Sample records for address translation unit

  1. IP MASQUERADING: A Network Address Translation Technique

    Chiranji Lal Chowdhary; Prashant P.J.


    IP Masquerade, called "IPMASQ" or "MASQ" for short, is a form of Network Address Translation (NAT) which allows internally connected computers that do not have one or more registered Internet IP addresses to communicate to the Internet via the server's Internet IP address. Since IPMASQ is a generic technology, you can connect the server's internal and external to other computers through LAN technologies like Ethernet, Token Ring, and FDDI, as well as dialup connections line PPP or SLIP links....




    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  3. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira


    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  4. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko


    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  5. Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole Modes of address: translation strategies or the black hole

    Patricia Anne Odber de Baubeta


    Full Text Available The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis. The title of this paper is perhaps deceptively succint: although it indicates the object of study it does not immediately suggest the transdisciplinary nature of its subject matter. Any consideration of the problems posed and the lexical or syntactical options available when one sets out to translate forms of address from one language to another must necessarily involve some awareness not only of issues of translation theory, but also of a series of questions usually discussed under the rubrics of sociolinguistics, pragmatics and discourse analysis.

  6. New Approach to translation of Isolated Units in English-Korean Machine Translation

    Jon, Kim Song; Gum, An Hae


    It is the most effective way for quick translation of tremendous amount of explosively increasing science and technique information material to develop a practicable machine translation system and introduce it into translation practice. This essay treats problems arising from translation of isolated units on the basis of the practical materials and experiments obtained in the development and introduction of English-Korean machine translation system. In other words, this essay considers establ...

  7. The Translation of Address Terms from the Perspective of Interpersonal Function



    This paper, as its title suggests, will mainly focus on the translation of address term from the perspective of interperson-al metafunction proposed by Halliday to shed some light on the everlasting headache in translating, which is caused by culture dif-ference. With examples taken from A Dream of Red Mansions translated by Yang Xian-yi, the author came up with the idea that, in order to achieve equivalence in translating the address term which differs greatly from culture to culture, region to region, even group to group, we should carefully analyze the interpersonal meaning conveyed by the address term in source language, and then translate it into the corresponding one which may bare similar meaning in target language.

  8. 功能对等理论指导下的标点符号翻译--以《美国总统就职演说全集》为例%The Translation of Punctuations under the Guidance of the Functional Equivalence Theory:Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States as an Example



    Chinese and English punctuations have differences and similarities in shapes and functions. This thesis makes research on the translation of punctuations under the guidance of functional equivalence theory with Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States as study object. Nearly all punctuations in this book are referred to and discussed. In the light of functional equivalence theory, this thesis puts forward translation strategies of transformation, transplantation, addition and deletion in punc-tuation translation.%中英两种标点在功能及外形有差别、亦有共同之处。该文在功能对等理论指导下,以《美国总统就职演说全集》为研究对象,对本书中标点符号的翻译进行研究。在功能对等理论的指导下,采用转换法、移植法和增减法等不同的翻译策略。

  9. The Role of Translational Research in Addressing Health Disparities: a Conceptual Framework

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, Jose G.; Richard S. Baker; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.


    Translational research has tremendous potential as a tool to reduce health disparities in the United States, but a lack of common understanding about the scope of this dynamic, multidisciplinary approach to research has limited its use. The term “translational research” is often associated with the phrase “bench to bedside,” but the expedited movement of biomedical advances from the laboratory to clinical trials is only the first phase of the translational process. The second phase of transla...


