WorldWideScience

Sample records for addresses real-world problems

  1. Real-World Solutions for Real-World Collaboration Problems

    Macklin, Alexius Smith; Fosmire, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Are you finding collaboration with faculty difficult to initiate? How about a new approach? Problem-based learning (PBL) is an instruction method that investigates and resolves messy, real-world dilemmas. This workshop demonstrates how librarians at Purdue University worked with faculty to incorporate information literacy skills into course content using PBL.

  2. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense supp

  3. Student Internships Bridge Research to Real World Problems

    Hynie, Michaela; Jensen, Krista; Johnny, Michael; Wedlock, Jane; Phipps, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on student perceptions of 24 graduate student internships funded in 2007-2008 by York University's Knowledge Mobilization (KMb) Unit. These internships provided opportunities for students to engage in research with community agencies around real world problems. Design/methodology/approach: The principal…

  4. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem......This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...

  5. Real world problem solving and quality of life in older people

    Gilhooly, M.; Gilhooly, K; Phillips, LH; Harvey, D.; Brady, A; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined relationships between quality of life (QoL) in older people and cognitive functioning in both abstract and real-world problem solving. Design. Contributions of levels of mental, physical and social activities, self-rated and objective health status, self-rated cognitive functioning, socio-economic status, gender, real-world and abstract problem solving were examined in a regression study of factors related to QoL in older people. Method. Participants (N...

  6. Matheuristics for robust optimization: application to real-world problems

    Toklu, Nihat Engin; Gambardella, Luca Maria; Montemanni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In the field of optimization, the perspective that the problem data are subject to uncertainty is gaining more and more interest. The uncertainty in an optimization problem represents the measurement errors during the phase of collecting data, or unforeseen changes in the environment while implementing the optimal solution in practice. When the uncertainty is ignored, an optimal solution according to the mathematical model can turn out to be far from optimal, or even infeasible in realit...

  7. Problems of Music Information Retrieval in the Real World.

    Byrd, Donald; Crawford, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Considers some of the most fundamental problems in music information retrieval, challenging the common assumption that searching on pitch alone is likely to be satisfactory for all purposes. Discusses special issues related to polyphonic music, user-interface issues, and the notion of relevance for music information retrieval. (Contains 52…

  8. Analyzing Student Modeling Cycles in the Context of a "Real World" Problem

    Schorr, Roberta Y.; Amit, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    Many students do not apply their real world intuitions and sense-making abilities when solving mathematics problems in school. In an effort to better understand how to help students draw upon these valued resources, we investigate the manner in which the solution to a particular problem activity is repeatedly re-interpreted by a student. This is…

  9. Applying strategic multiagent planning to real-world travel sharing problems

    Hrnčíř, Jan; Rovatsos, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Travel sharing, i.e., the problem of finding parts of routes which can be shared by several travellers with different points of departure and destinations, is a complex multiagent problem that requires taking into account individual agents' preferences to come up with mutually acceptable joint plans. In this paper, we apply state-of-the-art planning techniques to real-world public transportation data to evaluate the feasibility of multiagent planning techniques in this domain. The potential a...

  10. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  11. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  12. The swath segment selection problem: extending AI search techniques to a novel real-world problem

    Knight, R.; Smith, B.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the Swath Segment Selection problem (SSSP). The SSSP consists of a constrained geometric covering problem and a capacitated resource problem. It comes from the real-life problem of scheduling on- and off-times for air or space-borne instruments that image a target by flying over and collecting a swath of information.

  13. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  14. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Robert Cherinka; Joe Prezzama

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" enviro...

  15. Testing the US Integrated Ocean Observing System Data Discovery and Distribution Infrastructure with Real-World Problems

    Snowden, D. P.; Signell, R.; Knee, K.; Kupiec, J.; Bird, A.; Fratantonio, B.; Koeppen, W.; Wilcox, K.

    2014-12-01

    The distributed, service-oriented architecture of the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS) has been implemented mostly independently by US IOOS partners, using different software approaches and different levels of compliance to standards. Some uniformity has been imparted by documenting the intended output data formats and content and service interface behavior. But to date, a rigorous testing of the distributed system of systems has not been done. To assess the functionality of this system, US IOOS is conducting a system integration test (http://github.com/ioos/system-test) that evaluates whether the services (i.e. SOS, OPeNDAP, WMS, CS/W) deployed to the 17 Federal partners and 11 Regional Associations can solve real-world problems. Scenarios were selected that both address IOOS societal goals and test different functionality of the data architecture. For example, one scenario performs an assessment of water level forecast skill by prompting the user for a bounding box and a temporal extent, searching metadata catalogs via a Catalog Services for the Web (CS/W) interface to discover available sea level observations and model results, extracting data from the identified service endpoints (either OPeNDAP or SOS), interpolating both modeled and observed data onto a common time base, and then comparing the skill of the various models. Other scenarios explore issues such as hypoxia and wading bird habitats. For each scenario, the entire workflow (user input, search, access, analysis and visualization) is captured in an IPython Notebook on GitHub. This allows the scenarios to be self-documenting as well as reproducible by anyone, using free software. The Python packages required to run the scenarios are all available on GitHub and Conda packages are available on binstar.org so that users can easily run the scenarios using the free Anaconda Python distribution. With the advent of hosted services such as Wakari, it is possible for anyone to reproduce these

  16. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  17. Learning to train neural networks for real-world control problems

    Feldkamp, Lee A.; Puskorius, G. V.; Davis, L. I., Jr.; Yuan, F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, our group has concentrated on the application of neural network methods to the training of controllers for real-world systems. This presentation describes our approach, surveys what we have found to be important, mentions some contributions to the field, and shows some representative results. Topics discussed include: (1) executing model studies as rehearsal for experimental studies; (2) the importance of correct derivatives; (3) effective training with second-order (DEKF) methods; (4) the efficacy of time-lagged recurrent networks; (5) liberation from the tyranny of the control cycle using asynchronous truncated backpropagation through time; and (6) multistream training for robustness. Results from model studies of automotive idle speed control serve as examples for several of these topics.

  18. Connecting school and community with science learning: Real world problems and school-community partnerships as contextual scaffolds

    Bouillion, Lisa M.; Gomez, Louis M.

    2001-10-01

    A challenge facing many schools, especially those in urban settings that serve culturally and linguistically diverse populations, is a disconnection between schools and students' home communities, which can have both cognitive and affective implications for students. In this article we explore a form of connected science, in which real-world problems and school-community partnerships are used as contextual scaffolds for bridging students' community-based knowledge and school-based knowledge, as a way to provide all students opportunities for meaningful and intellectually challenging science learning. The potential of these scaffolds for connected science is examined through a case study in which a team of fifth-grade teachers used the student-identified problem of pollution along a nearby river as an interdisciplinary anchor for teaching science, math, language arts, and civics. Our analysis makes visible how diverse forms of knowledge were able to support project activities, examines the consequences for student learning, and identifies the features of real-world problems and school-community partnerships that created these bridging opportunities.

  19. Integer Formulation and Data Analysis of a Real-World Course Timetabling Problem

    Khang T.T.M. Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, educational timetabling problems are considered to be challenging and attractive to operation research community in recent years. In this paper, we investigate a course timetabling problem in practice by introducing an integer formulation and data analysis of this problem. Fourteen data instances are taken from Faculty of Information Technology, University of Science in Vietnam. Thirteen measurements are used to analyze the hardness of these instances.

  20. Simulation-based Optimization of a Real-world Travelling Salesman Problem Using an Evolutionary Algorithm with a Repair Function

    Anna Syberfeldt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-world case study of optimizing waste collection in Sweden. The problem, involving approximately 17,000 garbage bins served by three bin lorries, is approached as a travelling salesman problem and solved using simulation-based optimization and an evolutionary algorithm. To improve the performance of the evolutionary algorithm, it is enhanced with a repair function that adjusts its genome values so that shorter routes are found more quickly. The algorithm is tested using two crossover operators, i.e., the order crossover and heuristic crossover, combined with different mutation rates. The results indicate that the order crossover is superior to the heuristics crossover, but that the driving force of the search process is the mutation operator combined with the repair function.

  1. Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind

    Juan Carlos Olabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n=242 was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in mathematics, participants were introduced to a taxonomic tool for the description of K-12 Math problems. The tool allows the identification, decomposition and description of Type-A problems, the characteristic ones in the traditional curriculum, and of Type-B problems in the new paradigm. The workshops culminated with a set of surveys where participants were asked to assess both the current and the new proposed paradigms. The surveys in this study revealed that according to the majority of participants: (i The K-12 Mathematics curricula are designed to teach students exclusively the resolution of Type-A problems; (ii real life Math problems respond to a paradigm of Type-B problems; and (iii the current Math curriculum should be modified to include this new paradigm.

  2. Colibri: An International Blended Learning Experience based on Real-World Problems

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Kuran, Sükrü; Frick, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    students in 2015. It contains both course and project activities. In this paper we describe our experiences from the project work, from the initial formulation of the project problems by the companies, over the organisation of the seminars and virtual collaboration phase to the final exams. The whole...

  3. Design-based science and the transfer of science knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills

    Fortus, David Leon

    Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks

  4. Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Understanding: Using Geographic Information Systems to Mediate Urban High School Students' Real-World Problem Solving

    DeBay, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    To explore student mathematical self-efficacy and understanding of graphical data, this dissertation examines students solving real-world problems in their neighborhood, mediated by professional urban planning technologies. As states and schools are working on the alignment of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), traditional…

  5. Real-world outcomes

    Askehave, Inger; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    analyses during one specific meeting. An important element of the latter is to assess whether the discussion of our results gives rise to respondents’ reflection, resistance, acceptance, rejection, or indifference, and whether this leads to changes in respondents’ views on culture and organizational...... of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners. The discussion will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross-border company and the possible implications of this for organizational collaboration...... collaboration. This way, we hope to demonstrate that the practical applicability of our findings becomes one of shedding light on potential problems and providing advice (which may be considered an important aim of discourse-based research) instead of making specific recommendations on issues of practice beyond...

  6. Alice in the Real World

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  7. Connecting Students to the Real World: Developing Gifted Behaviors through Service Learning

    Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Chancey, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning in today's classrooms can be disconnected from students' real world experiences. Providing students the opportunity to address real-world problems may provide avenues for students to engage in their communities while developing academic skills and knowledge. Additionally, for students whose interests are piqued by the nature of their…

  8. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization for Real-World Delivery Problems Based on Real Time and Predicted Traffic in Wide Area Road Network

    Junichi Ochiai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to real-world delive ry problems for home delivery services where a large number of roads exist in cities and the tra ffic on the roads rapidly changes with time. The methodology for finding the shortest-travel-tim e tour includes a hybrid meta-heuristic that combines ant colony optimization with Dijkstra’s al gorithm, a search technique that uses both real-time traffic and predicted traffic, and a way to use a real-world road map and measured traffic in Japan. Experimental results using a map of central Tokyo and historical traffic data indicate that the proposed method can find a better solution than conventional methods.

  9. Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications

    Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...

  10. Theory- and evidence based interventions for children with conduct problems : exploring applicability and underlying assumptions in real world settings

    2009-01-01

    Severe child conduct problems (aggressive, disruptive, destructive, oppositional, non-compliant and antisocial behavior) are predictive of serious and violent offences, substance use problems, mental health problems and domestic violence later in life (Moffitt, 2006). Left untreated, as many as 50% to 75% of the children with severe and early conduct problems will exhibit antisocial behavior in adolescence (Nixon, 2002). However, early trajectories of conduct problems can be altered (Brestan ...

  11. Comparing the cognitive differences resulting from modeling instruction: Using computer microworld and physical object instruction to model real world problems

    Oursland, Mark David

    This study compared the modeling achievement of students receiving mathematical modeling instruction using the computer microworld, Interactive Physics, and students receiving instruction using physical objects. Modeling instruction included activities where students applied the (a) linear model to a variety of situations, (b) linear model to two-rate situations with a constant rate, (c) quadratic model to familiar geometric figures. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze achievement differences between students (a) receiving different methods of modeling instruction, (b) with different levels of beginning modeling ability, or (c) with different levels of computer literacy. Student achievement was analyzed quantitatively through a three-factor analysis of variance where modeling instruction, beginning modeling ability, and computer literacy were used as the three independent factors. The SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) assessment framework was used to design written modeling assessment instruments to measure the students' modeling achievement. The same three independent factors were used to collect and analyze the interviews and observations of student behaviors. Both methods of modeling instruction used the data analysis approach to mathematical modeling. The instructional lessons presented problem situations where students were asked to collect data, analyze the data, write a symbolic mathematical equation, and use equation to solve the problem. The researcher recommends the following practice for modeling instruction based on the conclusions of this study. A variety of activities with a common structure are needed to make explicit the modeling process of applying a standard mathematical model. The modeling process is influenced strongly by prior knowledge of the problem context and previous modeling experiences. The conclusions of this study imply that knowledge of the properties about squares improved the students

  12. Real-world outcomes

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When working with discourse-based research in professional settings, one question invariably arises: How do we, as researchers, ensure that our findings are taken up by the professionals with whom analyses are carried out, leading to reflections on or even change in their social practices? The...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross......-border software company and the possible implications of these constructions for organizational collaboration. Special attention will be paid to the reflexive processes which took place as we, the researchers, discussed the findings of our analyses with a group of managers, the practitioners, during one specific...

