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Sample records for addressable micro-fluidic electrode

  1. Research of Dielectric Breakdown Micro fluidic Sampling Chip

    Micro fluidic chip is mainly driven electrically by external electrode and array electrode, but there are certain disadvantages in both of ways, which affect the promotion and application of micro fluidic technology. This paper discusses a scheme that uses the conductive solution in a microchannel made by PDMS, replacing electrodes and the way of dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver. It could reduce the driving voltage and simplify the chip production process. To prove the feasibility of this method, we produced a micro fluidic chip used in PDMS material with the lithography technology and experimented it. The results showed that using the dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver is feasible, and it has certain application prospect.

  2. Micro-fluidic flow cells for studies of electrochemical reactions

    Ingdal, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Micro fluidic flow cells (MFFCs) are a relatively new technique for characterization of electrochemical reactions. This work includes both techniques for manufacturing the cells and electrochemical characterization of them.Improvements to a previously established procedure for the manufacturing MFFCs included change of template for PDMS-masters from glass slides to silicon wafers and the change from electrodes consisting of titanium gold and platinum to only titanium and platinum. The changes...

  3. A Coupled Cavity Micro Fluidic Dye Ring Laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, M.; Balslev, S.; Mortensen, N. A.; Kristensen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a laterally emitting, coupled cavity micro fluidic dye ring laser, suitable for integration into lab-on-a-chip micro systems. The micro-fluidic laser has been successfully designed, fabricated, characterized and modelled. The resonator is formed by a micro-fluidic channel bounded by two isosceles triangle mirrors. The micro-fluidic laser structure is defined using photo lithography in 10 microns thick SU-8 polymer on a glass substrate. The micro fluidic channel is sealed by a glass...

  4. Integration of biological ion channels onto optically addressable micro-fluidic electrode arrays for single molecule characterization.

    Brozik, Susan Marie; Frink, Laura J. Douglas; Bachand, George David; Keller, David J. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Patrick, Elizabeth L.; Marshall, Jason A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ortiz, Theodore P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Meyer, Lauren A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flemming, Jeb Hunter

    2004-12-01

    The challenge of modeling the organization and function of biological membranes on a solid support has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily driven by potential applications in biosensor design. Affinity-based biosensors show great promise for extremely sensitive detection of BW agents and toxins. Receptor molecules have been successfully incorporated into phospholipid bilayers supported on sensing platforms. However, a collective body of data detailing a mechanistic understanding of membrane processes involved in receptor-substrate interactions and the competition between localized perturbations and delocalized responses resulting in reorganization of transmembrane protein structure, has yet to be produced. This report describes a systematic procedure to develop detailed correlation between (recognition-induced) protein restructuring and function of a ligand gated ion channel by combining single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and single channel current recordings. This document is divided into three sections: (1) reported are the thermodynamics and diffusion properties of gramicidin using single molecule fluorescence imaging and (2) preliminary work on the 5HT{sub 3} serotonin receptor. Thirdly, we describe the design and fabrication of a miniaturized platform using the concepts of these two technologies (spectroscopic and single channel electrochemical techniques) for single molecule analysis, with a longer term goal of using the physical and electronic changes caused by a specific molecular recognition event as a transduction pathway in affinity based biosensors for biotoxin detection.

  5. Micro-fluidic chip for cell sorting

    Šerý, Mojmír; Pilát, Zdeněk; Ježek, Jan; Kaňka, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel

    Munich : EOS, 2015. ISBN 978-952-93-5069-8. [EOS Conferences at the World of Photonics Congress 2015. Munich (DE), 22.06.2015-25.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14069; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA TA ČR TA03010642; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Micro-fluidic chip * cell sorting Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  6. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    Vazquez, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.vazquez@dcu.ie [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Dublin (Ireland); Paull, Brett, E-mail: brett.paull@dcu.ie [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-06-04

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  7. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  8. A Coupled Cavity Micro Fluidic Dye Ring Laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, M; Mortensen, N A; Kristensen, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a laterally emitting, coupled cavity micro fluidic dye ring laser, suitable for integration into lab-on-a-chip micro systems. The micro-fluidic laser has been successfully designed, fabricated, characterized and modelled. The resonator is formed by a micro-fluidic channel bounded by two isosceles triangle mirrors. The micro-fluidic laser structure is defined using photo lithography in 10 microns thick SU-8 polymer on a glass substrate. The micro fluidic channel is sealed by a glass lid, using PMMA adhesive bonding. The laser is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol or ethylene glycol as the active gain medium, which is pumped through the micro-fluidic channel and laser resonator. The dye laser is optically pumped normal to the chip plane at 532 nm by a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser and lasing is observed with a threshold pump pulse energy flux of around 55 micro-Joule/square-milimeter. The lasing is multi-mode, and the laser has switchable output coupling into...

  9. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  10. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Zhengzhi Yang; Haiyan Miao; Zhiwei Ding; Somsak Swaddiwudhipong; Yan Zhang; Zishun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hy...

  11. pH-Sensitive Hydrogel for Micro-Fluidic Valve

    Zhengzhi Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The deformation behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel micro-fluidic valve system is investigated using inhomogeneous gel deformation theory, in which the fluid-structure interaction (FSI of the gel solid and fluid flow in the pipe is considered. We use a finite element method with a well adopted hydrogel constitutive equation, which is coded in commercial software, ABAQUS, to simulate the hydrogel valve swelling deformation, while FLUENT is adopted to model the fluid flow in the pipe of the hydrogel valve system. The study demonstrates that FSI significantly affects the gel swelling deformed shapes, fluid flow pressure and velocity patterns. FSI has to be considered in the study on fluid flow regulated by hydrogel microfluidic valve. The study provides a more accurate and adoptable model for future design of new pH-sensitive hydrogel valves, and also gives a useful guideline for further studies on hydrogel fluidic applications.

  12. Computation of transient flow rates in passive pumping micro-fluidic systems

    Chen, I-Jane; Eckstein, Eugene C.; Lindner, Ernő

    2008-01-01

    Motion in micro-channels of passive flow micro-fluidic systems can be controlled by proper design and estimated by careful modeling. We report on methods to describe the flow rate as function of time in a passive pump driven micro-fluidic systems. The model considers the surface energy present in small droplets, which prompts their shrinkage and induces flow. The droplet geometries are controlled by the micro-fluidic system geometry and hydrophilicity of the droplet channel contact area so th...

  13. Portable integrated micro-fluidic platform for the monitoring and detection of nitrite

    Czugala, Monika; Fay, Cormac; O'Connor, Noel E.; Corcoran, Brian; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    A wireless, portable integrated micro-fluidic platform is proposed and applied for the determination of nitrite anions in water. The colourimetric analysis of nitrite is based on the Griess reagent, and the colour intensity of nitrite Griess reagent complex is detected using a low cost Paired Emitter Detector Diode technique. The micro-fluidic device employed a photoswitchable micro-valve, controlled by white light and generated using a light emitting diode. This low-cost and low-power detect...

  14. Liquid crystal thermometry for micro-fluidic applications

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2009-11-01

    Liquid crystal thermometry has been implemented in a micro-channel and the performance of the technique quantified. Implementation of the technique is subject to constraints on imaging and illumination configurations similar to the constraints on micro-PIV. In addition, the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light scatters leads to high noise levels that cannot be reduced by wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) because the temperature information is contained in the color of the particles. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of the thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC). Encapsulated TLC particles were flowed through the micro-channel and subjected to a series of uniform temperatures for calibration. To validate the technique, a temperature gradient was imposed with no flow. Finally, the technique was applied to micro-channel flow with an imposed wall temperature gradient in the flow direction. Liquid crystal thermometry can now be applied to a wide range of micro-fluidic applications.

  15. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  16. A micro-fluidic study of whole blood behaviour on PMMA topographical nanostructures

    Tsud Nataliya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymers are attractive materials for both biomedical engineering and cardiovascular applications. Although nano-topography has been found to influence cell behaviour, no established method exists to understand and evaluate the effects of nano-topography on polymer-blood interaction. Results We optimized a micro-fluidic set-up to study the interaction of whole blood with nano-structured polymer surfaces under flow conditions. Micro-fluidic chips were coated with polymethylmethacrylate films and structured by polymer demixing. Surface feature size varied from 40 nm to 400 nm and feature height from 5 nm to 50 nm. Whole blood flow rate through the micro-fluidic channels, platelet adhesion and von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen adsorption onto the structured polymer films were investigated. Whole blood flow rate through the micro-fluidic channels was found to decrease with increasing average surface feature size. Adhesion and spreading of platelets from whole blood and von Willebrand factor adsorption from platelet poor plasma were enhanced on the structured surfaces with larger feature, while fibrinogen adsorption followed the opposite trend. Conclusion We investigated whole blood behaviour and plasma protein adsorption on nano-structured polymer materials under flow conditions using a micro-fluidic set-up. We speculate that surface nano-topography of polymer films influences primarily plasma protein adsorption, which results in the control of platelet adhesion and thrombus formation.

  17. A Programmable MicroFluidic Processor: Integrated and Hybrid Solutions

    Rose, K A

    2002-05-10

    The Programmable Fluidic Processor (PFP), a device conceived of by researchers at MD Anderson Cancer Center, is a reconfigurable and programmable bio-chemical analysis system designed for handheld operation in a variety of applications. Unlike most microfluidic systems which utilize channels to control fluids, the PFP device is a droplet-based system. The device is based on dielectrophoresis; a fluid transport phenomenon that utilizes mismatched polarizability between a droplet and its medium to induce droplet mobility. In the device, sample carrying droplets are polarized by an array of electrodes, individually addressable by subsurface microelectronics. My research focused on the development of a polymer-based microfluidic injection system for injecting these droplets onto the electrode array. The first of two device generations fabricated at LLNL was designed using extensive research and modeling performed by MD Anderson and Coventor. Fabricating the first generation required several iterations and design changes in order to generate an acceptable device for testing. Difficulties in planar fabrication of the fluidic system and a narrow channel design necessitated these changes. The second generation device incorporated modifications of the previous generation and improved on deficiencies discovered during experimentation with the initial device. Extensive modeling of the injection channels and fluid storage chamber also aided in redesigning the device's microfluidic system. A micromolding technique with interlocking features enabled precise alignments and dimensional control, critical requirements for device optimization. Fabrication of a final device will be fully integrated with the polymer-based microfluidics bonded directly to the silicon-based microelectronics. The optimized design and process flow developed in the trial generations will readily transfer to this approach.

  18. Centrifugal micro-fluidic platform for radiochemistry: Potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels

    The use of a centrifugal micro-fluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the micro-fluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ∼97%), the use of the centrifugal micro-fluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ∼250. Thanks to their unique 'easy-to-use' features, centrifugal micro-fluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the down-scaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance). (authors)

  19. Combination of Micro-fluidic Chip with Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy for Single Molecule Detection

    2006-01-01

    A single molecule detection technique was developed by the combination of a single channel poly (dimethylsiloxane)/glass micro-fluidic chip and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This method was successfully used to determine the proportion of two model components in the mixture containing fluorescein and the rhodamine-green succinimidyl ester.

  20. Stimuli-responsive materials: developing integrated opto-molecular systems as sensors and actuators in micro-fluidic devices

    Florea, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Micro-fluidic platforms have been conferred with inherent optical sensing capabilities by coating the walls of micro-fluidic channels or micro-capillaries with stimuli-responsive materials. These adaptive materials respond optically to environmental stimuli, such as changes in pH, solvent polarity, the presence of certain metal ions and light. This approach confers sensing capabilities along the entire length of the coated micro-channel or micro-capillary. Adaptive coatings based on two types...

  1. Micro-Fluidic Dye Ring Laser - Experimental Tuning of the Wavelength and Numerical Simulation of the Cavity Modes

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view.......We demonstrate wavelength tuning of a micro-fluidic dye ring laser. Wavelength tunability is obtained by controlling the liquid dye concentration. The device performance is modelled by FEM simulations supporting a ray-tracing view....

  2. Micro-patterning and actuation of phosphonium-based photo-responsive ionogels for micro-fluidic applications

    Blin, Candice; Byrne, Robert; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The concept of “Micro-total-analysis-Systems” or “Lab-on-chip” has emerged over the past 20-years but, despite of the fact their incredible potential to revolutionise analytical science few outputs have reached the market so far[1]. Moreover, important issues like durability, disposability and cost of manufacture slow down the process of the integration of micro-fluidics into commercially relevant analytical products[2]. We believe that the next breakthroughs on micro-fluidic technology will ...

  3. Finite-element simulation of cavity modes in a micro-fluidic dye ring laser

    Gersborg-Hansen, M; Mortensen, N A; 10.1088/1464-4258/8/1/003

    2006-01-01

    We consider a recently reported micro-fluidic dye ring laser and study the full wave nature of TE modes in the cavity by means of finite-element simulations. The resonance wave-patterns of the cavity modes support a ray-tracing view and we are also able to explain the spectrum in terms of standing waves with a mode spacing dk = 2pi/L_eff where L_eff is the effective optical path length in the cavity.

  4. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    Dong Sam Park; Tae Il Seo; Dae Jin Yun

    2008-01-01

    For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplati...

  5. Research of Confocal Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection System for Micro-fluidic Chip

    FENG Jin-yuan; WANG Xiu-hua; ZHANG Hua-feng

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics such as signal noise ratio(SNR)[1-2] and sensitivity of the fluorescence detection system for micro-fluidic chip influence the performance of the whole system extremely.The confocal laser induced fluorescence detection system is presented.Based on the debugging of optical and circuit modules, the results of detecting the samples are given and analyzed theoretically,and the improved project is put forward.

  6. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. (paper)

  7. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering.

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2013-06-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. PMID:23458889

  8. Formation of a vertical MOSFET for charge sensing in a Si micro-fluidic channel

    We have formed a fluidic channel that can be used in micro-fluidic systems and fabricated a 3-dimensional vertical metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (vertical MOSFET) in the convex corner of a Si micro-fluidic channel by using an anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching solution. A Au/Cr layer was used for the gate metal and might be useful for detecting charged biomolecules. The electrical characteristics of the vertical MOSFET and its operation as a chemical sensor were investigated. At VDS = -5 V and VGS = -5 V the drain current of the device was -22.5 μA and the threshold voltage was about -1.4 V. A non-planar, non-rectangular vertical MOSFET with a trapezoidal gate was transformed into an equivalent rectangularly based one by using a Schwartz-Christoffel transformation. The LEVEL1 device parameters of the vertical MOSFET were extracted from the measured electrical device characteristics and were used in the SPICE simulation for the vertical MOSFET. The measured and the simulated results for the vertical PMOSFET showed relatively good agreement. When the vertical MOSFET was dipped into a thiol DNA solution, the drain current decreased due to charged biomolecules probably being adsorbed on the gate, which indicates that a vertical MOSFET in a Si micro-fluidic channel might be useful for sensing charged biomolecules.

  9. Fabrication of Biochips with Micro Fluidic Channels by Micro End-milling and Powder Blasting

    Dong Sam Park

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For microfabrications of biochips with micro fluidic channels, a large number of microfabrication techniques based on silicon or glass-based Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technologies were proposed in the last decade. In recent years, for low cost and mass production, polymer-based microfabrication techniques by microinjection molding and micro hot embossing have been proposed. These techniques, which require a proper photoresist, mask, UV light exposure, developing, and electroplating as a preprocess, are considered to have some problems. In this study, we propose a new microfabrication technology which consists of micro end-milling and powder blasting. This technique could be directly applied to fabricate the metal mold without any preprocesses. The metal mold with micro-channels is machined by micro end-milling, and then, burrs generated in the end-milling process are removed by powder blasting. From the experimental results, micro end-milling combined with powder blasting could be applied effectively for fabrication of the injection mold of biochips with micro fluidic channels.

  10. Micro-fluidic module for blood cell separation for gene expression radiobiological assays

    Advances in molecular techniques have improved discovery of biomarkers associated with radiation exposure. Gene expression techniques have been demonstrated as effective tools for biodosimetry, and different assay platforms with different chemistries are now available. One of the main challenges is to integrate the sample preparation processing of these assays into micro-fluidic platforms to be fully automated for point-of-care medical countermeasures in the case of a radiological event. Most of these assays follow the same workflow processing that comprises first the collection of blood samples followed by cellular and molecular sample preparation. The sample preparation is based on the specific reagents of the assay system and depends also on the different subsets of cells population and the type of biomarkers of interest. In this article, the authors present a module for isolation of white blood cells from peripheral blood as a prerequisite for automation of gene expression assays on a micro-fluidic cartridge. For each sample condition, the gene expression platform can be adapted to suit the requirements of the selected assay chemistry (authors)

  11. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  12. Manipulating fluids: Advances in micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self assembly

    Vyawahare, Saurabh

    This dissertation describes work in three inter-related areas---micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self-assembly. Micro-fluidics has gotten a boost in recent years with the development of multilayered elastomeric devices made of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), allowing active elements like valves and pumps. However, while PDMS has many advantages, it is not resistant to organic solvents. New materials and/or new designs are needed for solvent resistance. I describe how novel fluorinated elastomers can replace PDMS when combined with the three dimensional (3-D) solid printing. I also show how another 3-D fabrication method, multilayer photo-lithography, allows for fabrication of devices integrating filters. In general, 3-D fabrications allow new kinds of micro-fluidic devices to be made that would be impossible to emulate with two dimensional chips. In opto-fluidics, I describe a number of experiments with quantum dots both inside and outside chips. Inside chips, I manipulate quantum dots using hydrodynamic focusing to pattern fine lines, like a barcode. Outside chips, I describe our attempts to create quantum dot composites with micro-spheres. I also show how evaporated gold films and chemical passivation can then be used to enhance the emission of quantum dots. Finally, within fluids, self assembly is an attractive way to manipulate materials, and I provide two examples: first, a DNA-based energy transfer molecule that relies on quantum mechanics and self-assembles inside fluids. This kind of molecular photonics mimics parts of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants and bacteria. The second example of self-assembly in fluids describes a new phenomena---the surface tension mediated self assembly of particles like quantum dots and micro-spheres into fine lines. This self assembly by capillary flows can be combined with photo-lithography, and is expected to find use in future nano- and micro-fabrication schemes. In conclusion, advances in fludics, integrating

  13. Micro-fluidic tools for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides in analytical procedures

    The analyses of radionuclides are in great demand and a cost effective technique for the separation of analytes is required. A micro-scale reactor composed of microchannels fabricated in a microchip was chosen to investigate liquid-liquid extraction reactions driven by three different families of metal extractants: neutral, acidic and ion-pair extractants. The extraction conditions in the micro-fluidic device were considered. These investigations demonstrated that the conventional methodology used for solvent extraction in macro-scale reactors is not directly transposable to micro liquid-liquid extraction systems. However, it is expected that the understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena involved in a reference extraction systems studied in a given selected lab-on-chip will lead us to develop and validate a methodology suitable to miniaturized reactors. (authors)

  14. Silicon micro-fluidic cooling for NA62 GTK pixel detectors

    Romagnoli, G; Brunel, B; Catinaccio, A; Degrange, J; Mapelli, A; Morel, M; Noel, J; Petagna, P

    2015-01-01

    Silicon micro-channel cooling is being studied for efficient thermal management in application fields such as high power computing and 3D electronic integration. This concept has been introduced in 2010 for the thermal management of silicon pixel detectors in high energy physics experiments. Combining the versatility of standard micro-fabrication processes with the high thermal efficiency typical of micro-fluidics, it is possible to produce effective thermal management devices that are well adapted to different detector configurations. The production of very thin cooling devices in silicon enables a minimization of material of the tracking sensors and eliminates mechanical stresses due to the mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between detectors and cooling systems. The NA62 experiment at CERN will be the first high particle physics experiment that will install a micro-cooling system to perform the thermal management of the three detection planes of its Gigatracker pixel detector.

  15. A novel simple preparation method of a hydrogel mold for PDMS micro-fluidic device fabrication

    A novel method to prepare a very thick master mold for poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) casting was investigated by using a hydrogel ultraviolet (UV) curing process through a film mask. A simple process of dispensing of hydrogel, UV curing through a photomask and rinsing enabled the construction of micro-hydrogel structures in a fast manner. These hydrogel structures can be used as a mold for PDMS casting for PDMS fluidic chip fabrication. This method allows the fast construction of very thick micro-structures more than 1 mm. The characterizations about vertical sidewall and adhesion enhancement between the substrate and micro-structures were studied. The application of a PDMS fluidic chip, which was prepared from the hydrogel mold by PDMS casting, to some fluidic flow rate tests was demonstrated. This method is fast and simple to prepare a PDMS casting mold at low cost and can be applied in micro-fabrication of biochemical chips and micro-fluidic devices. (paper)

  16. Shear wave attenuation and micro-fluidics in water-saturated sand and glass beads.

    Chotiros, Nicholas P; Isakson, Marcia J

    2014-06-01

    An improvement in the modeling of shear wave attenuation and speed in water-saturated sand and glass beads is introduced. Some dry and water-saturated materials are known to follow a constant-Q model in which the attenuation, expressed as Q(-1), is independent of frequency. The associated loss mechanism is thought to lie within the solid frame. A second loss mechanism in fluid-saturated porous materials is the viscous loss due to relative motion between pore fluid and solid frame predicted by the Biot-Stoll model. It contains a relaxation process that makes the Q(-1) change with frequency, reaching a peak at a characteristic frequency. Examination of the published measurements above 1 kHz, particularly those of Brunson (Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvalis, 1983), shows another peak, which is explained in terms of a relaxation process associated with the squirt flow process at the grain-grain contact. In the process of deriving a model for this phenomenon, it is necessary to consider the micro-fluidic effects associated with the flow within a thin film of water confined in the gap at the grain-grain contact and the resulting increase in the effective viscosity of water. The result is an extended Biot model that is applicable over a broad band of frequencies. PMID:24907791

  17. Disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for online parallelized cell adhesion kinetics analysis on quartz crystal resonators

    Cama, G.; Jacobs, T.; Dimaki, Maria;

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we present a new disposable micro-fluidic biosensor array for the online analysis of adherent Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK-II) cells on quartz crystal resonators (QCRs). The device was conceived for the parallel cultivation of cells providing the same experimental conditions...... with focus on the comparison of the resulting sensor signals influenced by different cell distributions on the sensor surface. To prove the assumption of equal flow circulation within the symmetric micro-channel network and support the hypothesis of identical cultivation conditions for the cells living...

  18. Design of an optical and micro-fluidic sensor for concentration measurement by photo-thermal effect

    This work has been done in the context of fuel reprocessing in the nuclear industry. In fact, the handling of nuclear waste is one of the major issues in the nuclear industry. Its implications reach from economical to political to ecological dimensions. Since used nuclear fuel consists of 97% of recyclable substances, many countries have chosen to reprocess used fuel, not only for economical reasons but also to limit the quantity of nuclear waste. The most widely employed extraction technique is the PUREX process where the used fuel is diluted in nitric acid. The recyclable compounds can then be extracted by solvent techniques. Such processes need to be monitored crucially. However, nowadays, the process supervision is carried out by manually sampling the radioactive effluents and analyzing them in external laboratories. Not only prone to potential risks, this approach is little responsive and produces radio-toxic samples that cannot be reintroduced in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this study, we therefore present the developpement of a micro-fluidic glass sensor, based on the detection of a photothermal effect induced in the sample fluid. Micro-fluidic allows fluid handling on a microliter-scale and can therefore significantly reduce the sample volume and thereby the radio-toxicity of the analyzed fluids. Photothermal spectrometry is well suited for small-scale sample analysis since its sensitivity does not rely on the length of optical interaction with the analyte. The photothermal effect is a local refractive index variation due to the absorption of photons by the analyte species which are contained in the sample. On the sensor chip, the index refraction change is being sensed by an integrated Young interferometer made by ion-exchange in glass. The probed volume in the channel was (33.5± 3.5) pl. The interferometric system can sense refractive index changes as low as Δn(min)=7.5*10-6, allowing to detect a minimum concentration of cobalt(II) in ethanol c

  19. An all-glass 12 μm ultra-thin and flexible micro-fluidic chip fabricated by femtosecond laser processing.

    Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Iino, Takanori; Tanaka, Yo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated and established a method, using femtosecond laser processing, to fabricate a 100%-glass-based 12 μm ultra-thin and flexible micro-fluidic chip. First we investigated the suitable pulse energy of the laser to fabricate ultra-thin glass sheets and then we fabricated a prototype glass micro-fluidic chip. Two 1 mm-in-diameter orifices for facilitating alignment in the bonding step and one channel with a width of 20 μm and a length of 25 mm were fabricated in a 4 μm thickness ultra-thin glass sheet using the femtosecond laser; this forms layer 2 in the completed device. Next, the glass sheet with the channel was sandwiched between another glass sheet having an inlet hole and an outlet hole (layer 1) and a base glass sheet (layer 3); the three sheets were bonded to each other, resulting in a flexible, 100%-glass micro-fluidic chip with a thickness of approximately 12 μm and a weight of 3.6 mg. The basic function of the glass micro-fluidic chip was confirmed by flowing 1 and 2 μm in-diameter bead particles through the channel. The fabrication method clearly scales down the thickness limitation of flexible glass devices and offers a possible element technology for fabricating ultra-thin glass devices that can be applied to convection-enhanced delivery, implantable medical devices, wearable devices, and high-resolution imaging of small biological objects such as bacteria and proteins in the channel. PMID:27225521

  20. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  1. A micro fluidic system to study the cytotoxic effect of drugs: the combined effect of celecoxib and 5-fluorouracil on normal and cancer cells

    We have investigated the response of normal and cancer cells to exposure a combination of celecoxib (Celbx) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using a lab-on-a-chip micro fluidic device. Specifically, we have tested the cytotoxic effect of Celbx on normal mouse embryo cells (Balb/c 3T3) and human lung carcinoma cells (A549). The single drugs or their combinations were adjusted to five different concentrations using a concentration gradient generator (CGG) in a single step. The results suggest that Celbx can enhanced the anticancer activity of 5-FU by stronger inhibition of cancer cell growth. We also show that the A549 cancer cells are more sensitive to Celbx than the Balb/c 3T3 normal cells. The results obtained with the micro fluidic system were compared to those obtained with a macro scale in vitro cell culture method. In our opinion, the micro fluidic system represents a unique approach for an evaluation of cellular response to multidrug exposure that also is more simple than respective micro well plate assays. (author)

  2. Measurement of Solution Impedance with Micro-Fluidic Chip%基于微流控芯片的液体电导测量

    胥飞; Md Shehadul Islam

    2012-01-01

    A conductance micro-fluidic chip was fabricated by electrochemistry corrosion. Based on the traditional fabrication method of micro-fluidic chip, thin brass wire is etched and broken into two elec- trodes for impedance measurement. Conductance of polystyrene beads solutions with densities of 21.0 %, 28. 1%, 37.50% and 50% are measured with the micro-fluidic chip. The measured results conform to the theory, showing effectiveness of the chip in liquid conductance measurement.%在传统微流控芯片制作方法的基础上,利用电化学腐蚀来制作电导式微流控芯片。对浓度分别为21.0%、28.1%、37.5%、50%的聚苯乙烯溶于去离子水的微粒混悬液进行实验测量,实验表明,该芯片测量与理论基本符合,芯片适用于液体溶液的阻抗测量。

  3. All-organic electrostrictive polymer composites with low driving electrical voltages for micro-fluidic pump applications

    Le, Minh Quyen; Capsal, Jean-Fabien; Galineau, Jérémy; Ganet, Florent; Yin, Xunqian; Yang, Mingchia (Dawn); Chateaux, Jean-François; Renaud, Louis; Malhaire, Christophe; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Liang, Richard

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on the improvement of a relaxor ferroelectric terpolymer, i.e., poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)], filled with a bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The developed material gave rise to a significantly increased longitudinal electrostrictive strain, as well as an increased mechanical energy density under a relatively low electric field. These features were attributed to the considerably enhanced dielectric permittivity and a decreased Young modulus as a result of the introduction of only small DEHP plasticizer molecules. In addition, the plasticizer-filled terpolymer only exhibited a slight decrease of the dielectric breakdown strength, which was a great advantage with respect to the traditional polymer-based electrostrictive composites. More importantly, the approach proposed herein is promising for the future development and scale-up of new high-performance electrostrictive dielectrics under low applied electrical fields through modification simply by blending with a low-cost plasticizer. An experimental demonstration based on a flexible micro-fluidic application is described at the end of this paper, confirming the attractive characteristics of the proposed materials as well as the feasibility of integrating them as micro-actuators in small-scale devices.

  4. Open Tubular Microreactor with Enzyme Functionalized Micro- fluidic Channel for Amperometric Detection of Glucose

    张蕾; 曲平; 盛金; 雷建平; 鞠烷先

    2012-01-01

    A simple and efficient method using enzyme immobilized microfluidic channel as open tubular microreactor was designed for amperometric detection of glucose. The microreactor was composed of a polydimethylsilicone/ glass hybrid device with three reservoirs, a cooling cave and a 6 cm capillary with a sampling fracture as micro-channel. The microchannel was further modified by thermal polymerization, followed by covalently attaching with glucose oxidase. Through fracture sampling and electrochromatography separation, the production via enzymatic reaction was determinated by Pt electrode at the end of capillary. The linear range for the detection of glucose was 0.05--7.5 mmol·L-1 with detection limit of 23μmol.L-1 The inter-and intra-chip reproducibilities for determination of 2.5 mmol-L-1 glucose were 98.5% (n=5) and 96.0% (n=5), respectively. With the advantage of flexible assembly, rapid efficiency, good stability and low-cost, this microreactor provided a potential platform for estab- lishing a portable enzyme-based chemical detection system in practical application.

  5. Structuration of micro-fluidic devices based on low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology

    Birol, Hansu; Maeder, Thomas; Jacq, Caroline; Corradini, Giancarlo; Fournier, Yannick; Saglini, Igor; Straessler, Sigfrid; Ryser, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Smart packaging concept has been the driving force for the search of advanced technologies to produce multi-functional micro-scale devices for long years. In this sense, LTCC technology has been recently addressed as the suitable choice for a wide range of applications. In addition to its attractive characteristics for high-frequency applications those have been profited for a long time, it receives a growing attention for sensor applications in the recent years as well. This is due to the ea...

  6. Light-addressable amperometric electrodes for enzyme sensors based on direct quantum dot-electrode contacts

    Riedel, M.; Göbel, G.; Parak, W. J.; Lisdat, F.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots allow the generation of charge carriers upon illumination. When these particles are attached to an electrode a photocurrent can be generated. This allows their use as a light-switchable layer on the surface. The QDs can not only exchange electronics with the electrode, but can also interact with donor or acceptor compounds in solution providing access to the construction of signal chains starting from an analytic molecule. The magnitude and the direction of the photocurrent depend on several factors such as electrode polarization, solution pH and composition. These defined dependencies have been evaluated with respect to the combination of QD-electrodes with enzyme reactions for sensorial purpose. CdSe/ZnS-QD-modified electrodes can be used to follow enzymatic reactions in solution based on the oxygen sensitivity. In order to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor, e.g. glucose oxidase is immobilized on the CdSe/ZnS-electrode. One immobilization strategy applies the layer-by-layer-technique of GOD and a polyelectrolyte. Photocurrent measurements of such a sensor show a clear concentration dependent behavior. The principle of combing QD oxidase. The sensitivity of quantum dot electrodes can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be demonstrated that direct electron transfer from excited quantum dots can be achieved with the redox protein cytochrome c. This allows the detection of the protein, but also interaction partners such as a enzymes or superoxide.