    Frans I Made Brata


    Full Text Available This study analyses words and phrases used for addressing in the translation ofreligious-cultural terms of address in the Luke’s Bible. Their profiles and attitudes,techniques, methods, and ideologies applied as well as factors leading to and theirimpacts towards the degree of accuracy, readability, and acceptability were qualitativelydescribed.The data were taken from the Luke’s English Bible and their translations intoBalinese. First, the terms of address found in the source text were compared with thosefound in the target text with reference to the appraisal theoretical framework to identifythe social stratifications to which the addressee belongs to, which was then applied toidentify what translation techniques were applied. The formal and dynamic equivalence(de Ward and Nida, 1986: 36, and V diagram of the translation method (New Mark,1988: 45 were employed to show the translation orientations closely related to thetranslation ideology itself.The findings show that: (1 the choice of the linguistic variants in the targetlanguage was influenced by the dimensions of attitude: affect, judgment, andappreciation, either (positive [+], or negative [-] among the participants; (2 there were12 translation techniques applied, two of which were the technique of calque and literal(0.06% which were oriented towards the source language, 0.02% was ‘gray’, and therest, that is, 99.2% was oriented towards the target language. The dominance of thetranslation techniques which were oriented towards the target language shows that therewas a great cultural difference between the source text and the target text; (3 thedominance of the translation communicative method and the domestication ideologyshows that, when the translation process took place, the translator’s orientation wastowards the target reader; (4 the linguistic factor, the religious-cultural difference, andthe translator’s preference led to the translation techniques, methods and

  11. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M


    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979




    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP subscribers is growing vastly in the recent years due to the ever increase in smartphones, 3G, WiFi, etc. This growth leads the VoIP service providers to peer with each other through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP peering for low/free cost of voice communication. Naturally, this growth is not without challenges, especially in phone addressing. This paper proposes an I-TNT (Infrastructure-Phone Number Translation numbering system to expand the range of the existing E.164 numbers and mapping between private and public number at the edge of the signalling path. As a result, I-TNT numbering system is successfully implemented and able to allocate the expanded phone numbers to end-users in one service provider.

  13. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.


    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  14. Principle and Application of Network Address Translation Systems%网络地址翻译系统的原理和应用

    包亮; 潘金贵


    Since Network Address Translation (NAT)systems, which will translate address between two address realms,were first introduced to solve the address shortage problem,they have been adopted in many domains. In this paper, basic principles, primary forms and application will be discussed. And some countermeasure on the co-exist with IPSec will be given.

  15. Addressing Trainees’ Diversity Conundrums in Translator Education: Towards a Responsive Pedagogy

    Sakwe George Mbotake


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impact of some trainee translators’ background factors on their learning outcomes by highlighting the challenges that diverse classrooms pose for translator trainers. The study demonstrates that psycho-socio-educational and professional background factors such as educational and linguistic backgrounds, prior-work or professional experiences, socio-economic status and home learning environments, perceptions and dispositions towards translation learning, as well as expectations, levels of satisfaction and loyalty provide an explanatory background to the process of translation production and performance of most translation students. The data for this study is drawn from 60 students of the MA Programme in Translation at the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI of the University of Buea in Cameroon. The data reveals that students’ performances vary significantly with these background characteristics. The study posits that responsive pedagogy in translator education can only grow out of an understanding of students’ background, whereby the strengths and weaknesses that students bring to school are identified, nurtured and utilized to promote student achievement.

  16. Translating patient education theory into practice: Developing material to address the cardiovascular education needs of people with rheumatoid arthritis

    John, Holly; Hale, Elizabeth D.; Bennett, Paul; Treharne, Gareth J; Carroll, Douglas; Kitas, George D.


    Objective This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patient education programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice. Methods A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the progr...

  17. Responsible Localization : Game Translation Between Japan and the United States

    Mandiberg, Stephen


    Responding to increasing flows of digital media texts across national borders during the late 20th century, video game production companies began to expand translation from linguistic alteration to extensive semiotic manipulation. The practices involved with moving a digital game over national and linguistic lines widened from translating boxes, instruction manuals, and in-game dialogue, to re-designing audio, visual, and ludic aspects of games. Called 'localization' within the game industry,...

  18. A New Approach to Design of an Address Generation Unit in a DSP Processor

    Kabiraj Sethi


    Full Text Available This paper presents the behavioral model of an Address Generation Unit (AGU in a DSP Processor whose instructions are almost compatible with the Motorola DSP56002. The proposed AGU unit can handle 4 different types of arithmetic – linear addressing, modulo addressing, wrap around modulo addressing and reverse carry addressing. It also handles various means of calculating addressesas post/pre increment/decrement by a number. The novelty in this proposal is that it can address 2 different memories, where 2 new addresses are calculated concurrently. The central idea behind thisdesign is address sequence generation by means of reverse carry addition, the use of modulo adder and offset adder. The designed AGU circuit generates the actual address as per the given set of inputs.Simulation results are compared with the theoretical data and found correct. The designed AGU may be implemented in a DSP Processor with optimized power and speed.