  13. An architectural blueprint for a real-world internet

    Gluhak A.; Hauswirth M.; Krco S.; Stojanovic N.; Bauer M; Nielsen R.; Haller S.; Prasad N; Reynolds V; Corcho O.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among these systems is limited. To address these issues and to speed up development and deployment while at the same time reduce development and maintenance costs, reference architectures are an appropriate too...

  14. Multi-stage thermal-economical optimization of compact heat exchangers: A new evolutionary-based design approach for real-world problems

    The complicated task of design optimization of compact heat exchangers (CHEs) have been effectively performed by using evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in the recent years. However, mainly due to difficulties of handling extra variables, the design approach has been based on constant rates of heat duty in the available literature. In this paper, a new design strategy is presented where variable operating conditions, which better represent real-world problems, are considered. The proposed strategy is illustrated using a case study for design of a plate-fin heat exchanger though it can be employed for all types of heat exchangers without much change. Learning automata based particle swarm optimization (LAPSO), is employed for handling nine design variables while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. For handling the constraints, a novel feasibility based ranking strategy (FBRS) is introduced. The numerical results indicate that the design based on variable heat duties yields in more cost savings and superior thermodynamics efficiency comparing to a conventional design approach. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has shown a superior performance in finding the near-optimum solution for this task when it is compared to the most popular evolutionary algorithms in engineering applications, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). - Highlights: • Multi-stage design of heat exchangers is presented. • Feasibility based ranking strategy is employed for constraint handling. • Learning abilities added to particle swarm optimization

  15. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  16. The Brown Superfund Basic Research Program: A Multistakeholder Partnership Addresses Real-World Problems in Contaminated Communities

    Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO...

  17. Curricular Orientations to Real-World Contexts in Mathematics

    Smith, Cathy; Morgan, Candia

    2016-01-01

    A common claim about mathematics education is that it should equip students to use mathematics in the "real world". In this paper, we examine how relationships between mathematics education and the real world are materialised in the curriculum across a sample of eleven jurisdictions. In particular, we address the orientation of the…

  18. Indexing real-world data using semi-structured documents

    A. R. Schmidt; Windhouwer, M.A.; Kersten, Martin

    1999-01-01

    We address the problem of deriving meaningful semantic index information for a multi-media database using a semi-structured docu-ment model. We show how our framework, called {em feature grammars, can be used to (1)~exploit third-party interpretation modules for real-world unstructured components, and (2)~use context-free grammars to convert such poorly or unstructured input to semi-structured output. The basic idea is to enrich context-free grammars with special symbols called detectors, whi...

  19. Shopping in the Real World

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim of ...

  20. Field balancing in the real world

    Bracher, B.

    1997-09-05

    Field balancing can achieve significant results when other problems are present in the frequency spectrum and multiple vibrations are evident in the waveform. Many references suggest eliminating other problems before attempting to balance. That`s great - if you can do it. There are valid reasons for this approach, and it would be much easier to balance machinery when other problems have been corrected. It is the theoretical ideal in field balancing. However, in the real world of machinery maintained for years by reacting to immediate problems, the classic vibration signature for unbalance is rarely seen. Maintenance personnel make most of their decisions with limited information. The decision to balance or not to balance is usually made the same way. This paper will demonstrate significant results of field balancing in the presence of multiple problems. By examining the data available and analyzing the probabilities, a reasonable chance for success can be assured.

  1. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  2. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN COMPLEX REAL WORLD DOMAINS: A REVIEW

    Samiksha Mahajan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning is an area of Machine Learning inspired by behaviorist psychology based on the mechanism of learning from rewards. RL does not require prior knowledge and automatically get optimal policy with the help of knowledge obtained by trial-and-error and continuous interaction with the dynamic environment. In complex real world domains implementing RL algorithms is the major practical problem due to the large and continuous space. It can give rise to problems like Curse of Dimensionality, Partial Observability Problem, Credit Structuring Problem, Generalization and Exploration-Exploitation Dilemma. This paper gives an introduction to Reinforcement Learning, discusses its basic model and system structure, and discusses the problems faced while implementing RL algorithms in complex real world domains. At last but not the least this paper briefly describes the techniques which can make the working of RL process easier in the complex domains. It concludes with research scope of RL in complex real world.

  3. Virtual and Real World Adaptation for Pedestrian Detection.

    Vázquez, David; López, Antonio M; Marín, Javier; Ponsa, Daniel; Gerónimo, David

    2014-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is of paramount interest for many applications. Most promising detectors rely on discriminatively learnt classifiers, i.e., trained with annotated samples. However, the annotation step is a human intensive and subjective task worth to be minimized. By using virtual worlds we can automatically obtain precise and rich annotations. Thus, we face the question: can a pedestrian appearance model learnt in realistic virtual worlds work successfully for pedestrian detection in real-world images? Conducted experiments show that virtual-world based training can provide excellent testing accuracy in real world, but it can also suffer the data set shift problem as real-world based training does. Accordingly, we have designed a domain adaptation framework, V-AYLA, in which we have tested different techniques to collect a few pedestrian samples from the target domain (real world) and combine them with the many examples of the source domain (virtual world) in order to train a domain adapted pedestrian classifier that will operate in the target domain. V-AYLA reports the same detection accuracy than when training with many human-provided pedestrian annotations and testing with real-world images of the same domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating adaptation of virtual and real worlds for developing an object detector. PMID:26353201

  4. Real-world reasoning toward scalable, uncertain spatiotemporal, contextual and causal inference

    Goertzel, Ben; Coelho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The general problem addressed in this book is a large and important one: how to usefully deal with huge storehouses of complex information about real-world situations. Every one of the major modes of interacting with such storehouses - querying, data mining, data analysis - is addressed by current technologies only in very limited and unsatisfactory ways. The impact of a solution to this problem would be huge and pervasive, as the domains of human pursuit to which such storehouses are acutely relevant is numerous and rapidly growing. Finally, we give a more detailed treatment of one potential

  5. Solving real world problems with mechanical engineering

    Shea, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Planes, trains, and automobiles-these are just some of the many achievements of mechanical engineering. This volume will show readers that they do not have to know complex equations to appreciate the impact the field has had on the world. Accessible text introduces young readers to the machines and engines that power the devices, vehicles, and appliances they encounter on a daily basis. Boxes explain important terms and concepts of mechanics and encourage readers to think critically. The book ends with a guided activity that invites readers to don the hat of a mechanical engineer and build the

  6. An Architectural Blueprint for a Real-World Internet

    Gluhak, Alex; Hauswirth, Manfred; Krco, Srdjan;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among...

  7. An Architectural Blueprint for a Real-World Internet

    Gluhak, Alex; Hauswirth, Manfred; Krco, Srdjan; Stojanovic, Nenad; Bauer, Martin; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Haller, Stephan; Prasad, Neeli R.; Reynolds, Vinny; Corcho, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among these...

  8. CODA performance in the real world

    The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments the authors found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year the authors have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. They discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software

  9. CODA Performance in the Real World

    The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments we found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year we have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. We discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software

  10. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  11. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  12. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  13. Challenges in real world optimisation using evolutionary computing

    Tiwari, Ashutosh; Roy, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    Challenges in real world optimisation using evolutionary computing With rising global competition, it is becoming increasingly more important for industry to optimise its activities. However, the complexity of real-life optimisation problems has prevented industry from exploiting the potential of optimisation algorithms. Industry has therefore relied on either trial-and-error or over- simplification for dealing with its optimisation problems. This has led to the loss of oppo...

  14. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN COMPLEX REAL WORLD DOMAINS: A REVIEW

    Samiksha Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning is an area of Machine Learning inspired by behaviorist psychology based on the mechanism of learning from rewards. RL does not require prior knowledge and automatically get optimal policy with the help of knowledge obtained by trial-and-error and continuous interaction with the dynamic environment. In complex real world domains implementing RL algorithms is the major practical problem due to the large and continuous space. It can give rise to problems like Curse of Dime...

  15. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  16. Finite-temperature chiral transition in real-world QCD?

    I present and discuss the first physics results of a Langevin simulation of finite-temperature QCD with a realistic current quark spectrum. Up to several caveats which will need to be addressed by future studies, our present results suggest that there is a first-order chiral restoration phase transition in real-world QCD, that it is driven by the light condensate and that it should be accompanied by a partial restoration of U(1)A symmetry. (orig.)

  17. Real-World Font Recognition Using Deep Network and Domain Adaptation

    Wang, Zhangyang; Yang, Jianchao; Jin, Hailin; Shechtman, Eli; Agarwala, Aseem; Brandt, Jonathan; Huang, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    We address a challenging fine-grain classification problem: recognizing a font style from an image of text. In this task, it is very easy to generate lots of rendered font examples but very hard to obtain real-world labeled images. This real-to-synthetic domain gap caused poor generalization to new real data in previous methods (Chen et al. (2014)). In this paper, we refer to Convolutional Neural Networks, and use an adaptation technique based on a Stacked Convolutional Auto-Encoder that expl...

  18. Pervasive Sensing: Addressing the Heterogeneity Problem

    Pervasive sensing is characterized by heterogeneity across a number of dimensions. This raises significant problems for those designing, implementing and deploying sensor networks, irrespective of application domain. Such problems include for example, issues of data provenance and integrity, security, and privacy amongst others. Thus engineering a network that is fit-for-purpose represents a significant challenge. In this paper, the issue of heterogeneity is explored from the perspective of those who seek to harness a pervasive sensing element in their applications. A initial solution is proposed based on the middleware construct.

  19. Language Learning for Real-World Context

    Burk, Jenifer Jones

    2016-01-01

    This portfolio contains the beliefs about language learning and teaching that the author possesses. The portfolio is based on the author’s experiences as a language learner and a language teacher. The main theme of the portfolio is to enable students to use the language learned in the classroom in real-world contexts. The first section comprises the author’s teaching philosophy, emphasizing the role of the teacher, student, and environment. Following the teaching philosophy are three artif...

  20. Predicting Complexity Perception of Real World Images.

    Corchs, Silvia Elena; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Bricolo, Emanuela; Gasparini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to predict the complexity perception of real world images. We propose a new complexity measure where different image features, based on spatial, frequency and color properties are linearly combined. In order to find the optimal set of weighting coefficients we have applied a Particle Swarm Optimization. The optimal linear combination is the one that best fits the subjective data obtained in an experiment where observers evaluate the complexity of real world scenes on a web-based interface. To test the proposed complexity measure we have performed a second experiment on a different database of real world scenes, where the linear combination previously obtained is correlated with the new subjective data. Our complexity measure outperforms not only each single visual feature but also two visual clutter measures frequently used in the literature to predict image complexity. To analyze the usefulness of our proposal, we have also considered two different sets of stimuli composed of real texture images. Tuning the parameters of our measure for this kind of stimuli, we have obtained a linear combination that still outperforms the single measures. In conclusion our measure, properly tuned, can predict complexity perception of different kind of images. PMID:27336469

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  2. Real World Learning: a critical analysis

    Jan Činčera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the so called “Hand model”, invented as a part of The Real World learning international project. The aim of the model was to provide guidance for outdoor environmental education programs. In the analysis, it is suggested that the model suffers from inconsistency between its efforts to establish quality criteria consistent with self-directed, emancipatory learning, and its instrumental ambition to promote behavioral change. In the same way, the model provides a new point of view on outdoor environmental education programs, namely on values and frames communicated by the programs.

  3. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  4. PLANNING SOLUTIONS IN THE REAL WORLD

    Fernando Zacarias

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years,researchers have made significant progress on robot planning, leading to impressive realtime planners for such challenging tasks as driving, flying, walking, and manipulating objects. In this paper we present a novel architecture to support applications in artificial intelligence in environments fully observable, i.e. in classical planning.On the other hand, we developed ASP-based applications that allowgoing of classical planning to a dynamic planning, according to the real world execution through logic programming where answer sets correspond to solutions, similar to of answer set programming. Furthermore, our systems allow online planning and replanning, depending on whether plan requires revision during execution and replan accordingly.

  5. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  6. Real World Connections in High School Mathematics Curriculum and Teaching

    Gökhan Karakoç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Making real world connections in mathematics curricula and in teaching mathematics is generally viewed favorably within the educational community, however, little empirical research has examined how and why to use real world connections in mathematics education based on the views of experts. This study describes the feasibility of the use of real world connections according to high school mathematics teachers and academicians of mathematics education. Opinions of high school mathematics teachers (n=16 and academicians (n=8 about advantages, disadvantages, and examples of real world connections are elicited and reported. Teachers and academicians report several advantages of the use of real world connections in teaching mathematics as well as its disadvantages and limitations. Suggestions about dealing with limiting factors for using real world connections are also reported. Keywords: Mathematics curriculum, real world connections, mathematics teaching

  7. Cascade Probability Control to Mitigate Bufferbloat under Multiple Real-World TCP Stacks

    Hoang-Linh To

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistently full buffer problem, commonly known as bufferbloat, causes unnecessary additional latency and throughput degradation whenever congestion happens in Internet. Several proposed queue management schemes, with the debloat mission, are almost based on the modification of one-loop feedback control where the instability and bad transient behavior are still big challenges. In this paper, we present a cascade probability control scheme using margin optimal method to address such challenges under different kinds of real-world TCP stacks. Simulation results guarantee the measured round trip time tracking to a low value of delay (e.g., ≈180 ms under TCP Reno, and ≈130 ms under TCP Cubic and ≈50% delay reduction in comparison to current deployed queue management schemes in network devices.

