Caiyi Lu; Yu Wang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous coronary intervention( PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has been widely accepted for patient who come within 12 hours, but for those who come to the hospital late (12 hours to 28 days) the long-term data and possible predictors are limited regarding 'hard' endpoints in 'real world'. METHODS: The registry data of all 5523 consecutive patients admitted due to an incident STEMI (12 hours to 28 days) in our center were analyzed. Patients were divided in...