  19. Translation techniques of phraseological units in journalistic texts (spanish-portuguese)

    Flávia Andressa da Silva Santos; Angélica Karim Garcia Simão


    This article aims to discuss the translation of phraseological units contained in a parallel bilingual corpus (Spanish-Portuguese) composed of journalistic texts taken from El País, Spanish newspaper, and their respective translations into Brazilian Portuguese published on UOL website (News/International) in January 2011. The analysis has as focus translation strategies and techniques used, as well as possible meaning effects observed in the target text. Thus, the reflection herein proposed d...

  20. The Slavic Translation Lexicography Theory and Practice: on the Material of the Stable Word Units

    Алла [Alla] Лучик [Luchyk


    Full Text Available The Slavic Translation Lexicography Theory and Practice: on the Material of the Stable Word UnitsThe paper deals with the idea of the need for the dictionaries of stable units in each of the Slavic language. The register of the lexicographical works must include the word equivalents, phraseological units terminological units. For a new type of the dictionary the principles its arrangement are established. It is proved that such work will open new horizons for the further theoretical observations on the properties of the language system as well as its practical mastering. The dictionaries of the stable units will be of particular importance to the field of Slavic translation.

  1. Collusion and Culture Construction in the Translation of Modest Social Address Terms a case study of "Xiao Ren" in Shui Hu Zhuan



    Bassnett believed that collusion exerts influence between the author, translator as well as target reader, thus providing us with a new perspective for translation studies. Enlightened by Susan Bassnett's notion of "collusion" , the writer makes a contemplative study about the social address terms in Chinese classic novel Shui Hu Zhuan. The research studies the translation of modest social address terms in Outlaws of the Marsh and All Men are Brothers from the perspective of collusion and culture construction. Through the study of the source text and target text, the thesis makes analysis as well as comparison of the two English versions, in order to investigate the possible criteria for the translators to evaluate their choices of words in translating the Chinese specific terms. During the research, the writer discovers that collusion plays an im portant role in the process of translation, with a potential result of culture construction in the target readers' mind.

  2. Translation techniques of phraseological units in journalistic texts (spanish-portuguese

    Flávia Andressa da Silva Santos


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the translation of phraseological units contained in a parallel bilingual corpus (Spanish-Portuguese composed of journalistic texts taken from El País, Spanish newspaper, and their respective translations into Brazilian Portuguese published on UOL website (News/International in January 2011. The analysis has as focus translation strategies and techniques used, as well as possible meaning effects observed in the target text. Thus, the reflection herein proposed discusses and is founded on the concepts of translation method, strategies, and techniques, situating our analysis in the field between Translation Studies and Bilingual Phraseology. Such perspective understands Translation as a communicative, textual and cognitive process, and phraseological units as lexical units made up of more than two graphic words in their lower limit, whose upper limit is located at the compound clause level. The translation analysis displayed the emptying of senses proposed in the source texts due to an excessive use of literal translations instead of well-known equivalents in the target language.

  3. Price equilibrium in address models of product differentiation: unit-elastic demand

    Martin Peitz


    I present a class of address models of product differentiation with unit-elastic individual demand and show the existence of Nash equilibrium in prices under assumptions on utility functions and the taste and income heterogeneity across consumers. This paper complements the work by Caplin and Nalebuff (1991, Econometrica), who analyze unit demand models of product differentiation.


    Miranda, J. Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Cardenas, María K.; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Pesantes, M. Amalia; Araya, Ricardo; Boggio, Oscar; Checkley, William; García, Patricia J.; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Lescano, Andrés G.; Montori, Victor; Pan, William; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Sacksteder, Katherine; Smeeth, Liam; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.