  8. Impact Of Real-World Driving Characteristics On Vehicular Emissions

    Nesamani, K S; Subramanian, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    With increase in traffic volume and change in travel related characteristics, vehicular emissions and energy consumption have increased significantly since two decades in India. Current models are not capable of estimating vehicular emissions accurately due to inadequate representation of real-world driving. The focus of this paper is to understand the level of Indian Driving cycle (IDC) in representing the real-world driving and to assess the impact of real-world driving on vehicular emissio...

  9. Searching the real world using stationary and mobile object detection

    Funk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates a new form of search engine, which enables the user to search for objects in the real world, just like traditional search engines locate resources on the Internet. A search engine for the real world is a step towards an Internet of Things, where real-world objects become visible to computer systems. In order to being nonintrusive, the tracking of objects is done using visual object detection. It is examined whether instrumenting the environment or instrumenting the us...

  10. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Juste, Pierre St.; Boykin, P. Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existi...

  11. 5th International Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks

    Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop  was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...

  12. Educating Students in Real-World Sustainability Research: Vision and Implementation

    Brundiers, Katja; Wiek, Arnim

    2011-01-01

    Readers are invited to imagine students helping to solve real-world sustainability problems brought to them by societal stakeholders and simultaneously learning about and contributing to sustainable changes in society. Effective sustainability research education engages students in just that. Higher education institutions are implementing this…

  13. Mapping the Importance of the Real World

    Davida, Barberá-Tomás Davida; Fernando, Jiménez-Sáez; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Recent empirical findings have questioned the use of patent citations as a measure. This points to the need of validation of patent citations methodologies, which we address by testing a recent methodology for studying technological evolution, namely connectivity analysis of citation networks. We...

  14. Calculating Biodiversity in the Real World

    Schen, Melissa; Berger, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    One of the standards for life science addressed in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) is "Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics" (HS-LS2). A critical concept included in this core idea is biodiversity. To show competency, students are expected to design investigations, collect data, and…

  15. Real-world ballistics: A dropped bucket

    Hogg, David W.

    2007-01-01

    I discuss an apparently simple ballistics problem: the time it takes an object to fall a small vertical distance near the surface of the Earth. It turns out to be not so simple; I spend a great deal of time on the quantitative assessment of the assumptions involved, especially with regards to the influence of the air. The point is \\emph{not} to solve the problem; indeed I don't even end up solving the problem exactly. I introduce dimensional analysis to perform all of the calculations approxi...

  16. Addressing the P2P Bootstrap Problem for Small Networks

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications consisting of few to many resources with features including self-configuration, scalability, and resilience to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale services for content delivery networks, file sharing, and data storage. In small-scale systems, they can be useful to address privacy concerns and for network applications that lack dedicated servers. The bootstrap problem, finding an existing peer in the overlay, remains a challenge to enabling these services for small-scale P2P systems. In large networks, the solution to the bootstrap problem has been the use of dedicated services, though creating and maintaining these systems requires expertise and resources, which constrain their usefulness and make them unappealing for small-scale systems. This paper surveys and summarizes requirements that allow peers potentially constrained by network connectivity to bootstrap small-scale overlays through the use of e...

  17. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    None

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  18. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Per Backlund; Tom Ziemke; Robert Ramberg; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.; Mikael Lebram

    2013-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone...

  19. Perception of Real-World Without a Language

    Buoiano, Dr. Giancarlo; Betti, Dr. Mario; Bongioanni, Dr. Paolo

    2002-01-01

    Perception of Real-World Without a Language Gian Carlo Buoiano C§, Mario Betti * and Paolo Bongioanni § §Neuroscience Dpt., University of Pisa; *CESER Center of Mental Health (Lucca), Italy C Corresponding author: Giancarlo Buoiano Via del Morello 8 Bargecchia I-55040 Corsanico (LU) Italy e-mail: Abstract The aim of this study is to show how real-world knowledge works without language. Lelio is a 76-year-old man ...

  20. Reinforcement Learning in Robotics: Applications and Real-World Challenges

    Petar Kormushev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In robotics, the ultimate goal of reinforcement learning is to endow robots with the ability to learn, improve, adapt and reproduce tasks with dynamically changing constraints based on exploration and autonomous learning. We give a summary of the state-of-the-art of reinforcement learning in the context of robotics, in terms of both algorithms and policy representations. Numerous challenges faced by the policy representation in robotics are identified. Three recent examples for the application of reinforcement learning to real-world robots are described: a pancake flipping task, a bipedal walking energy minimization task and an archery-based aiming task. In all examples, a state-of-the-art expectation-maximization-based reinforcement learning is used, and different policy representations are proposed and evaluated for each task. The proposed policy representations offer viable solutions to six rarely-addressed challenges in policy representations: correlations, adaptability, multi-resolution, globality, multi-dimensionality and convergence. Both the successes and the practical difficulties encountered in these examples are discussed. Based on insights from these particular cases, conclusions are drawn about the state-of-the-art and the future perspective directions for reinforcement learning in robotics.

  1. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S.; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others’ popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets’ sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity–social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity–valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members’ popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior. PMID:26598684

  2. Properties of four real world collaboration--competition networks

    Fu, Chun-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Lian; He, Da-Ren

    2009-03-01

    Our research group has empirically investigated 9 real world collaboration networks and 25 real world cooperation-competition networks. Among the 34 real world systems, all the 9 real world collaboration networks and 6 real world cooperation-competition networks show the unimodal act-size distribution and the shifted power law distribution of degree and act-degree. We have proposed a collaboration network evolution model for an explanation of the rules [1]. The other 14 real world cooperation-competition networks show that the act-size distributions are not unimodal; instead, they take qualitatively the same shifted power law forms as the degree and act-degree distributions. The properties of four systems (the main land movie film network, Beijing restaurant network, 2004 Olympic network, and Tao-Bao notebook computer sale network) are reported in detail as examples. Via a numerical simulation, we show that the new rule can still be explained by the above-mentioned model. [1] H. Chang, B. B. Su, et al. Phsica A, 2007, 383: 687-702.

  3. Risk communication in the real world

    As people become more sensitive to health and environmental issues, effective communication of workplace risks becomes more important for both employers and their employees. Risk communication must be given in a clear, simple format that addresses the individual employee's work environment. It must also be provided in a manner that indicates to the employees that the company cares about their safety. Failure to provide this information may result in ineffective communication and reduced company credibility. By using events and issues from the employees every day life, these issues can be effectively managed. (author)

  4. Creative Brains: Designing in the Real World

    Vinod Goel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of designing artifacts is a creative activity. It is proposed that, at the cognitive level, one key to understanding design creativity is to understand the array of symbol systems designers utilize. These symbol systems range from being vague, imprecise, abstract, ambiguous, and indeterminate (like conceptual sketches, to being very precise, concrete, unambiguous, and determinate (like contract documents. The former types of symbol systems support associative processes that facilitate lateral (or divergent transformations that broaden the problem space, while the latter types of symbol systems support inference processes facilitating vertical (or convergent transformations that deepen of the problem space. The process of artifact design requires the judicious application of both lateral and vertical transformations. This leads to a dual mechanism model of design problem-solving comprising of an associative engine and an inference engine. It is further claimed that this dual mechanism model is supported by an interesting hemispheric dissociation in human prefrontal cortex. The associative engine and neural structures that support imprecise, ambiguous, abstract, indeterminate representations are lateralized in the right prefrontal cortex, while the inference engine and neural structures that support precise, unambiguous, determinant representations are lateralized in the left prefrontal cortex. At the brain level, successful design of artifacts requires a delicate balance between the two hemispheres of prefrontal cortex.

  5. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la actualidad y el futuro y anticipar lo venidero, posiblemente sin un holocausto nuclear y terminando la APGM sin consecuencias negativas que pudieran dar lugar a una Auténtica Segunda Guerra Mundial. Nuestro mundo también se afirma está experimentando una transición de un amplio contexto histórico basado en la globalización eurocéntrica a otra no eurocéntrica, que puede ser no capitalista.______________________ABSTRACT:In this article the problematic of the First Real World War (FRWW is discussed in the light of Emerging Nuclear Holocaust. This discussion begins with an overview of Warren W. Wagars science-faction novel A Short History of Future and related some fifty years transition period conceived within world-systems analysis and as that of a major bifurcation by Immanuel Wallerstein. It may thus be possible to pass into the future sooner than anticipated and reconstruct the passage of history, actuality and future in actuality and nearer than anticipated future, possibly without a Nuclear Holocaust and it may be possible to end the FRWW without further negative regressions into the past and without a Second Real World War. Our common world is also experiencing a transition from a broad historical context of Eurocentric globalization into a non-Eurocentric one, which may also be non-capitalistic.  

  6. Characterizing the Effects of Driver Variability on Real-World Vehicle Emissions

    Holmén, Britt; Niemeier, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies on real-world automobile emissions measurements have not adequately addressed the question of whether driving style affects emission levels. In this study, we hypothesized that given the same experimental conditions and a random selection of drivers, the variability associated with individual driving styles (e.g. intensity or duration of acceleration events) would produce statistically significant differences in measured emissions. To test this driver variability hypothesis, we...

  7. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve...... Denmark this paper provides empirical evidence that the number of memberships in voluntary com¬mon-interest associations - i.e. the propensity to choose the cooperative strategy of joining this type of associations - is indeed positively and significantly related to the individual’s social capital...

  8. Faculty Forum: Applying Motivation Theory to Real-World Problems

    Harpine, Elaine Clanton

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incorporating an applied learning experience in an upper level undergraduate motivation theory class. In this 3-part course requirement, students (a) participated in a 2-hr field experience, (b) completed a homework assignment based on their participation, and (c) worked in groups to develop a deeper…

  9. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  10. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  11. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  12. Reconstruction of a real world social network using the Potts model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    Cristian eBisconti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, aiming at the reconstruction of a networked structure from observations of the states of the nodes in the network.The inverse Potts model, normally applied to observations of quantum states, is here addressed to observations of the node states in a network and their (anticorrelations, thus inferring interactions as links connecting the nodes. Adopting the Bethe approximation, such an inverse problem is known to be tractable.Within this operational framework, we discuss and apply this network-reconstruction method to a small real-world social network, where it is easy to track statuses of its members: the Italian parliament, adopted as a case study. The dataset is made of (cosponsorships of law proposals by parliament members. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  13. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian; Biddle, Robert; Vist, Elise

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  14. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  15. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    Stefan Dowiasch

    2015-02-01

    Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance.

  16. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  17. Addressing micropollution by linking problem characteristics to policy instruments

    Metz, Florence

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes micropollution as a policy problem and which policy instruments are adequate to regulate micropollution, given the specific problem features? In this article, problem characteristics of micropollution are systematically analyzed and linked to potential policy solutions.

  18. Vehicle-based studies of driving in the real world: The hard truth?

    Carsten, O; KIRCHER, K; Jamson, S

    2013-01-01

    Real-world studies of driving behaviour and safety have face validity and have the distinct advantage of focussing on driving in its natural habitat. But their very naturalism can lead to problems with confounds and with noise in the data. This paper reviews the three major categories of on-road studies - controlled observation, field operational tests and naturalistic driving studies - and discusses the major applications of each study type. It also assesses some of the methodological issues...

  19. Effect of a cataract simulation on clinical and real world vision.

    Elliott, D B; Bullimore, M A; Patla, A E; Whitaker, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Many reports have indicated that some patients with cataract can retain good visual acuity but complain of significant visual problems. This is the first in a series of papers trying to determine what causes these symptoms and whether other clinical tests can predict the real world vision loss. METHODS: The effect of a cataract simulation with a similar angular distribution of light scatter as real cataract on clinical (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glar...

  20. The Expectations view on fiscal policy - An experiment using real world data

    Bernasconi, Michele; Kirchkamp, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    To understand the effect of fiscal policy on the private sector we have to comprehend how expectations about fiscal variables are formed. However, little is known about the way people form expectations about fiscal variables: no undercutting theory exists, not to say empirical evidence. The problem is that “expectations are unobservable” (Bertola and Drazen [BD93, p.16]). We generate observable expectations using a combination of laboratory experiments and real world data from several Europea...

  1. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  2. Mobile Urban Drama - Interactive Storytelling in Real World Environments

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing...

  3. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  4. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    interface with the CNS. In 2013, two symposia were held independently to discuss this problem: one was held at the International Neuromodulation Society's 11th World Congress in Berlin and supported by the International Neuromodulation Society1 and the other at the 6th International Neural Engineering conference in San Diego2 and was supported by the NSF. Clearly, the neuromodulation and the neural engineering communities are keen to solve this problem. Experts from the field were assembled to discuss the problems and potential solutions. Although many important points were raised, few emerged as key issues. (1) The ability to access remotely and reliably internal neural signals . Although some of the technological problems have already been solved, this ability to access neural signals is still a significant problem since reliable and robust transcutaneous telemetry systems with large numbers of signals, each with wide bandwidth, are not readily available to researchers. (2) A translation strategy taking basic research to the clinic . The lack of understanding of the biological response to implanted constructs and the inability to monitor the sites and match the mechanical properties of the probe to the neural tissue properties continue to be an unsolved problem. In addition, the low levels of collaboration among neuroscientists, clinicians, patients and other stakeholders throughout different phases of research and development were considered to be significant impediments to progress. (3) Fundamental tools development procedures for neural interfacing . There are many laboratories testing various devices with different sets of criteria, but there is no consensus on the failure modes. The reliability, robustness of metrics and testing standards for such devices have not been established, either in academia or in industry. To start addressing this problem, the FDA has established a laboratory to test the reliability of some neural devices. Although the discussion was mostly

  5. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon;

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The paper...... proposes an approach composing of: a mobile robot system design (“Little Helper”), an appropriate and comprehensive industrial application (multiple-part feeding tasks), an implementation concept for industrial environments (the bartender concept), and a real-time heuristics integrated into Mission...... Planning and Control software to schedule the mobile robot in the industrial application. Results from the real-world implementation show that “Little Helper” is capable of successfully serving four part feeders in three production cells within a given planning horizon using the best schedule generated...