  7. Evaluation of a X-ray imaging method in micro-fluidics: the case of T-shaped micro-channels filling up

    X-rays methods assessment in micro-fluidics: case of 'T' shaped microchannels filling. Fluid flows within 'T' or 'Y' shaped microchannels are deeply studied in order to develop adapted modeling approaches and experimental techniques. Our technological choice lies on the attenuation measurement of X-ray in matter. The main advantage of this non-intrusive technique is to be implemented on media opaque to visible light. Moreover, X-rays methods may achieve better spatial resolutions as compared to optical methods because of their much lower wavelength. In order to validate this X-ray method, measurements obtained by this technique are compared with direct measurements carried out on similar microchannels. Finally, experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. (author)

  8. Rapid, Single-Molecule Assays in Nano/Micro-Fluidic Chips with Arrays of Closely Spaced Parallel Channels Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Machining

    Brian K. Canfield

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effective pharmaceutical drug discovery depends on increasing assay throughput while reducing reagent needs. To this end, we are developing an ultrasensitive, fluorescence-based platform that incorporates a nano/micro-fluidic chip with an array of closely spaced channels for parallelized optical readout of single-molecule assays. Here we describe the use of direct femtosecond laser machining to fabricate several hundred closely spaced channels on the surfaces of fused silica substrates. The channels are sealed by bonding to a microscope cover slip spin-coated with a thin film of poly(dimethylsiloxane. Single-molecule detection experiments are conducted using a custom-built, wide-field microscope. The array of channels is epi-illuminated by a line-generating red diode laser, resulting in a line focus just a few microns thick across a 500 micron field of view. A dilute aqueous solution of fluorescently labeled biomolecules is loaded into the device and fluorescence is detected with an electron-multiplying CCD camera, allowing acquisition rates up to 7 kHz for each microchannel. Matched digital filtering based on experimental parameters is used to perform an initial, rapid assessment of detected fluorescence. More detailed analysis is obtained through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Simulated fluorescence data is shown to agree well with experimental values.

  9. Rapid, single-molecule assays in nano/micro-fluidic chips with arrays of closely spaced parallel channels fabricated by femtosecond laser machining.

    Canfield, Brian K; King, Jason K; Robinson, William N; Hofmeister, William H; Davis, Lloyd M

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective pharmaceutical drug discovery depends on increasing assay throughput while reducing reagent needs. To this end, we are developing an ultrasensitive, fluorescence-based platform that incorporates a nano/micro-fluidic chip with an array of closely spaced channels for parallelized optical readout of single-molecule assays. Here we describe the use of direct femtosecond laser machining to fabricate several hundred closely spaced channels on the surfaces of fused silica substrates. The channels are sealed by bonding to a microscope cover slip spin-coated with a thin film of poly(dimethylsiloxane). Single-molecule detection experiments are conducted using a custom-built, wide-field microscope. The array of channels is epi-illuminated by a line-generating red diode laser, resulting in a line focus just a few microns thick across a 500 micron field of view. A dilute aqueous solution of fluorescently labeled biomolecules is loaded into the device and fluorescence is detected with an electron-multiplying CCD camera, allowing acquisition rates up to 7 kHz for each microchannel. Matched digital filtering based on experimental parameters is used to perform an initial, rapid assessment of detected fluorescence. More detailed analysis is obtained through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Simulated fluorescence data is shown to agree well with experimental values. PMID:25140634

  10. Addressing the Challenges of Using Ferromagnetic Electrodes in the Molecular Spintronics Devices

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Ferromagnetic electrodes chemically bonded with thiol functionalized molecules can produce novel molecular spintronics devices. However, major challenges lie in developing Ferromagnetic electrodes based commercially viable device fabrication scheme that consider the susceptibility of ferromagnetic electrodes to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy used in the present day memory devices and high-temperature...

  11. Micro-fluidic (Lab-on the- Chip) PCR Array Cartridge for Biological Screening in a Hand Held Device: FInal Report for CRADA no 264. PNNL-T2-258-RU with CombiMatrix Corp

    Rainina, Evguenia I.

    2010-10-31

    The worldwide emergence of both new and old diseases resulting from human expansion and also human and materials mobility has and will continue to place stress on both medical and clinical diagnostics. The classical approach to bioagents detection involves the use of differential metabolic assays to determine species type in the case of most bacteria, or the use of cell culture and electron microscopy to diagnose viruses and some bacteria that are intracellular parasites. The long-term goal in bioagent detection is to develop a hand-held instrument featuring disposable cartridges which contain all the necessary reagents, reaction chambers, waste chambers, and micro-fluidics to extract, concentrate, amplify, and analyze nucleic acids. This GIPP project began development of a sensory platform using nucleic-acid based probes. Although research was not completed, initial findings indicated that an advanced sensing device could theoretically be built on a DNA/RNA-based technology platform.

  12. Micro-electroforming metallic bipolar electrodes for mini-DMFC stacks

    Shyu, R F; Lee, J -H

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of metallic bipolar plate fabrication using micro-electroforming process for mini-DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stacks. Ultraviolet (UV) lithography was used to define micro-fluidic channels using a photomask and exposure process. Micro-fluidic channels mold with 300 micrometers thick and 500 micrometers wide were firstly fabricated in a negative photoresist onto a stainless steel plate. Copper micro-electroforming was used to replicate the micro-fluidic channels mold. Following by sputtering silver (Ag) with 1.2 micrometers thick, the metallic bipolar plates were completed. The silver layer is used for corrosive resistance. The completed mini-DMFC stack is a 2x2 cm2 fuel cell stack including a 1.5x1.5 cm2 MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Several MEAs were assembly into mini-DMFC stacks using the completed metallic bipolar plates. All test results showed the metallic bipolar plates suitable for mini-DMFC stacks. The maximum output power density is 9.3mW/cm2 and curren...

  13. Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase to Address the Electrochemical Degradation of Silicon Electrodes

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation on Si anodes prevents them from being successfully used in lithium-ion full cells. Unlike the case of graphite anodes, natural solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films generated from carbonate electrolyte do not self-passivate on Si and causes continuous electrolyte decomposition. In this work we aim at solving the issue of electrochemical degradation by fabricating artificial SEI films using a solid electrolyte material, lithium phosphor oxynitride (Lipon), that conducts Li ions and blocks electrons. For Si anodes coated with Lipon of 50 nm or thicker, significant effect is observed in suppressing the electrolyte decomposition, while Lipon of thinner than 40 nm has little effect. Ionic and electronic conductivity measurement reveals that the artificial SEI is effective when it is a pure ionic conductor, and the electrolyte decomposition is not suppressed when the artificial SEI is a mixed electronic-ionic conductor. The critical thickness for this transition in conducting behavior is found to be 40~50 nm. This work provides guidance for designing artificial SEI for high capacity lithium-ion battery electrodes using solid electrolyte materials.

  14. Artificial solid electrolyte interphase to address the electrochemical degradation of silicon electrodes.

    Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy J; Nanda, Jagjit; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-07-01

    Electrochemical degradation on silicon (Si) anodes prevents them from being successfully used in lithium (Li)-ion battery full cells. Unlike the case of graphite anodes, the natural solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films generated from carbonate electrolytes do not self-passivate on Si, causing continuous electrolyte decomposition and loss of Li ions. In this work, we aim at solving the issue of electrochemical degradation by fabricating artificial SEI films using a solid electrolyte material, lithium phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon), which conducts Li ions and blocks electrons. For Si anodes coated with Lipon of 50 nm or thicker, a significant effect is observed in suppressing electrolyte decomposition, while Lipon of thinner than 40 nm has a limited effect. Ionic and electronic conductivity measurements reveal that the artificial SEI is effective when it is a pure ionic conductor, but electrolyte decomposition is only partially suppressed when the artificial SEI is a mixed electronic-ionic conductor. The critical thickness for this transition in conducting behavior is found to be 40-50 nm. This work provides guidance for designing artificial SEI films for high-capacity Li-ion battery electrodes using solid electrolyte materials. PMID:24926882

  15. Three-dimensional micro-electrode array for recording dissociated neuronal cultures.

    Musick, Katherine; Khatami, David; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2009-07-21

    This work demonstrates the design, fabrication, packaging, characterization, and functionality of an electrically and fluidically active three-dimensional micro-electrode array (3D MEA) for use with neuronal cell cultures. The successful function of the device implies that this basic concept-construction of a 3D array with a layered approach-can be utilized as the basis for a new family of neural electrode arrays. The 3D MEA prototype consists of a stack of individually patterned thin films that form a cell chamber conducive to maintaining and recording the electrical activity of a long-term three-dimensional network of rat cortical neurons. Silicon electrode layers contain a polymer grid for neural branching, growth, and network formation. Along the walls of these electrode layers lie exposed gold electrodes which permit recording and stimulation of the neuronal electrical activity. Silicone elastomer micro-fluidic layers provide a means for loading dissociated neurons into the structure and serve as the artificial vasculature for nutrient supply and aeration. The fluidic layers also serve as insulation for the micro-electrodes. Cells have been shown to survive in the 3D MEA for up to 28 days, with spontaneous and evoked electrical recordings performed in that time. The micro-fluidic capability was demonstrated by flowing in the drug tetrotodoxin to influence the activity of the culture. PMID:19568672

  16. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    Tyagi, Pawan, E-mail: ptyagi@udc.edu; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin [University of the District of Columbia, Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes’ susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond ∼90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below ∼90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies.

  17. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes’ susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond ∼90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below ∼90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies

  18. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-01-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power ...

  19. Application of Micro-fluidics in Gas-liquid Separation of Subsea Gas and Oil Exploitation%微流体技术在深水油气开发气液分离中的应用

    杨晓宇

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration is one of the properties to be determined by using sensing systems for assessing quality of natural gas during subsea exploitation.However,natural gas has other contents including water and oil,that is to say,motivated by the need for quantitative measurements of carbon dioxide concentration in multiphase mixture,so the tra-ditional measurement way can not ensure the instantaneity of measuring results.A special micro-fluidic channel was devel-oped which took advantage of surface tension effects.This system allows the separation of gas and liquid phases so that gas can be optically analyzed,carbon dioxide after separation can be measured through optical sensors.%在深水油气田开发过程中,CO2含量是估测天然气质量的重要参数,需用传感器对其进行测量;然而,天然气还包含有水和油等其他的成分,即需要在多相混合的情况下确定 CO2的浓度。而传统的测量方法无法保证测量结果的实时性;因此,设计了特殊的微流体通道系统,可使其利用微流体管道的表面张力效应对气相和液相进行分离。CO2对红外光的吸收可被用于在线测量,可采用光学传感器对分离后的 CO2浓度进行检测。

  20. Research Progress in Capillary Electrophoresis and Micro-fluidic Chip Electrophoresis Applied in Testing Genetically Modified Food%毛细管电泳与芯片电泳技术在转基因食品检测中的研究进展

    李永新; 黎源倩; 何玲; 李灿

    2012-01-01

    大量的转基因生物体作为食品进入人们的生活,灵敏、快速、特异的检测方法对保护消费者的知情权和选择权、保障转基因标签制度的顺利实施起到了举足轻重的作用.毛细管电泳和芯片电泳作为新兴的分离技术,以其高通量、高灵敏度、快捷低耗的优势弥补了传统凝胶电泳的不足.对目前常用的转基因食品检测方法进行归纳和评价,并重点综述了近年来毛细管电泳与芯片电泳技术在转基因食品检测中的研究进展.%In the past few years,genetically modified organs as food ( GMC) have entered into people's daily life. The fast,sensitive and reliable testing methods have played a decisive role in protecting the customers' right to know and to choose,safeguarding the smooth implementation of labeling system for genetically modified food ( GMF) . Capillary electrophoresis and micro-fluidic chip electrophoresis,as relatively new technology has made up the deficiencies of traditional gel eleetrophoTesis with their high flux,high sensitivity,fast and low consumption. This paper summarized and assessed the common methods for testing GMF and laid emphasis in reviewing the research progress made in capillary and micro-fluidic chip electrophoresis for testing GMF in recent years.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Micro-fluidic Devices

    Clague, D S

    2002-01-28

    The results to date do indeed show that the lattice Boltzmann method accurately solves relevant, non-trivial flow problems. The parallelization of both the fluid and the mobile species in flow has enhanced this capability such that it is useful for solving relevant problems in a timely fashion. The initial studies of stationary or capture species revealed evidence of hydrodynamic screening between upstream and downstream particles. Numerical studies reveal that the critical length for which the test particle is hydrodynamically decoupled from upstream and downstream particles is on the order of 30 sphere radii. For mobile species, the LB capability was shown to be naturally suited for predicting the hydrodynamic lift phenomenon (inertial lift). A conversion factor was developed based on scaling arguments to include relevant forces generated by external fields. Using this conversion, an analytic solution for the Dielectrophoretic force was included into the LB capability which enabled the study of Dielectrophoretic particle capture. The Non-Newtonian enhancements have expanded the applicability of the LB capability to more physical systems. Specifically, with the bead-n-spring representation of macromolecules researchers will be able to study chain dynamics in micro-, physiological and Bio-MEMS environments. Furthermore, the ability to capture the shear thinning behavior, without any increase in computational time, positions this capability to be applied to a whole host of new problems involving biofluids.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Micro Fluidics of Polymer Melts

    Marin, José Manuel Román; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    film on a hard substrate. The numerical method is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid, where the (Cartesian) coordinate system attached to the particles is discretized by ten-node quadratic tetrahedral elements. The time integral in the K-BKZ model is discretized by a quadratic...... interpolation ensuring third order convergence in time. The method has been benchmarked on the free surface problem of a filament stretched between two plates....

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Micro-fluidic Devices

    The results to date do indeed show that the lattice Boltzmann method accurately solves relevant, non-trivial flow problems. The parallelization of both the fluid and the mobile species in flow has enhanced this capability such that it is useful for solving relevant problems in a timely fashion. The initial studies of stationary or capture species revealed evidence of hydrodynamic screening between upstream and downstream particles. Numerical studies reveal that the critical length for which the test particle is hydrodynamically decoupled from upstream and downstream particles is on the order of 30 sphere radii. For mobile species, the LB capability was shown to be naturally suited for predicting the hydrodynamic lift phenomenon (inertial lift). A conversion factor was developed based on scaling arguments to include relevant forces generated by external fields. Using this conversion, an analytic solution for the Dielectrophoretic force was included into the LB capability which enabled the study of Dielectrophoretic particle capture. The Non-Newtonian enhancements have expanded the applicability of the LB capability to more physical systems. Specifically, with the bead-n-spring representation of macromolecules researchers will be able to study chain dynamics in micro-, physiological and Bio-MEMS environments. Furthermore, the ability to capture the shear thinning behavior, without any increase in computational time, positions this capability to be applied to a whole host of new problems involving biofluids

  4. Integrated LTCC micro-fluidic modules - an SMT flow sensor

    Fournier, Yannick; Willigens, Raphael; Maeder, Thomas; Ryser, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal flow sensor based on the calorimetric principle realized by using low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, where the tapes and flow channel have been structured by laser machining. A standard configuration of a calorimetric sensor consists of a heater placed above the flow channel and temperature sensitive elements arranged symmetrically downstream and upstream. The temperature difference between temperature sensitive elements (at the upstream and down...

  5. Topology optimization of flexible micro-fluidic devices

    Kreissl, Sebastian; Pingen, Georg; Evgrafov, Anton;

    2010-01-01

    A multi-objective topology optimization formulation for the design of dynamically tunable fluidic devices is presented. The flow is manipulated via external and internal mechanical actuation, leading to elastic deformations of flow channels. The design objectives characterize the performance in t...

  6. Micro-electroforming metallic bipolar electrodes for mini-DMFC stacks

    Shyu, R.F.; Yang, H; Lee, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/16838) International audience This paper describes the development of metallic bipolar plate fabrication using micro-electroforming process for mini-DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) stacks. Ultraviolet (UV) lithography was used to define micro-fluidic channels using a photomask and exposure process. Micro-fluidic channels mold with 300 μm thick and 500 μm wide were firstly fabricated in a negative pho...

  7. Nanostructured gold colloid electrodes

    Recent advances in the assembly of nanoparticle superstructures on electrodes are addressed here. Methods for the assembly and characterization of these arrays are summarized and their electronic, photoelectrochemical, and sensor applications are discussed. (orig.)

  8. IP Addressing

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  9. Inaugural Address

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  10. Keynote address

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  11. Welcome Address

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  12. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  13. Inaugural address

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  14. Opening Address

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  15. Opening address

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  16. Opening address

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  17. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  18. Keynote address

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  19. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  20. Opening address

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  1. Opening address

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  2. Welcome Address

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  3. Opening address

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  4. Opening address

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  5. Electrode array for neural stimulation

    Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Stein, David J. (Albuquerque, NM); Yang, Pin (Albuquerque, NM); Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Dellinger, Jennifer (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-16

    An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

  6. Working Electrodes

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka

    In electrochemistry an electrode is an electronic conductor in contact with an ionic conductor. The electronic conductor can be a metal, or a semiconductor, or a mixed electronic and ionic conductor. The ionic conductor is usually an electrolyte solution; however, solid electrolytes and ionic melts can be used as well. The term "electrode" is also used in a technical sense, meaning the electronic conductor only. If not specified otherwise, this meaning of the term "electrode" is the subject of the present chapter. In the simplest case the electrode is a metallic conductor immersed in an electrolyte solution. At the surface of the electrode, dissolved electroactive ions change their charges by exchanging one or more electrons with the conductor. In this electrochemical reaction both the reduced and oxidized ions remain in solution, while the conductor is chemically inert and serves only as a source and sink of electrons. The technical term "electrode" usually also includes all mechanical parts supporting the conductor (e.g., a rotating disk electrode or a static mercury drop electrode). Furthermore, it includes all chemical and physical modifications of the conductor, or its surface (e.g., a mercury film electrode, an enzyme electrode, and a carbon paste electrode). However, this term does not cover the electrolyte solution and the ionic part of a double layer at the electrode/solution interface. Ion-selective electrodes, which are used in potentiometry, will not be considered in this chapter. Theoretical and practical aspects of electrodes are covered in various books and reviews [1-9].

  7. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  8. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  9. Cermet electrode

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  10. Allegheny County Address Points

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  11. Micro-fluidic partitioning between polymeric sheets for chemical amplification and processing

    Anderson, Brian L.

    2015-05-26

    A system for fluid partitioning for chemical amplification or other chemical processing or separations of a sample, comprising a first dispenser of a first polymeric sheet, wherein the first polymeric sheet contains chambers; a second dispenser of a second polymeric sheet wherein the first dispenser and the second dispenser are positioned so that the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet become parallel; a dispenser of the fluid positioned to dispense the fluid between the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet; and a seal unit that seals the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet together thereby sealing the sample between the first polymeric sheet and the second polymeric sheet and partitioning the fluid for chemical amplification or other chemical processing or separations.

  12. Characterization of Printable Cellular Micro-fluidic Channels for Tissue Engineering

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the...

  13. Water jet rebounds on hydrophobic surfaces : a first step to jet micro-fluidics.

    Celestini, Franck; Kofman, R.; Noblin, Xavier; Pellegrin, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    International audience When a water jet impinges upon a solid surface it produces a so called hydraulic jump that everyone can observe in the sink of its kitchen. It is characterized by a thin liquid sheet bounded by a circular rise of the surface due to capillary and gravitational forces. In this phenomenon, the impact induces a geometrical transition, from the cylindrical one of the jet to the bi-dimensional one of the film. A true jet rebound on a solid surface, for which the cylindrica...

  14. Micro Fluidic Channel Machining on Fused Silica Glass Using Powder Blasting

    Dong-Sam Park

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, micro fluid channels are machined on fused silica glass via powder blasting, a mechanical etching process, and the machining characteristics of the channels are experimentally evaluated. In the process, material removal is performed by the collision of micro abrasives injected by highly compressed air on to the target surface. This approach can be characterized as an integration of brittle mode machining based on micro crack propagation. Fused silica glass, a high purity synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, is selected as a workpiece material. It has a very low thermal expansion coefficient and excellent optical qualities and exceptional transmittance over a wide spectral range, especially in the ultraviolet range. The powder blasting process parameters affecting the machined results are injection pressure, abrasive particle size and density, stand-off distance, number of nozzle scanning, and shape/size of the required patterns. In this study, the influence of the number of nozzle scanning, abrasive particle size, and pattern size on the formation of micro channels is investigated. Machined shapes and surface roughness are measured using a 3-dimensional vision profiler and the results are discussed.

  15. Design and testing of micro fluidic chemical analysis chip integrated with micro valveless pump

    FU; Xin; XIE; Haibo; YANG; Huayong; JIA; Zhijian; FANG; Qun

    2005-01-01

    A new structure and working principle of the chip integrated with micro valveless pump for capillary electrophoresis was proposed in this paper. The micro valveless pump with plane structure has advantages of simple structure, and the process technology is compatible with existing micro chips for capillary electrophoresis. Based upon the mathematical model, simulation study of micro pump was carried out to investigate the influence of structural parameters on flow characteristics, and the performance of the integrated micro pump was also tested with different control parameters. The simulation results agree with the experimental results. Three samples, which are amino acid, fluorescein and buffer solution, have been examined with this chip. The results of the primary experiments showed that the micro valveless pump was promising in the integration and automatization of miniature integrated fluidic systems.

  16. Bio-Inspired Micro-Fluidic Angular-Rate Sensor for Vestibular Prostheses

    Charalambos M. Andreou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach for angular-rate sensing based on the way that the natural vestibular semicircular canals operate, whereby the inertial mass of a fluid is used to deform a sensing structure upon rotation. The presented gyro has been fabricated in a commercially available MEMS process, which allows for microfluidic channels to be implemented in etched glass layers, which sandwich a bulk-micromachined silicon substrate, containing the sensing structures. Measured results obtained from a proof-of-concept device indicate an angular rate sensitivity of less than 1 °/s, which is similar to that of the natural vestibular system. By avoiding the use of a continually-excited vibrating mass, as is practiced in today’s state-of-the-art gyroscopes, an ultra-low power consumption of 300 μW is obtained, thus making it suitable for implantation.

  17. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  18. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  19. Variability of electrode positions using electrode caps.

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Gould, Herbert Jay; Pousson, Monique A; Prout, Tina M

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variability of electrode positions for a multi-channel, custom electrode cap placed onto participants' heads without taking scalp measurements. The electrode positions were digitized in a three-dimensional space for 10 young adult participants on three separate occasions. Positional variability was determined for 15 selected electrodes within the three-dimensional preauricular-nasion (PAN) coordinate system and from this system, angular coordinate variability was also determined. The standard deviations of the 15 selected electrodes ranged from 3.0 to 12.7 mm in the PAN system. These data resulted in a variability of 2.0 degrees to 10.4 degrees among the angular coordinates. The measurements indicated slightly greater variability of electrode positions compared to studies when electrodes were placed using scalp measurements. The implication of this study is that the use of electrode caps may not be appropriate when electroencephalographic (EEG) or evoked potential (EP) techniques depend on accurate electrode placement. Additionally, if a longitudinal study is performed, electrode locations should be checked to ensure that they conform with previous sessions. PMID:17929157

  20. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  1. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  2. Micromachined electrode array

    Okandan, Murat (Edgewood, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  3. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  4. High performance cermet electrodes

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  5. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  6. Dry electrodes for electrocardiography

    Patient biopotentials are usually measured with conventional disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes. These electrodes provide excellent signal quality but are irritating for long-term use. Skin preparation is usually required prior to the application of electrodes such as shaving and cleansing with alcohol. To overcome these difficulties, researchers and caregivers seek alternative electrodes that would be acceptable in clinical and research environments. Dry electrodes that operate without gel, adhesive or even skin preparation have been studied for many decades. They are used in research applications, but they have yet to achieve acceptance for medical use. So far, a complete comparison and evaluation of dry electrodes is not well described in the literature. This work compares dry electrodes for biomedical use and physiological research, and reviews some novel systems developed for cardiac monitoring. Lastly, the paper provides suggestions to develop a dry-electrode-based system for mobile and long-term cardiac monitoring applications. (topical review)

  7. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  8. Holographic content addressable storage

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  9. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  10. Insulated ECG electrodes

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  11. Microresonator electrode design

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  12. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld;

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  13. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  14. Address delivered in Vilnius

    Piłsudski, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  15. Electrical impedance tomography system based on active electrodes

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can image the distribution of ventilated lung tissue, and is thus a promising technology to help monitor patient breathing to help selection of mechanical ventilation parameters. Two key difficulties in EIT instrumentation make such monitoring difficult: (1) EIT data quality depends on good electrode contact and is sensitive to changes in contact quality, and (2) EIT electrodes are difficult and time consuming to place on patients. This paper presents the design and initial tests of an active electrode-based system to address these difficulties. Our active electrode EIT system incorporates an active electrode belt, a central voltage-driven current source, central analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters, a central FPGA-based demodulator and controller. The electrode belt is designed incorporating 32 active electrodes, each of which contains the electronic amplifiers, switches and associated logic. Tests show stable device performance with a convenient ease of use and good imaging ability in volunteer tests. (paper)

  16. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

    2007-12-15

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  17. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    Mehta, Karan K; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2015-01-01

    Scalable implementation of the optics required to control trapped atomic ions' quantum states will be required to construct large-scale ion trap quantum information processors. All experiments in ion traps so far have employed approaches cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits, with the majority relying on manipulation of free space beams with bulk optics. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic dielectric waveguides integrated within a linear surface-electrode ion trap chip, and qubit addressing at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers that emit through openings in the trap electrodes to an ion trapped 50 $\\mu$m above the chip. We perform quantum coherent operations using visible light routed in and emitted from silicon nitride waveguides and couplers, on the optical qubit transition in individual $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions. The addressing beam is focused near the ion position with a 2 $\\mu$m 1/$e^2$-radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between $10^{-2}$ a...

  18. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  19. Pocket ECG electrode

    Lund, Gordon F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low-noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free-ranging subject. The electrode comprises a pocket-shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  20. Handbook of reference electrodes

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  1. Conference President's address

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  2. A model for μ-biomimetic thermal infrared sensors based on the infrared receptors of Melanophila acuminata

    Beetles of the genus Melanophila acuminata detect forest fires from distances as far as 130 km with infrared-sensing organs. Inspired by this extremely sensitive biological device, we are developing an IR sensor that operates at ambient temperature using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two liquid-filled chambers that are connected by a micro-fluidic system. Absorption of IR radiation by one of these chambers leads to heating and expansion of a liquid. The increasing pressure deflects a membrane covered by one electrode of a plate capacitor. The micro-fluidic system and the second chamber represent a fluidic low-pass filter, preventing slow, but large pressure changes. However, the strong frequency dependence of the filter demands a precise characterization of its properties. Here, we present a theoretical model that describes the frequency-dependent response of the sensor based on material properties and geometrical dimensions. Our model is divided into four distinct parts that address different aspects of the sensor. The model describes the frequency-dependent behaviour of the fluidic filter and a thermal low-pass filter as well as saturation effects at low frequencies. This model allows the calculation of optimal design parameters, and thereby provides the foundation for the development of such a sensor. (paper)

  3. Electrodes for microfluidic applications

    Crocker, Robert W.; Harnett, Cindy K.; Rognlien, Judith L.

    2006-08-22

    An electrode device for high pressure applications. These electrodes, designed to withstand pressure of greater than 10,000 psi, are adapted for use in microfluidic devices that employ electrokinetic or electrophoretic flow. The electrode is composed, generally, of an outer electrically insulating tubular body having a porous ceramic frit material disposed in one end of the outer body. The pores of the porous ceramic material are filled with an ion conductive polymer resin. A conductive material situated on the upper surface of the porous ceramic frit material and, thus isolated from direct contact with the electrolyte, forms a gas diffusion electrode. A metal current collector, in contact with the gas diffusion electrode, provides connection to a voltage source.

  4. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  5. A new simple and fast thermally-solvent assisted method to bond PMMA–PMMA in micro-fluidics devices

    Bamshad, Arshya; Nikfarjam, Alireza; Khaleghi, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    A rapid and simple thermally-solvent assisted method of bonding was introduced for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic substrates. The technique is a low-temperature (68 {}^\\circ \\text{C} ), and rapid (15 \\min ) bonding technique; in addition, only a fan-assisted oven with some paper clamps are used. Two different solvents (ethanol and isopropyl alcohol) with two different methods of cooling (one-step and three steps) were employed to determine the best solvent and method of cooling (residual stresses may be released in different cooling methods) by considering bonding strength and quality. In this bonding technique, a thin film of solvent between two PMMA sheets disperses tends to dissolve a thin film of PMMA sheet surface, then evaporate, and finally reconnect monomers of the PMMA sheets at the specific operating temperature. The operating temperature of this method comes from the coincidence of the solubility parameter graph of PMMA with the solubility parameter graph of the solvents. Different tests such as tensile strength test, deformation test, leakage tests, and surface characteristics tests were performed to find the optimum conditions for this bonding strategy. The best bonding quality and the highest bonding strength (28.47 \\text{MPa} ) occurred when 70% isopropyl alcohol solution was employed with the one-step cooling method. Furthermore, the bonding reversibility was taken into account and critical percentages for irreversible bonding were obtained for both of the solvents and methods. This method provides a perfect bonding quality for PMMA substrates, and can be used in laboratories without needing any expensive and special instruments, because of its merits such as lower bonding time, lower-cost, and higher strength etc in comparison with the majority of other common bonding techniques.

  6. Novel preparation of controlled porosity particle/fibre loaded scaffolds using a hybrid micro-fluidic and electrohydrodynamic technique

    The purpose of this research was to produce multi-dimensional scaffolds containing biocompatible particles and fibres. To achieve this, two techniques were combined and used: T-Junction microfluidics and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) processing. The former was used to form layers of monodispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA) bubbles, which upon drying formed porous scaffolds. By altering the T-Junction processing parameters, bubbles with different diameters were produced and hence the scaffold porosity could be controlled. EHD processing was used to spray or spin poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA), polymethysilsesquioxane (PMSQ) and collagen particles/fibres onto the scaffolds during their production and after drying. As a result, multifunctional BSA scaffolds with controlled porosity containing PLGA, PMSQ and collagen particles/fibres were obtained. Product morphology was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. These products have potential applications in many advanced biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields e.g. bone regeneration, drug delivery, cosmetic cream lathers, facial scrubbing creams etc. (paper)

  7. Co-integration of optical and micro-fluidic approaches on glass for chemical analysis in harsh environment

    The current will of reducing environment and human hazards has led the scientists to imagine new solutions for nuclear waste reprocessing. Miniaturized online chemical analysis of industrial processes has in particular an important role to play to reduce effluent volumes, response times and costs. In this context, we present the design, fabrication and characterization of an integrated spectrophotometric sensor on glass for chemical analysis of radioactive cations. The device is called a - nano-channel waveguide - and is fabricated by reactive ion etching and ion exchange on glass. It is made of two borosilicate glass wafers bonded together. The first one contains a strip core and the second one a (100 ±10) nm deep nano-channel and a slab core. It allows the propagation of a hybrid mode, optimizing the fluid/guide wave interaction on a large wavelength range. Spectrometric measurements of a neodymium nitrate in nitric acid (pH 2) followed by statistical treatment have led to a limit of detection in terms of absorption coefficient of (3.7 ± 0.9) * 10-3 cm-1 for a device length of (3.70 ± 0.05) cm and fluid volume as low as (7 ± 3) nL. A structure allowing to increase the interaction length and therefore further decrease the detection limit has been proposed as an outlook of this work, and a preliminary study for use in a nuclear environment has been performed. (author)

  8. Micro-fluidics and integrated optics glass sensor for in-line micro-probing of nuclear samples

    We study the miniaturisation of Thermal Lens Spectrometry (TLS) towards Lab-on-chip integration in order to reduce the volume of fluid assays in nuclear process control. TLS is of great interest in this context since it combines the advantages of optical detection methods with an inherent suitability for small-scale samples. After validating the experimental principle in a classical thermal lens crossed-beam setup, we show the integration of a Young-interferometer with a microcapillary on a glass substrate, reducing the necessary sample size to 400 nl. The interferometer translates the photo-thermally induced refractive index change in the fluid to a phase shift of the fringe pattern, which can then be detected by a camera. Measurements of Co(II) in ethanol yield a detection limit of c = 5 x 10-4 M for the crossed-beam setup and c = 6x10-3 M for the integrated sensor. At an interaction length of 10 μm, it detects a minimum absorbance of AU = 6 x 10-5 in a probed volume of 10 pl. (authors)

  9. Influence of process parameters on edge replication quality of lab-on-a-chip micro fluidic systems geometries

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    the replication quality of molded micro-features on cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) a tool insert collecting critical channel cross sections was manufactured. The master was made by UV lithography and subsequent nickel electroplating. Effect of packing phase parameters (packing time, packing pressure) and mold...