    The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, based at Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, was created in 2009 with support from the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). The vision of CRONICAS is to build a globally recognised Centre of Excellence conducting quality and innovative research and generating high-impact evidence for health. The Centre’s identity is embedded in its core values: generosity, innovation, integrity, and quality. This review has been structured to describe the development of the CRONICAS Centre, with a focus on highlighting the ongoing translational research projects and capacity building strategies. The CRONICAS Centre of Excellence is not a risk-averse organisation: it benefits from past experiences, including past mistakes, and improves upon them, and thus challenges traditional research approaches. This ethos and environment is key to fostering innovation in research. PMID:25754562

  5. Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J. David; ,


    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

  6. 40 CFR 267.101 - What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units?


    ... action for solid waste management units? 267.101 Section 267.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Releases from Solid Waste Management Units § 267.101 What must I do to address corrective action for solid waste management units? (a) You must...

  7. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Elizabeth Dean


    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  8. Translation and validation of the Korean confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit

    Han Sung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common problem and associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Diagnosis of delirium in ICU patients is limited and usually underdiagnosed by physicians. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU is one of the most widely used screening methods for detection of ICU delirium. Our goal was to translate and validate the CAM-ICU for use in the Korean ICU setting. Methods Translation of the CAM-ICU was done according to the guidelines suggested by the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Group. For validation and interrater reliability assessment of the Korean CAM-ICU, two nurses independently assessed delirium in ICU patients and the results were compared with the reference evaluation, which was done by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated by two nurses and one psychiatrist expert independently. During the study period, we have continuously educated study nurses. Based on DSM-IV criteria, 16 out of 22 (72.7% patients developed delirium. The sensitivities of the two nurses' evaluations using the Korean CAM-ICU were 89.80% for nurse 1 and 77.40% for nurse 2. Their specificities were 72.40% and 75.80% and their overall accuracy was 83.33% and 88.37% respectively. The Korean CAM-ICU was done with reasonable interrater reliability between nurse 1 and nurse 2 (κ = 0.81, p Conclusions The Korean CAM-ICU showed good validity and could be incorporated into clinical practice in Korean ICUs. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN50265663

  9. Quantities and Units used in Radiation Safety. Address at the third national course of Radiation Safety in Radiology. May 22-24, 2000 Guatemala

    The address discusses the following issues: the radiological units, radiation dose units, radiation protection units and operational quantities used for individual monitoring recently introduced by the International Commission of Radiological Units

  10. 地址翻译技术在防火墙系统中的应用%Address Translation Technology in Firewall System

    周新卫; 许自龙; 刘浪


    随着Intemet的迅速发展,IP地址缺少已经是一个十分明显的问题。为了解决IP缺少这个问题,出现了很多解决方案。虽然也有提出新一代的IPv6技术从根本上解决地址空间问题,但由于多方面的原因,NAT成为事实上广泛使用的解决方法。它主要思想是把本地的私有口地址映射到公网的合法IP地址,以缓解可用IP地址空间的消耗。本文将介绍一种在目前网络环境中运用比较多的方法,即地址转换(NAT)技术及其在防火墙上的实现方法,以及这种技术在防火墙中的一些实际应用。%With the rapid development of Internet,there is an unsufficiency of IP addresses. A lot of solutions in solving this problem appear. Although a new generation of IPv6 technology can solve the problem of address spac fundamently, NAT has be widely used due to some reasons. Its main principle is to map the local private IP address to the legal public network IP addresses to alleviate the comsumption of the available IP address space. This paper introduces address translation technology ( NAT ), apopular method used in the current network envi- ronment,the method of its implementation in firewall, as well as tits practical applications.

  11. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline


    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty. PMID:27044705

  12. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael


    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  13. Evidence supporting the need for bariatric surgery to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.