  6. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon; Bocewicz, Grzegorz

    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The paper...... proposes an approach composing of: a mobile robot system design (“Little Helper”), an appropriate and comprehensive industrial application (multiple-part feeding tasks), an implementation concept for industrial environments (the bartender concept), and a real-time heuristics integrated into Mission...... Planning and Control software to schedule the mobile robot in the industrial application. Results from the real-world implementation show that “Little Helper” is capable of successfully serving four part feeders in three production cells within a given planning horizon using the best schedule generated...

  7. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  8. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    Tang, John; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study contain...

  9. Against pragmatism: on efficacy, effectiveness and the real world

    Kitsios Georgios; Kent David M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Explanatory and pragmatic trials represent ends of a continuum of attitudes about clinical trial design. Recent literature argues that pragmatic trials are more informative about clinical care in the real world. Although there is place for more pragmatic studies to inform clinical practice and health policy decision-making, we are concerned that it is generally under-appreciated that extrapolating the results of broadly inclusive pragmatic trials to the care of real patients may ofte...

  10. Hybrid Powertrain Simulation Based on Real-world Reference Data

    Gilabert Cozar, Enric

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study is the automated computation of exhaust gas emissions from timerelated measuring data sets. For the determination of the exhaust gas emissions in real world conditions, the test vehicle was equipped with a new On Board Measurement (OBM) system. The raw data provided by the OBM must be post processed to describe the vehicle performance. It is required to find out faulty data sets, to correct them, then to calculate necessary variables and to draw diagrams. In...

  11. Model-Based Gait Enrolment in Real-World Imagery

    Wagg, David K; Nixon, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a model-based approach to gait extraction that is capable of reliable operation on real-world imagery. Hierarchies of shape and motion are employed to yield relatively modest computational demands, avoiding the high-dimensional search spaces associated with complex models. Anatomical data is used to generate shape models consistent with normal human body proportions. Mean gait data is used to create prototype gait motion models, which are adapted to fit individual subjects. Accurac...

  12. Algorithms for analyzing and mining real-world graphs

    Takes, Frank Willem

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about algorithms for analyzing large real-world graphs (or networks). Examples include (online) social networks, webgraphs, information networks, biological networks and scientific collaboration and citation networks. Although these graphs differ in terms of what kind of information the objects and relationships represent, it turns out that the structure of each these networks is surprisingly similar. For computer scientists, there is an obvious challenge to design efficient al...

  13. Using the real world to develop nurses' skills

    J. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Student nurses develop skills in observation, communication and reflection, as well as public health knowledge while walking in neighbourhoods near the hospitals where they will practise. This article explains an award-winning innovative teaching approach to enable students to use the real world as a learning environment. On their walk, students apply learning about social determinants of health to develop their understanding of communities and how they change.

  14. Parallel symbolic execution for automated real-world software testing

    Bucur, Stefan; Ureche, Vlad; Zamfir, Cristian; Candea, George

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Cloud9, a platform for automated testing of real-world software. Our main contribution is the scalable parallelization of symbolic execution on clusters of commodity hardware, to help cope with path explosion. Cloud9 provides a systematic interface for writing "symbolic tests" that concisely specify entire families of inputs and behaviors to be tested, thus improving testing productivity. Cloud9 can handle not only single-threaded programs but also multi-threaded and dis...

  15. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Díaz-Cruz, J L; Saldaña-Salazar, U J

    2016-01-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs--Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  16. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  17. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  18. Predicting real-world functional milestones in schizophrenia.

    Olsson, Anna-Karin; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Helldin, Lars

    2016-08-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe disorder that often causes impairments in major areas of functioning, and most patients do not achieve expected real-world functional milestones. The aim of this study was to identify which variables of demography, illness activity, and functional capacity predict patients' ability to attain real-world functional milestones. Participants were 235 outpatients, 149 men and 86 women, diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Our results showed that younger patients managed to achieve a higher level of functioning in educational level, marital status, and social contacts. Patients' functional capacity was primarily associated with educational level and housing situation. We also found that women needed less support regarding housing and obtained a higher level of marital status as compared with men. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering current symptoms, especially negative symptoms, and remission stability over time, together with age, duration of illness, gender, educational level, and current functional capacity, when predicting patients' future real-world functioning. We also conclude that there is an advantage in exploring symptoms divided into positive, negative, and general domains considering their probable impact on functional achievements. PMID:27235985

  19. Deep-seated Problems Haven't Yet Been Addressed

    Hu Zuliu

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's capital market has changed remarkably in recent times, finally recovering after a long period of painful adjustment. In the depths of extreme market depression, people have profoundly experienced and understood some deep-seated problems confronting China's capital market in the last four years.

  20. An effective way to address global environmental and energy problems

    Andrienko, O.; Garelina, S.; Gysev, A.; Zakharyan, R.; Kazaryan, M.; Sachkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    This work scales the present globalism of ecological and energetic problems. The ecological problem is connected with environment pollution by polymeric waste. The energetic problem - with traditional approaches of modern energetic, in particular, use of fossil fuel for energy production and concentration of capacities for ensuring overall performance of global power supply systems that doesn't guarantee a sustainable development of power for long prospect, doesn't provide power safety of the country. The second part of work is devoted to a choice of the most effective solutions of the present global problems. The authors have proposed the plasma-chemical method of the polymer waste processing and developed a schematic diagram of the reactor. The paper contains the results of the theoretical calculation of the polymer waste processing products. The reagents, allowing to obtain hydrogen and other liquid products from polymer waste are selected. It is proposed to use rare elements for increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste. The results of the calculation of the efficiency of hydrogen production from polymer waste using molybdenum are revealed in the paper.

  1. A Few Examples of ISPs Addressing Specific Reactor Safety Problems

    Four International Standard Problems which were related to safety reactor problems are briefly discussed. ISP-20 (Steam Generator Tube Rupture in DOEL 2) is a unique ISP as it is based on a real incident which occurred in a commercial Power Plant. This ISP clearly illustrated the special problems of an ISP based on a real plant, namely limited access to precise plant data, some lack in the detailed knowledge of sensor behaviour, etc. ISP-26 (ROSA IV-LSTF small break test) was an open ISP. A qualitatively good prediction of the measured events was obtained even if some modelling deficiencies were identified. ISP-27 (BETHSY Exp. 9.1 B) was a blind ISP. All important trends observed during the test were qualitatively calculated by most computer codes. However, some deficiencies in calculating some variables were evident. ISP-33 (PACTEL Natural Circulation) was an exercise with a test facility modelled on the basis of a Russian VVER 440 and with participations from Eastern and Western organisations. ISP-33 was a double-blind exercise. The simulation of some variables caused some problems although they were in principle not too complicated. Post-test calculations demonstrated significant improvements. For all the four ISPs, the influence of the code user was evident and caused some scatter in the results. A specific study was performed in ISP-26 to clarify from where those user effects were coming. The reactor safety problems related to those ISPs are detailed and the specific contribution of the ISPs to bring solutions is discussed.

  2. Addressing communications between Regulatory Body and TSO: perceptions and problems

    The use of TSO assistance by the Regulatory Bodies is a way of facing the complexity of the technology and issues to be dealt with in the licensing and controlling process in the nuclear area. Although both TSO and Regulatory Body are well prepared and adjusted, the nature and environment of TSO work is rather different from the regulators. Some of the TSO members act as a consultant, giving expert advice to the regulators in a specific subject, some are in charge of inspections and audits, others do the job together with the regulators. The way that a TSO member perceives the work to be done, however, often creates different perspectives for questions related to the licensing and controlling process. These perceptions are usually a source of problems between the two partners, regulators and TSO members. In this paper some of this kind of problems are raised and suggestions of how to deal with them are proposed for discussion. (author)

  3. HYDRAFLOW : a novel approach in addressing flow assurance problems

    Azarinezhad, R.; Chapoy, A.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. for Petroleum Engineering, Centre for Gas hydrate Research

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a new method to prevent hydrate plugs which are particularly problematic for offshore production and flow lines. The current methods of avoiding hydrate blockages are based on preventing solid formation by injecting thermodynamic or kinetic inhibitors outside the hydrate stability zone. However, these techniques are neither economical nor practical. The newly patented HYDRAFLOW cold flow assurance technology is based on allowing hydrates to form, but preventing their agglomeration and pipeline blockage. It is based on the concept of converting most or all of the gas phase into hydrates in the presence of excess water, and then transferring them in the form of hydrate slurry in the pipeline. In HYDRAFLOW, anti-agglomerants prevent hydrate crystals from agglomerating, thus eliminating the need for expensive thermal or chemical inhibition strategies. The technology involves a loop concept whereby the liquid phase plays a role of carrier fluid, collecting produced fluids from various wells and delivering them to the production unit prior to being recycled. This study addressed the issue of recycling the anti-agglomerants in the context of the loop concept. The distribution of anti-agglomerant components between different phases were measured. The performance of the residual anti-agglomerants in the free water phase and of its components absorbed in the oil or hydrate phase were also evaluated. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Addressing the problem of ADHD medication as neuroenhancements.

    Graf, William D; Miller, Geoffrey; Nagel, Saskia K

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses is rising. ADHD is closely linked to its treatment with medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, which have popular appeal as neuroenhancement drugs by persons without a neurological disorder. The three main reasons for the increase in ADHD medication demand, production, and consumption are a) the inclusion of milder ADHD diagnoses; b) the vast marketing of ADHD medications by the pharmaceutical industry; and c) the illegal diversion of controlled ADHD medication to consumers seeking stimulants as neuroenhancements. Rapidly rising rates of any neurological disorder - especially a behaviorly-defined disorder closely linked to potent medications currently prescribed to more than 5% of the population - deserves ongoing scrutiny. Major social and ethical problems arise from vague-symptom medicalization, neurological disorder trivialization, medication overuse, and controlled substances diversion to healthy persons for nonmedical purposes. We argue against the 'spectrumization' of ADHD in an effort to curtail further diagnosis creep. PMID:24738763

  5. Addressing the Pilot security problem with gLExec

    Sfiligoi, I.; /Fermilab; Koeroo, O.; Venekamp, G.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Yocum, D.; /Fermilab; Groep, D.; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The Grid security mechanisms were designed under the assumption that users would submit their jobs directly to the Grid gatekeepers. Many groups are however starting to use pilot-based infrastructures, where users submit jobs to a centralized queue and are successively transferred to the Grid resources by the pilot infrastructure. While this approach greatly improves the user experience, it does introduce several security and policy issues, the more serious being the lack of system level protection between the users and the inability for Grid sites to apply fine grained authorization policies. One possible solution to the problem is provided by gLExec, a X.509 aware suexec derivative. By using gLExec, the pilot workflow becomes as secure as any traditional one.

  6. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  7. Computability in context computation and logic in the real world

    Cooper, S Barry

    2011-01-01

    Computability has played a crucial role in mathematics and computer science, leading to the discovery, understanding and classification of decidable/undecidable problems, paving the way for the modern computer era, and affecting deeply our view of the world. Recent new paradigms of computation, based on biological and physical models, address in a radically new way questions of efficiency and challenge assumptions about the so-called Turing barrier. This volume addresses various aspects of the ways computability and theoretical computer science enable scientists and philosophers to deal with m

  8. Real-world speech recognition with neural networks

    Barnard, Etienne; Cole, Ronald; Fanty, Mark; Vermeulen, Pieter J. E.

    1995-04-01

    We describe a system based on neural networks that is designed to recognize speech transmitted through the telephone network. Context-dependent phonetic modeling is studied as a method of improving recognition accuracy, and a special training algorithm is introduced to make the training of these nets more manageable. Our system is designed for real-world applications, and we have therefore specialized our implementation for this goal; a pipelined DSP structure and a compact search algorithm are described as examples of this specialization. Preliminary results from a realistic test of the system (a field trial for the U.S. Census Bureau) are reported.

  9. Against pragmatism: on efficacy, effectiveness and the real world

    Kitsios Georgios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Explanatory and pragmatic trials represent ends of a continuum of attitudes about clinical trial design. Recent literature argues that pragmatic trials are more informative about clinical care in the real world. Although there is place for more pragmatic studies to inform clinical practice and health policy decision-making, we are concerned that it is generally under-appreciated that extrapolating the results of broadly inclusive pragmatic trials to the care of real patients may often be as problematic as extrapolating the results of narrowly focused explanatory or efficacy trials. Simplistic interpretation of pragmatic trials runs the risk of driving harmful policies.

  10. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    Korn, Matthias

      Our understanding of users' everyday practices in their natural contexts is still very limited. Insights are often only available from studies conducted outside of the context itself. I propose a new approach to study use situated in real-world everyday mobile contexts (at the time and place...... where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which...