  10. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  11. Electrochemical Patterning and Detection of DNA Arrays on a Two-Electrode Platform

    Furst, Ariel; Landefeld, Sally; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel method of DNA array formation that is electrochemically formed and addressed with a two-electrode platform. Electrochemical activation of a copper catalyst, patterned with one electrode, enables precise placement of multiple sequences of DNA onto a second electrode surface. The two-electrode patterning and detection platform allows for both spatial resolution of the patterned DNA array and optimization of detection through DNA-mediated charge transport with electrocatalysis....

  12. Electrode for MHD generator

    In accordance with the invention a ceramic-metal compound has been developed enabling appropriate electrodes to be prepared and also an electrode-insulator system meeting to a large extent the conditions required for use in a MHD generator. In this invention, a compound substance is made of a matrix in a refractory ceramic material containing 10 to 50% by volume of a continuous metallic reinforcement in a nonferromagnetic, electricity conducting, metal or alloy, resistant to oxidation and with a melting point above 10000C. The upper surface of an electrode made of this compound material can have a refractory ceramic layer of variable thickness to provide additional resistance to oxidation and for controlling the temperature of the electrode. The two sides of the electrode are coated with a refractory ceramic insulating material. The electrode-insulator system of the invention is an electrode having insulated side walls, a flexible separator resistant to high temperatures and an insulator in a refractory ceramic material

  13. Composite Electrodes in Electrochemistry

    Šebková, Světlana; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.

    Galway : National University of Ireland , 2004. s. 72. [International Conference on Electroanalysis /10./. 06.06.2004-10.06.2004, Galway] Keywords : electrochemistry * modern electroanalytical sensors * silver composite electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  14. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  15. Port virtual addressing for PC

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  16. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  17. Reference Electrodes in Metal Corrosion

    S. Szabó; Bakos, I.

    2010-01-01

    With especial regard to hydrogen electrode, the theoretical fundamentals of electrode potential, the most important reference electrodes and the electrode potential measurement have been discussed. In the case of the hydrogen electrode, it have been emphasised that there is no equilibrium between the hydrogen molecule (H2) and the hydrogen (H+), hydronium (H3O+) ion in the absence of a suitable catalyst. Taking into account the practical aspects as well, the theorectical basis of working of h...

  18. Capacitive de-ionization electrode

    Daily, III, William D.

    2013-03-19

    An electrode "cell" for use in a capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a non-reactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate and a flow through screen/separator. These "layers" are repeated and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes in the CDI reactor.

  19. Electrodes for bio-application: recording and stimulation

    Fontes, M. B. A.

    2013-03-01

    Recording and stimulation electrodes applied on excitable tissue are the basis of electrophysiological research, such as brain, muscles, peripheral nerves or sensory systems. Electrode-electrolyte impedance is one of the important characteristics due to its influence on the signal/noise ratio, signal distortion and built-up voltage. Strategies to lowering and tuning the impedance are achieved by biasing iridium oxide modified platinum microelectrodes. Surface and impedance analysis after pulse stimulation are also addressed.

  20. An address by AECL's president

    This complete address given by Reid Morden, the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, at the June 1997 meeting of the Canadian Nuclear Association. In his address, Morden discusses Canada's success in at home and abroad. He also corrects myths about nuclear energy

  1. ORGANIC ELECTRODE COATINGS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NEURAL INTERFACES

    Rylie A Green

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Coating electrodes with conductive polymers or carbon nanotubes offers a substantial increase in charge transfer area compared to conventional platinum electrodes. These organic conductors provide safe electrical stimulation of tissue while avoiding undesirable chemical reactions and cell damage. However, the mechanical properties of conductive polymers are not ideal, as they are quite brittle. Hydrogel polymers present a versatile coating option for electrodes as they can be chemically modified to provide a soft and conductive scaffold. However, the in vivo chronic inflammatory response of these conductive hydrogels remains unknown. A more recent approach proposes tissue engineering the electrode interface through the use of encapsulated neurons within hydrogel coatings. This approach may provide a method for activating tissue at the cellular scale, however several technological challenges must be addressed to demonstrate feasibility of this innovative idea. The review focuses on the various organic coatings which have been investigated to improve neural interface electrodes.

  2. Organic electrode coatings for next-generation neural interfaces.

    Aregueta-Robles, Ulises A; Woolley, Andrew J; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Lovell, Nigel H; Green, Rylie A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Coating electrodes with conductive polymers or carbon nanotubes offers a substantial increase in charge transfer area compared to conventional platinum electrodes. These organic conductors provide safe electrical stimulation of tissue while avoiding undesirable chemical reactions and cell damage. However, the mechanical properties of conductive polymers are not ideal, as they are quite brittle. Hydrogel polymers present a versatile coating option for electrodes as they can be chemically modified to provide a soft and conductive scaffold. However, the in vivo chronic inflammatory response of these conductive hydrogels remains unknown. A more recent approach proposes tissue engineering the electrode interface through the use of encapsulated neurons within hydrogel coatings. This approach may provide a method for activating tissue at the cellular scale, however, several technological challenges must be addressed to demonstrate feasibility of this innovative idea. The review focuses on the various organic coatings which have been investigated to improve neural interface electrodes. PMID:24904405

  3. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  4. Ion-selective electrodes

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N. [St. Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Ion-Selective Electrode Laboratory

    2013-06-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing ISEs are outlined, and the transfer of methods into routine analysis is considered.

  5. Ion-selective electrodes

    Mikhelson, Konstantin N

    2013-01-01

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have a wide range of applications in clinical, environmental, food and pharmaceutical analysis as well as further uses in chemistry and life sciences. Based on his profound experience as a researcher in ISEs and a course instructor, the author summarizes current knowledge for advanced teaching and training purposes with a particular focus on ionophore-based ISEs. Coverage includes the basics of measuring with ISEs, essential membrane potential theory and a comprehensive overview of the various classes of ion-selective electrodes. The principles of constructing I

  6. Single Electrode Heat Effects

    Jacobsen, Torben; Broers, G. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    The heat evolution at a single irreversibly working electrode is treated onthe basis of the Brønsted heat principle. The resulting equation is analogous to the expression for the total heat evolution in a galvanic cellwith the exception that –DeltaS is substituted by the Peltier entropy, Delta......SP, of theelectrode reaction. eta is the overvoltage at the electrode. This equation is appliedto a high temperature carbonate fuel cell. It is shown that the Peltier entropyterm by far exceeds the heat production due to the irreversible losses, and thatthe main part of heat evolved at the cathode is...

  7. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human–electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes. (paper)

  8. Dry EEG Electrodes

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  9. Electrodes the electrochemical supercapacitors

    Kocian, M.; Vondrák, Jiří; Sedlaříková, M.

    Brno : University of Technology Brno, 2003, s. 109-111. ISBN 80-214-2298-X. [Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /4./. Brno (CZ), 15.06.2003-19.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : Electrodes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  10. Electrochemical micromachining of passive electrodes

    The electronic model describing the electrochemical micromachining (ECMM) of passive electrodes utilizing the transpassive dissolution is discussed. Numerical simulations are performed on a machining model circuit using measured electrochemical properties of the model system which consisted of a tungsten tool electrode, a 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte and a stainless steel work piece electrode. The results of these simulations were verified by performing machining experiments applying the same model system. For a passive stainless steel electrode it is shown that it can be treated like an actively dissolving electrode with high reaction overpotential. The efficiency of the machining process can be enhanced by polarizing the steel work piece electrode close to the transpassive potential region. Three different ways of achieving this polarization are discussed: by polarizing the work piece electrode only, by polarizing both electrodes and by adding oxidizing species to the electrolyte solution

  11. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    Thomas, J D R

    1985-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 7 is a collection of papers that covers the applications of electrochemical sensors, along with the versatility of ion-selective electrodes. The coverage of the text includes solid contact in membrane ion-selective electrodes; immobilized enzyme probes for determining inhibitors; potentiometric titrations based on ion-pair formation; and application of ion-selective electrodes in soil science, kinetics, and kinetic analysis. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  12. Electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes

    Svancara, Ivan; Walcarius, Alain; Vytras, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Electrochemistry and Electroanalysis with Carbon Paste-Based ElectrodesHistorical Survey and GlossaryField in Publication Activities and LiteratureCarbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesCarbon Paste as the Binary MixtureClassification of Carbon Pastes and Carbon Paste ElectrodesConstruction of Carbon Paste HoldersCarbon Paste as the Electrode MaterialPhysicochemical Properties of Carbon PastesElectrochemical Characteristics of Carbon PastesTesting of Unmodified CPEsIntera

  13. A Life’s Addresses

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2006-01-01

    number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  14. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  15. Agenda to address climate change

    This document looks at addressing climate change in the 21st century. Topics covered are: Responding to climate change; exploring new avenues in energy efficiency; energy efficiency and alternative energy; residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; transportation sector; communities; renewable energy; understanding forests to mitigate and adapt to climate change; the Forest Carbon budget; mitigation and adaptation

  16. Introduction to IP address management

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  17. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  18. Improved Secure Address Resolution Protocol

    Abhishek Samvedi; Sparsh Owlak; Vijay Kumar Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an improved secure address resolution protocol is presented where ARP spoofing attack is prevented. The proposed methodology is a centralised methodology for preventing ARP spoofing attack. In the proposed model there is a central server on a network or subnet which prevents ARP spoofing attack.

  19. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  20. Graphene-based electrodes

    Huang, Xiao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Fan, Zhanxi; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Hua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798 (Singapore)

    2012-11-27

    Graphene, the thinnest two dimensional carbon material, has become the subject of intensive investigation in various research fields because of its remarkable electronic, mechanical, optical and thermal properties. Graphene-based electrodes, fabricated from mechanically cleaved graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene, or massively produced graphene derivatives from bulk graphite, have been applied in a broad range of applications, such as in light emitting diodes, touch screens, field-effect transistors, solar cells, supercapacitors, batteries, and sensors. In this Review, after a short introduction to the properties and synthetic methods of graphene and its derivatives, we will discuss the importance of graphene-based electrodes, their fabrication techniques, and application areas. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Graphene-based electrodes.

    Huang, Xiao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Fan, Zhanxi; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Hua

    2012-11-27

    Graphene, the thinnest two dimensional carbon material, has become the subject of intensive investigation in various research fields because of its remarkable electronic, mechanical, optical and thermal properties. Graphene-based electrodes, fabricated from mechanically cleaved graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene, or massively produced graphene derivatives from bulk graphite, have been applied in a broad range of applications, such as in light emitting diodes, touch screens, field-effect transistors, solar cells, supercapacitors, batteries, and sensors. In this Review, after a short introduction to the properties and synthetic methods of graphene and its derivatives, we will discuss the importance of graphene-based electrodes, their fabrication techniques, and application areas. PMID:22927209

  2. Flexible transparent electrode

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Moorehead, David; Bratcher, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the properties of the EclipseTECTM transparent conductor. EclipseTECTM is a room temperature deposited nanostructured thin film coating system comprised of metal-oxide semiconductor elements. The system possesses metal-like conductivity and glass-like transparency in the visible region. These highly conductive TEC films exhibit high shielding efficiency (35dB at 1 to 100GHz). EclipseTECTM can be deposited on rigid or flexible substrates. For example, EclipseTECTM deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is extremely flexible that can be rolled around a 9mm diameter cylinder with little or no reduction in electrical conductivity and that can assume pre-extension states after an applied stress is relieved. The TEC is colorless and has been tailored to have high visible transmittance which matches the eye sensitivity curve and allows the viewing of true background colors through the coating. EclipseTECTM is flexible, durable and can be tailored at the interface for applications such as electron- or hole-injecting OLED electrodes as well as electrodes in flexible displays. Tunable work function and optical design flexibility also make EclipseTECTM well-suited as a candidate for grid electrode replacement in next-generation photovoltaic cells.

  3. Lab-on-chip FIA system without an external pump and valves and integrated with an in line electrochemical detector

    Chen, I-Jane; Lindner, Ernö

    2009-01-01

    Surface energy in small droplets can be used to drive samples through micro-channels. When a sample fluid is spontaneously driven through a solution filled micro-channel with liquid droplets on its entry (sample) and exit (reservoir) ports it is termed as a passive pumping device. A passive pump driven micro-fluidic system integrated with microfabricated planar electrodes or electrode arrays (e.g., interdigitated electrode arrays, or microband electrode arrays) can be considered as a manifold...

  4. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  5. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  6. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  7. Electrochromism: basis and application of nanomaterials in development of high performance electrodes

    This review deals with the basis and novel trends in electrochromism, describing the basic aspects and methodologies employed for the construction and analyses of different modified electrodes. The work presents the classic materials used for the construction of electrochromic electrodes, such as WO3 and a view on the basic concepts of chromaticity as a useful approach for analyzing colorimetric results. The report also addresses how the incorporation of nanomaterials and the consequent novel modification of electrodes have furthered this area of science, producing electrochromic electrodes with high performance, high efficiency and low response times. (author)

  8. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  9. Addressing concrete cracking in NPPs

    The phenomenon of concrete cracking is one of the most frequently encountered deterioration at NPPs as it has been shown by a wide Survey of NPPs performed by IAEA in 1994-95 It can be due to a multitude of causes such as the normal ageing process (shrinkage, creep, prestressing force loss) as well as exposure to the environment (temperature variation, moisture, freeze/thaw, etc) The above mentioned Survey has also shown that in 64% of cases, no action was taken or required. It became also obvious that there is a lack of guidance as when remedial actions are needed. The paper describes, with the help of a Flow Chart, the various stages to be considered, from the first step of identification of cracks, to the definition of causes, evaluation of extent of damage, evaluation of effect/implications (safety, reliability), to the final step of deciding if repair action is required. Finally, based upon a wide literature survey the paper proposes in a Chart format, Criteria for addressing concrete cracks in NPPs., when taking in considerations all these factors. This paper discusses the process which should lead to the selection of an effective repair method and proposes, based upon worldwide standards and literature, criteria which should lead to the decision whether to repair or not concrete cracks, after the cracks have been identified and evaluated, addressing the entire range of aspects involved. (author)

  10. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    Thomas, J D R

    1982-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 3, provides a review of articles on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). The volume begins with an article on methods based on titration procedures for surfactant analysis, which have been developed for discrete batch operation and for continuous AutoAnalyser use. Separate chapters deal with detection limits of ion-selective electrodes; the possibility of using inorganic ion-exchange materials as ion-sensors; and the effect of solvent on potentials of cells with ion-selective electrodes. Also included is a chapter on advances in calibration procedures, the d

  11. Field testing of sulphide electrodes

    Sulphide ion selective electrodes have been developed at BARC, for determination of Ag+ and S- ions directly and Cl- and CN- ions indirectly. The electrodes were tested for their use in sulphide environments in the EAD (Effluent After Dilution) stream at the Heavy Water Plant, Kota. The electrodes are suitable in the concentration range of 16000 ppm to 0.002 ppm, with a slope of 29-31 mV per decade change in the sulphide ion concentration. The response time is less than 10 seconds. These electrodes are reliable for continuous on-line use for a long period. (author). 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  12. Performance of lightweight nickel electrodes

    Britton, Doris L.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art (SOA) sintered nickel electrodes. In the present approach, lightweight materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques (fiber and felt, nickel plated plastic and graphite) are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a low earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge. Different formulations of nickel fiber materials obtained from several manufacturers are currently being tested as possible candidates for nickel electrodes. One particular lightweight fiber mat electrode has accumulated over 3000 cycles to date, with stable capacity and voltage. Life and performance data of this electrode were investigated and presented. Good dimensional stability and active material adherence have been demonstrated in electrodes made from this lightweight plaque.

  13. Suspended electrodes for reducing parasitic capacitance in electret energy harvesters

    MEMS electret energy harvesting devices are believed promising to replace coin batteries in low-power consumption electronics such as wireless sensor nodes and wearable devices. However, the parasitic capacitance of the interdigital electrodes imposes significant restrictions to enhancing the power output. To address this issue, this paper presents a novel low-k electrode structure based on a new model of the parasitic capacitance in electret energy harvesters. By employing the trench-filled parylene technology, metal electrodes suspended with deep honeycomb parylene structures have been prototyped. Thanks to the high air volume fraction (76%) of the honeycomb parylene structure, the effective relative permittivity κeff surrounding the electrodes is reduced to as low as 1.8 when the air gap is 90 µm between the electret surface and the counter electrode. As a result, the parasitic capacitance in the electret energy harvester is decreased by 36% compared with that of electrodes on glass substrates, which leads to a 35% increase in the power output. (paper)

  14. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  15. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  16. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  17. Printed light-trapping nanorelief Cu electrodes for full-solution-processed flexible organic solar cells

    Li, Kan; Zhang, Yaokang; Zhen, Hongyu; Niu, Liyong; Fang, Xu; Liu, Zhike; Yan, Feng; Shen, Weidong; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-07-01

    Light-trapping nanorelief metal electrodes have been proven to be an effective approach to improve the absorption performance of flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs). These nanorelief electrodes have been made by conventional vacuum deposition techniques, which are difficult to integrate with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. To address this challenge, this paper reports, for the first time, the fabrication of highly conductive nanorelief Cu electrodes on the flexible substrates through solution printing and polymer-assisted metal deposition at room temperature in the air. FOSCs made with these printed nanorelief Cu electrodes possess not only much improved power conversion efficiency, by 13.5%, but also significant enhancement in flexibility when compared with those made with flat Cu electrodes. Because of the low material and fabrication cost, these printed nanorelief Cu electrodes show great promise in roll-to-roll fabrication of FOSCs in the future.

  18. Flexible Electret Energy Harvester with Copper Mesh Electrodes

    Flexible energy harvesters are desired in biomedical applications since human motion is often complicated and aperiodic. However, most demonstrated flexible energy harvesters employ piezoelectric materials which are not biocompatible. Therefore we propose a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with Parylene-C electret suitable for biomedical applications. To address the reliability issues of sputtered metal electrodes, we use copper mesh electrodes to improve the reliability. The proposed flexible harvester was fabricated and characterized. The measured power of the proposed harvester was 3.33 pW in the compression tests at 20 Hz and 8.5 nW in the finger bending tests at 2 Hz

  19. Oxygen-Rich Enzyme Biosensor Based on Superhydrophobic Electrode.

    Lei, Yongjiu; Sun, Ruize; Zhang, Xiangcheng; Feng, Xinjian; Jiang, Lei

    2016-02-17

    The fabrication of novel superhydrophobic electrodes is described, which have an air-liquid-solid three-phase interface, where oxygen is sufficient and constant. Oxygen is an effective natural electron acceptor for oxidase, and plays a key role in the development of reliable bioassays. Such an electrode allows detection of glucose concentration, linearly from 50 × 10(-9) m to 156 × 10(-3) m with good sensitivity and accuracy without analyte dilution. This strategy offers a unique route to address the gas-deficit problem of many reaction systems. PMID:26661886

  20. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  1. Making EDM Electrodes By Stereolithography

    Barlas, Philip A.

    1988-01-01

    Stereolithography is computer-aided manufacturing technique. Used to make models and molds of electrodes for electrical-discharge machining (EDM). Eliminates intermediate steps in fabrication of plastic model of object used in making EDM electrode to manufacture object or mold for object.

  2. Foil electrode sper light source

    Numerous laser transitions in the visible and near-infrared in four metal vapors (Li, Al, Ca, and Cu) have been observed in the recombination phase of the expanding plasmas produced by a segmented plasma device employing foil electrodes. Also described is a segmented vapor plasma discharge in using Ni foil electrodes

  3. EDM Electrode for Internal Grooves

    Ramani, V.; Werner, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electroerosive process inexpensive alternative to broaching. Hollow brass electrodes, soldered at one end to stainless-steel holding ring, held in grooves in mandrel. These electrodes used to machine grooves electrically in stainless-steel tube three-eights inch (9.5 millimeters) in diameter. Tool used on tubes already in place in equipment.

  4. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  5. Improvements and artifact analysis in conductivity images using multiple internal electrodes

    Electrical impedance tomography is an attractive functional imaging method. It is currently limited in resolution and sensitivity due to the complexity of the inverse problem and the safety limits of introducing current. Recently, internal electrodes have been proposed for some clinical situations such as intensive care or RF ablation. This paper addresses the research question related to the benefit of one or more internal electrodes usage since these are invasive. Internal electrodes would be able to reduce the effect of insulating boundaries such as fat and bone and provide improved internal sensitivity. We found there was a measurable benefit with increased numbers of internal electrodes in saline tanks of a cylindrical and complex shape with up to two insulating boundary gel layers modeling fat and muscle. The internal electrodes provide increased sensitivity to internal changes, thereby increasing the amplitude response and improving resolution. However, they also present an additional challenge of increasing sensitivity to position and modeling errors. In comparison with previous work that used point sources for the internal electrodes, we found that it is important to use a detailed mesh of the internal electrodes with these voxels assigned to the conductivity of the internal electrode and its associated holder. A study of different internal electrode materials found that it is optimal to use a conductivity similar to the background. In the tank with a complex shape, the additional internal electrodes provided more robustness in a ventilation model of the lungs via air filled balloons. (paper)

  6. Gender: addressing a critical focus.

    Thornton, L; Wegner, M N

    1995-01-01

    The definition of gender was addressed at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, China). After extensive debate, the definition developed by the UN Population Fund in 1995 was adopted: "a set of qualities and behaviors expected from a female or male by society." The sustainability of family planning (FP) programs depends on acknowledgment of the role gender plays in contraceptive decision-making and use. For example, programs must consider the fact that women in many cultures do not make FP decisions without the consent of their spouse. AVSC is examining providers' gender-based ideas about clients and the effects of these views on the quality of reproductive health services. Questions such as how service providers can encourage joint responsibility for contraception without requiring spousal consent or how they can make men feel comfortable about using a male method in a society where FP is considered a woman's issue are being discussed. Also relevant is how service providers can discuss sexual matters openly with female clients in cultures that do not allow women to enjoy their sexuality. Another concern is the potential for physical violence to a client as a result of the provision of FP services. PMID:12294397

  7. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators.

    Bragard, J; Šimić, A; Laroze, D; Elorza, J

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock. PMID:26764786

  8. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  9. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  10. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  11. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning.

    Ho, Tuan A; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-11-28

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties. PMID:24289370

  12. Modified nickel electrodes: a review

    Catalysts in the form of electrode surfaces offer the added dimension of the electrode potential which can be used to manage the catalyst reactivity and in some cases selectivity. The catalytic effect of nickel oxyhydroxide for the electrochemical determination of organics in alkaline media is very common. This has also received substantial thought because of the application of Ni in rechargeable alkaline batteries. This subject matter has been reviewed from different views before. The present review depicts the role of additives and the modifiers towards the enhancement of electro catalytic properties of electrode surface. (author)

  13. Polypyrrole electrodes doped with sulfanilic acid azochromotrop for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Chen, S.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of polypyrrole (PPy) films by electropolymerization on stainless steel substrates and fabrication of PPy powders by chemical polymerization using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) as a new anionic dopant. The problem of low adhesion of PPy films to stainless steel substrates is addressed by the use of SPADNS, which exhibits chelating properties, promoting film formation. The use of fine particles, prepared by the chemical polymerization method, allows impregnation of Ni foams and fabrication of porous electrodes with high materials loading for electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). PPy films and Ni foam based PPy electrodes show capacitive behaviour in Na2SO4 electrolyte. The electron microscopy studies, impedance spectroscopy data and analysis of the SPADNS structure provide an insight into the factors, controlling capacitive behaviour. The Ni foam based electrodes offer advantages of improved capacitive behaviour at high materials loadings and good cycling stability. The area normalized and volume normalized specific capacitances are as high as 5.43 F cm-2 and 93.6 F cm-3, respectively, for materials loading of 35.4 mg cm-2. The capacitance retention of Ni foam based electrodes is 91.5% after 1000 cycles. The Ni foam based PPy electrodes are promising for application in ES.

  14. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Yang QuanMin; Li Jun; Zhitomirsky Igor

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with to...

  15. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  16. [Experience in developing and using capacitive electrodes].

    Grishanovich, A P; Iarmolinskiĭ, V I

    1984-01-01

    A capacitive-type electrode using titanium or tantalum oxide obtained through anodizing is described. Incorporated in the electrode is a source for a buffer amplifier. A shielding cap is used as an indifferent electrode. High performance allows using the electrodes for ECG, EEG, and other signal recording in clinical practice and researches. PMID:6708763

  17. Stimulation and recording electrodes for neural prostheses

    Pour Aryan, Naser; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.

  18. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  19. Multiscale porous fuel cell electrodes

    Wen, Hao

    Porous electrodes are widely used in fuel cells to enhance electrode performance due to their high surface area. Increasingly, such electrodes are designed with both micro-scale and nano-scale features. In the current work, carbon based porous materials have been synthesized and utilized as bioelectrode support for biofuel cells, analysis of such porous electrodes via rotating disk electrode has been enhanced by a numerical model that considers diffusion and convection within porous media. Finally, porous perovskite metal oxide cathodes for solid oxide fuel cell have been modeled to simulate impedance response data obtained from symmetric cells. Carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) were fabricated to mimic the microenvironment of carbon fiber paper based porous electrodes. They were also miniature electrodes for small-scale applications. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed a homogeneously intertwined matrix. Biocatalysts can fully infiltrate this matrix to form a composite, with a significantly enhanced glucose oxidation current---that is 6.4 fold higher than the bare carbon fiber electrodes. Based on the CNT based porous matrix, polystyrene beads of uniform diameter at 500 nm were used as template to tune the porous structure and enhance biomolecule transport. Focused ion beam (FIB) was used to observe the morphology both at the surface and the cross-section. It has been shown that the template macro-pores enhanced the fuel transport and the current density has been doubled due to the improvement. Like commonly used rotating disk electrode, the porous rotating disk electrode is a system with analytically solved flow field. Although models were proposed previously with first order kinetics and convection as the only mass transport at high rotations, some recent findings indicated that diffusion could play an important role at all disk rotation rates. In the current proposed model, enzymatic kinetics that follow a Ping

  20. Systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators

    Grisham, Larry R

    2013-12-17

    The present invention provides systems and methods for the magnetic insulation of accelerator electrodes in electrostatic accelerators. Advantageously, the systems and methods of the present invention improve the practically obtainable performance of these electrostatic accelerators by addressing, among other things, voltage holding problems and conditioning issues. The problems and issues are addressed by flowing electric currents along these accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields that envelope the accelerator electrodes and their support structures, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of the accelerator electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the surrounding electric field. In various applications, this magnetic insulation must only produce modest gains in voltage holding capability to represent a significant achievement.

  1. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  2. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  3. Design of an impeller-mounted electrode array for EIT imaging

    The information content in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructions is limited by the number of independent impedance measurements acquired for each image frame. This paper describes the design and construction of an electrode array mounted onto a rotating impeller used for mixing processes. By combining the process compliant rotation of the electrodes with a dynamic measurement protocol, a substantial increase in the number of independent measurements is reported. A pitch-blade impeller is built and fitted with four electrodes. A number of challenges associated with operating a rotating electrode array have been addressed including a wireless communications protocol. The impeller has been accurately modelled and measurement simulations closely correspond to those acquired using the array. The apparatus has been used to successfully visualize a test distribution to a consistent standard compared to a conventional EIT electrode array and strategy. Presently, the limiting factor to this approach is the necessary high measurement acquistion rates which lead to restricted impeller velocities

  4. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  5. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  6. Ni-BaTiO3-Based Base-Metal Electrode (BME) Ceramic Capacitors for Space Applications

    Liu, Donhang; Fetter, Lula; Meinhold, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) is a high-temperature (1350C typical) co-fired ceramic monolithic that is composed of many layers of alternately stacked oxide-based dielectric and internal metal electrodes. To make the dielectric layers insulating and the metal electrode layers conducting, only highly oxidation-resistant precious metals, such as platinum, palladium, and silver, can be used for the co-firing of insulating MLCCs in a regular air atmosphere. MLCCs made with precious metals as internal electrodes and terminations are called precious-metal electrode (PME) capacitors. Currently, all military and space-level applications only address the use of PME capacitors.

  7. Spatial patterning of the neonatal EEG suggests a need for a high number of electrodes

    Odabaee, Maryam; Freeman, Walter J III; Colditz, Paul B.; Ramon, Ceon; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for source analysis of neonatal EEG, but currently there is inadequate knowl- edge about i) the spatial patterning of neonatal scalp EEG and hence ii) the number of electrodes needed to capture neonatal EEG in full spatial detail. This study addresses these issues by using a very high density (2.5 mm interelectrode spacing) linear electrode array to assess the spatial power spectrum, by using a high density (64 electrodes) EEG cap to assess the spatial extent of ...

  8. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum......-Dansensor. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterised by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the structures were characterised by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. At an oxygen partial pressures of 0.2 bar, the response time of the sensor electrode was determined by oxygen...