    Bour, Eric S


    Despite aims at prevention, obesity in the United States is now an epidemic. Along with the rise in obesity, the United States has experienced a concomitant rise in obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore overweight and obesity present a major economic public health challenge. Physicians are likely to recommend weight loss to their overweight patients. Diet, exercise, and behavior modification are often effective during the course of treatment but are subject to recidivism and post-treatment weight gain. Obesity intervention mandates that providers consider the need for surgery in many cases. The three most commonly performed weight loss surgical procedures in the United States include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients undergoing surgery lose considerable amounts of excess weight and experience marked improvement in many other obesity-related comorbidities. Surgery is a proven therapy for patients who do not respond to less invasive measures and should be considered mainstream therapy in the treatment of the obesity epidemic. PMID:25757004

  14. A More Proactive Approach to Addressing Gender-related Employment Disparities in the United States

    Mary E. Graham; Hotchkiss, Julie L.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a proactive public policy approach to complement relatively reactive existing policies addressing gender-related employment disparities in the USA, and to provide an initial empirical illustration of the proposal. Design/methodology/approach – The paper provides a conceptual application of theories of total quality management (TQM) to the topic of gender-related employment disparities, followed by an empirical illustration using...

  15. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie


    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  16. Translation problems and translation difficulties : tools for teaching specialized translation

    Linder, Daniel


    [ENG] This article and the exercises proposed below make use of the distinction between translation problems and translation difficulties. Many authors seem to equate these terms in their writings, but severa! authors have used the distinction in very helpful ways. Peter Newmark has used the term "translation problem" more or less as a unit of translation. Newmark defines translation problem as an instance when literal translation becomes inadequate ( 1988: 30-31 ). When this happens, the tra...

  17. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)


    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  18. Scientific English: a program for addressing linguistic barriers of international research trainees in the United States.

    Cameron, Carrie; Chang, Shine; Pagel, Walter


    Within the international research environment, English is indisputably the lingua franca, and thus, the majority of the world's scientists must adapt to a second language. Linguistic barriers in science affect not only researchers' career paths but institutional productivity and efficiency as well. To address these barriers, we designed and piloted a specialized course, Scientific English. The pedagogical approach is based on English for specific purposes methodology in which curriculum and content are driven by the types of daily language used and interactions which occur in the participants' occupation, in this case, cancer research. The 11-week program was organized into three sections: presentation skill, meeting and discussion skills, and writing skills. Effectiveness of the course was measured by the number of participants able to produce the presentations and written products with a score of at least 75 of 100 possible points. From January to December 2008, participant scores averaged 90.4 for presentation and 86.8 for written products. The authors provide insights and recommendations on the development and delivery of the program. PMID:20623348

  19. Addressing Value and Belief Systems on Climate Literacy in the Southeastern United States

    McNeal, K. S.


    The southeast (SEUS; AL, AR, GA, FL, KY, LA, NC, SC, TN, E. TX) faces the greatest impacts as a result of climate change of any region in the U.S. which presents considerable and costly adaptation challenges. Paradoxically, people in the SEUS hold attitudes and perceptions that are more dismissive of climate change than those of any other region. An additional mismatch exists between the manner in which climate science is generally communicated and the underlying core values and beliefs held by a large segment of people in the SEUS. As a result, people frequently misinterpret and/or distrust information sources, inhibiting efforts to productively discuss and consider climate change and related impacts on human and environmental systems, and possible solutions and outcomes. The Climate Literacy Partnership in the Southeast (CLiPSE) project includes an extensive network of partners throughout the SEUS from faith, agriculture, culturally diverse, leisure, and K-20 educator communities that aim to address this educational need through a shared vision. CLiPSE has conducted a Climate Stewardship Survey (CSS) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in and beyond the CLiPSE network. The descriptive results of the CSS indicate that religion, predominantly Protestantism, plays a minor role in climate knowledge and perceptions. Likewise, political affiliation plays a minimal role in climate knowledge and perceptions between religions. However, when Protestants were broken out by political affiliation, statistically significant differences (t(30)=2.44, p=0.02) in knowledge related to the causes of climate change exist. Those Protestants affiliated with the Democratic Party (n=206) tended to maintain a statistically significant stronger knowledge of the causes of global climate change than their Republican counterparts. When SEUS educator (n=277) group was only considered, similar trends were evidenced, indicating that strongly held beliefs potentially

  20. Modularized architecture of address generation units suitable for real-time processing MR data on an FPGA

    Li, Limin; Wyrwicz, Alice M.