  11. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    Mumford, David

    2010-01-01

    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  12. Precise perception of virtual object position in real world

    Lin Liping; Wu Pingdong; Huang Jie; Li Jian

    2009-01-01

    There is a deviation between actual and theoretical perceived positions of virtual object in stereoscopic display. Therefore, methods for precise position perception in real world are proposed in this paper. The causes for the deviation are analyzed on the basis of geometrical optics. Then deviation corrections are performed by error compensation with mathematic method and by remodeling virtual viewpoint dynamically with the movement of physical viewpoint. Experimental results show that these methods can reduce the position deviation to less than 10 millimeter, meeting the requirements for direct manipulation in multi-sensory virtual environment.

  13. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...

  14. TRAX - Real-World Tracking of Moving Objects

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2007-01-01

    accuracy. This paper presents the TRAX tracking system that supports several techniques capable of tracking the current positions of moving objects with guaranteed accuracies at low update and communication costs in real-world settings. The techniques are readily relevant for practical applications, but......Range of mobile services rely on knowing the current positions of populations of so-called moving objects. In the ideal setting, the positions of all objects are known always and exactly. While this is not possible in practice, it is possible to know each object's position with a certain guaranteed...

  15. Face Recognition: Perspectives from the Real-World

    Mandal, Bappaditya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze some of our real-world deployment of face recognition (FR) systems for various applications and discuss the gaps between expectations of the user and what the system can deliver. We evaluate some of our proposed algorithms with ad-hoc modifications for applications such as FR on wearable devices (like Google Glass), monitoring of elderly people in senior citizens centers, FR of children in child care centers and face matching between a scanned IC/passport face image ...

  16. Virtual context - relating media objects to their real world subjects

    Rutledge, L.; Ballegooij, van, A.R.; Eliëns, A.

    2000-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is sometimes used to give the user an immersive, three-dimensional sense of a real-world setting. VR is also sometimes used for information visualization, taking advantage of the perceptual characteristics of VR to convey information. This paper presents the Dam Square Virtual Context, a Web-based VR that is a combination of both these uses. This VR presents mock-ups of both Dam Square in the city of Amsterdam and the city's largest museum, the Rijksmuseum. This VR convey...

  17. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  18. Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  19. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  20. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  1. Developing mobile LIBS solutions for real world applications

    Li, Qun; Li, Jing; Bakeev, Katherine; Wang, Sean

    2015-06-01

    We present a new type of handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectrometer for developing mobile atomic spectroscopy solutions for real world applications. A micro diode-pumped passive Q-switched solid-state laser with high repetition rate of well above 1 kHz in comparison to 1-10 Hz as used in a traditional LIBS instrument is employed to produce a train of laser pulses. The laser beam is further fast scanned over a pre-defined area, hence generating several hundreds of micro-plasmas per second at different locations. Synchronized miniature CCD array spectrometer modules collect the LIBS signal and generate LIBS spectra. By adjusting the integration time of the spectrometer to cover a plurality of periods of the laser pulse train, the spectrometer integrates the LIBS signal produced by this plurality of laser pulses. Hence the intensity of the obtained LIBS spectrum can be greatly improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This unique feature of the high repetition rate laser based LIBS system allows it to measure elements at trace levels, hence reducing the limit of detection (LOD). The increased signal intensity also lessens the sensitivity requirement for the optical spectrometer. In addition, the energy of the individual laser pulse can be reduced in comparison to traditional LIBS system to obtain the same signal level, making the laser pulse less invasive to the sample. The typical measurement time is within 1 second. Several examples of real world applications will be presented.

  2. Hyperbolicity Measures "Democracy" in Real-World Networks

    Borassi, Michele; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. In our interpretation, a network with small hyperbolicity is "aristocratic", because it contains a small set of vertices involved in many shortest paths, so that few elements "connect" the systems, while a network with large hyperbolicity has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. We prove mathematically the soundness of this interpretation, and we derive its consequences by analyzing a large dataset of real-world networks. We confirm and improve previous results on hyperbolicity, and we analyze them in the light of our interpretation. Moreover, we study (for the first time in our knowledge) the hyperbolicity of the neighborhood of a given vertex. This allows to define an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks, like most social or peer-to-peer ne...

  3. Using "Real World" Examples in the Teaching of Chemistry--A Symposium.

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Defines "real world" examples providing rationale for incorporating them into chemistry teaching. Topic areas of papers include: chemistry in a watershed, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), consumer chemistry, culinary chemistry, using real world examples in a laboratory program, projects relating real world chemistry to high school students, and…

  4. Real-World Quantum Sensors: Evaluating Resources for Precision Measurement

    Quantum phenomena present in many experiments signify nonclassical behavior, but do not always imply superior performance. Quantifying the enhancement achieved from quantum behavior needs careful analysis of the resources involved. We analyze the case of parameter estimation using an optical interferometer, where increased precision can in principle be achieved using quantum probe states. Common performance measures are examined and some are shown to overestimate the improvement. For the simplest experimental case we compare the different measures and exhibit this overestimation explicitly. We give the preferred analysis of these experiments and calculate benchmark values for experimental parameters necessary to realize a precision enhancement. Our analysis shows that unambiguous real-world enhancements in optical quantum metrology with fixed photon number are yet to be attained.

  5. 'Real-world' atrial fibrillation management in Europe

    Proietti, Marco; Laroche, Cécile; Opolski, Grzegorz;

    2016-01-01

    Cardiology guideline-adherent therapy. Whether these 'real-world' observations on patients managed by European cardiologists extend to 2 years remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this report from the EORP-AF General Registry Pilot Phase, we provide data on the 2-year follow-up outcomes. Consistent...... with the 1-year follow-up report, only a small proportion of patients were symptomatic (24.9%), with minor differences between the different AF subtypes. Persistence of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy remains high at 2-years, with ∼80% of patients treated with OAC. The prescribing rates of non......-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are progressively increasing (13.7% at 2 years). Rate and rhythm control approaches remained consistent across the entire follow-up observation. Overall mortality rates remained high, with 5.0% of patients dead during the 2-year follow-up, mostly due to...

  6. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  7. Lighting Model of the Real World in Augmented Reality

    周雅; 闫达远; 赵虎

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a lighting model of the real world is one of the critical aims in an augmented reality (AR) system. The theory of lighting modeling used in computer graphics(CG) is applied in this study. The position of the real light-source is first conjectured from light and shade of the registration image element by element using a ray tracking algorithm. Then the virtual light-source and virtual fiducial are constructed in the CG environment, in which, the Phong model is used to draw the light effect. By comparing the CG scene with the real image, one can modify the pareters of the lighting model over and over again, until the lighting effect of the CG scene is close enough to that of the real image. It is proved that this method works well in the indoor AR system. The method can be used feasibly in most applications with some improvements.

  8. A HYBRID METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT IN REAL WORLD NOISY ENVIRONMENT

    Urmila Shrawankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that, speech recognition systems perform well when the system is used in conditions similar to the one used to train the acoustic models. However, mismatches degrade the performance. In adverse environment, it is very difficult to predict the category of noise in advance in case of real world environmental noise and difficult to achieve environmental robustness. After doing rigorous experimental study it is observed that, a unique method is not available that will clean the noisy speech as well as preserve the quality which have been corrupted by real natural environmental (mixed noise. It is also observed that only back-end techniques are not sufficient to improve the performance of a speech recognition system. It is necessary to implement performance improvement techniques at every step of back-end as well as front-end of the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR model. Current recognition systems solve this problem using a technique called adaptation. This study presents an experimental study that aims two points, first is to implement the hybrid method that will take care of clarifying the speech signal as much as possible with all combinations of filters and enhancement techniques. The second point is to develop a method for training all categories of noise that can adapt the acoustic models for a new environment that will help to improve the performance of the speech recognizer under real world environmental mismatched conditions. This experiment confirms that hybrid adaptation methods improve the ASR performance on both levels, (Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNR improvement as well as word recognition accuracy in real world noisy environment.

  9. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification.

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets. PMID:26599713

  10. Optimizing the leveraging of real-world data to improve the development and use of medicines.

    Berger, Marc L; Lipset, Craig; Gutteridge, Alex; Axelsen, Kirsten; Subedi, Prasun; Madigan, David

    2015-01-01

    Health research, including health outcomes and comparative effectiveness research, is on the cusp of a golden era of access to digitized real-world data, catalyzed by the adoption of electronic health records and the integration of clinical and biological information with other data. This era promises more robust insights into what works in health care. Several barriers, however, will need to be addressed if the full potential of these new data are fully realized; these will involve both policy solutions and stakeholder cooperation. Although a number of these issues have been widely discussed, we focus on the one we believe is the most important-the facilitation of greater openness among public and private stakeholders to collaboration, connecting information and data sharing, with the goal of making robust and complete data accessible to all researchers. In this way, we can better understand the consequences of health care delivery, improve the effectiveness and efficiency of health care systems, and develop advancements in health technologies. Early real-world data initiatives illustrate both potential and the need for future progress, as well as the essential role of collaboration and data sharing. Health policies critical to progress will include those that promote open source data standards, expand access to the data, increase data capture and connectivity, and facilitate communication of findings. PMID:25595243

  11. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.

    2015-12-01

    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  12. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. -- To effectively use toxicity testing data from lab tests with oils and chemically dispersed oils, researchers must follow standardized testing protocols

  13. Scheduling optimization of a real-world multi product pipeline network; Otimizacao das operacoes de transporte de derivados de petroleo em redes de dutos

    Boschetto, Suelen N.; Felizari, Luiz C.; Magatao, Leandro; Stebel, Sergio L.; Neves Junior, Flavio; Lueders, Ricardo; Arruda, Lucia V.R. de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ribas, Paulo Cesar; Bernardo, Luiz F.J. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    This work develops an optimization structure to aid the operational decision-making of scheduling activities in a real world pipeline network. The proposed approach is based on a decomposition method to address complex problems with high computational burden. The Pre-analysis makes a previous evaluation of a batch sequencing, getting information to be entered into optimization block. The continuous time Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) model gets such information and calculates the scheduling. The models are applied to a pipeline network that connects different areas including refineries, terminals, and final clients. Many oil derivatives (e.g. gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha) can be sent or received in this network. The computational burden to determine a short-term scheduling within the considered scenario is a relevant issue. Many insights have been derived from the obtained solutions, which are given in a reduced computational time for oil industrial-size scenarios. (author)

  14. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  15. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  16. Using Bounding-Surrounding Boxes Method for Fish Tracking in Real World Underwater Observation

    Yi-Haur Shiau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a rapid and efficient fish tracking method suitable for real world automatic underwater fish observation. Based on fish tracking, biologists are able to observe fish and their ecological environment. A distributed real-time underwater video stream system has been developed in Taiwan for large-scale, long-term ecological observation. In addition, not only does the system archive video data, but also incorporates data analysis. However, it is difficult to discriminate moving fish from drift water plants due to the severe drift of water plants caused by the water flow in real world underwater environments. Thus, fish tracking is complicated in unconstrained water. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a bounding-surrounding boxes method, which enables integration with state-of-the-art tracking methods for fish tracking in this paper. According to the method, fixing cameras must be used so that the moving fish are classified as foreground objects and are tracked, whereas the drifting water plants are classified as the background objects and are removed from the tracked objects. It enables the efficient, rapid removal of irrelevant information (non-fish objects from large-scale fish video data. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve high accuracy.

  17. Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications

    Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.

  18. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  19. Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Probabilistic Graphical Model with Multiple Feature Fusion for Binary Facial Attribute Classification in Real-World Face Videos.

    Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces [1] of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively. PMID:26415152

  20. Clustering, simulation, and neural networks in real-world applications

    Padgett, Mary Lou; Josephson, Eleanor M.; White, C. R.; Duffield, Don W.

    1995-04-01

    Real-world applications of neural networks often involve simulation and clustering. Reduction of subjective decisions and increasing the potential for real-time automation of cluster evaluation is a target of the cluster check (CC) method suggested here. CC quantitatively assess the variation within a cluster, produces a `central' pattern for a cluster which is robust in the presence of wide variation and skewed data, and suggests a measure for the distance between clusters. Such a measure of the effectiveness of a segmentation scheme is helpful in many applications, including traditional analysis, neural systems, fuzzy systems and evolutionary systems. This work reports successful use of the CC and companion analytic procedures to measure the consistency of movement of neuroanatomical tracer down neural pathways associated with injection sites (tract tracing). Opposite injection sites produce distinctive L shaped accumulations of tracer in different locations. Consistency of pathways for particular injection sites varies from 0.10 to 0.20 out of a possible 0.80. The pathway rejected by the nonparametric statistics and subdivided by Kohonen's self organizing map (SOM) measures 0.20. These quantitative results are consistent with the expert qualitative inspection traditionally accepted in the study of neuronanatomy of the rat olfactory bulb and tubercle. This work suggests further application of the CC and companion techniques to fault detection, identification and recovery of systems for control of diabetes and systems for control of missiles. Use of managerial decisions in the supervisory portions of these systems may also be facilitated by the consistency measure and distance metric allowing reinforcement of consistent decisions and focus on areas needing reconsideration. Automation of such procedures may facilitate real-time, robust and fault-tolerant control by adding a capability for evaluation needed for automated reinforcement and/or selection in neural

  1. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD, TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  2. Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2008-01-01

    To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine...