  9. Highly Robust Silver Nanowire Network for Transparent Electrode.

    Song, Tze-Bin; Rim, You Seung; Liu, Fengmin; Bob, Brion; Ye, Shenglin; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-11

    Solution-processed silver nanowire networks are one of the promising candidates to replace a traditional indium tin oxide as next-generation transparent and flexible electrodes due to their ease of processing, moderate flexibility, high transparency, and low sheet resistance. To date, however, high stability of the nanowire networks remains a major challenge because the long-term usages of these electrodes are limited by their poor thermal and chemical stabilities. Existing methods for addressing this challenge mainly focus on protecting the nanowire network with additional layers that require vacuum processes, which can lead to an increment in manufacturing cost. Here, we report a straightforward strategy of a sol-gel processing as a fast and robust way to improve the stabilities of silver nanowires. Compared with reported nanoparticles embedded in nanowire networks, better thermal and chemical stabilities are achieved via sol-gel coating of TiO2 over the silver nanowire networks. The conformal surface coverage suppressed surface diffusion of silver atoms and prevented chemical corrosion from the environment. These results highlight the important role of the functional layer in providing better thermal and chemical stabilities along with improved electrical properties and mechanical robustness. The silver nanowire/TiO2 composite electrodes were applied as the source and drain electrodes for In2O3 thin-film transistors (TFTs) and the devices exhibited improved electrical performance annealed at 300 °C without the degradation of the electrodes. These key findings not only demonstrated a general and effective method to improve the thermal and chemical stabilities of metal nanowire networks but also provided a basic guideline toward rational design of highly efficient and robust composite electrodes. PMID:26488682

  10. Evaluation of cell lysis procedures and use of a micro fluidic system for an automated DNA-based cell identification in interplanetary missions

    Hall, J. A.; Felnagle, E.; Fries, M.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.

    2006-12-01

    A Modular Assay System for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) is being developed to include sample handling, pre-treatment, separation and analysis of biological target compounds by both DNA and protein microarrays. To better design sensitive and accurate initial upstream sample handling of the MASSE instrument, experiments investigating the sensitivity and potential extraction bias of commercially available DNA extraction kits between classes of environmentally relevant prokaryotes such as gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli), gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus megatarium), and Archaea ( Haloarcula marismortui) were performed. For extractions of both planktonic cultures and spiked Mars simulated regolith, FTA ® paper demonstrated the highest sensitivity, with detection as low as ˜1×10 1 cells and ˜3.3×10 2 cells, respectively. In addition to the highest sensitivity, custom modified application of FTA ® paper extraction protocol is the simplest in terms of incorporation into MASSE and displayed little bias in sensitivity with respect to prokaryotic cell type. The implementation of FTA paper for environmental microbiology investigations appears to be a viable and effective option potentially negating the need for other pre-concentration steps such as filtration and negating concerns regarding extraction efficiency of cells. In addition to investigations on useful technology for upstream sample handling in MASSE, we have also evaluated the potential for μTAS to be employed in the MASSE instrument by employing proprietary lab-on-a-chip development technology to investigate the potential for microfluidic cell lysis of different prokaryotic cells employing both chemical and biological lysis agents. Real-time bright-field microscopy and quantitative PMT detection indicated that that gram positive, gram negative and archaeal cells were effectively lyzed in a few seconds using the microfluidic chip protocol developed. This included employing a lysis buffer with components including lysozyme, Protease, Proteinase K, Tween-20 and TritonX-100. The effectiveness of antibiotics and other chemical lysis agents were also screened and demonstrated partial effectiveness on all three cell types. This work demonstrates a step wise approach to evaluating the efficacy and sensitivity of commercial macro-scale technology and state-of-the-art developmental microfluidic technology under consideration for incorporation into the remotely operated MASSE instrument currently under development at the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

  11. A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional micro-fluidic carrier

    Scherrer, Barbara; Evans, Anna; Santis-Alvarez, Alejandro J.; Jiang, Bo; Martynczuk, Julia; Galinski, Henning; Nabavi, Majid; Prestat, Michel; Tölke, René; Bieberle-Hütter, Anja; Poulikakos, Dimos; Muralt, Paul; Niedermann, Philippe; Dommann, Alex; Maeder, Thomas; Heeb, Peter; Straessle, Valentin; Muller, Claude; Gauckler, Ludwig J.

    2014-07-01

    Low temperature micro-solid oxide fuel cell (micro-SOFC) systems are an attractive alternative power source for small-size portable electronic devices due to their high energy efficiency and density. Here, we report on a thermally self-sustainable reformer-micro-SOFC assembly. The device consists of a micro-reformer bonded to a silicon chip containing 30 micro-SOFC membranes and a functional glass carrier with gas channels and screen-printed heaters for start-up. Thermal independence of the device from the externally powered heater is achieved by exothermic reforming reactions above 470 °C. The reforming reaction and the fuel gas flow rate of the n-butane/air gas mixture controls the operation temperature and gas composition on the micro-SOFC membrane. In the temperature range between 505 °C and 570 °C, the gas composition after the micro-reformer consists of 12 vol.% to 28 vol.% H2. An open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V and maximum power density of 47 mW cm-2 at 565 °C is achieved with the on-chip produced hydrogen at the micro-SOFC membranes.

  12. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    Cheng, Heyong [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Liu, Jinhua [College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China); Xu, Zigang [Institute of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Yin, Xuefeng, E-mail: yinxf@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); College of Material Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 310036 (China)

    2012-07-15

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1-0.8 {mu}L), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L{sup -1} glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L{sup -1} glucose was downscaled to 0.8 {mu}L. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 {mu}L, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 {mu}L was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 {mu}L min{sup -1} for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection ({mu}FI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h{sup -1} with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three Chinese rice wine samples ranged between 95.5 and 102.8%. Furthermore, the determined contents of Cd and Pb in a certified reference material of red wine (GBW 10031) and a quality control test material of wine (FAPAS T07163QC) by the proposed method were in fairly good accordance with the certified/assigned values. All results verified the accuracy of our method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system was developed for ICP-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No carbon deposit or matrix effect from Chinese rice wine was observed.

  13. A micro-fluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external aqueous calibration

    A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introducing system was developed for direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It consisted of a microfluidic chip integrating variable-volume sampling channels (0.1–0.8 μL), an eight-way multi-functional valve used in flow injection analysis (FIA), a syringe pump and a peristaltic pump of the Ar ICP-MS instrument. Three solutions, i.e., 15, 40 and 100 g L−1 glucose in 20% ethanol were used to simulate Chinese rice wine of the dry type, the semidry type and the semisweet type, each. The effects of their volume introduced into ICP-MS on the plasma stability and ICP-MS intensities were studied. The experimental results showed that neither alteration of plasma stability nor carbon deposition was observed when the sampling volume of 20% ethanol containing 100 g L−1 glucose was downscaled to 0.8 μL. Further reducing the sampling volume to 0.4 μL, no significant difference between the intensities of multi-element standard prepared in three simulated Chinese rice wine matrices and those in aqueous solution was observed. It indicated no negative effect of Chinese rice wine matrix on the ICP-MS intensities. A sampling volume of 0.4 μL was considered to be a good compromise between sensitivity and matrix effect. The flow rate of the carrier was chosen as 20 μL min−1 for obtaining peaks with the highest peak height within the shortest time. Based on these observations, a microflow injection (μFI) method for the direct determination of cadmium and lead in Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS using an external aqueous calibration was developed. The sample throughput was 45 h−1 with the detection limit of 19.8 and 10.4 ng L−1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The contents of Cd and Pb in 10 Chinese rice wine samples were measured. The results agreed well with those determined by ICP-MS with the conventional sampling system after microwave assisted digestion. The recoveries of three Chinese rice wine samples ranged between 95.5 and 102.8%. Furthermore, the determined contents of Cd and Pb in a certified reference material of red wine (GBW 10031) and a quality control test material of wine (FAPAS T07163QC) by the proposed method were in fairly good accordance with the certified/assigned values. All results verified the accuracy of our method. - Highlights: ► A microfluidic sub-microliter sample introduction system was developed for ICP-MS. ► Direct analysis of Chinese rice wine by ICP-MS was achieved. ► No carbon deposit or matrix effect from Chinese rice wine was observed.

  14. Impedance based automatic electrode positioning.

    Miklody, Daniel; Hohne, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    The position of electrodes in electrical imaging and stimulation of the human brain is an important variable with vast influences on the precision in modeling approaches. Nevertheless, the exact position is obscured by many factors. 3-D Digitization devices can measure the distribution over the scalp surface but remain uncomfortable in application and often imprecise. We demonstrate a new approach that uses solely the impedance information between the electrodes to determine the geometric position. The algorithm involves multidimensional scaling to create a 3 dimensional space based on these impedances. The success is demonstrated in a simulation study. An average electrode position error of 1.67cm over all 6 subjects could be achieved. PMID:26736345

  15. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Porous Electrodes

    Ferguson, Todd R

    2012-01-01

    We review classical porous electrode theory and extend it to non-ideal active materials, including those capable of phase transformations. Using principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we relate the cell voltage, ionic fluxes, and Faradaic charge-transfer kinetics to the variational electrochemical potentials of ions and electrons. The Butler-Volmer exchange current is consistently expressed in terms of the activities of the reduced, oxidized and transition states, and the activation overpotential is defined relative to the local Nernst potential. We also apply mathematical bounds on effective diffusivity to estimate porosity and tortuosity corrections. The theory is illustrated for a Li-ion battery with active solid particles described by a Cahn-Hilliard phase-field model. Depending on the applied current and porous electrode properties, the dynamics can be limited by electrolyte transport, solid diffusion and phase separation, or intercalation kinetics. In phase-separating porous electrodes, the model...

  16. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Li, Jun; Yang, Quan Min; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2010-03-01

    Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4-6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7-15 mg cm-2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC). The highest SC of 185 F g-1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm-2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  17. Composite Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Yang QuanMin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Manganese dioxide nanofibers with length ranged from 0.1 to 1 μm and a diameter of about 4–6 nm were prepared by a chemical precipitation method. Composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors were fabricated by impregnation of the manganese dioxide nanofibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT into porous Ni plaque current collectors. Obtained composite electrodes, containing 85% of manganese dioxide and 15 mass% of MWCNT, as a conductive additive, with total mass loading of 7–15 mg cm−2, showed a capacitive behavior in 0.5-M Na2SO4 solutions. The decrease in stirring time during precipitation of the nanofibers resulted in reduced agglomeration and higher specific capacitance (SC. The highest SC of 185 F g−1 was obtained at a scan rate of 2 mV s−1 for mass loading of 7 mg cm−2. The SC decreased with increasing scan rate and increasing electrode mass.

  18. Electrode structures of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). An electron microscopy approach to the characterization of the electrode structure of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Scheiba, Frieder

    2009-01-28

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have a complex electrode structure, which usually consists of a catalyst, a catalyst support, a polymer electrolyte and pores. The materials used are largely amorphous, have a strong defective structure or have particle diameter of only a few nanometers. In the electrode the materials form highly disordered aggregated structures. Both aspects complicate a systematic structural analysis significantly. However, thorough knowledge of the electrode structure, is needed for systematic advancement of fuel cell technology and to obtain a better understanding of mass and charge carrier transport processes in the electrode. Because of the complex structure of the electrode, an approach based on the examination of electrode thin-sections by electron microscopy was chosen in this work to depicting the electrode structure experimentally. The present work presents these studies of the electrode structure. Some fundamental issues as the influence of the polymer electrolyte concentration and the polarity of the solvent used in the electrode manufacturing process were addressed. During the analysis particular attention was payed to the distribution and structure of the polymer electrolyte. A major problem to the investigations, were the low contrast between the polymer electrolyte, the catalyst support material and the embedding resin. Therefore, dilerent techniques were investigated in terms of their ability to improve the contrast. In this context, a computer-assisted acquisition procedure for energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM) was developed. The acquisition procedure permits a significant extension of the imageable sample. At the same time, it was possible to substantially reduce beam damage of the specimen and to minimize drift of the sample considerably. This allowed unambiguous identification of the polymer electrolyte in the electrode. It could further be shown, that the polymer electrolyte not only coats the

  19. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2016-02-02

    In one aspect of the present invention, a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) has an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode. At least one of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode and the membrane is formed of electrospun nanofibers.

  20. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  1. Ceramic components for MHD electrode

    Marchant, D.D.

    A ceramic component which exhibits electrical conductivity down to near room temperatures has the formula: Hf/sub x/In/sub y/A/sub z/O/sub 2/ where x = 0.1 to 0.4, y = 0.3 to 0.6, z = 0.1 to 0.4 and A is a lanthanide rare earth or yttrium. The component is suitable for use in the fabrication of MHD electrodes or as the current leadout portion of a composite electrode with other ceramic components.

  2. Point Electrode Studies of the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface

    Jacobsen, Torben

    $mm diameter) platinum electrodes mounted in a thin alumina tube resting on a polished 8 mol\\% yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte at $1000^\\circ$C in air. The results where analysed in terms of the equivalent circuit $R_{YSZ}(R_r Q)$ in the frequency range 0.5MHz--1kHz. Fig.\\,1 shows...

  3. Graphene electrodes for stimulation of neuronal cells

    Koerbitzer, Berit; Krauss, Peter; Nick, Christoph; Yadav, Sandeep; Schneider, Joerg J.; Thielemann, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Graphene has the ability to improve the electrical interface between neuronal cells and electrodes used for recording and stimulation purposes. It provides a biocompatible coating for common electrode materials such as gold and improves the electrode properties. Graphene electrodes are also prepared on SiO2 substrate to benefit from its optical properties like transparency. We perform electrochemical and Raman characterization of gold electrodes with graphene coating and compare them with graphene on SiO2 substrate. It was found that the substrate plays an important role in the performance of graphene and show that graphene on SiO2 substrate is a very promising material combination for stimulation electrodes.

  4. IP MASQUERADING: A Network Address Translation Technique

    Chiranji Lal Chowdhary; Prashant P.J.

    2010-01-01

    IP Masquerade, called "IPMASQ" or "MASQ" for short, is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers that do not have one or more registered Internet IP addresses to communicate to the Internet via the server's Internet IP address. Since IPMASQ is a generic technology, you can connect the server's internal and external to other computers through LAN technologies like Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI, as well as dialup connections line PPP or SLIP links....

  5. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  6. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  7. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  8. Analysis of SOFCs Using Reference Electrodes

    Finklea, H.; Chen, X.; Gerdes, K.; Pakalapati, S.; Celik, I.

    2013-01-01

    Reference electrodes are frequently applied to isolate the performance of one electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell. However, reference electrode simulations raise doubt to veracity of data collected using reference electrodes. The simulations predict that the reported performance for the one electrode will frequently contain performance of both electrodes. Nonetheless, recent reports persistently treat data so collected as ideally isolated. This work confirms the predictions of the reference electrode simulations on two SOFC designs, and to provides a method of validating the data measured in the 3-electrode configuration. Validation is based on the assumption that a change in gas composition to one electrode does not affect the impedance of the other electrode at open circuit voltage. This assumption is supported by a full physics simulation of the SOFC. Three configurations of reference electrode and cell design are experimentally examined using various gas flows and two temperatures. Impedance data are subjected to deconvolution analysis and equivalent circuit fitting and approximate polarization resistances of the cathode and anode are determined. The results demonstrate that the utility of reference electrodes is limited and often wholly inappropriate. Reported impedances and single electrode polarization values must be scrutinized on this basis.

  9. Advanced screening of electrode couples

    Giner, J. D.; Cahill, K.

    1980-01-01

    The chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox couple (electrolyte and electrode) was investigated to determine its suitability as negative electrode for the iron (Fe(3+)/Fe(2+))-chromium (Cr(3+)/Cr(2+)) redox flow battery. Literature search and laboratory investigation established that the solubility and stability of aqueous acidic solutions of chromium(3) chloride and chromium(2) chloride are sufficient for redox battery application. Four categories of electrode materials were tested; namely, metals and metalloid materials (elements and compounds), alloys, plated materials, and Teflon-bonded materials. In all, the relative performance of 26 candidate electrode materials was evaluated on the basis of slow scan rate linear sweep voltammetry in stirred solution. No single material tested gave both acceptable anodic an acceptable cathodic performance. However, the identification of lead as a good cathodic electrocatalyst and gold as a good anodic electrocatalyst led to the invention of the lead/gold combination electrocatalyst. This type of catalyst can be fabricated in several ways and appears to offer the advantages of each metal without the disadvantages associated with their use as single materials. This lead/gold electrocatalyst was tested by NASA-Lewis Research Center in complete, flowing, redox batteries comprising a stack of several cells. A large improvement in the battery's coulombic and energy efficiency was observed.

  10. Anodized Steel Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Sagu, Jagdeep S; Wijayantha, K G Upul; Bohm, Mallika; Bohm, Siva; Kumar Rout, Tapan

    2016-03-01

    Steel was anodized in 10 M NaOH to enhance its surface texture and internal surface area for application as an electrode in supercapacitors. A mechanism was proposed for the anodization process. Field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) studies of anodized steel revealed that it contains a highly porous sponge like structure ideal for supercapacitor electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that the surface of the anodized steel was Fe2O3, whereas X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that the bulk remained as metallic Fe. The supercapacitor performance of the anodized steel was tested in 1 M NaOH and a capacitance of 18 mF cm(-2) was obtained. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that there was a large psueudocapacitive contribution which was due to oxidation of Fe to Fe(OH)2 and then further oxidation to FeOOH, and the respective reduction of these species back to metallic Fe. These redox processes were found to be remarkably reversible as the electrode showed no loss in capacitance after 10000 cycles. The results demonstrate that anodization of steel is a suitable method to produce high-surface-area electrodes for supercapacitors with excellent cycling lifetime. PMID:26891093

  11. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  12. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  13. Tradition and Change in Swedish Address Forms.

    Mitchell, Stephen A.

    In most European languages, choice of address form classifies the relation between speakers. The first theoretical framework for analyzing address form usage was established by Brown and Gilman (1960) in their investigation of the semantics of pronoun use in a wide variety of Indo-European languages, which concluded that Europeans use the informal…

  14. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  15. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  16. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  17. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  18. Gelatin coated electrodes allow prolonged bioelectronic measurements

    1966-01-01

    Silver electrodes treated with an anodizing electrolyte containing gelatin are used for long term monitoring of bioelectronic potentials in humans. The electrodes do not interact with perspiration, cause skin irritation, or promote the growth of bacteria.

  19. Electrochemical behaviour of benzene on platinum electrodes

    Montilla Jiménez, Francisco; Huerta Arráez, Francisco; Morallón Núñez, Emilia; Vázquez Picó, José Luis

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption and oxidation of benzene in acidic media on platinum electrodes (polycrystalline and single-crystal electrodes) have been studied by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The oxidation characteristics of benzene depend on the surface structure of the platinum electrode used. In all platinum electrodes studied, the main reduction product of benzene is cyclohexane, and the oxidation products detected by infrared spectroscopy have been CO2 and ben...

  20. Voltammetry at porous electrodes: A theoretical study

    Barnes, Edward O; Chena, Xiaojun; Li, Peilin; Compton, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Theory is presented to simulate both chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry at porous electrodes fabricated by means of electro-deposition around spherical templates. A theoretical method to extract heterogeneous rate constants for quasireversible and irreversible systems is proposed by the approximation of decoupling of the diffusion within the porous electrode and of bulk diffusion to the electrode surface.

  1. Inexpensive and Disposable pH Electrodes

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Conklin, Alfred; Nelson, Kimberly; Marchetti, Jessica; Brashear, Ryan; Epure, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive electrodes for the measurement of pH have been constructed using the ionophore tribenzylamine for sensing H[superscript +] concentrations. Both traditional liquid-membrane electrodes and coated-wire electrodes have been constructed and studied, and both exhibit linear, nearly Nernstian responses to changes in pH. Measurements of pH…

  2. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  3. Local address and emergency contact details

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  4. Performance of conducting polymer electrodes for stimulating neuroprosthetics

    Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Hassarati, R. T.; Giraud, B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Chen, S.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Suaning, G. J.; Poole-Warren, L. A.; Lovell, N. H.

    2013-02-01

    Objective. Recent interest in the use of conducting polymers (CPs) for neural stimulation electrodes has been growing; however, concerns remain regarding the stability of coatings under stimulation conditions. These studies examine the factors of the CP and implant environment that affect coating stability. The CP poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is examined in comparison to platinum (Pt), to demonstrate the potential performance of these coatings in neuroprosthetic applications. Approach. PEDOT is coated on Pt microelectrode arrays and assessed in vitro for charge injection limit and long-term stability under stimulation in biologically relevant electrolytes. Physical and electrical stability of coatings following ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilization is established and efficacy of PEDOT as a visual prosthesis bioelectrode is assessed in the feline model. Main results. It was demonstrated that PEDOT reduced the potential excursion at a Pt electrode interface by 72% in biologically relevant solutions. The charge injection limit of PEDOT for material stability was found to be on average 30× larger than Pt when tested in physiological saline and 20× larger than Pt when tested in protein supplemented media. Additionally stability of the coating was confirmed electrically and morphologically following ETO processing. It was demonstrated that PEDOT-coated electrodes had lower potential excursions in vivo and electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) could be detected within the visual cortex. Significance. These studies demonstrate that PEDOT can be produced as a stable electrode coating which can be sterilized and perform effectively and safely in neuroprosthetic applications. Furthermore these findings address the necessity for characterizing in vitro properties of electrodes in biologically relevant milieu which mimic the in vivo environment more closely.

  5. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R.; Lu, Wenquan

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  6. Development of a lightweight nickel electrode

    Britton, D. L.; Reid, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel electrodes made using lightweight plastic plaque are about half the weight of electrodes made from state of the art sintered nickel plaque. This weight reduction would result in a significant improvement in the energy density of batteries using nickel electrodes (nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium and nickel zinc). These lightweight electrodes are suitably conductive and yield comparable capacities (as high as 0.25 AH/gm (0.048 AH/sq cm)) after formation. These lightweight electrodes also show excellent discharge performance at high rates.

  7. Census Bureau Planned Acquisition: Address Data

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Census Bureau updates and maintains address data to support the correct allocation of population and housing for censuses and surveys. Boundaries, streets,...

  8. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    ... Beverage Toolkit Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Updated:Aug 4,2014 The discussion of weight ... tips on how to make talking with your doctor about weight and childhood obesity less daunting: Come ...

  9. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  10. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  11. Measuring the Density Matrix by Local Addressing

    Kis, Z

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a procedure to measure the density matrix of a material system. The density matrix is addressed locally in this scheme by applying a sequence of delayed light pulses. The procedure is based on the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. It is shown that a series of population measurements on the target state of the population transfer process yields unambiguous information about the populations and coherences of the addressed states, which therefore can be determined.

  12. Instrument Mixes Addressing Mercury Emissions to Air

    OECD

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with "instruments used to address mercury emissions to air", by which is meant all legislation, regulation and other measures intended to control or reduce anthropogenic, atmospheric mercury emissions. As the links are complex between actual inputs of mercury to society (consumption for intended use and mobilisation of mercury-impurities via industrial processes) and the final release sources, all types of measures addressing any phase in the life-cycle of mercury which may u...

  13. Addressing non-tariff measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  14. Addressing Non-tariff Measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members‘ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  15. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    A. M. V. Pathi; M. Premchand; Ramesh Chandra; B. Prudhvi Raj

    2013-01-01

    Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM) is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Althou...

  16. Nano-machining of biosensor electrodes through gold nanoparticles deposition produced by femtosecond laser ablation

    Della Ventura, B.; Funari, R.; Anoop, K. K.; Amoruso, S.; Ausanio, G.; Gesuele, F.; Velotta, R.; Altucci, C.

    2015-06-01

    We report an application of femtosecond laser ablation to improve the sensitivity of biosensors based on a quartz crystal microbalance device. The nanoparticles produced by irradiating a gold target with 527-nm, 300-fs laser pulses, in high vacuum, are directly deposited on the quartz crystal microbalance electrode. Different gold electrodes are fabricated by varying the deposition time, thus addressing how the nanoparticles surface coverage influences the sensor response. The modified biosensor is tested by weighting immobilized IgG antibody from goat and its analyte (IgG from mouse), and the results are compared with a standard electrode. A substantial increase of biosensor sensitivity is achieved, thus demonstrating that femtosecond laser ablation and deposition is a viable physical method to improve the biosensor sensitivity by means of nanostructured electrodes.

  17. Flame-based processing as a practical approach for manufacturing hydrogen evolution electrodes

    Roller, Justin; Renner, Julie; Yu, Haoran; Capuano, Chris; Kwak, Tony; Wang, Yang; Carter, C. Barry; Ayers, Kathy; Mustain, William E.; Maric, Radenka

    2014-12-01

    Catalyst structure and morphology are inevitably dictated by the synthesis route, which in-turn dictates catalyst activity, stability and utilization in the electrode. Reactive spray deposition technology (RSDT) is a promising synthesis route for electrode manufacturing because of the potential to achieve high-throughput processing under a diverse range of process configurations. This work investigates several unique approaches to Pt catalyst deposition using jet-flame synthesis for water electrolysis electrodes. Direct application of the catalyst film onto Nafion 117 and carbon paper is explored along with approaches to dispersing the Pt onto carbon or TinO2n-1. Operational challenges relating to the harsh conditions of H2 evolution and electrode adhesion are addressed by adding binder and catalyst support to the electrode structure. The RSDT technology produces an electrode, coated directly onto Nafion 117®, with a 20-fold reduction in Pt loading while maintaining high in-cell performance (2.1 V at 2 A cm-2) compared to an industry-level baseline. Durability testing at 1.8 A cm-2, 400 psi differential pressure and a temperature of 50 °C yields a consistent potential of ˜2.2 V for over 1100 h without failure. The same electrode applied directly to carbon paper resulted in a voltage of ˜2.1 V for ˜600 h without failure.

  18. Address Points, address, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'address'....

  19. Snap-in compressible biomedical electrode

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Hillman, C. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A replaceable, prefilled electrode enclosed in a plastic seal and suitably adapted for attachment to a reusable, washable cap having snaps thereon is disclosed. The apparatus is particularly adapted for quick positioning of electrodes to obtain an EEG. The individual electrodes are formed of a sponge body which is filled with a conductive electrolyte gel during manufacture. The sponge body is adjacent to a base formed of a conductive plastic material. The base has at its center a male gripper snap. The cap locates the female snap to enable the electrode to be positioned. The electrode can be stored and used quickly by attaching to the female gripper snap. The snap is correctly positioned and located by mounting it in a stretchable cap. The cap is reusable with new electrodes for each use. The electrolyte gel serves as the contact electrode to achieve a good ohmic contact with the scalp.

  20. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-09-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power output, but have relatively low energy capacity. Combining the merits of supercapacitor and battery into a hybrid, the supercapattery can possess energy as much as the battery and output a power almost as high as the supercapacitor. Redox electrode materials are essential in the supercapattery design. However, it is hard to utilise these materials easily because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as the low conductivity of metal oxides and the poor mechanical strength of conducting polymers. This article offers a brief introduction of redox electrode materials, the basics of supercapattery and its relationship with pseudocapacitors, and reviews selectively some recent progresses in the relevant research and development.

  1. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  2. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  3. Electrical properties of metallic electrodes.

    Ragheb, T; Geddes, L A

    1990-03-01

    The series equivalent resistance R and capacitance C of metal/saline electrode/electrolyte interfaces were measured as a function of frequency (100 Hz-20k Hz) and current density (0.25 to 1000 A m-2) for eight typical electrode metals. For each of the metals tested, R decreased and C increased as the current density was increased above a critical value (with the exception of silver and MP35N at frequencies above 1 kHz for which R increased and C decreased slightly). With the exception of copper, the current density linearity limit (for 10 per cent decrease in R or 10 per cent increase in C) increased with increasing frequency and, in most cases, the current density linearity limit for 10 per cent increase in C was slightly less than that for 10 per cent decrease in R. Among the metals tested, copper and aluminium had the lowest current carrying capability and rhodium had the highest current-carrying capability. The current carrying capabilities of 316 SS, platinum, silver and MP35N, were intermediate and similar. With increasing current density, an increase in the electrode/electrolyte capacitance was the most sensitive indicator of the current-carrying linearity limit. PMID:2376994

  4. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  5. Carbon: The Ultimate Electrode Choice for Widely Distributed Polymer Solar Cells

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Roth, Bérenger; Madsen, Morten Vesterager;

    2014-01-01

    As mass-produced, low-cost organic electronics enter our everyday lives, so does the waste from them. The challenges associated with end-of-life management must be addressed by careful design and carbon-based electrodes are central to these developments. Here, the reproducible production of vacuum...

  6. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  7. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  8. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    Øland, Trine

    integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose these......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  9. Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes

    Christopher W. Foster

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate.

  10. Comparison of stimulation selectivity in monopolar and bipolar configuration using the Transversal Intrafascicular Multichannel Electrode (TIME) - Preliminary results

    Maciejasz, Paweł; Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Harreby, Kristian Rauhe; Jensen, Winnie; Stieglitz, Thomas; Navarro, Xavier; Guiraud, David

    2013-01-01

    The Transversal Intrafascicular Multichannel Electrode (TIME) is intended to be implanted transversally in the nerve and address several fascicles or subgroups of nerve fibres with one device. It has been already shown that TIME allows to achieve high selectivity of stimulation when using monopolar configuration, i.e. when current is delivered through one of the sites of the TIME against small needle electrode placed in the proximity of the nerve. Results of the current study suggest that usi...

  11. Unique Properties of Amalgam Electrodes

    Josypčuk, Bohdan; Josypčuk, Oksana

    Ústí nad Labem: Srsenová Lenka - Best Servis, 2015 - (Navrátil, T.; Fojta, M.; Schwarzová, K.), s. 85-89 ISBN 978-80-905221-3-8. [Moderní elektrochemické metody /35./. Jetřichovice (CZ), 18.05.2015-22.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * amalgam electrodes * biosensors Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  12. Progress in understanding SOFC electrodes

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jørgensen, M.J.;

    2002-01-01

    electrodes because the data sets are difficult to explain by differences in overall composition and structure. Therefore, we suggest the idea of serious effects of foreign phases due to impurities and/or segregation of cell constituents. Such foreign phases will depend very much on raw material purity and...... synthesis procedures. The paper deals with the available evidence and gives some possible explanations of observed phenomena, e.g. of the various reported effects of water and of the temperature dependence of H/D isotope effect on the SOFC anode. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Microarray Dot Electrodes Utilizing Dielectrophoresis for Cell Characterization

    Fatimah Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades; dielectrophoresis (DEP has become a vital tool for cell manipulation and characterization due to its non-invasiveness. It is very useful in the trend towards point-of-care systems. Currently, most efforts are focused on using DEP in biomedical applications, such as the spatial manipulation of cells, the selective separation or enrichment of target cells, high-throughput molecular screening, biosensors and immunoassays. A significant amount of research on DEP has produced a wide range of microelectrode configurations. In this paper; we describe the microarray dot electrode, a promising electrode geometry to characterize and manipulate cells via DEP. The advantages offered by this type of microelectrode are also reviewed. The protocol for fabricating planar microelectrodes using photolithography is documented to demonstrate the fast and cost-effective fabrication process. Additionally; different state-of-the-art Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC devices that have been proposed for DEP applications in the literature are reviewed. We also present our recently designed LOC device, which uses an improved microarray dot electrode configuration to address the challenges facing other devices. This type of LOC system has the capability to boost the implementation of DEP technology in practical settings such as clinical cell sorting, infection diagnosis, and enrichment of particle populations for drug development.

  14. Transparent electrodes for organic optoelectronic devices: a review

    Cao, Weiran; Li, Jian; Chen, Hongzheng; Xue, Jiangeng

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes are one of the essential components for organic optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes. Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is the most common transparent electrode in these devices due to its excellent optical and electrical properties. However, the manufacturing of ITO film requires precious raw materials and expensive processes, which limits their compatibility with mass production of large-area, low-cost devices. The optical/electrical properties of ITO are strongly dependent on the deposition processes and treatment conditions, whereas its brittleness and the potential damage to underlying films during deposition also present challenges for its use in flexible devices. Recently, several other transparent conductive materials, which have various degrees of success relative to commercial applications have been developed to address these issues. Starting from the basic properties of ITO and the effect of various ITO surface modification methods, here we review four different groups of materials, doped metal oxides, thin metals, conducting polymers, and nanomaterials (including carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metal nanowires), that have been reported as transparent electrodes in organic optoelectronic materials. Particular emphasis is given to their optical/electrical and other material properties, deposition techniques, and applications in organic optoelectronic devices.