    In this paper, we describe a modular approach to the design of an Address Generation Unit (AGU). The approach consists of development of a generic Address Generation Core (AGC) as a basic building block and the construction of an AGU from the AGCs. We illustrate this concept with AGUs capable of handling 2D- and 3D-structured data, and as well as their setup for executing 2D and 3D FFT algorithms on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The AGUs developed using our proposed method are simple and easily expandable. Furthermore, they can potentially support irregularly structured data which are often generated from the wide variety of pulse sequences in magnetic resonance imaging. Our experimental results show that these AGUs are capable of generating addresses with a user-predefined pattern automatically at the speed of one address per clock cycle and operate at clock rates up to 80 MHz. They can operate concurrently with other processes and thus do not introduce additional operation latencies. Although we focus on applying the developed AGUs to executing 2D and 3D FFT, we expect that the modular design method should have much wider applications.

  1. Building Capacity of Occupational Therapy Practitioners to Address the Mental Health Needs of Children and Youth: A Mixed-Methods Study of Knowledge Translation

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; LaGuardia, Teri; Thompson-Repas, Karen; Conway, Carol; Michaud, Paula


    A 6-mo building capacity process designed to promote knowledge translation of a public health approach to mental health among pediatric occupational therapy practitioners empowered change leaders to articulate, advocate for, and implement practice changes.

  2. Use of information visualization methods eliminating cross talk in multiple sensing units investigated for a light-addressable potentiometric sensor.

    Siqueira, José R; Maki, Rafael M; Paulovich, Fernando V; Werner, Carl F; Poghossian, Arshak; de Oliveira, Maria C F; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Schöning, Michael J


    The integration of nanostructured films containing biomolecules and silicon-based technologies is a promising direction for reaching miniaturized biosensors that exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity. A challenge, however, is to avoid cross talk among sensing units in an array with multiple sensors located on a small area. In this letter, we describe an array of 16 sensing units of a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), which was made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films of a poly(amidomine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), coated with a layer of the enzyme penicillinase. A visual inspection of the data from constant-current measurements with liquid samples containing distinct concentrations of penicillin, glucose, or a buffer indicated a possible cross talk between units that contained penicillinase and those that did not. With the use of multidimensional data projection techniques, normally employed in information visualization methods, we managed to distinguish the results from the modified LAPS, even in cases where the units were adjacent to each other. Furthermore, the plots generated with the interactive document map (IDMAP) projection technique enabled the distinction of the different concentrations of penicillin, from 5 mmol L(-1) down to 0.5 mmol L(-1). Data visualization also confirmed the enhanced performance of the sensing units containing carbon nanotubes, consistent with the analysis of results for LAPS sensors. The use of visual analytics, as with projection methods, may be essential to handle a large amount of data generated in multiple sensor arrays to achieve high performance in miniaturized systems. PMID:20041720

  3. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU: Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    Clemens de Grahl


    Full Text Available Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this study was the translation of the English pCAM-ICU into German according to international validated guidelines. Methods: The translation process was performed according to the principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient reported outcomes measures: From three independently created German forward-translation versions one preliminary German version was developed, which was then retranslated to English by a certified, state-approved translator. The back-translated version was submitted to the original author for evaluation. The German translation was evaluated by clinicians and specialists anonymously (German grades in regards to language and content of the translation. Results: The results of the cognitive debriefing revealed good to very good results. After that the translation process was successfully completed and the final version of the German pCAM-ICU was adopted by the expert committee. Conclusion: The German version of the pCAM-ICU is a result of a translation process in accordance with internationally acknowledged guidelines. Particularly, with respect to the excellent results of the cognitive debriefing, we could finalise the translation and cultural adaptation process for the German pCAM-ICU.