  3. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  4. Beating the Odds: Preparing Graduates to Address Gambling-Related Problems

    Engel, Rafael J.; Bechtold, Jody; Kim, Yoonmi; Mulvaney, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As gambling opportunities proliferate, social workers are likely to see clients with gambling-related problems, but they often lack the expertise to address these concerns. This descriptive study assessed the inclusion of content on gambling-related problems in graduate social work curricula. Responses to an online survey from 86 (43.7%) of the…

  5. Addressing the Real-World Challenges in the Development of Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) has been an on-going research effort conducted over several years. PITEX has developed and applied a model-based...

  6. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians. PMID:20508803

  7. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  8. A real-world way to manage real options.

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions. PMID:15029793

  9. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impact and limitations

    Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage their resourc...

  10. Exploring the role of Natural Helpers in efforts to address disparities for children with conduct problems

    Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David; NIEC, LARISSA N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Bell, Katrina M.; Aguilar, Gerardo; Vilca, Jeanette; Abbenante-Honold, Emily S.; Christian, Allison S.; Peer, Samuel O.

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of natural helpers into services has been suggested as an innovative strategy to address disparities for historically underserved children with conduct problems. In order to inform incorporation efforts, this study examined the perceptions of natural helpers serving one U.S. Latina/o community regarding need for services for children with conduct problems, their reactions to a specific parent training intervention, and the training and support needed to deliver this interven...

  11. The value of surrogate endpoints for predicting real-world survival across five cancer types.

    Shafrin, Jason; Brookmeyer, Ron; Peneva, Desi; Park, Jinhee; Zhang, Jie; Figlin, Robert A; Lakdawalla, Darius N

    2016-04-01

    Objective It is unclear how well different outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) perform in predicting real-world cancer survival. We assess the ability of RCT overall survival (OS) and surrogate endpoints - progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) - to predict real-world OS across five cancers. Methods We identified 20 treatments and 31 indications for breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer that had a phase III RCT reporting median OS and median PFS or TTP. Median real-world OS was determined using a Kaplan-Meier estimator applied to patients in the Surveillance and Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (1991-2010). Performance of RCT OS and PFS/TTP in predicting real-world OS was measured using t-tests, median absolute prediction error, and R(2) from linear regressions. Results Among 72,600 SEER-Medicare patients similar to RCT participants, median survival was 5.9 months for trial surrogates, 14.1 months for trial OS, and 13.4 months for real-world OS. For this sample, regression models using clinical trial OS and trial surrogates as independent variables predicted real-world OS significantly better than models using surrogates alone (P = 0.026). Among all real-world patients using sample treatments (N = 309,182), however, adding trial OS did not improve predictive power over predictions based on surrogates alone (P = 0.194). Results were qualitatively similar using median absolute prediction error and R(2) metrics. Conclusions Among the five tumor types investigated, trial OS and surrogates were each independently valuable in predicting real-world OS outcomes for patients similar to trial participants. In broader real-world populations, however, trial OS added little incremental value over surrogates alone. PMID:26743800

  12. Real-world battery duty profile of a neighbourhood electric vehicle

    Devie, Arnaud; VINOT, Emmanuel; Pelissier, Serge; Venet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The study of traction batteries real-world usage in vehicular applications faces a handful of serious challenges. To date, we are unable to accurately predict the cycle life of a battery under real-world operating conditions. There are a couple of reasons for that; on the one hand, the battery technology evolves rapidly whereas the battery cycle life testing requires large amounts of time and on the second hand, we know little about real-world duty profile of batteries. The work presented her...

  13. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  14. Learning Algebra by Example in Real-World Classrooms

    Booth, Julie L.; Oyer, Melissa H.; Paré-Blagoev, E. Juliana; Elliot, Andrew J.; Barbieri, Christina; Augustine, Adam; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Math and science textbook chapters invariably supply students with sets of problems to solve, but this widely used approach is not optimal for learning; instead, more effective learning can be achieved when many problems to solve are replaced with correct and incorrect worked examples for students to study and explain. In the present study, the…

  15. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  16. Information Access in a Multilingual World: Transitioning from Research to Real-World Applications

    Gey, Fredric; Karlgren, Jussi; Kando, Noriko

    2009-01-01

    This report constitutes the proceedings of the workshop on Information Access in a Multilingual World: Transitioning from Research to Real-World Applications}, held at SIGIR 2009 in Boston, July 23, 2009. Multilingual Information Access (MLIA) is at a turning point wherein substantial real-world applications are being introduced after fifteen years of research into cross-language information retrieval, question answering, statistical machine translation and named entity recognition. Previous...

  17. Real-world and specific to vehicle driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    ANDRE, M; Joumard, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the European research project ARTEMIS, a set of representative real-world driving cycles has been developed, to ensure a coherency between the pollutant emissions measurements conducted in the frame of the ARTEMIS project and of on-going national campaigns and to enable the integration of all the resulting emission data in the European systems of emission inventory. The 3 real-world ARTEMIS driving cycles (urban, rural road and motorway) represent the observed European drivi...

  18. Accuracy of mean-field theory for dynamics on real-world networks

    Gleeson, James P.; Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Porter, Mason A.; Murcha, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, and this is particularly true for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. In this paper, we compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate that the accuracy of such theory depends no...

  19. OCA Oracle Database 11g database administration I : a real-world certification guide

    Ries, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Developed as a practical book, ""Oracle Database 11g Administration I Certification Guide"" will show you all you need to know to effectively excel at being an Oracle DBA, for both examinations and the real world. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to become an Oracle DBA, pass the Oracle Database Administration I exam, and use those skills in the real world to manage secure, high performance, and highly available Oracle databases.

  20. The orbitofrontal cortex, real-world decision making, and normal aging.

    Denburg, Natalie L; Cole, Catherine A; Hernandez, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Wallace, Robert B

    2007-12-01

    The present series of three studies aims at investigating the hypothesis that some seemingly normal older persons have deficits in reasoning and decision making due to dysfunction in a neural system which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortices. This hypothesis is relevant to the comprehensive study of aging, and also addresses the question of why so many older adults fall prey to fraud. To our knowledge, this work represents the first of its kind to begin to identify, from an individual-differences perspective, the behavioral, psychophysiological, and consumer correlates of defective decision making among healthy older adults. Our findings, in a cross-sectional sample of community-dwelling participants, demonstrate that a sizeable subset of older adults (approximately 35-40%) perform disadvantageously on a laboratory measure of decision making that closely mimics everyday life, by the manner in which it factors in reward, punishment, risk, and ambiguity. These same poor decision makers display defective autonomic responses (or somatic markers), reminiscent of that previously established in patients with acquired prefrontal lesions. Finally, we present data demonstrating that poor decision makers are more likely to fall prey to deceptive advertising, suggesting compromise of real-world judgment and decision-making abilities. PMID:17872394

  1. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. PMID:25968276

  2. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão;

    2013-01-01

    The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing of the...

  3. Adaptive internal state space construction method for reinforcement learning of a real-world agent.

    Samejima, K; Omori, T

    1999-10-01

    One of the difficulties encountered in the application of the reinforcement learning to real-world problems is the construction of a discrete state space from a continuous sensory input signal. In the absence of a priori knowledge about the task, a straightforward approach to this problem is to discretize the input space into a grid, and to use a lookup table. However, this method suffers from the curse of dimensionality. Some studies use continuous function approximators such as neural networks instead of lookup tables. However, when global basis functions such as sigmoid functions are used, convergence cannot be guaranteed. To overcome this problem, we propose a method in which local basis functions are incrementally assigned depending on the task requirement. Initially, only one basis function is allocated over the entire space. The basis function is divided according to the statistical property of locally weighted temporal difference error (TD error) of the value function. We applied this method to an autonomous robot collision avoidance problem, and evaluated the validity of the algorithm in simulation. The proposed algorithm, which we call adaptive basis division (ABD) algorithm, achieved the task using a smaller number of basis functions than the conventional methods. Moreover, we applied the method to a goal-directed navigation problem of a real mobile robot. The action strategy was learned using a database of sensor data, and it was then used for navigation of a real machine. The robot reached the goal using a smaller number of internal states than with the conventional methods. PMID:12662650

  4. Multi-Perspective Indexing of Diverse Spatial Characteristics of an Outdoor Field toward Redesigning of Real-World Learning

    Okada, Masaya; Tada, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Real-world learning is important because it encourages learners to obtain knowledge through various experiences. To design effective real-world learning, it is necessary to analyze the diverse learning activities that occur in real-world learning and to develop effective strategies for learning support. By inventing the technologies of multimodal…

  5. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.;

    2003-01-01

    Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real worl...... geo-referencing of content is important, it is even more important to relate content to the transportation infrastructure. In addition, several sophisticated, integrated representations of the infrastructure are needed....

  6. Water from Space: Real World Opportunities and Far Away Promises

    Tayebi, N.; Garcia, L. E.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.

    2015-12-01

    A Global Initiative on Remote Sensing for Water Resources Management (Water RS) was launched in October 2013, financed by the World Bank's Water Partnership Program (WPP[1]) of the Global Water Program. It aims, among other things, to put together and disseminate, in collaboration with the Bank's operational staff as well as external partners, a clear picture of the potential role of Earth Observations (EO) in solution approaches to address particular water-related issues.The initiative focuses on the accuracy, reliability, and validity of the EO products to be used by decision makers in water related management and planning contexts. To make informed decisions, the client needs to know about the potential and the limitations of practical application of remote sensing technology and products, through informed recommendations and the development of practical, result-oriented tools. Thus, the objective of the Water RS initiative is to address this issue by taking a two-phase approach focusing respectively on: (i) identifying demand and priorities of the users while raising awareness on the potential and limitation of RS tools and (ii) bridging the gap between science and development of operational projects.While the first phase has come to completion, the second phase is being designed to tackle some of the reasons why there have been rather limited applications in the developing world (World Bank clients), such as: incentive issues, implementation capacity, costs and financing, and the overall issue of "How to do it?. An overview of the initiative and the lessons learned to date will be presented, setting the stage for muti-partner discussions. [1] The Water Partnership Program (WPP) is a longstanding alliance between the World Bank and the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Austria.

  7. Advanced Knowledge of the Solution in Quantum Algorithms Addressing Structured Problems

    Castagnoli, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that quantum correlation, between selection of the problem on the part of Bob and read out of the solution on the part of Alice, can explain the quantum speed up. All is like Alice's read out contributed to selecting the problem, which becomes Alice knowing in advance 50% of the bits of the solution. This explanation, developed for unstructured data-base search, was coarsely extended to the quantum algorithms that address structured problems. Now, thanks to a more general representation of Alice's advanced knowledge of the solution, we provide a detailed explanation of the mechanism of the speed up also for the latter algorithms. This should significantly increase the plausibility of our argument.

  8. Optimization of cancer chemotherapy on the basis of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: from patients enrolled in clinical trials to those in the 'real world'.

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Sasaki, Yasutsuna

    2014-01-01

      Cytotoxic anticancer drugs are the most challenging therapeutic agents among all medicines with relatively narrow efficacy profiles. Therefore, medical oncologists have to practically manage the risk of severe toxic effects to optimize treatment outcomes. Dose and treatment-schedule recommendations for cytotoxic anticancer agents are determined on the basis of clinical trials. Patients enrolled in clinical trials are those likely to receive the drug in clinical practice, excluding those with conditions such as organ dysfunction, obesity, advanced age, or comorbidity. On the other hand, the 'real world' includes large numbers of such patients who do not meet the eligibility criteria of clinical trials. However, there is a paucity of data from sufficiently powered pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies to support dosage recommendations in such patients. Consequently, dose levels and treatment schedules for chemotherapy in these subjects are somewhat arbitrary and not evidence-based. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of patients in the 'real world' are needed to address this issue. In this review article, we describe general aspects of clinical pharmacology in cancer patients enrolled in clinical trials and those in the 'real world,' and introduce recent findings regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of irinotecan and S-1 in 'real world' cancer patients. PMID:24256625

  9. Network Coding Designs Suited for the Real World

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Network coding (NC) has attracted tremendous attention from the research community due to its potential to significantly improve networks' throughput, delay, and energy performance as well as a means to simplify protocol design and naturally providing security support. The possibilities in code d...... practical pitfalls, this paper seeks to identify key ingredients to a successful design, critical and common limitations to most intra-session NC systems as well as promising techniques and ideas to guide future models and research problems grounded on practical concerns....

  10. Physical modeling of real-world slingshots for accurate speed predictions

    Yeats, Bob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the physics and modeling of latex-rubber slingshots. The goal is to get accurate speed predictions inspite of the significant real world difficulties of force drift, force hysteresis, rubber ageing, and the very non- linear, non-ideal, force vs. pull distance curves of slingshot rubber bands. Slingshots are known to shoot faster under some circumstances when the bands are tapered rather than having constant width and stiffness. We give both qualitative understanding and numerical predictions of this effect. We consider two models. The first is based on conservation of energy and is easier to implement, but cannot determine the speeds along the rubber bands without making assumptions. The second, treats the bands as a series of mass points subject to being pulled by immediately adjacent mass points according to how much the rubber has been stretched on the two adjacent sides. This is a classic many-body F=ma problem but convergence requires using a particular numerical technique. It gives accurate p...