  15. Electrochromism: basis and application of nanomaterials in development of high performance electrodes; Eletrocromismo: fundamentos e a aplicacao de nanomateriais no desenvolvimento de eletrodos de alto desempenho

    Quintanilha, Ronaldo C.; Rocha, Igor; Vichessi, Raquel B.; Lucht, Emili; Naidek, Karine; Winnischofer, Herbert; Vidotti, Marcio, E-mail: mvidotti@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This review deals with the basis and novel trends in electrochromism, describing the basic aspects and methodologies employed for the construction and analyses of different modified electrodes. The work presents the classic materials used for the construction of electrochromic electrodes, such as WO{sub 3} and a view on the basic concepts of chromaticity as a useful approach for analyzing colorimetric results. The report also addresses how the incorporation of nanomaterials and the consequent novel modification of electrodes have furthered this area of science, producing electrochromic electrodes with high performance, high efficiency and low response times. (author)

  16. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  17. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  18. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  19. IP Address Use in Internetworking Routing

    2003-01-01

    tut quiz present anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: How routers use the elements of the IP address to forward packets of information., How information travels through the Internet.The interactions consists of pop-up definitions of terms, animations and self-check questions. EC3760 Introduction to Information Operations Engineering

  20. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses.

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 301.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS GENERAL...., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  1. Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering

    Technology Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging…

  2. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  3. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  4. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  5. 37 CFR 251.1 - Official addresses.

    2010-07-01

    ... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels (CARPs) must be addressed as follows: (a) If hand delivered by a... Friday between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m. (b) If hand delivered by a commercial courier (excluding...

  6. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  7. Taxel-addressable matrix of vertical nanowire piezotronic transistors

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wen, Xiaonan

    2015-05-05

    A tactile sensing matrix includes a substrate, a first plurality of elongated electrode structures, a plurality of vertically aligned piezoelectric members, an insulating layer infused into the piezoelectric members and a second plurality of elongated electrode structures. The first plurality of elongated electrode structures is disposed on the substrate along a first orientation. The vertically aligned piezoelectric members is disposed on the first plurality of elongated electrode structures and form a matrix having columns of piezoelectric members disposed along the first orientation and rows of piezoelectric members disposed along a second orientation that is transverse to the first orientation. The second plurality of elongated electrode structures is disposed on the insulating layer along the second orientation. The elongated electrode structures form a Schottky contact with the piezoelectric members. When pressure is applied to the piezoelectric members, current flow therethrough is modulated.

  8. Electrocatalytic activity of bismuth doped silver electrodes

    Amjad, M

    2002-01-01

    Investigation of redox reactions on silver, and bismuth doped silver electrodes in aqueous KOH solutions, by using potentiostatic steady-state polarization technique, has been carried out. The redox wave potential and current displacements along with multiplicity of the latter have been examined. These electrodes were employed for the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylamine in alkaline media. Subsequently, these electrodes were ranked with respect to their activity for the redox reactions. (author)

  9. Esophageal ECG: The challenge of electrode design

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Häberlin, Andreas; Vogel, R; Marisa, Thanks; Götte, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Two commercially available electrode catheters are examined for their suitability in esophageal long-term ECG recordings. Both, electrical sensing characteristics as well as clinical acceptance were investigated in a clinical study including inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. In total, 31 esophageal ECG were obtained in 36 patients. Results showed that esophageal electrodes were well tolerated by the patients. Hemispherical electrodes with higher diameter required more insertion attempt...

  10. Electrode design for electrohydrodynamic conduction pumping

    Yagoobi, Jamal Seyed (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic conduction liquid pumping system includes a vessel configured to contain a liquid or a liquid/vapor therein. This vessel can be of a elongate conduit configuration, an elongate channel configuration or a liquid enclosure configuration. At least a single pair of electrodes are disposed in a spaced apart relation to each other on the vessel and configured to be oriented in the liquid. A power supply is coupled to the electrodes and operable to generate electric fields in between the pair of electrodes, the electric forces inducing a net liquid movement relative to the vessel. Various electrode designs are embraced within the concept of this invention.

  11. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  12. Flexible carbon nanotubes electrode for neural recording.

    Lin, Chia-Min; Lee, Yu-Tao; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Fang, Weileun

    2009-05-15

    This paper demonstrates a novel flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrode array for neural recording. In this device, the CNTs electrode arrays are partially embedded into the flexible Parylene-C film using a batch microfabrication process. Through this fabrication process, the CNTs can be exposed to increase the total sensing area of an electrode. Thus, the flexible CNTs electrode of low impedance is realized. In application, the flexible CNTs electrode has been employed to record the neural signal of a crayfish nerve cord for in vitro recording. The measurements demonstrate the superior performance of the presented flexible CNTs electrode with low impedance (11.07 kohms at 1 kHz) and high peak-to-peak amplitude action potential (about 410 microV). In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the presented flexible CNTs electrode is about 257, whereas the SNR of the reference (a pair of Teflon-coated silver wires) is only 79. The simultaneous recording of the flexible CNTs electrode array is also demonstrated. Moreover, the flexible CNTs electrode has been employed to successfully record the spontaneous spikes from the crayfish nerve cord. The amplitude of the spontaneous peak-to-peak response is about 25 microV. PMID:19272765

  13. The electrochemical impedance of metal hydride electrodes

    Valøen, Lars Ole; Lasia, Andrzej; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Tunold, Reidar

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical impedance responses for different laboratory type metal hydride electrodes were successfully modeled and fitted to experimental data for AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys as well as one MgNi type electrode. The models fitted the experimental data remarkably well. Several AC......, explaining the experimental impedances in a wide frequency range for electrodes of hydride forming materials mixed with copper powder, were obtained. Both charge transfer and spherical diffusion of hydrogen in the particles are important sub processes that govern the total rate of the electrochemical...... observed. The impedance analysis was found to be an efficient method for characterizing metal hydride electrodes in situ....

  14. Elegant design of electrode and electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries by atomic layer deposition

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are very promising power supply systems for a variety of applications, such as electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid energy storage, and microelectronics. However, to realize these practical applications, many challenges need to be addressed in LIBs, such as power and energy density, cycling lifetime, safety, and cost. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is emerging as a powerful technique for solving these problems due to its exclusive advantages over other film deposition counterparts. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progresses of employing ALD to design novel nanostructured electrode materials and solid-state electrolytes and to tailor electrode/electrolyte interface by surface coatings in order to prevent unfavorable side reactions and achieve optimal performance of the electrode. Insights into the future research and development of the ALD technique for LIB applications are also discussed. We expect that this review article will provide resourceful information to researchers in both fields of LIBs and ALD and also will stimulate more insightful studies of using ALD for the development of next-generation LIBs. (review)

  15. Study of electrochemical behavior of desatinib using hanging mercury drop electrode and gold disc electrode

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2015), s. 116-116. ISSN 1336-7242 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : electrochemistry * hanging mercury drop electrode * gold electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  16. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  17. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V.

    1996-10-21

    An electrically regenerated electrosorption process known as carbon aerogel CDI was developed for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area and very low resistivity. After polarization, anions and cations are removed from electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. The solution is thus separated into two streams, brine and water. Based on this, carbon aerogel CDI appears to be an energy-efficient alternative to evaporation, electrodialysis, and reverse osmosis. The energy required by this process is about QV/2, plus losses. Estimated energy requirement for sea water desalination is 18-27 Wh gal{sup -1}, depending on cell voltage and flow rate. The requirement for brackish water desalination is less, 1.2-2.5 Wh gal{sup -1} at 1600 ppM. This is assuming that stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration.

  18. Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes

    Shiva Agarwal

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver(I selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14 diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v nonaqueous fraction.

  19. Simultaneous Production of High-Performance Flexible Textile Electrodes and Fiber Electrodes for Wearable Energy Storage.

    Dong, Liubing; Xu, Chengjun; Li, Yang; Wu, Changle; Jiang, Baozheng; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Enlou; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-02-01

    High-performance flexible textile electrodes and fiber electrodes are produced simultaneously by a newly proposed effective strategy. Activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and ACFC/MnO2 /CNTs composites are designed as high-performance flexible textile electrodes. Theses textiles can also be easily dismantled into individual fiber bundles used as high-performance flexible fiber electrodes. PMID:26679519

  20. Adverse effects of near current-electrode placement in non-invasive bio-impedance measurements

    A major problem confronting application of impedance techniques to studies of disease is the extraction of intrinsic properties of the tissue from the measured impedances, which unavoidably involve geometric factors as well. Amongst the foremost are the sizes and locations of the measuring electrode arrays, and this paper addresses one of these, the location of current injecting electrodes. Tetrapolar impedance measurements on a 17.5 cm segment of the thigh gave R and X values three to four times larger when the current injecting electrodes were placed 2.5 cm from the sensing electrodes than when very distant placement was used. The frequency dependences of R and X were affected as well, though the X versus R plots still showed virtually perfect depressed-center semicircles, as in the Cole model. R(f) and X(f) for the set of contiguous 2.5 cm wide sub-segments show that these behaviors can be explained by a combination of the transverse orientation of current flow lines near the injecting electrodes and the anisotropy of the resistivity associated with the bundled fiber structure of muscle tissue. The measured impedance was found to be a separable function of geometric and intrinsic tissue variables, but far more complicated than is implicit in the usual cylindrical models. The results also suggest that many full and segmental body composition studies in the literature may be prone to substantial errors due to too close placement of the current injecting electrodes. (paper)

  1. Microneedle Electrode Array for Electrical Impedance Myography to Characterize Neurogenic Myopathy.

    Li, Zhao; Li, Yi; Liu, Mingsheng; Cui, Liying; Yu, Yude

    2016-05-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a noninvasive technique for neuromuscular assessment, wherein a low-intensity alternating current is applied to a muscle, and the consequent surface voltage patterns are evaluated. Commercial wet electrodes are most commonly used for EIM. However, these electrodes are not suitable for use on small muscles, as they do not effectively solve the problem of high electrode-skin contact impedance (ESCI) that negatively influences the quality of recorded biopotentials. To address this problem, we fabricated a novel microneedle electrode array (MEA) that consists of 124-µm-long microneedles. Compared to wet electrodes, the MEA could pierce through the outer skin surface in a painless and micro-invasive manner, and could thus effectively reduce ESCI. The MEA has excellent test-retest reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.920. When used in combination with EIM, the MEA differentiated the affected muscles from the unaffected muscles in patients with neurogenic myopathy, by using EIM parameters of reactance and phase (p = 0.023 and 0.008, respectively). Thus, the novel MEA is a practical and reusable device for EIM assessment in cases of neurogenic myopathy. However, further refinement of the electrode is needed to enhance the clinical application of the system. PMID:26407702

  2. Electrode Induced Removal and Recovery of Uranium (VI) from Acidic Subsurfaces

    Gregory, Kelvin [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-08-12

    The overarching objective of this research is to provide an improved understanding of how aqueous geochemical conditions impact the removal of U and Tc from groundwater and how engineering design may be utilized to optimize removal of these radionuclides. Experiments were designed to address the unique conditions in Area 3 of ORNL while also providing broader insight into the geochemical effectors of the removal rates and extent for U and Tc. The specific tasks of this work were to: 1) quantify the impact of common aqueous geochemical and operational conditions on the rate and extent of U removal and recovery from water, 2) investigate the removal of Tc with polarized graphite electrode, and determine the influence of geochemical and operational conditions on Tc removal and recovery, 3) determine whether U and Tc may be treated simultaneous from Area 3 groundwater, and examine the bench-scale performance of electrode-based treatment, and 4) determine the capacity of graphite electrodes for U(VI) removal and develop a mathematical, kinetic model for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution. Overall the body of work suggests that an electrode-based approach for the remediation of acidic subsurface environments, such as those observed in Area 3 of ORNL may be successful for the removal for both U(VI) and Tc. Carbonaceous (graphite) electrode materials are likely to be the least costly means to maximize removal rates and efficiency by maximizing the electrode surface area.

  3. Multi-electrode stimulation in somatosensory cortex increases probability of detection

    Zaaimi, Boubker; Ruiz-Torres, Ricardo; Solla, Sara A.; Miller, Lee E.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) that decode control signals from motor cortex have developed tremendously in the past decade, but virtually all rely exclusively on vision to provide feedback. There is now increasing interest in developing an afferent interface to replace natural somatosensation, much as the cochlear implant has done for the sense of hearing. Preliminary experiments toward a somatosensory neuroprosthesis have mostly addressed the sense of touch, but proprioception, the sense of limb position and movement, is also critical for the control of movement. However, proprioceptive areas of cortex lack the precise somatotopy of tactile areas. We showed previously that there is only a weak tendency for neighboring neurons in area 2 to signal similar directions of hand movement. Consequently, stimulation with the relatively large currents used in many studies is likely to activate a rather heterogeneous set of neurons. Approach. Here, we have compared the effect of single-electrode stimulation at subthreshold levels to the effect of stimulating as many as seven electrodes in combination. Main results. We found a mean enhancement in the sensitivity to the stimulus (d‧) of 0.17 for pairs compared to individual electrodes (an increase of roughly 30%), and an increase of 2.5 for groups of seven electrodes (260%). Significance. We propose that a proprioceptive interface made up of several hundred electrodes may yield safer, more effective sensation than a BMI using fewer electrodes and larger currents.

  4. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  5. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional and......, improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  6. FPGA Implementation of Content Addressable Memory

    A. M. V. Pathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Content Addressable Memory (CAM is a special type of computer memory used in certain very high speed searching applications. It is also known as associative memory or associative storage or associative array. Content Addressable Memory (CAM is frequently used in applications, such as lookup tables, databases, associative computing and networking, that requires high-speed searches due to its ability to improve application performance by using parallel comparison to reduce search time. Although the use of parallel comparison results in reduced search time, it also significantly increases power consumption. This project proposes a Parameter Extractor, based on ones-count approach. The major contribution of this project is that it proposed ones-count Parameter Extractor can achieve faster search capability compared to the conventional CAM

  7. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Iryna Yevseyeva; James Turland; Charles Morisset; Lynne Coventry; Thomas Groß

    2015-01-01

    In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT) consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabili...

  8. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    David Ojcius

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  9. Addressing the UN Millennium Development Goals

    David Ojcius; Jan Wallander

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals concluded on 22 September 2010 with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date and the announcement of major new commitments for women's and children's health and other initiatives against poverty, hunger and disease. FACTS Reports is determined to play an important role in communicating about specific field actions that address one or more of the Millenium Development Goa...

  10. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  11. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  12. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  13. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  14. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  15. Embedded Ultrathin Cluster Electrodes for Long-Term Recordings in Deep Brain Centers

    Thorbergsson, Palmi Thor; Ekstrand, Joakim; Friberg, Annika; Granmo, Marcus; Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Schouenborg, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Neural interfaces which allow long-term recordings in deep brain structures in awake freely moving animals have the potential of becoming highly valuable tools in neuroscience. However, the recording quality usually deteriorates over time, probably at least partly due to tissue reactions caused by injuries during implantation, and subsequently micro-forces due to a lack of mechanical compliance between the tissue and neural interface. To address this challenge, we developed a gelatin embedded neural interface comprising highly flexible electrodes and evaluated its long term recording properties. Bundles of ultrathin parylene C coated platinum electrodes (N = 29) were embedded in a hard gelatin based matrix shaped like a needle, and coated with Kollicoat™ to retard dissolution of gelatin during the implantation. The implantation parameters were established in an in vitro model of the brain (0.5% agarose). Following a craniotomy in the anesthetized rat, the gelatin embedded electrodes were stereotactically inserted to a pre-target position, and after gelatin dissolution the electrodes were further advanced and spread out in the area of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The performance of the implanted electrodes was evaluated under anesthesia, during 8 weeks. Apart from an increase in the median-noise level during the first 4 weeks, the electrode impedance and signal-to-noise ratio of single-units remained stable throughout the experiment. Histological postmortem analysis confirmed implantation in the area of STN in most animals. In conclusion, by combining novel biocompatible implantation techniques and ultra-flexible electrodes, long-term neuronal recordings from deep brain structures with no significant deterioration of electrode function were achieved. PMID:27159159

  16. Electrochemistry at Nanometer-Scaled Electrodes

    Watkins, John J.; Bo Zhang; White, Henry S.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical studies using nanometer-scaled electrodes are leading to better insights into electrochemical kinetics, interfacial structure, and chemical analysis. Various methods of preparing electrodes of nanometer dimensions are discussed and a few examples of their behavior and applications in relatively simple electrochemical experiments…

  17. Reverse electrodialysis : evaluation of suitable electrode systems

    Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a method for directly extracting electrical energy from salinity gradients, especially from sea and river water. For the commercial implementation of RED, the electrode system is a key component. In this paper, novel electrode systems for RED were compared with exist

  18. Microneedle array electrode for human EEG recording

    Luttge, Regina; Bystrova, S.N.; Putten, van M.J.A.M; Vander Sloten, Jos; Verdonck, Pascal; Nyssen, Marc; Haueisen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Microneedle array electrodes for EEG significantly reduce the mounting time, particularly by circumvention of the need for skin preparation by scrubbing. We designed a new replication process for numerous types of microneedle arrays. Here, polymer microneedle array electrodes with 64 microneedles, i

  19. Optimal geometry toward uniform current density electrodes

    Electrodes are commonly used to inject current into the human body in various biomedical applications such as functional electrical stimulation, defibrillation, electrosurgery, RF ablation, impedance imaging, and so on. When a highly conducting electrode makes direct contact with biological tissues, the induced current density has strong singularity along the periphery of the electrode, which may cause painful sensation or burn. Especially in impedance imaging methods such as the magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, we should avoid such singularity since more uniform current density underneath a current-injection electrode is desirable. In this paper, we study an optimal geometry of a recessed electrode to produce a well-distributed current density on the contact area under the electrode. We investigate the geometry of the electrode surface to minimize the edge singularity and produce nearly uniform current density on the contact area. We propose a mathematical framework for the uniform current density electrode and its optimal geometry. The theoretical results are supported by numerical simulations

  20. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  1. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  2. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  3. The structure of hydrophobic gas diffusion electrodes.

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    The 'flooded agglomerate' model of the Teflon-bonded gas diffusion electrode is discussed. A mathematical treatment of the 'flooded agglomerate' model is given; it can be used to predict the performance of the electrode as a function of measurable physical parameters.

  4. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.xbatteries containing the electrodes.

  5. Frequency response measurements in battery electrodes

    Thomas, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the behavior of porous zinc, silver, cadmium, and nickel electrodes. State of charge could be correlated with impedance data for all but the nickel electrodes. State of health was correlated with impedance data for two AgZn cells, one apparently good and the other bad. The impedance data was fit to equivalent circuit models.

  6. Electrochemical Behavior of SWCNT-TPLF Electrode Compared to SWCNT-coated GCE and GE Electrodes

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Jeon, Il C.

    2007-01-01

    Redox reaction [Fe(CN)6]3– / [Fe(CN)6]4– has been studied with a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT)-coated Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE), SWCNT-coated Gold Electrode (GE) and a lab-made SWCNT-TPLF (SWCNT-Thin-Paper-Like-Film) Electrode. The SWCNT-modified electrode has shown a well-defined redox peak compared to bare electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was used in 50.0 × 10–3 M aqueous solution of KCl containing K4[Fe(CN)6] to obtain information on both the capacitive background ...

  7. Space expansions of the regular oxygen electrode reaction on YSZ. 2: Silver electrodes

    Kleitz, M.; Dessemond, L.; Steil, M.C. [Laboratoire d`Ionique et d`Electrochimie du Solide de Grenoble, Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1995-12-31

    Measurements have been carried out on micro-electrodes made of in situ solidified silver droplets on YSZ and on silver painted on YSZ/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. The results show evidence for two electrode reaction mechanisms in parallel. The variations of the corresponding reaction rates as functions of the electrode interface geometry are more complex than the expected simple proportionality to the triple phase line length or to the electrode interface area. Electronic thermoemission may also contribute to the electrode reaction zone expansion over the free electrolyte surface.

  8. Surface characterization of platinum electrodes.

    Solla-Gullón, José; Rodríguez, Paramaconi; Herrero, Enrique; Aldaz, Antonio; Feliu, Juan M

    2008-03-14

    The quantitative analysis of the different surface sites on platinum samples is attempted from pure voltammetric data. This analysis requires independent knowledge of the fraction of two-dimensional (111) and (100) domains. Specific site-probe reactions are employed to achieve this goal. Irreversibly-adsorbed bismuth and tellurium have been revealed to be sensitive to the presence of (111) terrace domains of different width whereas almost all sites involved in (100) ordered domains have been characterized through germanium adatoms. The experimental protocol follows that used with well-defined single-crystal electrodes and, therefore, requires careful control of the surface cleanliness. Platinum basal planes and their vicinal stepped surfaces have been employed to obtain calibration plots between the charge density measured under the adatom redox peak, specific for the type of surface site, and the corresponding terrace size. The evaluation of the (100) bidimensional domains can also be achieved using the voltammetric profiles, once the fraction of (111) ordered domains present in the polyoriented platinum has been determined and their featureless contribution has been subtracted from the whole voltammetric response. Using that curve, it is possible to perform a deconvolution of the adsorption states of the polycrystalline sample different from those related to (111) domains. The fraction of (100)-related states in the deconvoluted voltammogram can then be compared to that expected from the independent estimation coming from the charge involved in the redox process undergone by the irreversibly-adsorbed germanium and thus check the result of the deconvolution. The information about the surface-site distribution can also be applied to analyze the voltammetric profile of nanocrystalline platinum electrodes. PMID:18309392

  9. Auxiliary-Arc Electrodes for MHD Systems

    The important role of electrode phenomena in the operation of magneto aerodynamic machines is well known. In particular, the voltage drops which occur in the boundary layer in the immediate neighbourhood of the electrode may reduce the output of the apparatus. These voltage drops are caused partly by the increased resistance presented by the boundary layer in the neighbourhood of the electrode when the latter is appreciably colder than the gas, and partly by the fact that the electrode is not at a temperature sufficient to be emissive. Auxiliary-arc electrodes that have been constructed and tested seem to provide a solution both of the cold boundary layer problem and of the cathode emissivity problem. For this purpose an arc is established between a refractory metal cathode placed behind and clear of the generator wall and an anode forming part of the wall. The arc column can be activated by a rotational movement under the effect of a magnetic field, which may be that of the machine itself. The mechanical arrangement of the electrodes is such that, with a weak flow of gas (argon for example), it is possible to maintain a protective atmosphere around the arc cathode, while the arc anode is strongly cooled by the wall. The gas flow also has the effect of forcing the arc column towards the stream, thus increasing the conductivity of the boundary layer. Furthermore, the arc column behaves as a virtual cathode, from which a sizeable electron current can be extracted. Electrodes constructed on this principle have been tested on gas streams composed of fuel-oil combustion products. By using them as cathodes it has been possible to extract a current of 5 A without the voltage drop between the electrode and the gas exceeding 10 V. Comparative tests have been carried out with cooled metal electrodes, in which case the voltage drop is of the order of 120 V. The arc electrodes tested have operated for several hours without any apparent damage. In spite of the energy which has

  10. Transient melting of an ESR electrode

    Kharicha, A.; Karimi-Sibaki, E.; Bohacek, J.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-07-01

    Melting parameters of ESR process such as melt rate and immersion depth of electrode are of great importance. In this paper, a dynamic mesh based simulation framework is proposed to model melt rate and shape of electrode during the ESR process. Coupling interactions between turbulent flow, temperature, and electromagnetic fields are fully considered. The model is computationally efficient, and enables us to directly calculate melting parameters. Furthermore, dynamic change of electrode shape by melting can be captured. It is necessary to control the feeding velocity of electrode due to melting instabilities in the ESR process. As such, a numerical control is implemented based on the immersion depth of electrode to achieve the steady state in the simulation. Furthermore, the modeling result is evaluated against an experiment.

  11. Electrochemistry at Nanometer-Scaled Electrodes

    Watkins, John J.; Zhang, Bo; White, Henry S.

    2005-05-01

    Advances in the fabrication of nanometer-scaled electrodes during the past decade have created a number of exciting opportunities in both physical chemistry and analytical measurements. This article describes how Pt electrodes of nanometer dimensions are synthesized and characterized in a chemical laboratory. A few examples of their applications in fundamental studies of electron-transfer mechanisms and in analytical chemistry are presented. Examples include investigations of the dependence of electron-transfer kinetics and molecular diffusion on interfacial electric fields and electrochemical detection of very small quantities of a redox-active species (zeptomole detection). The concept of comparing the electrode size to the length scales of various microscopic structures (e.g., the double layer) and chemical steps that define electrochemical reactions is emphasized. This approach allows students to understand why new phenomena appear as the electrode size is reduced to the nanometer scale. A brief overview of literature describing electrochemical experimentation with nanometer-scaled electrodes is also included.

  12. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  13. Textile electrode characterization: dependencies in the skin-clothing-electrode interface

    Given the advances in the technology known as smart textiles, the use of textile electrodes is more and more common. However this kind of electrodes presents some differences regarding the standard ones as the Ag-AgCl electrodes. Therefore to characterize them as best as possible is required. In order to make the characterization reproducible and repetitive, a skin dummy made of agar-agar and a standardized measurement set-up is used in this article. Thus, some dependencies in the skin-electrode interface are described. These dependencies are related to the surface of the textile electrode, the conductive material and the applied pressure. Furthermore, the dependencies on clothing in the skin-textile electrode interface are also analyzed. Thus, based on some parameters such as textile material, width and number of layers, the behavior of the interface made up by the skin, the textile electrode and clothing is depicted.

  14. Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method

    He, Zhong

    1998-01-01

    An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge.

  15. Addressing the Crisis in Fundamental Physics

    Stubbs, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    I present the case for fundamental physics experiments in space playing an important role in addressing the current "dark energy'' crisis. If cosmological observations continue to favor a value of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-1, with no change over cosmic time, then we will have difficulty understanding this new fundamental physics. We will then face a very real risk of stagnation unless we detect some other experimental anomaly. The advantages of space-based experiments could prove invaluable in the search for the a more complete understanding of dark energy. This talk was delivered at the start of the Fundamental Physics Research in Space Workshop in May 2006.

  16. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  17. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M

    2008-01-01

    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.

  18. Building technology services that address student needs.

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Wimmer, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A 16-question technology use survey was conducted to assess incoming health sciences students' knowledge of and interest in current technologies, and to identify student device and tool preferences. Survey questions were developed by colleagues at a peer institution and then edited to match this library's student population. Two years of student responses have been compiled, compared, and reviewed as a means for informing library decisions related to technology and resource purchases. Instruction and event programming have been revised to meet student preferences. Based on the number of students using Apple products, librarians are addressing the need to become more proficient with this platform. PMID:25611437

  19. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  20. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq; S. Shabana Begum; Dr. K.E.Sreenivasa Murthy; Prof. B. Satyanaryana

    2011-01-01

    The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fas...

  1. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  2. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  3. Notation for national and international telephone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web addresses

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: name@provider.com Internet address / URL: www.company.com It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.

  4. Defect Detection in Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Electrodes Using Infrared Thermography

    Ulsh, Michael; Porter, Jason M.; Bittinat, Daniel C.; Bender, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are energy conversion devices that offer high power densities and high efficiencies for mobile and other applications. Successful introduction into the marketplace requires addressing cost barriers such as production volumes and platinum loading. For cost reduction, it is vital to minimize waste and maximize quality during the manufacturing of platinum-containing electrodes, including gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). In this work, we report on developing a quality control diagnostic for GDEs, involving creating an ex situ exothermic reaction on the electrode surface and using infrared thermography to measure the resulting temperature profile. Experiments with a moving GDE containing created defects were conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the diagnostic for real-time web-line inspection.

  5. Highly accurate apparatus for electrochemical characterization of the felt electrodes used in redox flow batteries

    Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jung Jin; Park, O. Ok; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Because of the rise in renewable energy use, the redox flow battery (RFB) has attracted extensive attention as an energy storage system. Thus, many studies have focused on improving the performance of the felt electrodes used in RFBs. However, existing analysis cells are unsuitable for characterizing felt electrodes because of their complex 3-dimensional structure. Analysis is also greatly affected by the measurement conditions, viz. compression ratio, contact area, and contact strength between the felt and current collector. To address the growing need for practical analytical apparatus, we report a new analysis cell for accurate electrochemical characterization of felt electrodes under various conditions, and compare it with previous ones. In this cell, the measurement conditions can be exhaustively controlled with a compression supporter. The cell showed excellent reproducibility in cyclic voltammetry analysis and the results agreed well with actual RFB charge-discharge performance.

  6. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  7. Electrode effect for hydrodynamic plasma edge

    General turbulent diffusion processes of the light ions towards electrode in weakly ionized hydrodynamic plasma edge are analyzed. The system of equations for turbulent diffusion of the light ions towards electrode under certain boundary conditions (selective capture of the light negative ions on electrode's surface) is solved. On the other hand inside boundary layer there is a laminar layer near electrode's surface. Here, the kinetic diffusion is a main mechanism for diffusion of the light ions toward electrode. Over boundary layer the turbulent diffusion is a prevailing mechanism. As it stands, a new model for quasi boundary layer of diffusion is proposed and used for the general analysis of experimental results on negative charging of material surface in ionized air (Chalmers, Pasquill, Phillips and Gunn). Briefly, one can say that negative equilibrium potentials of electrode is proportional to logarithm of (N+/N-) ratio. From its slope we can obtain the thickness of quasi-boundary layer of diffusion, that is compatible with boundary layer thickness. On the other hand a turbulent double layer is defined. Its characteristic length is much longer than Debye length. The energy produced by electric field of diffusion comes from the chaotic energy of turbulent eddies. The electric field of diffusion and its current (called compensatory current) will balance the ionic fluxes towards electrode. (authors)

  8. Address Forms in Chinese and English-Speaking Culture

    王晓茹

    2015-01-01

    Address forms is one of markers of politeness and is an indispensable part of communication. An appropriate address form promotes interpersonal communication smoothly. An address form is polite in one culture, but might be inappropriate in an⁃other culture. The paper contrasts address forms in English and Chinese culture and explores the reasons for their different choice of address terms.