  4. A study on Requirements of Data Base Translator for APR1400 Computerized Procedure System at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2

    The CPS is one of the Man Machine Interface (MMI) resources and the CPS can directly display plant graphic objects which are in the Digital Control System (DCS). And the CPS can send a request to DCS to provide DCS screen which is called step support display through DCS link button on a computerized procedure. The procedure writers can insert DCS graphic information to computerized procedure through data base which is provided by CPS Editing System (CPSES). The data base which is provided by CPSES conforms to the naming rule of DCS graphic objects. The naming rule of DCS graphic objects is defined by vendor thus status of DCS graphic objects which are in computerized procedure at Shin-Kori plant cannot be displayed on CPS at Shin-Hanul plant. To use computerized procedure which is written by other plant procedure writer, DCS graphic objects shall be translated by its plant data base. This paper introduces requirements of data base translator to reduce translation and re-inserting graphic objects burden. This paper introduces the requirements of data base translator of CPSES for APR1400 CPS at Shin-Hanul unit 1 and 2. The translator algorithms shall be tested to update data base of CPSES effectively. The prototype of translator is implemented and is being tested using real plant DB. This translator can be applied to Shin- Hanul unit1 and 2 through software V and V

  5. Novel implementation research designs for scaling up global mental health care: overcoming translational challenges to address the world's leading cause of disability.

    Meffert, Susan M; Neylan, Thomas C; Chambers, David A; Verdeli, Helen


    Despite established knowledge that Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) bear the majority of the world's burden of mental disorders, and more than a decade of efficacy research showing that the most common disorders, such as depression and anxiety, can be treated using readily available local personnel in LMICs to apply evidence-based treatments, there remains a massive mental health treatment gap, such that 75 % of those in LMICs never receive care. Here, we discuss the use of a new type of implementation science study design, the effectiveness-implementation hybrids, to speed the translation and scale up of mental health care in LMICs. We use our current study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by local personnel for depression and trauma-related disorders among HIV+ women in Kenya as an example of effectiveness-implementation hybrid design for mental health services research in LMICs. PMID:26958075

  6. 37 CFR 2.190 - Addresses for trademark correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.


    ..., during the hours the Office is open to receive correspondence, to the Trademark Assistance Center, James... correspondence with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. 2.190 Section 2.190 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  7. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Ruether J Dean


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  8. Opening address

    This opening address covers two main areas: first, a snapshot of the continuing threat and the recent changes having been made to the United Kingdom's counterterrorism structures to respond to it; and second, how the United Kingdom is combating nuclear terrorism through a range of measures covering physical security, decreasing vulnerability to attack and increasing resilience. Combating the threat of nuclear terrorism requires an international effort. Radiological and fissile materials are present throughout the world and, as such, it should be secured wherever it is found. All countries are encouraged to continue to enhance security and protection mechanisms for radiological and fissile material; and to develop contingency plans should the worst happen. The United Kingdom has responded to the very serious and real threat by consolidating and strengthening elements of its counterterrorist planning via the creation in May this year of the Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism (OSCT). These changes have been coupled with an unprecedented level of investment to enable the delivery of the United Kingdom counterterrorist strategy - known as CONTEST - through which we aim to (a) stop terrorist attacks; (b) where it cannot be stopped, to mitigate its impact; (c) strengthen our overall protection against terrorist attack; (d) stop people becoming terrorists or supporting violent extremism. In the case of radiological and nuclear terrorism, it is not sufficient merely to prepare for such an attack; one must also devote efforts to preventing such attacks in the first instance by intercepting dangerous materials before they reach their intended target; and by strengthening the protection of vulnerable places and detecting or mitigating any devices before they are placed or activated. As such, in terms of the United Kingdom's efforts on radiological and nuclear terrorism, there are three main strands to this work: physical protection of materials including the global

  9. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Pinto Ruxandra; Hales Brigette; Dainty Katie; Scales Damon C; Fowler Robert A; Adhikari Neill KJ; Zwarenstein Merrick


    Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: ve...