  11. Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world

    Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger cars by using the data reported by real-world drivers on the internet voluntarily. The sales-weighted average fuel consumption of new cars in China in 2009 was 7.80 L/100 km in laboratory and 9.02 L/100 km in real-world, representing a difference of 15.5%. For the 153 individual car models examined, the real-world fuel consumption rates were -8 to 60% different from the test values. The simulation results of the International Vehicle Emission model show that the real-world driving cycles in 22 selected Chinese cities could result in -8 to 34% of changes in fuel consumption compared to the laboratory driving cycle. Further government effort on fuel consumption estimates adjustment, local driving cycle development, and real-world data accumulation through communication with the public is needed to improve the accuracy of the labeling policy. - Research highlights: → China requires new cars sold to show the test fuel use levels on window labels. → Real-world fuel consumption rates of cars are 15.5% higher than the label values. → Discrepancy between the test cycle and real conditions is a major cause for the gap. → China should adjust the estimates, collect fuel use data, and develop driving cycles. → More official and academic efforts are needed to improve the labeling policy.

  12. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM) a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la act...

  13. Mixtures in the real world: The importance of plant self-defense toxicants, mycotoxins, and the human diet

    A perusal of research presented at the Annual Society of Toxicology Meetings, or in nearly any toxicology journal, will show that the overwhelming emphasis of toxicology research is on synthetic chemistries. Because of substantial potency and exposure to natural chemicals, the overwhelming focus on synthetic chemistries cannot lead to a realistic understanding of chemical risk to the general population. Natural chemicals, simply because of their abundance and potency, may be as likely to be a public health concern and to be involved in chemical interactions (natural:natural, natural:pharmaceutical; or natural:synthetic) as are environmental levels of synthetic chemicals. All plants have a mix of natural self-defense chemistries and mycotoxins that, when tested in a manner comparable to synthetic pesticides, cause the entire spectrum of toxic effects. As a further complication, plants also escalate much of their self-defense chemistry when attacked by insects and fungi, and damaged crops often have higher mycotoxins levels. Effective crop protection will typically reduce the plant's levels of self-defense toxicants and mycotoxins, but may add residues of synthetic pesticides or add some other risk variable. In addition, cooking may also alter the food chemistry (e.g., acrylamide). The mixtures toxicologist needs to address the real world mixture of natural and synthetic chemicals. Public policy on crop-food safety cannot be sensibly guided without these data and large voids in our understanding of risks from real-world mixtures cannot be in the public interest

  14. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  15. Haemophilia in a real-world setting: the value of clinical experience in data collection.

    Dolan, Gerry; Iorio, Alfonso; Jokela, Vuokko; Juusola, Kristian; Lassila, Riitta

    2016-02-01

    At the 8th Annual Congress of the European Association for Haemophilia and Allied Disorders (EAHAD) held in Helsinki, Finland, in February 2015, Pfizer sponsored a satellite symposium entitled: 'Haemophilia in a real-world setting: The value of clinical experience in data collection' Co-chaired by Riitta Lassila (Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland) and Gerry Dolan (Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK); the symposium provided an opportunity to explore the practical value of real-world data in informing clinical decision-making. Gerry Dolan provided an introduction to the symposium by describing what is meant by real-world data (RWD), stressing the role RWD can play in optimising patient outcomes in haemophilia and highlighting the responsibility of all stakeholders to collaborate in continuous data collection. Kristian Juusola (Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland) then provided personal experience as a haemophilia nurse around patient views on adherence to treatment regimes, and how collecting insights into real-world use of treatment can shape approaches to improving adherence. The importance of elucidating pharmacokinetic parameters in a real-world setting was then explored by Vuokko Jokela (Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland). Finally, Alfonso Iorio (McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) highlighted the importance of quality data collection in translating clinical reality into scientific advances. PMID:26809546

  16. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults.

    Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E

    2015-09-01

    Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Demands for visual guidance of action were minimal in mothers and absent for infants, so both engaged in free viewing while moving through the environment. Similar to screen-based studies, during free viewing in the real world low-level saliency was related to gaze direction. In contrast to screen-based studies, only infants - not adults - were biased to look at people, participants of both ages did not show a classic center bias, and mothers and infants did not display high levels of inter-observer consistency. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world. PMID:25438618

  17. A modified harmony search method for environmental/economic load dispatch of real-world power systems

    Highlights: • A combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) model is proposed. • The proposed model considers practical constraints of real-world power systems. • A new modified harmony search algorithm proposed to solve non-convex CEELD. • The proposed algorithm is tested by applying it to solve seven test systems. - Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is one of the basic and important optimization problems in a power system. However, considering practical constraints of real-world power systems such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, valve loading effects, multi-fuel options, spinning reserve and transmission system losses in ELD problem makes it a non-convex optimization problem, which is a challenging one and cannot be solved by traditional methods. Moreover, considering environmental issues, results in combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) problem that is a multiobjective optimization model with two non-commensurable and contradictory objectives. In this paper, a modified harmony search algorithm (MHSA) proposed and applied to solve ELD and CEELD problem considering the abovementioned constraints. In the proposed MHSA, a new improvising method based on wavelet mutation together with a new memory consideration scheme based on the roulette wheel mechanism are proposed which improves the accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness of the classical HSA. Performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated by applying it to solve various test systems having non-convex solution spaces. To Show the effectiveness of the proposed method, obtained results compared with classical harmony search algorithm (HSA) and some of the most recently published papers in the area

  18. How Accurate is Mean-Field Theory for Dynamics on Real-World Networks?

    Gleeson, James P; Ward, Jonathan; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, particularly for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. We compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate using synthetic networks that the accuracy of the theory not only depends on the mean degree of the networks but also depends fundamentally on the mean first-neighbor degree. We show, unexpectedly, that mean-field theory can give accurate results for disassortative real-world networks even when the mean degree is as low as $z=4$.

  19. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  20. Investigating affordances of virtual worlds for real world B2C e-commerce

    Tran, Minh; Minocha, Shailey; Roberts, Dave; Laing, Angus; Langdridge, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds are three-dimensional (3D) online persistent multi-user environments where users interact through avatars. The literature suggests that virtual worlds can facilitate real world business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. However, few real world businesses have adopted virtual worlds for B2C e-commerce. In this paper, we present results from interviews with consumers in a virtual world to investigate how virtual worlds can support B2C e-commerce. A thematic analysis of the data was c...

  1. EXAMINING THE MOVEMENTS OF MOBILE NODES IN THE REAL WORLD TO PRODUCE ACCURATE MOBILITY MODELS

    TANWEER ALAM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All communication occurs through a wireless median in an ad hoc network. Ad hoc networks are dynamically created and maintained by the individual nodes comprising the network. Random Waypoint Mobility Model is a model that includes pause times between changes in destination and speed. To produce a real-world environment within which an ad hoc network can be formed among a set of nodes, there is a need for the development of realistic, generic and comprehensive mobility models. In this paper, we examine the movements of entities in the real world and present the production of mobility model in an ad hoc network.

  2. Expanding the Reach of Physics-Engaging Students in Interdisciplinary Research Involving complex, real-world situation

    Bililign, Solomon

    2014-03-01

    Physics plays a very important role in most interdisciplinary efforts and can provide a solid foundation for students. Retention of students in STEM areas can be facilitated by enhanced interdisciplinary education and research since students are strongly attracted to research with societal relevance and show increasing enthusiasm about problems that have practical consequences. One such area of research is a collaborative Earth System Science. The Earth System is dynamic and complex. It is comprised of diverse components that interact. By providing students the opportunities to work in interdisciplinary groups on a problem that reflects a complex, real-world situation they can see the linkages between components of the Earth system that encompass climate and all its components (weather precipitation, temperature, etc.) and technology development and deployment of sensors and sensor networks and social impacts. By involving students in the creation of their own personalized professional development plan, students are more focused and engaged and are more likely to remain in the program.

  3. Interpreting Perceived Effectiveness: Understanding and Addressing the Problem of Mean Validity.

    Dillard, James Price; Ha, Yerheen

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown that perceived message effectiveness (PE) correlates reasonably well with indices of actual effectiveness, but little attention has been given to how to interpret mean PE. This article describes the problem of mean validity and presents a research design that can be used to address it. Participants (N = 195) viewed messages that advocated being screened for colorectal cancer. The results showed downward bias in PE among members of the non-target audience (persons younger than 50) and upward bias as the referent for the judgment became more abstract/distant (self vs. persons older than 50 vs. general). The need for more research on mean validity is discussed. For applied researchers, recommendations for preferred indices of PE are offered. PMID:27565189

  4. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  5. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom

    Livingston, C.

    2012-04-01

    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  6. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation

  7. An Information Extraction Core System for Real World German Text Processing

    Neumann, G; Baur, J; Becker, M; Braun, C

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes SMES, an information extraction core system for real world German text processing. The basic design criterion of the system is of providing a set of basic powerful, robust, and efficient natural language components and generic linguistic knowledge sources which can easily be customized for processing different tasks in a flexible manner.

  8. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars

    Kadijk, G.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment reveals that NOx emissions of a number of tested Euro 6 diesel passenger vehicles are significantly higher under real-world conditions than would be expected on the basis of the Euro 6 standard. The Euro 6 standa

  9. Getting Ready for the Real World: Student Perspectives on Bringing Industry Collaboration into the Classroom

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learning through industry collaborations is critical in decreasing the gap between the real world and the academic environment. Working on challenges drawn from industry can increase students' knowledge and future employability, thus enhancing labor force preparation. This study explored students' perceptions (n = 110) of the benefits…

  10. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  11. Real Worlds and Ivory Towers: A Survey of Top Creative Directors.

    Kendrick, Alice; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveys the creative directors from 173 top United States advertising agencies regarding advertising education. Discusses their remarks regarding academe, "executional" issues (conceptual ability and skills), and professional issues (students' ability to sell themselves and to function in the real world). (SR)

  12. A Resource for Using Real-World Examples in the Physics Classroom

    Van Dongen, Janelle; Rieger, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Physics Teaching for the 21st Century (://c21.phas.ubc.ca) is a free online resource for teachers who are interested in teaching physics concepts in real-world contexts. The materials on this site were developed by a team of physics faculty and graduate and undergraduate students at the Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British…

  13. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  14. Real world thirty-day mortality in female patients with acute myocardial infarction from Beijing

    宋雷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the gender differences on the short-term outcomes of patients with acute myocardial in-farction in the real world.Methods A total of 471 consecutive patients[male 368 (78.1%) and female103 (21.9%) ]with acute myocardial infarction<72 hours in cardiac care unit were included.The clinical data,

  15. Learning Local Binary Patterns for Gender Classification on Real-World Face Images

    Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gender recognition is one of fundamental face analysis tasks. Most of the existing studies have focused on face images acquired under controlled conditions. However, real-world applications require gender classification on real-life faces, which is much more challenging due to significant appearance

  16. The social robot architecture: towards sociality in a real world domain

    Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Duffy, Brian R.; O'Hare, G. M. P.; Collier, Rem

    1999-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of multi-agent techniques in the realisation of social robotic behaviour. We present an architecture which commissions agent-based deliberation without sacrificing the reactive qualities necessary in a real world domain, and which is situated within a social landscape through the use of an Agent Communication Language. peer-reviewed

  17. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  18. Mobilizing science and technology to address the problems of the world's poor

    Full text: Writing in The Economist of 15 February this year, Prof. Sachs raised several points that are relevant to any discussion of technical co-operation for sustainable development. He urges a stronger emphasis on the transfer of appropriate technology, and supports expanded roles for United Nations organizations in helping to solve the problems of the world's poorest countries. Here are some excerpts: 'A(n)...important challenge, as yet mainly unrecognised, is that of mobilising global science and technology to address the crises of public health, agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and demographic stress confronting these countries (i.e., the 42 so-called Highly Indebted Poor Countries - HIPCs, ed.) In part this will require that the wealthy governments enable the grossly underfinanced and underempowered United Nations institutions to become vibrant and active partners of human development.' The conditions in many HIPCs are worsening dramatically, even as global science and technology create new surges of wealth and well-being in richer countries. The problem is that, for myriad reasons, the technological gains in wealthy countries do not readily diffuse to the poorest ones....Research and development of new technologies are overwhelmingly directed at rich-country problems. To the extent that the poor face distinctive challenges, science and technology must be directed purposefully towards them (emphasis added). In today's global set-up, that rarely happens....Currently, the international system fails to meet the technological needs of the world's poorest.' Prof. Sachs has been one of the few development economists to consistently remind us that most of the world's poor live under vastly different environmental conditions - mainly tropical climates with their often unique disease agents and agricultural factors - than most of the rich. He points out that sustainable development is not possible unless the underlying ecological constraints are

  19. Materials management issues-addressing plant problems and preparing for future reliable and safe operation

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600 was initially observed in pressure water reactors (PWR's) in 1971 in steam generator tubes. Since that time PWSCC occurrences have increased dramatically spreading to many more Alloy 600 components within the reactor coolant system (RCS), including upper and lower reactor vessel head penetrations, dissimilar metal butt welds, instrumentation nozzles, and pressurizer heaters and sleeves. The impact to the nuclear industry has been profound in its effects on outage time and repair/replacement costs. Other effects experienced by the plants include added scrutiny by the regulatory agencies and public concern of plant operations. Throughout this dilemma, Framatome ANP has provided engineering, inspection and repair aid to the worldwide Utilities. Inspection techniques once thought adequate required improvements in not only detection and sizing, but also in accessibility and coverage. Emergent repairs over the last several years have placed high demands on personnel training and equipment availability. Framatome ANP continues to produce innovative weld repair approaches with faster repair times, lower dose and longer component life. Repair applications combine the latest in welding techniques with advancements in tool design. In anticipation of future challenges and proactive resolution of present problems, Framatome ANP has devoted global resources toward corrective approaches to plant-wide PWSCC degradation. The issue of materials management is broader than PWSCC in Alloy 600. As plants age, continued study and surveillance will be necessary to assure safe operation without leakage. This is particularly important when considering operation for up to 60 years (US case) with license renewal. This paper summarizes Framatome ANP's role in addressing materials problems within the U.S. nuclear fleet and through other international examples and illustrates the value of proactive, preemptive mitigation strategies

  20. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  1. Ubiquitousness of link-density and link-pattern communities in real-world networks

    Šubelj, Lovro

    2011-01-01

    Community structure appears to be an intrinsic property of many complex real-world networks. However, recent work shows that real-world networks reveal even more sophisticated modules than classical cohesive (link-density) communities. In particular, networks can also be naturally partitioned according to similar patterns of connectedness between the nodes, revealing link-pattern communities. We here propose a balanced propagation based algorithm that can extract both link-density and link-pattern communities, without any prior knowledge of the true structure. The algorithm was first validated on different classes of synthetic benchmark networks with community structure, and also on random networks. We have then further applied the algorithm to different social, information, technological and biological networks, where it indeed reveals meaningful (composites of) link-density and link-pattern communities. The results thus seem to imply that, similarly as link-density counterparts, link-pattern communities app...