  9. Improved technology for manufacture of carbon electrodes

    A Platon; A Dumbrava; N Iutes-Petrescu; Luzia Simionescu

    2000-02-01

    Current industrial carbon electrodes are typically manufactured by blending petroleum coke particles (the filler) with molten coal tar pitch (the binder) and extruding the resultant mix to form the `green electrode’. This is then baked under controlled conditions. In case of usage as anodes in steel electric furnaces (or as other carbon and graphite products), the electrodes could undergo further processing like pitch impregnation or graphitization. During heat treatment, some of the organics are destructively distilled, vaporized or decomposed, resulting in carbon deposition in the electrode. As the vaporized materials exit the body of the electrode they cause porosity in the walls, which results in reduction in density, current carrying capacity and flexural strength. The paper presents investigations to improve some physico-chemical characteristics of these electrodes (such as coefficient of thermal expansion, mechanical strengths, density, pore volume, porosity etc.), obtained in different manufacture steps, by addition of varieties of coal tar pitch. These include attempts to improve the chemical compatibility of the coke-pitch system in the mixture and establish the method and the point of introduction of additive, the concentration required and appropriate analytical control during the entire manufacture. Methods of analysis used include thermogravimetry and porosimetry. The microstructure of the electrodes is investigated through a wide range and the data obtained include pore size and pore volume distribution, surface area, porosity, particle size distribution and type of pores. The overall results clearly indicate better characteristics and performance for electrodes with additives as against electrodes without them, such as lower porosity, lower thermal expansion coefficients and greater mechanical strength. These data are analyzed with respect to the process step and electrode type.

  10. Design, fabrication and skin-electrode contact analysis of polymer microneedle-based ECG electrodes

    O’Mahony, Conor; Grygoryev, Konstantin; Ciarlone, Antonio; Giannoni, Giuseppe; Kenthao, Anan; Galvin, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Microneedle-based ‘dry’ electrodes have immense potential for use in diagnostic procedures such as electrocardiography (ECG) analysis, as they eliminate several of the drawbacks associated with the conventional ‘wet’ electrodes currently used for physiological signal recording. To be commercially successful in such a competitive market, it is essential that dry electrodes are manufacturable in high volumes and at low cost. In addition, the topographical nature of these emerging devices means that electrode performance is likely to be highly dependent on the quality of the skin-electrode contact. This paper presents a low-cost, wafer-level micromoulding technology for the fabrication of polymeric ECG electrodes that use microneedle structures to make a direct electrical contact to the body. The double-sided moulding process can be used to eliminate post-process via creation and wafer dicing steps. In addition, measurement techniques have been developed to characterize the skin-electrode contact force. We perform the first analysis of signal-to-noise ratio dependency on contact force, and show that although microneedle-based electrodes can outperform conventional gel electrodes, the quality of ECG recordings is significantly dependent on temporal and mechanical aspects of the skin-electrode interface.

  11. Effect of Particle Size on Electrode Potential and Thermodynamics of Nanoparticles Electrode in Theory and Experiment

    The particle size of electrode materials has a significant influence on the standard electrode potential and the thermodynamic properties of electrode reactions. In this paper, the size-dependent electrochemical thermodynamics has been theoretically investigated and successfully deduced electrochemical thermodynamics equations for nanoparticles electrode. At the same time, the electrode potential and thermodynamical properties of Ag2O/Ag nanoparticles electrode constructed by the solid and spherical Ag2O nanoparticles with different sizes further testified that the particle size of nanoparticles has a significant effect on electrochemical thermodynamics. The results show that the electrode potential depends on that of the smallest nanoparticle in a nanoparticles electrode which consisted of different particle sizes of nano-Ag2O. When the size of Ag2O nanoparticles reduces, the standard electrode potentials and the equilibrium constants of the corresponding electrode reactions increase, and the temperature coefficient, the mole Gibbs energy change, the mole enthalpy change and the mole entropy change decrease. Moreover, these physical quantities are all linearly related with the reciprocal of average particle size (r > 10 nm). The experimental regularities coincide with the theoretical equations

  12. Insulating electrodes: a review on biopotential front ends for dielectric skin–electrode interfaces

    Insulating electrodes, also known as capacitive electrodes, allow acquiring biopotentials without galvanic contact with the body. They operate with displacement currents instead of real charge currents, and the electrolytic electrode–skin interface is replaced by a dielectric film. The use of insulating electrodes is not the end of electrode interface problems but the beginning of new ones: coupling capacitances are of the order of pF calling for ultra-high input impedance amplifiers and careful biasing, guarding and shielding techniques. In this work, the general requirements of front ends for capacitive electrodes are presented and the different contributions to the overall noise are discussed and estimated. This analysis yields that noise bounds depend on features of the available devices as current and voltage noise, but the final noise level also depends on parasitic capacitances, requiring a careful shield and printed circuit design. When the dielectric layer is placed on the skin, the present-day amplifiers allow achieving noise levels similar to those provided by wet electrodes. Furthermore, capacitive electrode technology allows acquiring high quality ECG signals through thin clothes. A prototype front end for capacitive electrodes was built and tested. ECG signals were acquired with these electrodes in direct contact with the skin and also through cotton clothes 350 µm thick. They were compared with simultaneously acquired signals by means of wet electrodes and no significant differences were observed between both output signals

  13. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Iryna Yevseyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabilities and threats to corporate data and devices, combined with a strategy of influencing security behavior by nudging. We argue that nudging, by taking into account the context of the decision-making environment, and the fact that the employee may be in better position to make a more appropriate decision, may be more suitable than strict policies in situations of uncertainty of security-related decisions. Several examples of nudging are considered for different tested and potential scenarios in security context.

  14. How is environmental conflict addressed by SIA?

    The fields of Environmental Conflict Management (ECM), Environmental Conflict Resolution (ECR), and Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) have become well established; however, as yet there has not been much use of Social Impact Assessment (SIA) to manage environmental conflicts. ECM, ECR and PCIA are mainly undertaken when problems are advanced or, more likely, have run their course (post-conflict). This paper examines how conflict is addressed by SIA and whether there is potential to develop it for more proactive assessment of conflicts (pre-conflict or while things develop). SIA has the potential to identify and clarify the cause(s) of environmental and natural resources conflicts, and could possibly enable some avoidance or early mitigation. A promising approach may be for 'conflict-aware' SIA to watch for critical conflict stages or thresholds and to monitor stakeholders. Effective conflict-aware SIA might also significantly contribute to efforts to achieve sustainable development.

  15. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally....... Similar, in order to be able to train with relevant case mix and numbers, and in order always to have both complex open and endovascular skills on call 24 hours per day, 365 days a year, centralisation into larger units is necessary. The WFVS is important simply looking at the huge demographic differences...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed....

  16. Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma: Controversies to be addressed

    Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Chang; Du, Juan; Zhu, Cheng-Pei; Huang, Han-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wu, Liang-Cai; Wan, Xue-Shuai; Zhang, Hao-Hai; Miao, Ruo-Yu; Sang, Xin-Ting; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) accounts for 0.4%-14.2% of primary liver cancer cases and possesses pathological features of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Since this disease was first described and classified in 1949, the classification of CHC has continuously evolved. The latest definition and classification of CHC by the World Health Organization is based on the speculation that CHC arises from hepatic progenitor cells. However, there is no evidence demonstrating the common origin of different components of CHC. Furthermore, the definition of CHC subtypes is still ambiguous and the identification of CHC subtype when a single tumor contains many components has remained unresolved. In addition, there is no summary on the newly recognized histopathology features or the contribution of CHC components to prognosis and outcome of this disease. Here we provide a review of the current literature to address these questions. PMID:27182157

  17. Soft textile electrodes for EEG monitoring

    Löfhed, Johan; Seoane, Fernando; Thordstein, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for long term monitoring of the brain during intensive care. This is e.g. the case for newborn babies that have been exposed to hypoxia during delivery. Electroencephalography (EEG) is the technique of choice. To get a clear and detailed view of the brain activity a large number of EEG electrodes should be used. Applying traditional electrodes one by one is a time-consuming and technically demanding work and therefore electrode caps are sometimes used. The existing caps have h...

  18. Polymer-Based Cantilevers with Integrated Electrodes

    Mouaziz, S.; Boero, G.; Popovic, R; J. Brugger

    2006-01-01

    An innovative release method of polymer cantilevers with embedded integrated metal electrodes is presented. The fabrication is based on the lithographic patterning of the electrode layout on a wafer surface, covered by two layers of SU-8 polymer: a 10-um-thick photo-structured layer for the cantilever, and a 200-um-thick layer for the chip body. The releasing method is based on dry etching of a 2-um-thick sacrificial polysilicon layer. Devices with complex electrode layout embedded in free-st...

  19. Fluctuations at Electrode-YSZ Interfaces

    Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels; Skou, Eivind

    because of the damping by the large interface. Fig.\\,1 shows a slow potential sweep on a Pt point electrode on a YSZ surface. For the part of the anodic and the cathodic branches where the electrode approaches equilibrium, quadratic expressions are used as smooth approximations for the current.......[0.5ex] $^c$ Dept.\\,of Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark. \\end{center}%\\ [\\topsep] From experiments on electrodes on YSZ surfaces it is well known that a short current or overvoltage pulse can decrease the interfacial impedance leading to an temporary increase in...

  20. Energy photoconversion using molybdenite electrodes

    D' Oliveira, N.; Monnereau, O.; Vacquier, G.; Cerclier, O.; Casalot, A. (Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France))

    1982-01-01

    Semi-conductor electrode preparation methods, from natural state molybdenites MoS/sub 2/ or from synthetized ones are studied for electrochemical cells. A radiocrystallographic study shows that the various molybdenites get a crystal state with a structure coming from CdI/sub 2/ (2H of 4H polytypes); Norway MoS/sub 2/ variety being changed by annealing at 800/sup 0/C from 4H type to 2H one. Using a Seebeck effect method, all the samples, except MoS/sub 2/ Madagascar, give an n-type conductivity. According to a systematic study of various parameters (sample origins, lightning conditions, electrolytic solution pH, ionic species concentration, solution temperature, material composition) experimental conditions for the best photocurrent increase are determined. Every sample, except Madagascar MoS/sub 2/ one, acts as an anode, the most active being Australia MoS/sub 2/. Norway MoS/sub 2/, in its natural state, gives its best when lit tangentially in a sheet-plan, under a more than 1V voltage. Performance is even better after an annealing at 800/sup 0/C and crushing at an about 40 ..mu..m granulometry, followed by a new thermic treatment and by using an electrolyte whose concentration is at least 5.10/sup -3/M in I/sup -/ions, with a very acid pH.

  1. Effect of a floating electrode on a plasma jet

    Two kinds of floating electrode, floating dielectric barrier covered electrode (FDBCE) and floating pin electrode (FPE), which can enhance the performance of plasma jet are reported. The intense discharge between the floating electrode and power electrode decreased the voltage to trigger the plasma jet substantially. The transition of plasma bullet from ring shape to disk shape in the high helium concentration region happened when the floating electrode was totally inside the powered ring electrode. The enhanced electric field between propagating plasma bullet and ground electrode is the reason for this transition. The double plasma bullets happened when part of the FDBCE was outside the powered ring electrode, which is attributed to the structure and surface charge of FDBCE. As part of the FPE was outside the powered ring electrode, the return stroke resulted in a single intensified plasma channel between FPE and ground electrode

  2. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    2010-04-01

    ... the stated address, or (C) Produced sparkling wine by secondary fermentation at the stated address... alcoholic beverage business at such additional place or address, and (2) The label also contains in...

  3. Electrode geometry for electrostatic generators and motors

    Post, Richard F.

    2016-02-23

    An electrostatic (ES) device is described with electrodes that improve its performance metrics. Devices include ES generators and ES motors, which are comprised of one or more stators (stationary members) and one or more rotors (rotatable members). The stator and rotors are configured as a pair of concentric cylindrical structures and aligned about a common axis. The stator and rotor are comprised of an ensemble of discrete, longitudinal electrodes, which are axially oriented in an annular arrangement. The shape of the electrodes described herein enables the ES device to function at voltages significantly greater than that of the existing art, resulting in devices with greater power-handling capability and overall efficiency. Electrode shapes include, but are not limited to, rods, corrugated sheets and emulations thereof.

  4. The electrochemical impedance of metal hydride electrodes

    Valøen, Lars Ole; Lasia, Andrzej; Jensen, Jens Oluf;

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical impedance responses for different laboratory type metal hydride electrodes were successfully modeled and fitted to experimental data for AB5 type hydrogen storage alloys as well as one MgNi type electrode. The models fitted the experimental data remarkably well. Several AC......, explaining the experimental impedances in a wide frequency range for electrodes of hydride forming materials mixed with copper powder, were obtained. Both charge transfer and spherical diffusion of hydrogen in the particles are important sub processes that govern the total rate of the electrochemical...... hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction. To approximate the experimental data, equations describing the current distribution in porous electrodes were needed. Indications of one or more parallel reduction/oxidation processes competing with the electrochemical hydrogen absorption/desorption reaction were...

  5. Electrochemistry at three-phase electrodes

    Gulaboski, Rubin

    2005-01-01

    Three-phase electrodes are seen as a powerful tool for the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of ion transfer across biomimetic membranes. In this lecture, their application and the phenomena occuring at them are described and discussed.

  6. Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaics

    Lee, Kyusung

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate semitransparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on thin metal electrodes and polymer photoactive layers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent OPV device comprising a 15-nm silver (Ag) rear electrode is 1.98% under AM 1.5-G illumination through the indium-tin-oxide side of the front anode at 100 mW/cm2 with 15.6% average transmittance of the entire cell in the visible wavelength range. As its thickness increases, a thin Ag electrode mainly influences the enhancement of the short circuit current density and fill factor. Its relatively low absorption intensity makes a Ag thin film a viable option for semitransparent electrodes compatible with organic layers. © 2013 ETRI.

  7. Relaxation of z discharge between electrodes

    Taylor's theory is applied to Z discharge between electrodes. We find that no helical state exists in the discharge and that a toroidal configuration could be formed by an intense Z discharge in a casing. (author)

  8. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  9. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  10. Solid Reference Electrode of Metallurgical Oxygen Sensor

    LOU Tian-jun; KONG Xiang-hua; HUANG Ke-qin; LIU Qing-guo

    2006-01-01

    The thermal equilibrium state of the reference electrode was investigated. The results show that the temperature difference between the inside and the outside of zirconia tube was very small and the Seebeck effect can be ignored after the sensor was dipped into liquid steel for more than 2 s. A special sensor was designed to test the relation between the EMF (electromotive force) of sensor and the thermal equilibrium state of the reference electrode. Based on these results, it is suggested that the peak in EMF curve was caused by the change of oxygen potential in reference electrode before the thermal equilibrium was reached. If NiO was added by 2%-5% to the Cr/Cr2O3 reference electrode, the peak in EMF curve could be eliminated.

  11. Wearable Textile Electrodes for ECG Measurement

    Lukas Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG is one of the most important parameters for monitoring of the physiological state of a person. Currently available systems for ECG monitoring are both stationary and wearable, but the comfort of the monitored person is not at a satisfactory level because these systems are not part of standard clothing. This article is therefore devoted to the development and measurement of wearable textile electrodes for ECG measurement device with high comfort for the user. The electrode material is made of electrically conductive textile. This creates a textile composite that guarantees high comfort for the user while ensuring good quality of ECG measurements. The composite is implemented by a carrier (a T-shirt with flame retardant and sensing electrodes embroidered with yarn based on a mixture of polyester coated with silver nanoparticles and cotton. The electrodes not only provide great comfort but are also antibacterial and antiallergic due to silver nanoparticles.

  12. Use of lanthanide catalysts in air electrodes

    A review on the lanthanide catalysts suitable for the reduction catalysis of oxygen in air electrodes is presented. The kinds of lanthanide indicated to be used as catalysts of oxygen reduction are shown. (A.R.H.)

  13. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Kang, Sun-Ho; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2009-12-22

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5electrode and 0.ltoreq.y<1 in which the Li.sub.2MnO.sub.3 and LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 components have layered and spinel-type structures, respectively, and in which M is one or more metal cations. The electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  14. Architecture engineering of supercapacitor electrode materials

    Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Gong; Xue, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    The biggest challenge for today’s supercapacitor systems readily possessing high power density is their low energy density. Their electrode materials with controllable structure, specific surface area, electronic conductivity, and oxidation state, have long been highlighted. Architecture engineering of functional electrode materials toward powerful supercapacitor systems is becoming a big fashion in the community. The construction of ion-accessible tunnel structures can microscopically increase the specific capacitance and materials utilization; stiff 3D structures with high specific surface area can macroscopically assure high specific capacitance. Many exciting findings in electrode materials mainly focus on the construction of ice-folded graphene paper, in situ functionalized graphene, in situ crystallizing colloidal ionic particles and polymorphic metal oxides. This feature paper highlights some recent architecture engineering strategies toward high-energy supercapacitor electrode systems, including electric double-layer capacitance (EDLC) and pseudocapacitance.

  15. Electrode structure for uniform corona discharge

    Gange, R. A.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    Single corona-discharge needle is used to apply uniform charge to thermoplastic medium in holograph-storage system. Needle is connected to flat transparent electrode that is parallel to thermoplastic.

  16. 47 CFR 32.19 - Address for reports and correspondence.

    2010-10-01

    ... be addressed to the Wireless Competition Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC... UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.19 Address...

  17. Opening Address [Presented by D. Magliani

    Full text: I am very pleased to address you this morning on behalf of A.-M. Cetto, Head of the Department of Technical Cooperation, as we open this important international symposium. Interest in the symposium has been very high, with the number of registered participants greatly exceeding the number initially expected. Every region is represented in significant number, particularly Europe. The symposium's aim, to provide a forum to discuss and exchange information on advances over the past decade in radiation dosimetry and its supportive role in radiation medicine and radiation protection, is of high importance to the technical cooperation programme, which has a long standing, well-established focus on health. Accurate measurements in radiation dosimetry are critical in decisions making related to human health and to the safety of radiation workers and the general public, and the focus of this symposium strengthens technical cooperation activities in this sector. In each programme cycle, the IAEA receives large numbers of requests for technical cooperation support in the fields of dosimetry and medical radiation physics. Currently, we have 144 active projects that include these fields of activity. Under the scope of our interregional technical cooperation project on medical physics in radiation medicine (INT/6/054), the IAEA is working with Member States, international physics societies and the World Health Organization to promote the recognition of medical physics in radiation medicine, and to harmonize educational material in order to ensure the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. We are very pleased to support the attendance of 36 participants at the symposium under this project. Participants can expect to return home with a fresh overview of the latest developments and trends in radiation dosimetry, and a better understanding of the issues. This will contribute to standardization in the field, leading to improved diagnosis and treatment of

  18. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and deoxygenation of glucose on solid metal electrodes.

    Kwon, Youngkook; Koper, Marc T M

    2013-03-01

    This Full Paper addresses the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of glucose to sorbitol or 2-deoxysorbitol on solid metal electrodes in neutral media. Combining voltammetry and online product analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), provides both qualitative and quantitative information regarding the reaction products as a function of potential. Three groups of catalysts clearly show affinities toward: (1) hydrogen formation [on early transition metals (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta, We, and Re) and platinum group metals (Ru, Rh, Ir, and Pt)], (2) sorbitol formation [on late transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, Au, and Ag) and Al (sp metal)], and (3) sorbitol and 2-deoxysorbitol formation [on post-transition metals (In, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi), as well as Zn and Cd (d metals)]. Ni shows the lowest overpotential for the onset of sorbitol formation (-0.25 V) whereas Pb generates sorbitol with the highest yield (<0.7 mM cm(-2) ). Different from a smooth Pt electrode, a large-surface-area Pt/C electrode hydrogenates glucose to sorbitol from -0.21 V with relatively low current. This emphasizes the importance of the active sites and the surface area of the catalyst. The mechanism to form 2-deoxysorbitol from glucose and/or fructose is discussed according to the observed reaction products. The yield and selectivity of hydrogenated products are highly sensitive to the chemical nature and state of the catalyst surface. PMID:23345067

  19. Phase Transformation Dynamics in Porous Battery Electrodes

    Ferguson, Todd R.; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2014-01-01

    Porous electrodes composed of multiphase active materials are widely used in Li-ion batteries, but their dynamics are poorly understood. Two-phase models are largely empirical, and no models exist for three or more phases. Using a modified porous electrode theory based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we show that experimental phase behavior can be accurately predicted from free energy models, without artificially placing phase boundaries or fitting the open circuit voltage. First, we simul...

  20. Wall-jet electrode linear sweep voltammetry

    Compton, Richard G.; Fisher, Adrian C.; Latham, Mark H.; Brett, Christopher M. A.; Brett, Ana Maria C. F. Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Theory is presented which predicts the linear sweep voltammetry behavior at the wall-jet electrode for a reversible couple. The scan rate and electrode geometry dependences are established, and hence the requirements for the measurement of true “steady state” hydrodynamic voltammograms are defmed. Theory is found to be in good agreement with experiments conducted on the oxidation of the ferrocyanide anion in aqueous solution

  1. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  2. Electrodes for Microfluidic Integrated Optoelectronic Tweezers

    Kuo-Wei Huang; Sabbir Sattar; Zhong, Jiang F.; Cheng-Hsu Chou; Hsiung-Kuang Tsai; Pei-Yu Chiou

    2011-01-01

    We report on two types of electrodes that enable the integration of optoelectronic tweezers (OETs) with multilayer poly(dimethylsilane)- (PDMS-) based microfluidic devices. Both types of electrodes, Au-mesh and single-walled carbon nanotube- (SWNT-) embedded PDMS thin film, are optically transparent, electrically conductive, and can be mechanically deformed and provide interfaces to form strong covalent bonding between an OET device and PDMS through standard oxygen plasma treatment. Au-mesh ...

  3. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...... presented here can be used for choosing an electrode material and dimensions and when designing chip-based devices for low-noise current measurements....

  4. Electrodes for transcutaneous (surface) electrical stimulation

    Keller Thierry; Kuhn Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In therapeutic and functional applications transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) is still the most frequently applied technique for muscle and nerve activation despite the huge efforts made to improve implantable technologies. Stimulation electrodes play the important role in interfacing the tissue with the stimulation unit. Between the electrode and the excitable tissue there are a number of obstacles in form of tissue resistivities and permittivities that can only be circumvented by m...

  5. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel ...

  6. Photoelectrolytic production of hydrogen using semiconductor electrodes

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data for the photoelectrolytic production of hydrogen using GaAs photoanodes was presented. Four types of GaAs anodes were investigated: polished GaAs, GaAs coated with gold, GaAs coated with silver, and GaAs coated with tin. The maximum measured efficiency using a tungsten light source was 8.9 percent for polished GaAs electrodes and 6.3 percent for tin coated GaAs electrodes.

  7. AC Dielectrophoresis Using Elliptic Electrode Geometry

    S. M. Rezaul Hasan; Aanan Khurma

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents negative AC dielectrophoretic investigations using elliptic electrode geometry. Simulations of the electric field gradient variation using various ratios of the semimajor and the semiminor axis were carried out to determine the optimum elliptic geometry for the dielectrophoretic electrokinetics of specimen in an assay with laminar (low Reynolds number) fluid flow. Experimental setup of the elliptic electrode assembly using PCB fabrication and electrokinetic accumulation of...

  8. Finite element model of needle electrode sensitivity

    Høyum, P.; Kalvøy, H.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.

    2010-04-01

    We used the Finite Element (FE) Method to estimate the sensitivity of a needle electrode for bioimpedance measurement. This current conducting needle with insulated shaft was inserted in a saline solution and current was measured at the neutral electrode. FE model resistance and reactance were calculated and successfully compared with measurements on a laboratory model. The sensitivity field was described graphically based on these FE simulations.

  9. Photocatalytic reaction on photofuel cell titania electrode

    Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Kato, Yotaro

    2012-01-01

    Benzoic acid-doped titania electrodes were prepared from titanium alkoxide sols containing benzoic acid in order to examine the photocatalytic reaction of the fuel material concentrated on the titania surface of a photofuel cell electrode. This doping was developed in order to understand the physicochemical processes on the titania rather than to advance the practical use of the photofuel cells. The observed photocurrent and CO(2) and H(2)O productions indicated that the oxidation of the benz...

  10. Addressing Underrepresentation: Physics Teaching for All

    Rifkin, Moses

    2016-02-01

    Every physics teacher wants to give his or her students the opportunity to learn physics well. Despite these intentions, certain groups of students—including women and underrepresented minorities (URMs)—are not taking and not remaining in physics. In many cases, these disturbing trends are more significant in physics than in any other science. This is a missed opportunity for our discipline because demographic diversity strengthens science. The question is what we can do about these trends in our classrooms, as very few physics teachers have been explicitly prepared to address them. In this article, I will share some steps that I've taken in my classroom that have moved my class in the right direction. In the words of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Carl Wieman and psychologists Lauren Aguilar and Gregory Walton: "By investing a small amount of class time in carefully designed and implemented interventions, physics teachers can promote greater success among students from diverse backgrounds. Ultimately, we hope such efforts will indeed improve the diversity and health of the physics profession."

  11. Presidential address: Experimenting with the scientific past.

    Radick, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to knowledge about the scientific pasts that might have been - the so-called 'counterfactual' history of science - historians can either debate its possibility or get on with the job. Taking the latter course means re-engaging with some of the most general questions about science. It can also lead to fresh insights into why particular episodes unfolded as they did and not otherwise. Drawing on recent research into the controversy over Mendelism in the early twentieth century, this address reports and reflects on a novel teaching experiment conducted in order to find out what biology and its students might be like now had the controversy gone differently. The results suggest a number of new options: for the collection of evidence about the counterfactual scientific past, for the development of collaborations between historians of science and science educators, for the cultivation of more productive relationships between scientists and their forebears, and for heightened self-awareness about the curiously counterfactual business of being historical. PMID:27353945

  12. Addressing social resistance in emerging security technologies.

    Mitchener-Nissen, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In their efforts to enhance the safety and security of citizens, governments and law enforcement agencies look to scientists and engineers to produce modern methods for preventing, detecting, and prosecuting criminal activities. Whole body scanners, lie detection technologies, biometrics, etc., are all being developed for incorporation into the criminal justice apparatus. Yet despite their purported security benefits these technologies often evoke social resistance. Concerns over privacy, ethics, and function-creep appear repeatedly in analyses of these technologies. It is argued here that scientists and engineers continue to pay insufficient attention to this resistance; acknowledging the presence of these social concerns yet failing to meaningfully address them. In so doing they place at risk the very technologies and techniques they are seeking to develop, for socially controversial security technologies face restrictions and in some cases outright banning. By identifying sources of potential social resistance early in the research and design process, scientists can both engage with the public in meaningful debate and modify their security technologies before deployment so as to minimize social resistance and enhance uptake. PMID:23970863

  13. Vaccine hesitancy: understanding better to address better.

    Kumar, Dewesh; Chandra, Rahul; Mathur, Medha; Samdariya, Saurabh; Kapoor, Neelesh

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine hesitancy is an emerging term in the socio-medical literature which describes an approach to vaccine decision making. It recognizes that there is a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal of some or all vaccines and challenges the previous understanding of individuals or groups, as being either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The behaviours responsible for vaccine hesitancy can be related to confidence, convenience and complacency. The causes of vaccine hesitancy can be described by the epidemiological triad i.e. the complex interaction of environmental- (i.e. external), agent- (i.e. vaccine) and host (or parent)- specific factors. Vaccine hesitancy is a complex and dynamic issue; future vaccination programs need to reflect and address these context-specific factors in both their design and evaluation. Many experts are of the view that it is best to counter vaccine hesitancy at the population level. They believe that it can be done by introducing more transparency into policy decision-making before immunization programs, providing up-to-date information to the public and health providers about the rigorous procedures undertaken before introduction of new vaccines, and through diversified post-marketing surveillance of vaccine-related events. PMID:26839681

  14. Addressing Assessment in Libyan Medical Education

    Richardson J, Gill D, Woolf K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is a powerful driver of student learning: it gives a message to learners about what theyshould be learning, what the learning organisation believes to be important, and how they should goabout learning. Assessment tools allow measurement of student achievement and thereby giveteachers insight into their students’ learning, and enable teachers to make systematic judgementsabout progress and achievement. It is vital then that assessment tools drive students to learn theright things as well as measure student learning appropriately. Any attempts to reform curricula andteaching methods must consider the role of assessment in the learning process.Libyan doctors and medical students have been calling for changes to teaching and assessmentmethods at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. A team from the Academic Centre for MedicalEducation at University College, London have been running workshops in conjunction with the LibyanBoard of Medical Specialties since 2006 to discuss strategic aims of assessment in medical educationin Libya for the 21st century and to deliver an assessment skills course to Libyan educators. Thisarticle outlines the course and the outcomes of preliminary discussions between academics from theUK, participants in the assessment courses and representatives from the Libyan Board of MedicalSpecialties. As a result of these discussions it was agreed by all that Libyan Medical Schoolassessment methods need updating and, despite significant challenges, changes in assessment mustbe made as soon as possible. There is a real need for support in both addressing these changes andfor practical training for assessors in contemporary assessment methods.

  15. Time to address the problems at the neural interface

    Durand, Dominique M.; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Krames, Elliot

    2014-04-01

    Neural engineers have made significant, if not remarkable, progress in interfacing with the nervous system in the last ten years. In particular, neuromodulation of the brain has generated significant therapeutic benefits [1-5]. EEG electrodes can be used to communicate with patients with locked-in syndrome [6]. In the central nervous system (CNS), electrode arrays placed directly over or within the cortex can record neural signals related to the intent of the subject or patient [7, 8]. A similar technology has allowed paralyzed patients to control an otherwise normal skeletal system with brain signals [9, 10]. This technology has significant potential to restore function in these and other patients with neural disorders such as stroke [11]. Although there are several multichannel arrays described in the literature, the workhorse for these cortical interfaces has been the Utah array [12]. This 100-channel electrode array has been used in most studies on animals and humans since the 1990s and is commercially available. This array and other similar microelectrode arrays can record neural signals with high quality (high signal-to-noise ratio), but these signals fade and disappear after a few months and therefore the current technology is not reliable for extended periods of time. Therefore, despite these major advances in communicating with the brain, clinical translation cannot be implemented. The reasons for this failure are not known but clearly involve the interface between the electrode and the neural tissue. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) as well as other federal funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health have provided significant financial support to investigate this problem without much success. A recent funding program from DARPA was designed to establish the failure modes in order to generate a reliable neural interface technology and again was unsuccessful at producing a robust

  16. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to high optical transparency.

  17. Anodes - Materials for negative electrodes in electrochemical energy technology

    Holze, Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    The basic concepts of electrodes and electrochemical cells (including both galvanic and electrolytic ones) are introduced and illustrated with practical examples. Particular attention is paid to negative electrodes in primary and secondary cells, fuel cell electrodes and electrodes in redox flow batteries. General features and arguments pertaining to selection, optimization and further development are highlighted.

  18. Electrochemical characterisation of solid oxide cell electrodes for hydrogen production

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Knibbe, Ruth; He, Zeming; Mao, Xiaojian; Hauch, Anne; Nielsen, Karsten Agersted

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen electrodes and steam electrodes are designed and tested to develop improved solid oxide electrolysis cells for H2 production with the cell support on the oxygen electrode. The electrode performance is evaluated by impedance spectroscopy testing of symmetric cells at open circuit voltage (OCV...

  19. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  20. Nanostructured Electrodes Via Electrostatic Spray Deposition for Energy Storage System

    Chen, C.

    2014-10-02

    Energy storage systems such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors are extremely important in today’s society, and have been widely used as the energy and power sources for portable electronics, electrical vehicles and hybrid electrical vehicles. A lot of research has focused on improving their performance; however, many crucial challenges need to be addressed to obtain high performance electrode materials for further applications. Recently, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique has attracted great interest to satisfy the goals. Due to its many advantages, the ESD technique shows promising prospects compared to other conventional deposition techniques. In this paper, our recent research outcomes related to the ESD derived anodes for Li-ion batteries and other applications is summarized and discussed.

  1. Understanding And Addressing Equipment Limitations Through Testing

    Safeguards demands have brought about the use of new, advanced equipment. These new systems are typically more complex than previous systems sometimes making use of dense circuitry and complex controls that can bring out previously unseen susceptibilities to various environmental conditions. In addition to possibly being susceptible to ambient conditions such as temperature and humidity, there may be a misunderstanding regarding the operational limitations of the equipment. Will a radiation detector respond to a moving source? Will other types of radiation overwhelm the response of the detector to the radiation of interest? Will the electronics survive or become incapacitated after exposure to radiation? These questions and others need to be addressed through the use of a systematic testing program. The program should not be used as a tool for criticism, but as a method of improving the reliability of equipment in the field and as a technique for improving the operation of the equipment. This document presents some of the information that was obtained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where a series of tests were performed on various types of equipment with differing functions. Equipment tested included data transmission devices and radiation sensors. Tests performed included ionizing radiation to test for effects from interfering radiation and as a characterization tool for such things as response to moving sources. Other tests involved the use of non-ionizing radiation to determine whether interference could occur when equipment is exposed to radio frequency or magnetic field environments. The remaining tests were performed to establish whether susceptibilities exist when equipment is exposed to various temperature and humidity environments. Although more testing may be needed, the test methodologies used could provide a direction to future qualification plans

  2. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems.

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin's dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber's structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure. PMID:27345617

  3. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

    2005-12-01

    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  4. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  5. Nanomaterial-Enabled Dry Electrodes for Electrophysiological Sensing: A Review

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhu, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Long-term, continuous, and unsupervised tracking of physiological data is becoming increasingly attractive for health/wellness monitoring and ailment treatment. Nanomaterials have recently attracted extensive attention as building blocks for flexible/stretchable conductors and are thus promising candidates for electrophysiological electrodes. Here we provide a review on nanomaterial-enabled dry electrodes for electrophysiological sensing, focusing on electrocardiography (ECG). The dry electrodes can be classified into contact surface electrodes, contact-penetrating electrodes, and noncontact capacitive electrodes. Different types of electrodes including their corresponding equivalent electrode-skin interface models and the sources of the noise are first introduced, followed by a review on recent developments of dry ECG electrodes based on various nanomaterials, including metallic nanowires, metallic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Their fabrication processes and performances in terms of electrode-skin impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, resistance to motion artifacts, skin compatibility, and long-term stability are discussed.

  6. Laser Processed Silver Nanowire Network Transparent Electrodes for Novel Electronic Devices

    Spechler, Joshua Allen

    Silver nanowire network transparent conducting layers are poised to make headway into a space previously dominated by transparent conducting oxides due to the promise of a flexible, scaleable, lab-atmosphere processable alternative. However, there are many challenges standing in the way between research scale use and consumer technology scale adaptation of this technology. In this thesis we will explore many, and overcome a few of these challenges. We will address the poor conductivity at the narrow nanowire-nanowire junction points in the network by developing a laser based process to weld nanowires together on a microscopic scale. We address the need for a comparative metric for transparent conductors in general, by taking a device level rather than a component level view of these layers. We also address the mechanical, physical, and thermal limitations to the silver nanowire networks by making composites from materials including a colorless polyimide and titania sol-gel. Additionally, we verify our findings by integrating these processes into devices. Studying a hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction photovoltaic device we show the benefits of a laser processed electrode. Green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes fabricated on a solution phase processed silver nanowire based electrode show favorable device metrics compared to a conductive oxide electrode based control. The work in this thesis is intended to push the adoption of silver nanowire networks to further allow new device architectures, and thereby new device applications.

  7. Fully solution-processed transparent electrodes based on silver nanowire composites for perovskite solar cells

    Kim, Areum; Lee, Hongseuk; Kwon, Hyeok-Chan; Jung, Hyun Suk; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2016-03-01

    We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ~80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq-1. Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution-processed transparent conductive electrode, Au/spiro-OMeTAD/CH3NH3PbI3 + m-Al2O3/ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO, exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 8.44% (comparable to that of the FTO/glass-based counterpart at 10.81%) and were stable for 30 days in ambient air. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using AgNWs as a transparent bottom electrode in perovskite solar cells produced by a fully printable process.We report all-solution-processed transparent conductive electrodes based on Ag nanowire (AgNW)-embedded metal oxide composite films for application in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. To address the thermal instability of Ag nanowires, we used combustive sol-gel derived thin films to construct ZnO/ITO/AgNW/ITO composite structures. The resulting composite configuration effectively prevented the AgNWs from undergoing undesirable side-reactions with halogen ions present in the perovskite precursor solutions that significantly deteriorate the optoelectrical properties of Ag nanowires in transparent conductive films. AgNW-based composite electrodes had a transmittance of ~80% at 550 nm and sheet resistance of 18 Ω sq-1. Perovskite solar cells fabricated using a fully solution

  8. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    Svergun, D.; Malfois, M. [EMBL c/o DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Svergun, D. [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Douka, M. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium); Riekel, Ch. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Perez, J. [Soleil, 91 - Saclay (France); Roessle, M. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Amenitsch, H. [IBN/Elettra (Germany); Gunter Grossman, J. [Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) (United Kingdom); Vestergaard, B. [University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen (Denmark); Receveur-Brechot, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS/AFMB), 13 - Marseille (France); Roth, St.V. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (HASYLAB), Hamburg (Germany); Ferrari, E. [National Institute for the Physics of Matter (CNR-INFM), Trieste (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations.

  9. Small-angle X-ray scattering at high brilliance european synchrotrons for biotechnology and nano-technology

    Different issues such as micro-fluidic devices for SAXS (small-angle X-ray diffraction), the use of electro-spray and ion trapping for SAXS in the gas phase, the study of flexible and disordered proteins through SAXS, the time-resolved SAXS studies in solution, or the study of nano-structured soft materials, were addressed in this workshop. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations

  10. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  11. A Flat Interface Nerve Electrode With Integrated Multiplexer

    Lertmanorat, Zeng; Montague, F. W; Durand, Dominique M.

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of peripheral nerve cuff electrode development is the design of an electrode capable of selectively activating a specific population of axons in a common nerve trunk. Several designs such as the round spiral electrode or the flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) have shown such ability. However, multiple contact electrodes require many leads, making the implantation difficult and potentially damaging to the nerve. Taking advantage of the flat geometry of the FINE, multiplexer...

  12. The new candidate IPV6 address size prediction

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IPv4 protocol is now no more sufficient due to its limited address space where this protocol uses only 32-bit for addressing. IPv6 protocol is the next protocol which was introduced as a new protocol that provide a huge address space .In This paper we discussed the significant overhead in the IPv6 standard packet due to its 128 bits address size, so we develop three different studies in order to generate a prediction of exhibition date for several address sizes so we can suggest another size for address size in IPv6 to improve the overall performance of the internet and tolerate the overhead by reducing the address size. In the same time this size should accommodate the accelerated growth in needs for unassigned blocks of addresses for very long time.   Keywords: Ipv4 Protocol, Ipv6 Protocol, Addressing Types, Ipv6 Header, Exhibition Date, Address Pool.

  13. Modified electrodes based on lipidic cubic phases.

    Bilewicz, Renata; Rowiński, Paweł; Rogalska, Ewa

    2005-04-01

    The lipidic cubic phase can be characterized as a curved bilayer forming a three-dimensional, crystallographical, well-ordered structure that is interwoven by aqueous channels. It provides a stable, well-organized environment in which diffusion of both water-soluble and lipid-soluble compounds can take place. Cubic phases based on monoacylglycerols form readily and attract our interest due to their ability to incorporate and stabilize proteins. Their lyotropic and thermotropic phase behaviour has been thoroughly investigated. At hydration over 20%, lipidic cubic phases Ia3d and Pn3m are formed. The latter is stable in the presence of excess water, which is important when the cubic phase is considered as an electrode-modifying material. Due to high viscosity, the cubic phases can be simply smeared over solid substrates such as electrodes and used to host enzymes and synthetic catalysts, leading to new types of catalytically active modified electrodes as shown for the determination of cholesterol, CO(2), or oxygen. The efficiency of transport of small hydrophilic molecules within the film can be determined by voltametry using two types of electrodes: a normal-size electrode working in the linear diffusion regime, and an ultramicroelectrode working under spherical diffusion conditions. This allows determining both the concentration and diffusion coefficient of the electrochemically active probe in the cubic phase. The monoolein-based cubic phase matrices are useful for immobilizing enzymes on the electrode surface (e.g., laccases from Trametes sp. and Rhus vernicifera were employed for monitoring dioxygen). The electronic contact between the electrode and the enzyme was maintained using suitable electroactive probes. PMID:15833697

  14. Synthesis, characterization and application of electrode materials

    He, L.

    1995-07-07

    It has been known that significant advances in electrochemistry really depend on improvements in the sensitivity, selectivity, convenience, and/or economy of working electrodes, especially through the development of new working electrode materials. The advancement of solid state chemistry and materials science makes it possible to provide the materials which may be required as satisfactory electrode materials. The combination of solid state techniques with electrochemistry expands the applications of solid state materials and leads to the improvement of electrocatalysis. The study of Ru-Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} and Pt-Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} microelectrode arrays as introduced in paper 1 and paper 4, respectively, focuses on their synthesis and characterization. The synthesis is described by high temperature techniques for Ru or Pt microelectrode arrays within a conductive Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} ceramic matrix. The characterization is based on the data obtained by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, voltammetry and amperometry. These microelectrode arrays show significant enhancement in current densities in comparison to solid Ru and Pt electrodes. Electrocatalysis at pyrochlore oxide Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7.3} and Bi{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} electrodes are described in paper 2 and paper 3, respectively. Details are reported for the synthesis and characterization of composite Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7.3} electrodes. Voltammetric data are examined for evidence that oxidation can occur with transfer of oxygen to the oxidation products in the potential region corresponding to anodic discharge of H{sub 2}O with simultaneous evolution of O{sub 2}. Paper 3 includes electrocatalytic activities of composite Bi{sub 2}Ir{sub 2}O{sub 7} disk electrodes for the oxidation of I{sup -} and the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  15. The progress of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials

    This paper reviews research at the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, on the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials. Nanocrystalline materials have been synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing. Examples of the materials include TiFe-, ZrV2-, LaNi5 and Mg2Ni-type phases. Details on the process used and the enhancement of properties due to the nanoscale structures are presented. The synthesized alloys were used as negative electrode materials for Ni-MH battery. The properties of hydrogen host materials can be modified substantially by alloying to obtain the desired storage characteristics. For example, it was found that the respective replacement of Fe in TiFe by Ni and/or by Cr, Co, Mo improved not only the discharge capacity but also the cycle life of these electrodes. The hydrogen storage properties of nanocrystalline ZrV2- and LaNi5-type powders prepared by mechanical alloying and annealing show no big difference with those of melt casting (polycrystalline) alloys. On the other hand, a partial substitution of Mg by Mn or Al in Mg2Ni alloy leads to an increase in discharge capacity, at room temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the nickel and graphite coating on the structure of some nanocrystalline alloys and the electrodes characteristics were investigated. In the case of Mg2Ni-type alloy mechanical coating with graphite effectively reduced the degradation rate of the studied electrode materials. The combination of a nanocrystalline TiFe-, ZrV2- and LaNi5-type hydride electrodes and a nickel positive electrode to form a Ni-MH battery, has been successful. (authors)

  16. Evaluating Judicial Performance and Addressing Gender Bias

    Angela Melville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Elek and Rottman argue that judicial evaluation is often biased against women and minority judges. The need to address bias is important, however often the desire for diversity seems so self-evident as to belie deeper analysis. This paper examines the two main rationales for gender equality on the bench. First, female judges are often considered necessary in order to bring a gendered perspective to judging, however it is argued that this rationale is flawed. Second, an alternative rationale based on equality and legitimacy is offered which avoids gender essentialism. While debates typically focus on these two rationales, a third rationale embraces both difference and equality/legitimacy. The presence of female judges has an important symbolic value which destabilises existing fraternal legal norms. Finally, increasing the number of female judges may not necessarily change judging, and this paper also analyses how the transformative potential offered by judicial diversity can work in practice. Elek y Rottman defienden que la evaluación judicial suele estar sesgada en contra de las mujeres y los jueces pertenecientes a minorías. La necesidad de abordar el sesgo es importante, sin embargo a menudo el deseo de diversidad parece tan evidente como para contradecir un análisis más profundo. Este artículo examina los dos motivos principales para la igualdad de género en el banquillo. En primer lugar, las mujeres jueces a menudo se consideran necesarias para aportar una perspectiva de género al hecho de juzgar, sin embargo, se defiende que este razonamiento es erróneo. En segundo lugar, se ofrece una alternativa lógica basada en la igualdad y la legitimidad que evita el esencialismo de género. Mientras que los debates suelen centrarse en estas dos razones, una tercera justificación abarca tanto la diferencia como la igualdad/legitimidad. La presencia de mujeres en la judicatura tiene un importante valor simbólico que desestabiliza las normas

  17. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  18. Moving to world's best uranium address

    Most exploration dollars spent in South Australia are focused on exploiting uranium. This is for good reason as South Australia is the world's best address for uranium. Pressure to cut CO2 emissions and the ballistic growth of the Chinese and Indian economies has heightened expectations that the worldwide use of uranium for power generation will mushroom beyond its current 17% market share. The recent Australia-China deal only seems to confirm this; hence uranium's growing popularity among miners and explorers. Such is the attractiveness of uranium-related floats, when Toro Energy sought $18m in March it was swamped with more than three times share application volume. In the north west, Southern Gold and Hindmarsh Resources are expectantly drilling for commercial uranium deposits all around the acreage that hosts the Challenger gold mine in the Gawler Craton. The first exploration drilling for uranium in quaternary-age river channels will take place in South Australia's far north in May. Red Metal says while older and deeper tertiary river channels in the area that host the Beverley uranium mine were explored for uranium, the younger near-surface channel has not had a single hole drilled for uranium. This is despite the area being one of the 'hottest radiogenic terrains in South Australia'. The company will target calcrete-style uranium mineralisation similar to the Yerrlirrie deposit in Western Australia (52,000t U308). Tasman Resources will start drilling to test seven uranium targets within 30km of Olympic Dam, the world's largest known uranium deposit, later this year. Tasman also holds tenements adjoining the Warrior uranium deposit near Tarcoola that contains known radiometric anomalies within the 40km-long Wynbring paleochannels. They are the fourth largest uranium explorer in South Australia. Alliance Resources and its JV partner Quasar Resources are exploring the Beverley 4 Mile uranium prospect at Arkaroola. Quasar is an affiliate of Heathgate Resources

  19. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration

    Diviacco, P.

    2012-04-01

    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  20. MAC Address as a Key for Data Encryption

    Al-Husainy, Dr. Mohammed Abbas Fadhil

    2013-01-01

    In computer networking, the Media Access Control (MAC) address is a unique value associated with a network adapter. MAC addresses are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses. TCP/IP and other mainstream networking architectures generally adopt the OSI model. MAC addresses function at the data link layer (layer 2 in the OSI model). They allow computers to uniquely identify themselves on a network at this relatively low level. In this paper, suggested data encryption technique is...

  1. Temporal and Spatial Classification of Active IPv6 Addresses

    Plonka, David; Berger, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    There is striking volume of World-Wide Web activity on IPv6 today. In early 2015, one large Content Distribution Network handles 50 billion IPv6 requests per day from hundreds of millions of IPv6 client addresses; billions of unique client addresses are observed per month. Address counts, however, obscure the number of hosts with IPv6 connectivity to the global Internet. There are numerous address assignment and subnetting options in use; privacy addresses and dynamic subnet pools significant...

  2. Voltammetric Response of Epinephrine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    WANG Juan; TANG Ping; ZHAO Fa-qiong; ZENG Bai-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of epinephrine at activated glassy carbon electrode and carbon nanotube-coated glassy carbon electrode was studied. Epinephrine could exhibit an anodic peak at about 0.2 V (vs. SCE) at bare glassy carbon electrode, but it was very small.However, when the electrode was activated at certain potential (i. e. 1.9V) or modified with carbon nanotube, the peak became more sensitive,resulting from the increase in electrode area in addition to the electrostatic attraction. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to epinephrine concentration in the range of 3.3 × 10-7-1.1 × 10-5mol/L at activated glassy carbon electrode and in the range of 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-5 mol/L at carbon nanotube-coated electrode. The correlation coefficients were 0. 998 and 0. 997, respectively. The determination limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L. The two electrodes have been successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in adrenaline hydrochloride injection with recovery of 95%-104%.

  3. Aspects of Metal-YSZ Electrode Kinetics Studied using Model Electrodes

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2009-01-01

    The electrode kinetics of oxidation and reduction of H2/H2O and CO/CO2 at the metal/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) interface were studied using model metal wire electrodes contacting polished YSZ pellets. The intent was to probe the reaction mechanisms by comparing the same reactions using...

  4. Sampled voltammetry on an electrode array for the renewal of the electrode surface and the analytical solution during the analysis

    Mignard, Laurence; Denoual, Matthieu; Lavastre, Olivier; Floner, Didier; Geneste, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Polarography with dropping mercury electrode has been widely used in electroanalysis. However, the method is less and less employed due to the toxicity of mercury. In this work, we have shown that it is possible to replace the dropping electrode by a working electrode array, allowing the renewal of the electrode surface and of the analytical solution during the analysis. This new concept has been demonstrated on copper analysis. Sampled current voltammetry has been carried out on an electrode...

  5. Nanowire Electrodes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Lei eHuang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs in the past two decades, rechargeable LIBs have become widespread power sources for portable devices used in daily life. However, current demands require higher energy density and power density of batteries. The electrochemical energy storage performance of LIBs could be improved by applying nanomaterial electrodes, but their fast capacity fading is still one of the key limitations and the mechanism needs to be clearly understood. Single nanowire electrode devices are considered as a versatile platform for in situ probing the direct relationship between electrical transport, structure change, and other properties of the single nanowire electrode along with the charge/discharge process. The results indicate the conductivity decrease of the nanowire electrode and the structural disorder/destruction during electrochemical reactions which limit the cycling performance of LIBs. Based on the in situ observations, some feasible structure architecture strategies, including prelithiation, coaxial structure, nanowire arrays and hierarchical structure architecture, are proposed and utilized to restrain the conductivity decrease and structural disorder/destruction. Further, the applications of nanowire electrodes in some beyond Li-ion batteries, such as Li-S and Li-air battery, are also described.

  6. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.(A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  7. Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications

    M. Jamal Deen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing trend towards miniaturization of both biological and chemical sensors and their integration with miniaturized sample pre-processing and analysis systems. These miniaturized lab-on-chip devices have several functional advantages including low cost, their ability to analyze smaller samples, faster analysis time, suitability for automation, and increased reliability and repeatability. Electrical based sensing methods that transduce biological or chemical signals into the electrical domain are a dominant part of the lab-on-chip devices. A vital part of any electrochemical sensing system is the reference electrode, which is a probe that is capable of measuring the potential on the solution side of an electrochemical interface. Research on miniaturization of this crucial component and analysis of the parameters that affect its performance, stability and lifetime, is sparse. In this paper, we present the basic electrochemistry and thermodynamics of these reference electrodes and illustrate the uses of reference electrodes in electrochemical and biological measurements. Different electrochemical systems that are used as reference electrodes will be presented, and an overview of some contemporary advances in electrode miniaturization and their performance will be provided.

  8. Research on the Mo del of a Lightweight Resource Addressing

    LUO Bingqing; SUN Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of addressing from the perspective of Internet address-ing mechanism. An Internet of things (IOT) resource ad-dressing iteration model was defined. In the model, a di-rect addressing mode for active nodes and an indirect addressing mode for passive codes were proposed, which meet the requirement for multiple encoding mode. A uni-fied IOT resource lightweight addressing scheme based on IPv6 has been proposed to implement the two addressing modes. The scheme utilized the virtual domain to solve the problem of the heterogeneous encoding. The paper imple-mented the addressing process from the Internet host to the sensor node based on IPv6 over low-power wireless personal area networks (6LoWPAN) protocol. The experi-ment results show that the scheme is performed to realize communication between wireless sensor networks and IPv6 networks.

  9. A novel three-electrode solid electrolyte hydrogen gas sensor

    Zhu, Min; Yang, Chunling; Zhang, Yan [Harbin Insitute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Computer Science and Technology; Jia, Zheng [Harbin Insitute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2013-07-01

    A three-electrode solid electrolyte hydrogen gas sensor is explored in this paper. The sensor utilized phosphotungstic acid as the electrolyte material and adopted platinum, nickel and tungsten as the three-electrode materials respectively. In real applications, platinum was used as the measuring electrode, nickel was used as the adjusting electrode and tungsten was used as the reference electrode. In order to compare the performance of the new sensor with that of the traditional two-electrode sensor, the hydrogen concentrations were adjusted so as to detect the output of the two-electrode sensor and the three-electrode sensor. The dynamic range between the measuring electrode and the reference electrode is about 0.65V and the highest detectable limit is 12% for the three-electrode solid hydrogen gas sensor. While the dynamic range is about 0.25V and and the highest detectable limit is 1% for the two-electrode solid electrolyte gas sensor. The results demonstrate that the three-electrode solid hydrogen gas sensor has a higher resolution and detectable limit than the two-electrode sensor. abstract environment.

  10. SiBCN-CNT/Graphene Paper Electrode

    David, Lamuel; Singh, Gurpreet

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate synthesis and electrochemical performance of novel molecular precursor-derived ceramic (PDC)/carbon nanotube embedded graphene self-supporting composite papers as Li-ion battery electrode. The papers were prepared through vacuum filtration of various PDC-graphene oxide (GO) dispersions in DI water followed by thermal reduction at elevated temperatures that resulted in a homogenous PDC/reduced GO papers that were highly crumpled, mechanically robust and consisted of a 3-D electrically conducting network. These electrodes showed electrochemical capacities as much as approx. 300 mAh.g-1 with respect to total weight of the electrode (approx. 500 mAh.g-1 w.r.t. active material), with negligible capacity loss for more than 1000 cycles. Boron-doped silicon carbon nitride (Si(B)CN/graphene) outperformed its un-doped counterparts (SiCN/graphene), both in terms of electrochemical capacity, cycling stability and coulombic efficiency.

  11. Adsorption on smooth electrodes: A radiotracer study

    Adsorption on solids is a complicated process and in most cases, occurs as the early stage of other more complicated processes, i.e. chemical reactions, electrooxidation, electroreduction. The research reported here combines the electroanalytical method, cyclic voltammetry, and the use of radio-labeled isotopes, soft beta emitters, to study adsorption processes at smooth electrodes. The in-situ radiotracer method is highly anion (molecule) specific and provides information on the structure and composition of the electric double layer. The emphasis of this research was on studying adsorption processes at smooth electrodes of copper, gold, and platinum. The application of the radiotracer method to these smooth surfaces have led to direct in-situ measurements from which surface coverage was determined; anions and molecules were identified; and weak interactions of adsorbates with the surface of the electrodes were readily monitored. 179 refs

  12. Interdigitated ring electrodes: Theory and experiment

    Barnes, Edward O; Pozo-Ayuso, Diego F; Castaño-Alvarez, Mario; Lewis, Grace E M; Dale, Sara E C; Marken, Frank; Compton, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of potassium ferrocyanide, K_4Fe(CN)_6, in aqueous solution under fully supported conditions is carried out at interdigitated band and ring electrode arrays, and compared to theoretical models developed to simulate the processes. Simulated data is found to fit well with experimental results using literature values of diffusion coefficients for Fe(CN)_6^(4-) and Fe(CN)_6^(3-). The theoretical models are used to compare responses from interdigitated band and ring arrays, and the size of ring array required to approximate the response to a linear band array is investigated. An equation is developed for the radius of ring required for a pair of electrodes in a ring array to give a result with 5% of a pair of electrodes in a band array. This equation is found to be independent of the scan rate used over six orders of magnitude.

  13. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    fundamental for the cell development, which is established on a sound understanding of the electrode structure and balance of protonic phase, electronic phase and gas phase. The scope of the work includes:  Electrode components characterization: permeability; particle size and atomic lattice; surface area...... a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology.......Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells is...

  14. Fluctuations at Electrode-YSZ Interfaces

    Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels; Skou, Eivind

    behavior has been observed for LSM cathodes on YSZ. %Fig.\\,2 shows a similar behavior from LSM--YSZ interface, although in this case the the oscillations are somewhat damped by the changes in stoichiometry??. As shown in fig.\\,3 spontaneous current spikes have been observed on polarized Ni anodes. In this...... external effects like discrete steps in D/A converters, duty cycles of thermo regulators, etc. But even so, the dramatic spikes seen at the Ni anode emphasizes the care that must be taken in order to obtain reproducible results from point electrode studies. However, it is noted that Pt cathodes and Ni...... anodes show reverse patterns with respect to spontaneous activation/deactivation whereas the normal behavior for both electrodes is to be activated when exposed to a current pulse. This, combined with the fact that in the case of Pt electrodes the behavior is also seen at constant polarization points to...

  15. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  16. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  17. Insulated electrocardiographic electrodes. [without paste electrolyte

    David, R. M.; Portnoy, W. A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An integrated system is disclosed including an insulated electrode and an impedance transformer which can be assembled in a small plastic housing and used for the acquisition of electrocardiographic data. The electrode may be employed without a paste electrolyte and may be attached to the body for extended usage without producing skin reaction. The electrode comprises a thin layer of suitable nontoxic dielectric material preferably deposited by radio frequency sputtering onto a conductive substrate. The impedance transformer preferably comprises an operational amplifier having an FET input stage connected in the unity gain configuration which provides a very low lower cut-off frequency, a high input impedance with a very small input bias current, a low output impedance, and a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Charge storage: stability measures in implantable electrodes.

    Peixoto, Nathalia; Jackson, Kassandra; Samiyi, Raamin; Minnikanti, Saugandhika

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on long-term (300 to 600 hours) stability measures for implantable stimulating electrodes. We have considered several measures of stability as they refer to reliability of charge carrying capacity in implantable electrodes. We have designed and manufactured coatings for large area (1 to 2mm(2)) stainless steel substrates. Materials tested were electrodeposited iridium oxide films, multi-walled carbon nanotube mesh, and PEDOT:PSS. Traditional characterization techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy cover a small fraction of the characterization framework needed for ensuring the safety and performance of electrodes designed for long-term implants. The stability measures suggested here rely on continuous low frequency cycling and evaluation of cathodic charge storage capacity during cycling. We experimentally show, in this paper, that the stability may be measured and is relevant for long-term applications of such coatings. PMID:19963977

  19. Hydrogen electrode reaction: A complete kinetic description

    The kinetic description of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) in the whole range of overpotentials (-0.2 < η (V) < 0.40) is presented. The Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism was solved considering simultaneously the following items: (i) the diffusional contribution of the molecular hydrogen from and towards the electrode surface, (ii) the forward and backward reaction rates of each elementary step and (iii) a Frumkin type adsorption for the reaction intermediate. In order to verify the descriptive capability of the kinetic expressions derived, an experimental study of the HER was carried out on a rotating platinum disc electrode in acid solution. From the correlation of these results the elementary kinetic parameters were evaluated and several aspects related to the kinetic mechanism were discussed. Finally, the use of these kinetic expressions to interpret results obtained on microelectrodes is also analysed

  20. Hydrogen electrode reaction: A complete kinetic description

    Quaino, P.M. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gennero de Chialvo, M.R. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Chialvo, A.C. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)]. E-mail: achialvo@fiqus.unl.edu.ar

    2007-09-15

    The kinetic description of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) in the whole range of overpotentials (-0.2 < {eta} (V) < 0.40) is presented. The Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism was solved considering simultaneously the following items: (i) the diffusional contribution of the molecular hydrogen from and towards the electrode surface, (ii) the forward and backward reaction rates of each elementary step and (iii) a Frumkin type adsorption for the reaction intermediate. In order to verify the descriptive capability of the kinetic expressions derived, an experimental study of the HER was carried out on a rotating platinum disc electrode in acid solution. From the correlation of these results the elementary kinetic parameters were evaluated and several aspects related to the kinetic mechanism were discussed. Finally, the use of these kinetic expressions to interpret results obtained on microelectrodes is also analysed.

  1. Opening Address: Japan's Nuclear Reactor Strategy

    Thank you very much Mr. Chairman for your kind introduction. Distinguished colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great pleasure for me to have the chance to address you here in Kyoto at this 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (FR09)'. At the outset, I would like to thank the IAEA for organizing this conference and, taking this opportunity, I would like to assure its new Director General, Y. Amano, of Japan's continuing support for the IAEA. I am looking forward to continuing to work with the IAEA in order to extend the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and science and technology to a global population. We are witnessing today a global emergence of interest in the construction of nuclear power plants. There are a number of reasons for this. Major factors are the urgent and ever growing need for energy, particularly in the developing world, fluctuations in fossil fuel prices, the pursuit of security of energy supply and the growing recognition of the need to combat global warming. Despite the global economic crisis, the IAEA's latest projections continue to show a significant increase in nuclear generating capacity in the medium term. The low projection for 2030 is now 511 GW(e) of generating capacity, compared with 370 GW(e) today. The high projection is 807 GW(e); more than a doubling of present levels. Most of the 30 countries that already use nuclear power plan to expand their output. Growth targets have been raised significantly in China, India and the Russian Federation. In addition, according to the IAEA, some 50 countries - mostly in the developing world - have informed the IAEA that they might be interested in launching nuclear power programmes and 12 of these are actively considering nuclear power. Even in the high case projection, however, nuclear power's share of global power generation will go down from the current 16% level to 14% by 2030 and then rise to 22% by 2050, according to the projection

  2. Opening Address: Meeting Tomorrow's Energy Needs

    I want to thank the IAEA, as well as the international and local organizing committees, for assembling this impressive group of conference attendees to share information and exchange ideas this week. I am honoured to be a part of this distinguished panel. I also want to thank our Japanese colleagues for their wonderful hospitality and for selecting the beautiful city of Kyoto as the venue. This is an historic time of challenge and opportunity. President Obama is seeking to accelerate our nation's transformation to a low carbon economy. He has set a goal of reducing carbon emissions by 80 per cent by 2050. As we meet here in Kyoto, the site of another historic climate change discussion, President Obama is preparing to attend the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, continuing his Administration's commitment to tackling climate change and building a clean energy economy. Four months ago, Dr. Warren 'Pete' Miller was confirmed by the United States Senate to serve as Assistant Secretary for the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. Soon afterwards, I joined Pete as his Principal Deputy. In that short time, Pete and I have come to appreciate fully the enormous task we have before us. Transforming our economy from one reliant on fossil fuels to a low carbon future will take investments in energy efficiency and all forms of low carbon energy technologies, including nuclear energy. Our job is to assure that nuclear technologies can contribute to meeting this aggressive goal for reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear energy can contribute to the future energy supply in two basic areas: (i) in its traditional role of generating electricity and (ii) as a source of process heat for industrial, petrochemical and desalination purposes. Within the Office of Nuclear Energy, we are now developing a roadmap that will help us in 'meeting tomorrow's energy needs' by addressing these two vital areas. We have established five strategic goals as the

  3. Regenerative Electrode Interfaces for Neural Prostheses.

    Thompson, Cort H; Zoratti, Marissa J; Langhals, Nicholas B; Purcell, Erin K

    2016-04-01

    Neural prostheses are electrode arrays implanted in the nervous system that record or stimulate electrical activity in neurons. Rapid growth in the use of neural prostheses in research and clinical applications has occurred in recent years, but instability and poor patency in the tissue-electrode interface undermines the longevity and performance of these devices. The application of tissue engineering strategies to the device interface is a promising approach to improve connectivity and communication between implanted electrodes and local neurons, and several research groups have developed new and innovative modifications to neural prostheses with the goal of seamless device-tissue integration. These approaches can be broadly categorized based on the strategy used to maintain and regenerate neurons at the device interface: (1) redesign of the prosthesis architecture to include finer-scale geometries and/or provide topographical cues to guide regenerating neural outgrowth, (2) incorporation of material coatings and bioactive molecules on the prosthesis to improve neuronal growth, viability, and adhesion, and (3) inclusion of cellular grafts to replenish the local neuron population or provide a target site for reinnervation (biohybrid devices). In addition to stabilizing the contact between neurons and electrodes, the potential to selectively interface specific subpopulations of neurons with individual electrode sites is a key advantage of regenerative interfaces. In this study, we review the development of regenerative interfaces for applications in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Current and future development of regenerative interfaces has the potential to improve the stability and selectivity of neural prostheses, improving the patency and resolution of information transfer between neurons and implanted electrodes. PMID:26421660

  4. Scalloped electrodes for highly sensitive electrical measurements

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    means of silicon fabrication techniques that sharpen them progressively and in a controlled manner. We will show that the use of the scalloped area achieves a great decrease in impedance, which is very significant for a reduction of noise in electrical measurements. The measured impedance reflects an...... important improvement in comparison with already available systems. Additionally, first test of durability prove the robustness of these needle-like electrodes during indentation motions. In conclusion, the resulting electrodes are robust, sharp structures that decrease the typical impedance of...