  2. Node-weighted interacting network measures improve the representation of real-world complex systems

    Wiedermann, Marc; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Network theory provides a rich toolbox consisting of methods, measures, and models for studying the structure and dynamics of complex systems found in nature, society, or technology. Recently, it has been pointed out that many real-world complex systems are more adequately mapped by networks of interacting or interdependent networks, e.g., a power grid showing interdependency with a communication network. Additionally, in many real-world situations it is reasonable to include node weights into complex network statistics to reflect the varying size or importance of subsystems that are represented by nodes in the network of interest. E.g., nodes can represent vastly different surface area in climate networks, volume in brain networks or economic capacity in trade networks. In this letter, combining both ideas, we derive a novel class of statistical measures for analysing the structure of networks of interacting networks with heterogeneous node weights. Using a prototypical spatial network model, we show that th...

  3. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  4. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  5. Universal underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both spaces. The model is validated using big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the universal underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  6. Efficient Algorithm for Computing Link-based Similarity in Real World Networks

    Cai, Yuanzhe; Cong, Gao; Xu, Jia;

    2009-01-01

    Similarity calculation has many applications, such as information retrieval, and collaborative filtering, among many others. It has been shown that link-based similarity measure, such as SimRank, is very effective in characterizing the object similarities in networks, such as the Web, by exploiting...... the object-to-object relationship. Unfortunately, it is prohibitively expensive to compute the link-based similarity in a relatively large graph. In this paper, based on the observation that link-based similarity scores of real world graphs follow the power-law distribution, we propose a new approximate...... algorithm, namely Power-SimRank, with guaranteed error bound to efficiently compute link-based similarity measure. We also prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm. Extensive experiments conducted on real world datasets and synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms Sim...

  7. Review Essay: Is it Real? Problems and Prospects of Research in "the Real World"

    Forte, Maximilian C.

    2002-01-01

    Dieses Handbuch vermittelt einen sehr nützlichen Überblick über verschiedene Strategien, Methoden und Forschungsdesigns in den Sozialwissenschaften, wobei der Autor die Kombination von quantitativen und qualitativen Forschungsmethoden im Sinne eines kritisch-realistischen Paradigmas thematisiert. Den Leser(inne)n wird zunächst ein Überblick über die Debatten zu den verschiedenen Forschungsansätzen – von positivistischen bis zu relativistischen Positionen – gegeben; der Autor setzt sich selbst...

  8. Forecasting of Processes in Complex Systems for Real-World Problems

    Pelikán, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2014), s. 567-589. ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : complex systems * data assimilation * ensemble forecasting * forecasting * global solar radiation * judgmental forecasting * multimodel forecasting * pollution Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2014

  9. Large-scale set partitioning problems: some real-world instances hide a beneficial structure

    Coslovich, Luca; Pesenti, Raffaele; Ukovich, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Nagrinėjamos didelių matematinių aibių dalijimo problemos. Autorių tikslas – atskleisti praktines matematinių aibių dalijimo problemas, kurių pasitaiko konteinerių vežimo versle. Aprašomi du eksperimentai, atlikti kompiuteriu. Atliekant pirmąjį eksperimentą, realiai aibės perdalijimo problemai spręsti buvo pritaikyti euristinis ir keli tikslūs sprendimo metodai. Atliekant antrąjį, tie patys metodai pritaikyti naudojant duomenis iš Beasley operacijų tyrimų bibliotekos. Gauti rezultatai palygin...

  10. Experimenting with ecosystem interaction networks in search of threshold potentials in real-world marine ecosystems

    Thrush, S. F.; Hewitt, J E; Parkes, S; Lohrer, A.M.; Pilditch, C.A.; Woodin, S.A.; Wethey, D. S.; Chiantore, M.; Asnaghi, V; de Juan, S.; Kraan, C.; Rodil, I.; Savage, C; Van Colen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Thresholds profoundly affect our understanding and management of ecosystem dynamics, but we have yet to develop practical techniques to assess the risk that thresholds will be crossed. Combining ecological knowledge of critical system interdependencies with a large-scale experiment, we tested for breaks in the ecosystem interaction network to identify threshold potential in real-world ecosystem dynamics. Our experiment with the bivalves Macomona liliana and Austrovenus stutchburyi on marine s...

  11. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN DISEASED AND CONTROL PARTICIPANTS

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Tippin, Jon; Lee, John D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated real world driver errors and sleepiness in 66 drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and 34 matched controls (24 younger and 22 older). Driving errors and driver state were derived from analyses of video data from “black-box” event recorders. Sleep fragmentation data in OSA was derived from actigraphy for 15 days prior to beginning standard treatment (positive airway pressure, PAP) and 15 days after beginning PAP treatment. Prior to starting PAP, OSAs appeared sleepie...

  12. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF REAL-WORLD DRIVING BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING FOCAL BRAIN LESIONS

    Thompson, Kelsey; Read, Katherine; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with circumscribed brain injuries, such as those caused by stroke or focal trauma, return to driving after a period of acute recovery. These persons often have chronic residual cognitive deficits that may impact on driving safety, but little is known about their driving behavior in the real world. Extant studies tend to rely on driving simulators or controlled on-road drives. These methods of observation are not able to capture the complexities of the typical driving environment...

  13. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Jacqueline C Snow; Skiba, Rafal M.; Taylor C Coleman; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. He...

  14. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Jacqueline C Snow; Skiba, Rafal M.; Coleman, Taylor L.; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2014-01-01

    Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D) images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D) stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects vs. their 2D counterparts. Here ...

  15. Mobile Interaction with the Real World: An Evaluation and Comparison of Physical Mobile Interaction Techniques

    Rukzio, Enrico; Leichtenstern, Karin; Schmidt, Albrecht

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Mobile devices are more and more used for mobile interactions with things, places and people in the real world. However, so far no studies have discussed which interaction techniques are preferred by users in different contexts. This paper presents an experimental comparison of four different physical mobile interaction techniques: touching, pointing, scanning and usermediated object interaction. To evaluate these techniques across different scenarios and to collect real usage data,...

  16. New Teaching Environments Near Real-World-Like Laboratories for Power Engineering

    Holbøll, Joachim; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark offers educations within power engineering at all levels: bachelor, master and PhD. Relevant bachelor programs use the CDIO educational framework, which allows the students to learn engineering fundaments in a context of conceiving, designing, implementing, and operating real-world systems. The tool to be presented here is mainly establishment of teaching facilities at the Technical University of Denmark adjacent to the research facilities and where nearnes...

  17. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Wigal, Sharon B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking a...

  18. Assessing the benefits of auditory training to real-world listening: identifying appropriate and sensitive outcomes

    Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory training is an intervention that aims to improve auditory performance and help alleviate the difficulties associated with hearing loss. To be an effective intervention, any task-specific learning needs to transfer to functional benefits in real-world listening. The present study aimed to identify optimal outcome measures to assess the benefits of auditory training for people with hearing loss. Thirty existing hearing-aid users with mild-moderate sensorineural hearing loss trained on ...

  19. Hostility in the real world and online: the effect of internet addiction, depression, and online activity.

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yi; Huang, Chun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-11-01

    Hostility online has not been evaluated by an empirical investigation. This study aims to evaluate (a) the difference between hostility in the real world and that online and (b) whether the difference is associated with Internet addiction, depression, or online activities. A total of 2,348 college students (1,124 males and 1,224 females) were recruited and completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and the questionnaire for online activity. Further, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Chinese version-short form was utilized to evaluate hostility in both real and virtual worlds. The results demonstrated that the levels of all four dimensions of hostility were lower when getting online than those in the real world. Subjects with Internet addiction had higher hostility both in the real world and online as do subjects with depression. Further, college students with Internet addiction had increased expressive hostility behavior and those with depression had decreased hostility cognition, hostility affection, and suppressive hostility behavior when getting online. Lastly, the buffering effect of the Internet on hostility was attenuated among subjects paying the most online time in chatting, and those using the Internet mainly for online gaming had higher expressive hostility behavior not only in the real world but also online. These results suggest that attention should be paid to interventions concerning aggressive behavior among subjects with Internet addiction or online gaming and chatting. On the other hand, depressed college students would be less hostile after entering the Internet. It is suggested that the Internet would be one possible interactive media to provide intervention for depression. PMID:21476897

  20. Enhancing student learning: On-line interactive laboratory for modelling of real world control system applications

    Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Dormido, Sebastián; Vlacic, Ljubo

    2011-01-01

    Teaching an introductory course on control systems to undergraduate students often seeks elaborations on real engineering world control system applications to assist students in grasping theoretical concepts. In this paper, the newly developed animated and interactive control systems tutorials are presented. The paper shows that this teaching approach helps students in bridging the gap between the classical control techniques and the real world applications. The course evaluations undertaken ...

  1. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Plötz, Patrick; Funke, Simon; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual ...

  2. Audience measurement of digital signage: Quantitative study in real-world environment using computer vision

    Ravnik, Robert; Solina, Franc

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of digital signage audience measurement using computer vision. We developed a camera-enhanced digital signage display that acquires audience measurement metrics with computer vision algorithms. Temporal metrics of a person’s dwell time, display in-view time and attention time are extracted. The system also determines demographic metrics of the gender and age group. The digital signage display was deployed in a real-world environment of a clothing boutique, wher...

  3. Performance analysis of Xen virtual machines in real-world scenarios

    Heissler, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of the performance benchmarks of the Open Source hypervisor Xen. The study focuses on the network related performance as well as on the application related performance of multiple virtual machines that were running on the same Xen hypervisor. The comparison was carried out using a self-developed benchmark suite that consists of easily available Open Source tools. The goal is to measure the performance of the hypervisor in typical real-world application scenarios wh...

  4. Learning Local Binary Patterns for Gender Classification on Real-World Face Images

    C. Shan

    2011-01-01

    Gender recognition is one of fundamental face analysis tasks. Most of the existing studies have focused on face images acquired under controlled conditions. However, real-world applications require gender classification on real-life faces, which is much more challenging due to significant appearance variations in unconstrained scenarios. In this paper, we investigate gender recognition on real-life faces using the recently built database, the Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW). Local Binary Patt...

  5. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    Matthes Gerrit; Stengel Dirk; Frank Matthias; Beirau Melissa; Schmucker Uli; Ekkernkamp Axel; Seifert Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction) was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-sev...

  6. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    Tom V Smulders

    2015-05-01

    These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  7. Affine Realizations for Levy Driven Interest Rate Models with Real-World Forward Rate Dynamics

    Eckhard Platen; Stefan Tappe

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the existence of affine realizations for interest rate term structure models driven by Levy processes. Using as numeraire the growth optimal portfolio, we model the interest rate term structure under the real-world probability measure, and hence, we do not need the existence of an equivalent risk-neutral probability measure. Furthermore, we include finite dimensional external factors, thus admitting a stochastic volatility structure.

  8. Addressing the Small Market Problem for Canadian NHL Franchises: On-site Gaming as a New Revenue Stream

    Daniel S. Mason

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies the unique problems faced by Canadian small market (CSM) franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL). While featuring characteristics similar to other major leagues in North America, CSM franchises are also burdened by currency and taxation issues that favor US-based teams, as well as a reliance on gate revenues, which have exacerbated the problem for NHL teams. Three general alternatives devised to address the small market problem are introduced in this paper: (1) al...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Super-Resolution Reconstruction Methods on Real-World Data

    L. J. van Vliet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a super-resolution (SR reconstruction method on real-world data is not easy to measure, especially as a ground-truth (GT is often not available. In this paper, a quantitative performance measure is used, based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD. The TOD measure, simulating a real-observer task, is capable of determining the performance of a specific SR reconstruction method under varying conditions of the input data. It is shown that the performance of an SR reconstruction method on real-world data can be predicted accurately by measuring its performance on simulated data. This prediction of the performance on real-world data enables the optimization of the complete chain of a vision system; from camera setup and SR reconstruction up to image detection/recognition/identification. Furthermore, different SR reconstruction methods are compared to show that the TOD method is a useful tool to select a specific SR reconstruction method according to the imaging conditions (camera's fill-factor, optical point-spread-function (PSF, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  10. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making). PMID:24559028