  5. Flexible electrode array for artifical vision

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  6. Liquid crystal adaptive lens with circular electrodes

    Sun, Yi

    The liquid crystal adaptive lens (LCAL) developed in this research is an electro-optical device using a set of electrodes to grade the refractive index across its aperture. Adjusting the applied voltages permits continuous control of focal length. The first effort at developing an LCAL using circular electrodes to provide a simpler architecture than previous devices using linear electrodes is presented in this dissertation. A theoretical study for an LCAL with circular electrodes is performed. The liquid crystal behavior and the applied voltage profile required for different focal lengths is discussed. Numerical simulation of the refractive index change and the Point Spread Function is developed to study the aberrations and predict performance with circular electrode geometry. A Fresnel lens phase profile is applied to yield a lens with a useful F-number, and a previously unexplored aberration is identified and characterized. An LCAL prototype was designed with a set of high-density electrodes in the conductive ladder meshing configuration, which results in a small number of externally controlled electrodes. A new electronic controller was designed and built with a fast response and accurate output to apply the voltage set to the LCAL. An electro-optical feedback control system based on LabVIEW software was developed to optimize control output voltages using signals from a CID camera. A prototype LCAL was designed with a 7.86 mm diameter aperture and a focal length adjustable from 0.2 m to infinity. It was fabricated on a glass substrate with two layers of transparent electrodes, insulating layers, and vias to connect the two conducting layers. The special fabrication challenges involved are discussed. Focusing experiments were performed by auto-dithering using the electro-optical feedback control system. The point spread function measurement results are presented, demonstrating that the focal spot size reaches the diffraction limit, but astigmatism created by the

  7. Ion selective electrodes in environmental analysis

    Radu Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given dealing with application of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs in environmental analysis. ISEs are placed into the context of the trend of development of sensors for extensive and frequent monitoring. Discussed are the issues such as sensing platforms and their mass-production, improvement of precision, diagnostic of sensor’s functionality, and development of reference electrodes and several examples of real-life application of ISEs in environmental analysis are given. The main emphasis of this article is directed towards summarizing recent of authors’ results during the past several years.

  8. Low-frequency noise at semiconductor electrodes

    It is shown that modulation of electrode accessible surface is the main cause for low-frequency noise under ilumination of InP-GaAs- and CdSe electrodes in solutions containing KCl and S2-/Sn2- and Fe(CN)3-6/Fe(Cn)4-6 redox systems due to photocorrosion process and build up of the products of photoelectrochemical reactions, shot noise coefficient value γ=1 is derived for InP mode oxidation which points to the absence of correlated transfer of electrons in the reaction

  9. Ni-Based Solid Oxide Cell Electrodes

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    such as milling and sintering. The various electrode properties are deeply related to these parameters, but also much related to the atomic scale structure of the Ni-electrolyte interface, which in turn is affected by segregation of electrolyte components and impurities as well as poisons in the gas phase....... The main emphasis will be on the following subjects: (a) electronic conductivity of cermets, (b) dimensional and thermodynamic stability including redox cycling, © thermal expansion coefficient matching, (d) chemical compatibility with stack components and gaseous reactants and (e) electrode reaction...

  10. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

    Becerra-Fajardo, Laura; Ivorra, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible. PMID:26147771

  11. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters electro-stimulation. We demonstrate that addressable microstimulators powered by rectification of epidermically applied currents are feasible. PMID:26147771

  12. Performance and cycle life of carbon- and conductive-based air electrodes for rechargeable Zn-air battery applications

    Chellapandi Velraj, Samgopiraj

    The development of high-performance, cyclically stable bifunctional air electrodes are critical to the commercial deployment of rechargeable Zn-air batteries. The carbon material predominantly used as support material in the air electrodes due to its higher surface area and good electrical conductivity suffers from corrosion at high oxygen evolution overpotentials. This study addresses the carbon corrosion issues and suggests alternate materials to replace the carbon as support in the air electrode. In this study, Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-delta with good electrochemical performance and cyclic lifetime was identified as an alternative catalyst material to the commonly used La0.4Ca 0.6CoO3 catalyst for the carbon-based bifunctional electrodes. Also, a comprehensive study on the effects of catalyst morphology, testing conditions on the cycle life as well as the relevant degradation mechanism for the carbon-based electrode was conducted in this dissertation. The cyclic life of the carbon-based electrodes was strongly dependent on the carbon support material, while the degradation mechanisms were entirely controlled by the catalyst particle size/morphology. Some testing conditions like resting time and electrolyte concentration did not change the cyclic life or degradation mechanism of the carbon-based electrode. The current density used for cyclic testing was found to dictate the degradation mechanism leading to the electrode failure. An alternate way to circumvent the carbon corrosion is to replace the carbon support with a suitable electrically-conductive ceramic material. In this dissertation, LaNi0.9Mn0.1O3, LaNi 0.8Co0.2O3, and NiCo2O4 were synthesized and evaluated as prospective support materials due to their good electrical conductivity and their ability to act as the catalyst needed for the bifunctional electrode. The carbon-free electrodes had remarkably higher catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) when compared to the carbon-based electrode. However

  13. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-01

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system. PMID:25633260

  14. Electrodes for 24 hours pH monitoring--a comparative study.

    McLauchlan, G.; Rawlings, J M; Lucas, M.L.; McCloy, R F; Crean, G P; McColl, K E

    1987-01-01

    Three pH electrodes in clinical use were examined--(1) antimony electrode with remote reference electrode (Synectics 0011), (2) glass electrode with remote reference electrode (Microelectrodes Inc. MI 506) and (3) combined glass electrode with integral reference electrode (Radiometer GK2801C). In vitro studies showed that both glass electrodes were similar and superior to the antimony electrode with respect to response time, drift, and sensitivity. The effect of the siting of the reference el...

  15. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in the range of 1-100 [mu]m, and having a porous layer thickness in the range of 5-500 [mu]m. The invention also provides a lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies as anode and cathod...

  16. Micro-agar salt bridge in patch-clamp electrode holder stabilizes electrode potentials

    Shao, Xuesi M; Feldman, Jack L.

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining a stable electrode potential is critical for patch-clamp measurements. The electrode potential of conventional patch electrode-holder assembly, where an Ag/AgCl wire is in direct contact with the patch pipette filling solution, is subject to drift if the pipette solution contains a low concentration of chloride ions (Cl−). We developed an agar bridge of 3 M KCl filled in a polyimide microtubing which forms an electrical connection between an Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette solution. ...

  17. Address forms in Persian based on Iranian movies

    Derakhshan Rokni, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis: “Address forms in Persian language based on Iranian movies”, investigates address forms as socio-linguistic forms which are directly related to social factors such as age, gender and social class. In the Persian language there is a strong tradition of addressing each other in various ways, changing from one context to another. Addressing is a universal phenomenon, but the rules that govern the choice are different from one language to another. So, the hierarchical struc...

  18. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    S. Zahoor Ul Huq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fast, as the algorithm must be able to select, allocate and assign a unique network address to the unconfigured node before with a unique IP address. Here we are providing two solutions for unique address assignment. One is by the using the broadcasting method (BrM, in which unique addresses are assigned, unique addresses are assigned with the cost of network load. This method works fine whenever a new ad hoc network has to be initiated and at a same time a group of nodes have to be configured with a unique IP addresses. But this method loads the network with much network traffic, when new nodes are to be joined. In order to overcome this we are using another approach which uses Modular Arithmetic (MoA. Modular Arithmetic with some modifications is used to generate the unique IP Addresses without loading the network. The proposed scheme is capable of assigning a unique IP address with low communicationoverhead, even addresses distribution and low latency when applied to large scale MANETs and even supports network merging and partitioning..

  19. In Vivo Demonstration of Addressable Microstimulators Powered by Rectification of Epidermically Applied Currents for Miniaturized Neuroprostheses.

    Laura Becerra-Fajardo

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation is used in order to restore nerve mediated functions in patients with neurological disorders, but its applicability is constrained by the invasiveness of the systems required to perform it. As an alternative to implantable systems consisting of central stimulation units wired to the stimulation electrodes, networks of wireless microstimulators have been devised for fine movement restoration. Miniaturization of these microstimulators is currently hampered by the available methods for powering them. Previously, we have proposed and demonstrated a heterodox electrical stimulation method based on electronic rectification of high frequency current bursts. These bursts can be delivered through textile electrodes on the skin. This approach has the potential to result in an unprecedented level of miniaturization as no bulky parts such as coils or batteries are included in the implant. We envision microstimulators designs based on application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs that will be flexible, thread-like (diameters < 0.5 mm and not only with controlled stimulation capabilities but also with sensing capabilities for artificial proprioception. We in vivo demonstrate that neuroprostheses composed of addressable microstimulators based on this electrical stimulation method are feasible and can perform controlled charge-balanced electrical stimulation of muscles. We developed miniature external circuit prototypes connected to two bipolar probes that were percutaneously implanted in agonist and antagonist muscles of the hindlimb of an anesthetized rabbit. The electronic implant architecture was able to decode commands that were amplitude modulated on the high frequency (1 MHz auxiliary current bursts. The devices were capable of independently stimulating the target tissues, accomplishing controlled dorsiflexion and plantarflexion joint movements. In addition, we numerically show that the high frequency current bursts comply with

  20. Address Terms among University Students in Ghana: A Case Study

    Afful, Joseph Benjamin Archibald

    2006-01-01

    An important feature of the interface between language and society is the use of address terms. Following Brown and Gilman (1960), research studies of address terms have been extended to several cultural settings. This study contributes to this fertile area of sociolinguistic studies by describing the address terms used among undergraduates in an…

  1. 76 FR 22681 - Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory

    2011-04-22

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Address Directory AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating its Address Directory which is.... Jody Sinkler, 703-767-5045. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: DLA Address Directory: Defense Logistics...

  2. 47 CFR 69.128 - Billing name and address.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing name and address. 69.128 Section 69.128... Computation of Charges § 69.128 Billing name and address. Appropriate subelements shall be established for the use of equipment or facilities that are associated with offerings of billing name and address....

  3. A comparison study of electrodes for neonate electrical impedance tomography

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technique that has the potential to be used for studying neonate lung function. The properties of the electrodes are very important in multi-frequency EIT (MFEIT) systems, particularly for neonates, as the skin cannot be abraded to reduce contact impedance. In this work, the impedance of various clinical electrodes as a function of frequency is investigated to identify the optimum electrode type for this application. Six different types of self-adhesive electrodes commonly used in general and neonatal cardiology have been investigated. These electrodes are Ag/AgCl electrodes from the Ambu® Cardiology Blue sensors range (BR, NF and BRS), Kendall (KittyCat(TM) and ARBO®) and Philips 13953D electrodes. In addition, a textile electrode without gel from Textronics was tested on two subjects to allow comparison with the hydrogel-based electrodes. Two- and four-electrode measurements were made to determine the electrode-interface and tissue impedances, respectively. The measurements were made on the back of the forearm of six healthy adult volunteers without skin preparation with 2.5 cm electrode spacing. Impedance measurements were carried out using a Solartron SI 1260 impedance/gain-phase analyser with a frequency range from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. For the electrode-interface impedance, the average magnitude decreased with frequency, with an average value of 5 kΩ at 10 kHz and 337 Ω at 1 MHz; for the tissue impedance, the respective values were 987 Ω and 29 Ω. Overall, the Ambu BRS, Kendall ARBO® and Textronics textile electrodes gave the lowest electrode contact impedance at 1 MHz. Based on the results of the two-electrode measurements, simple RC models for the Ambu BRS and Kendall-ARBO and Textronics textile electrodes have been derived for MFEIT applications

  4. Electrodes for transcutaneous (surface electrical stimulation

    Keller Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In therapeutic and functional applications transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES is still the most frequently applied technique for muscle and nerve activation despite the huge efforts made to improve implantable technologies. Stimulation electrodes play the important role in interfacing the tissue with the stimulation unit. Between the electrode and the excitable tissue there are a number of obstacles in form of tissue resistivities and permittivities that can only be circumvented by magnetic fields but not by electric fields and currents. However, the generation of magnetic fields needed for the activation of excitable tissues in the human body requires large and bulky equipment. TES devices on the other hand can be built cheap, small and light weight. The weak part in TES is the electrode that cannot be brought close enough to the excitable tissue and has to fulfill a number of requirements to be able to act as efficient as possible. The present review article summarizes the most important factors that influence efficient TES, presents and discusses currently used electrode materials, designs and configurations, and points out findings that have been obtained through modeling, simulation and testing.

  5. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos

    2012-07-06

    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  6. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage. PMID:27007502

  7. Analytical Application of Silver Composite Electrode

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2002), s. 153-166. ISSN 1040-8347 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/P239 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : silver composite electrode * voltammetry * halogenides Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.074, year: 2002

  8. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  9. Fabrication and Characterisation of Membrane-Based Gold Electrodes

    Bakmand, Tanya; Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a versatile, membrane based electrochemical sensor with thin film electrodes fabricated through Ebeam evaporation directly on porous materials (membranes). Here, the fabrication of the electrodes is described along with possible methods for integration in fluidic systems and...

  10. Electro-optic device with gap-coupled electrode

    Deri, Robert J.; Rhodes, Mark A.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Caird, John A.; Henesian, Mark A.; Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2013-08-20

    An electro-optic device includes an electro-optic crystal having a predetermined thickness, a first face and a second face. The electro-optic device also includes a first electrode substrate disposed opposing the first face. The first electrode substrate includes a first substrate material having a first thickness and a first electrode coating coupled to the first substrate material. The electro-optic device further includes a second electrode substrate disposed opposing the second face. The second electrode substrate includes a second substrate material having a second thickness and a second electrode coating coupled to the second substrate material. The electro-optic device additionally includes a voltage source electrically coupled to the first electrode coating and the second electrode coating.

  11. Staircase electrode-wall configuration for MHD generators

    A staircase electrode-wall configuration for a mhd generator which uses fluid dynamic means to protect the electrodes from substantial damage due to arcing and chemical attack. The electrode walls of a mhd generator duct have periodic conductor/insulator elements where channel divergence or convergence is accomplished in a stepwise fashion. The electrode is situated within the insulator of each element to be backwardfacing so as not to be directly exposed to the hot gas flow. The turbulence which exists at the backward-facing electrode moves the arc spot about the surface to prevent severe local damage. Chemical attack is inhibited by a laminated electrode surface of a low corrosive material and the turbulence which aids in cooling the electrode face. Additional cooling may be obtained by a purge jet at the electrode face

  12. Development of integrated metal / oxide electrode with electrode housing prepared by spark plasma sintering process

    We have developed an integrated metal/oxide electrode (IMOE) for a corrosion potential monitoring of the material in light water reactors. Insulation and sealing between the IMOE and the electrode housing are very important in high temperature water. We made an advanced- integrated metal / oxide electrode (AIMOE) by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process as a new reference electrode. The AIMOE can operate in buffer solutions at room temperature. The potential of AIMOE is stable and has a drift of 0.1 mV/hours, which is similar to the potential stability of former IMOE. The measured potential of AIMOE is significantly improved and differs from ideal value within 21 mV. (author)

  13. Extracting electrode space charge limited current: Charge injection into conjugated polyelectrolytes with a semiconductor electrode

    Walker, Ethan M.; Lonergan, Mark C.

    2016-05-01

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes and related mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) are being explored for energy applications including solid-state lighting and photovoltaics. Fundamental models of charge injection into MIECs have been primarily developed for MIECs contacted with highly conductive or metal electrodes (MEs), despite many potential applications involving semiconductors. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an appropriate semiconductor electrode (SE), n-type for electron or p-type of hole injection, can limit injection into MIECs. When the SE is the injecting electrode and is under accumulation, there is little difference from a ME. When the SE acts as the extracting electrode, however, injection into the MIEC can be limited because a fraction of any applied bias must support charge depletion in the semiconductor rather than charge injection into the MIEC. In a ME/MIEC/SE system, this can lead to significant asymmetry in current-voltage and injected charge-voltage behavior.

  14. Stabilizing dimensional changes in Si-based composite electrodes by controlling the electrode porosity: An in situ electrochemical dilatometric study

    Jeong, Goojin [Green Energy System Center, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 730-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Nam Soon [Battery Development Team, Samsung SDI Co., Ltd. Cheonan, Chungnam 330-300 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Ugk, E-mail: kyuang@snu.ac.kr [Battery Development Team, Samsung SDI Co., Ltd. Cheonan, Chungnam 330-300 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Churl Kyoung [School of Advanced Materials and System Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, 730-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A porosity-controllable Si-based composite electrode was fabricated. > PMMA showing unzipping phenomena was utilized as a pore-forming agent. > Cyclic dilation behavior was investigated with an in situ electrochemical dilatometry. > PMMA-treated electrodes exhibited improved cycle performance. > Control of electrode porosity by PMMA can be an effective way for Si-based electrodes. - Abstract: A porosity-controllable Si-based composite electrode was fabricated in the present study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which possesses the unique thermal property of unzipping, was utilized as a pore-forming agent during electrode fabrication. PMMA-treated electrodes presented relatively low volume expansion and little deformation during lithiation. The cyclic dilation behavior of PMMA-treated electrodes was investigated by applying an in situ electrochemical dilatometric method, and enhanced dimensional reversibility during cycling was observed. The dilation behavior was closely related to the electrochemical performance, and PMMA-treated electrodes exhibited improved capacity retention and low impedance change during cycling. The newly generated pores in the PMMA-treated electrode can accommodate the volumetric expansion of Si-based active materials, which suppresses electrode deformation and the breakdown of the electrical network. The porosity plays an important role in Si-based electrodes. Thus, controlling the porosity through PMMA-treatment can be an effective way for the application of Si-based composite electrodes for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis

    Jung, Byoungsok; Rose, Klint A; Shusteff, Maxim; Persat, Alexandre; Santiago, Juan

    2015-04-07

    The present invention provides a mechanism for separating or isolating charged particles under the influence of an electric field without metal electrodes being in direct contact with the sample solution. The metal electrodes normally in contact with the sample are replaced with high conductivity fluid electrodes situated parallel and adjacent to the sample. When the fluid electrodes transmit the electric field across the sample, particles within the sample migrate according to their electrophoretic mobility.

  16. Non-Contact ECG Sensing Employing Gradiometer Electrodes

    Peng, GuoChen; Bocko, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Noncontact, capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements are complicated by motion artifacts from the relative movement between the ECG electrodes and the subject. To compensate for such motion we propose to employ first and second order gradiometer electrode designs. A MATLAB-based simulation tool to enable assessment of different electrode configurations and placements on human subjects has been developed to guide the refinement of electrode designs. Experimental measurements of the sens...

  17. Non-traditional electrode materials for detection of biomarkers

    Barek, Jiří; Moreira, Josino C.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, new electrochemical methods suitable for detection of various types of biomarkers (biomarkers of exposition, tumor biomarkers, and biomarkers of medical treatment) are briefly reviewed. Attention is paid to the use of non-traditional electrode materials (various forms of amalgam electrodes, boron doped diamond film electrodes, carbon paste and carbon film electrodes, etc.) for voltammetric (batch analysis) and amperometric (flowing systems) detection of above mentio...

  18. Electroanalysis of organic compounds at bismuth electrodes: a short review

    Lezi, Nikolitsa; Vyskočil, Vlastimil; Economou, Anastasios; Barek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twelve years, it has been demonstrated that bismuth electrodes have comparable electroanalytical performance to mercury electrodes in the negative potential range. Since the toxicicty of bismuth is lower than that of mercury, bismuth can serve as an alternative “green” electrode material to mercury. However, the great majority of published work at bismuth–based electrodes is concerned with the determination of trace metals by voltammetric techniques with only few applications de...

  19. Diffuse charge and Faradaic reactions in porous electrodes

    Biesheuvel, P. M.; Yu, F; Bazant, M.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Porous electrodes instead of flat electrodes are widely used in electrochemical systems to boost storage capacities for ions and electrons, to improve the transport of mass and charge, and to enhance reaction rates. Existing porous electrode theories make a number of simplifying assumptions: (i) The charge-transfer rate is assumed to depend only on the local electrostatic potential difference between the electrode matrix and the pore solution, without considering the structure of ...

  20. Organic electrode coatings for next-generation neural interfaces

    Aregueta-Robles, Ulises A.; Woolley, Andrew J.; Poole-Warren, Laura A.; Lovell, Nigel H.; Rylie A Green

    2014-01-01

    Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits,...

  1. ORGANIC ELECTRODE COATINGS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NEURAL INTERFACES

    Rylie A Green

    2014-01-01

    Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits,...

  2. Effect of electrode thickness variation on operation of capacitive deionization

    Porada, S.; Bryjak, M.; Wal, van der, A.C.; Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    In capacitive deionization (CDI) water is desalinated by applying an electrical field between two porous electrodes placed on either side of a spacer channel that transports the aqueous solution. In this work we investigate the equilibrium salt adsorption and the dynamic development of the effluent salt concentration in time, both as function of spacer and electrode thicknesses. The electrode thickness will be varied in a symmetric manner (doubling both electrodes) and in an asymmetric manner...

  3. Gold nanowire electrodes in array: Simulation study and experiments

    Wahl, Amélie; Dawson, Karen; MacHale, John; Barry, Seán; Quinn, Aidan J.; O'Riordan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanofabrication have enabled fabrication of robust and reproducible nanoelectrodes with enhanced performance, when compared to microelectrodes. A hybrid electron beam/photolithography technique is shown that permits gold nanowire array electrodes to be routinely fabricated at reasonable cost. Fabricated devices include twelve gold nanowire working electrode arrays, an on-chip gold counter electrode and an on-chip platinum pseudo reference electrode. Using potential swee...

  4. Our Experience with Split Electrode Array Implant for Obliterated Cochlea

    Kirtane, Milind V.; More, Yogesh I.; Mankekar, Gauri; Mohandas, Nishita; Patadiya, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    To study the outcomes of split electrode array cochlear implantation in ossified cochlea using the CAP scoring system. Retrospective case study. Tertiary referral center. Six cochleae in three adult and three pediatric patients with ossification. Intervention(s): All Patients underwent cochlear implantation with a split electrode array system. Major outcome parameter(s): Number of electrodes inserted during surgery, number of functioning electrodes on follow-up and auditory performance evalua...

  5. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2005-09-20

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  6. MHD generator with improved network coupling electrodes to a load

    Rosa, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    An MHD generator has a plurality of segmented electrodes extending longitudinally of a duct, whereby progressively increasing high DC voltages are derived from a set of cathode electrodes and progressively increasing low DC voltages are derived from a set of anode electrodes. First and second load terminals are respectively connected to the cathode and anode electrodes by separate coupling networks, each of which includes a number of SCR's and a number of diode rectifiers.

  7. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  8. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    S. EL QOUATLI; R. T. NGONO; R. NAJIH; A. CHTAINI

    2012-01-01

    A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  9. Adsorption of azithromycin dehydrate at stationary mercury and solid electrode

    Karbainov, Yu. A.; Puchkovskaya, E. S.; Karbainova, S. N.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorptive component in oxidation and renewal processes at different types of electrodes for antibiotic-macrolide azithromycin dihydrate has been studied. Adsorption parameters for azithromycin oxidation processes at glass-carbon electrode and for renewal processes at mercury-film electrode were calculated

  10. Heavy metals detection using nanostructured screen printed electrodes

    Jan Prasek*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the problematic of heavy metals dissolved inaqueous solution detection using standard electrochemical methods. The problematic of low signal response of miniaturizedelectrochemical electrodes for electrochemical analysis is mentioned here. Finally some solutions for electrodes miniaturization and examples of fabricated electrodes and their heavy metals detection capabilities on a real sample are shown and discussed here.

  11. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes for neural interfaces

    Alcaide, María; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, Morten; Zachar, Vladimir; Pennisi, Cristian P.

    2016-01-01

    biocompatibility of BDD electrodes in relation to conventional titanium nitride (TiN) electrodes using a rat subcutaneous implantation model. High quality BDD films were synthesized on electrodes intended for use as an implantable neurostimulation device. After implantation for 2 and 4 weeks, tissue sections...

  12. EUGENOL POLYMER MODIFIED TITANIUM ELECTRODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CARBOCYSTEINE

    S. EL QOUATLI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A eugenol polymer immobilized electrode was developed for the assay of the carbocysteine compound. The electrochemical sensor was made by in situ electropolymerization of eugenol at titanium electrode. Cyclic voltamperometry at prepared electrode permitted to point out a reversible pattern for carbocysteine electrooxidation.

  13. Improving Electrode Durability of PEF Chamber by selecting suitable material

    Corrosion resistance of four materials - titanium, platinized titanium, stainless steel, and boron carbide - as electrodes in a Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) system was studied to reduce electrode material migration into the food by electrode corrosion. The PEF process conditions were 28 kV/cm field s...

  14. Plastic Membrane Sensor from a Disposed Combined Glass Electrode

    Marafie, Hayat M.; Shoukry, Adel F.; Alshatti, Laila A.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of combined plastic membrane electrode for hydralazinium cation from a disposed glass electrode is described. A variety of electrodes could be prepared by students using other types of polymers, plasticizers, or exchangers which could also help to study effects of pH and temperature, or environmental investigations.

  15. Cyclic voltammetry on n-alkylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer modified large area indium tin oxide electrodes

    We show stable bonding of n-alkylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to indium tin oxide electrodes and their direct electrical characterization by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The functional coatings were investigated with regards to the addressability and stability of the electrodes, which are related to small changes in molecular layer thickness. The response of a redox active compound in solution to the faradic current is indirectly proportional to the molecular chain length of the SAMs. We observed a decrease of the electrode sensitivity with enhanced surface protection and slow long term degradation of the SAM under electrochemical stress by CV, and therefore conclude a trade-off optimum for molecules with the C10 chain.

  16. Study on microstructures of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries using variational multi-scale enrichment

    Lee, Sangmin; Sastry, Ann Marie; Park, Jonghyun

    2016-05-01

    Performance and degradation of a Li-ion battery reflect the transport and kinetics of related species within the battery's electrode microstructures. The variational multi-scale principle is adapted to a Li-ion battery system in order to improve the predictions of battery performance by including multi-scale and multiphysics phenomena among the particle aggregates in the electrode; this physics cannot be addressed by conventional homogenized approaches. The developed model is verified through the direct numerical solutions and compared with the conventional pseudo-2D (P2D) model method. The developed model has revealed more dynamic battery behaviors related to the variation of the microstructure-such as particle shape, tortuosity, and material composition-while the corresponding result from P2D shows a monotonous change within different structures.

  17. Multifunctional oxides for integrated manufacturing of efficient graphene electrodes for organic electronics

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Weijtens, Christ; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan; Meyer, Jens

    2015-02-01

    Using multi-functional oxide films, we report on the development of an integration strategy for scalable manufacturing of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) for organic electronics. A number of fundamental and process challenges exists for efficient graphene-based TCEs, in particular, environmentally and thermally stable doping, interfacial band engineering for efficient charge injection/extraction, effective wetting, and process compatibility including masking and patterning. Here, we show that all of these challenges can be effectively addressed at once by coating graphene with a thin (>10 nm) metal oxide (MoO3 or WO3) layer. We demonstrate graphene electrode patterning without the need for conventional lithography and thereby achieve organic light emitting diodes with efficiencies exceeding those of standard indium tin oxide reference devices.

  18. Multifunctional oxides for integrated manufacturing of efficient graphene electrodes for organic electronics

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Weijtens, Christ; Meyer, Jens, E-mail: jens.meyer@philips.com [Philips Research, Philipsstrasse 8, 52068 Aachen (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    Using multi-functional oxide films, we report on the development of an integration strategy for scalable manufacturing of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) for organic electronics. A number of fundamental and process challenges exists for efficient graphene-based TCEs, in particular, environmentally and thermally stable doping, interfacial band engineering for efficient charge injection/extraction, effective wetting, and process compatibility including masking and patterning. Here, we show that all of these challenges can be effectively addressed at once by coating graphene with a thin (>10 nm) metal oxide (MoO{sub 3} or WO{sub 3}) layer. We demonstrate graphene electrode patterning without the need for conventional lithography and thereby achieve organic light emitting diodes with efficiencies exceeding those of standard indium tin oxide reference devices.

  19. Cooperation of micro- and meso-porous carbon electrode materials in electric double-layer capacitors

    Zheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The capacitive characteristics of micro- and meso-porous carbon materials have been compared in cyclic voltammetric studies and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Meso-porous carbon can keep certain high capacitance values at high scan rates, whereas micro-porous carbon possesses very high capacitance values at low scan rates but fades quickly as the scan rate rises up. For better performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), the cooperative application of both kinds of carbon materials has been proposed in the following two ways: mixing both kinds of carbons in the same electrode or using the asymmetric configuration of carbon electrodes in the same EDLC. The cooperative effect on the electrochemical performance has also been addressed. (author)

  20. Multifunctional oxides for integrated manufacturing of efficient graphene electrodes for organic electronics

    Using multi-functional oxide films, we report on the development of an integration strategy for scalable manufacturing of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) for organic electronics. A number of fundamental and process challenges exists for efficient graphene-based TCEs, in particular, environmentally and thermally stable doping, interfacial band engineering for efficient charge injection/extraction, effective wetting, and process compatibility including masking and patterning. Here, we show that all of these challenges can be effectively addressed at once by coating graphene with a thin (>10 nm) metal oxide (MoO3 or WO3) layer. We demonstrate graphene electrode patterning without the need for conventional lithography and thereby achieve organic light emitting diodes with efficiencies exceeding those of standard indium tin oxide reference devices