  10. Certification of an in-house manufactured translational couch unit for total body irradiation in accordance with the Medical Devices Act

    A new translational couch unit with extended potentials of dose optimization by variable velocity and a comfortable user interface with integrated patient administration was developed at the university clinic of Regensburg. Materials and Methods The concept and construction were elaborated in legal accordance with the in-house manufacture conditions mentioned in the German Medical Devices Act. In particular we have implemented a concept of functional safety based on a controller unit, an independent monitoring unit and self-testing procedures. Redundant safety relevant hard- and software components are continuously checked against each other. In case of any malfunction the translation movement and the linear accelerator are stopped. Gap-free continuation of the treatment will be possible after elimination of the cause of the interrupt. Results and Conclusion After the testing of the implemented functional safety features including the risk assessment and management, electrical safety, electromagnetic compatibility by accredited technical experts the translational couch system complies with the requirements of the Medical Devices Act and can be operated in terms of in-house application. The presented certification procedure can motivate other radiation departments to develop own systems for in-house usage. (orig.)

  11. Translating China


    sidney Shapiro, an American-born translator famous for his translation of Chinese literary works, received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Translation by the Translators Association of China on December 2, 2010.

  12. Opening address

    The impact of the Chernobyl accident on health has been dramatic but different than expected. It has posed a tremendous health, social and economic burden on the people of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Now the picture of the impact of the accident on health and environment is clearer and the agenda can further move towards development and focused health programmes. The work of the Chernobyl Forum, which allowed this important objective to be reached, is an example of the multiplied added value that different United Nations agencies working together can achieve when addressing complex problems affecting large communities in an independent, comprehensive and credible way. This model should be the basis for future action with the Member States towards reconstruction, development and better health

  13. Addressing oral health inequalities in the United Kingdom--the impact of devolution on population-based fluoride policy.

    Chestnutt, I G


    The front covers of the current volume of the British Dental Journal (Volume 215) feature drawings by children participating in the Welsh national oral health improvement programme - Designed to Smile. This programme involves 78,350 children in the Principality, who are deemed at greatest risk of tooth decay, participating in daily toothbrushing in 1,211 nurseries and schools. It mirrors the Childsmile programme in Scotland. Since devolution in 1999, approaches to oral health improvement across the United Kingdom have diverged. This article considers the way in which population-based policies with regards to fluoride use have varied between countries. PMID:23846053

  14. Inaugural address

    Joshi, P. S.


    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  15. A renewed Medication Adherence Alliance call to action: harnessing momentum to address medication nonadherence in the United States

    Zullig, Leah L; Granger, Bradi B; Bosworth, Hayden B


    The problem Nonadherence to prescription medications is a common and costly problem with multiple contributing factors, spanning the dimensions of individual behavior change, psychology, medicine, and health policy, among others. Addressing the problem of medication nonadherence requires strategic input from key experts in a number of fields. Meeting of experts The Medication Adherence Alliance is a group of key experts, predominately from the US, in the field of medication nonadherence. Members include representatives from consumer advocacy groups, community health providers, nonprofit groups, the academic community, decision-making government officials, and industry. In 2015, the Medication Adherence Alliance convened to review the current landscape of medication adherence. The group then established three working groups that will develop recommendations for shifting toward solutions-oriented science. Commentary of expert opinion From the perspective of the Medication Adherence Alliance, the objective of this commentary is to describe changes in the US landscape of medication adherence, framing the evolving field in the context of a recent think tank meeting of experts in the field of medication adherence. PMID:27462145

  16. Human Translator and Translation Technology



    With the great development of technology, translation technology exerts great influence on human translators because during their translation process, they may use many computer-aided translation tools, such as TRADOS, Snowman, WordFisher and etc. However, they always misunderstand the concept of computer-aided translation, so this thesis managed to providedetails about some translation technology and human translators' strengths so as to help them improve the productivity and the quality of theirtranslation works effectively and efficiently.

  17. Keynote address

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  18. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners


    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Understanding Translation

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation......Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  20. Translators and Translation: 1974 Survey

    Caille, Pierre-Francois


    An international survey of conditions and practices involving translators deals with the following points: (1) change in the legal status and material situation of translators since 1968; (2) translators' associations; (3) translators' training, and (4) encouraging translation of contemporary works. (CK)

  1. Translation Techniques

    Marcia Pinheiro


    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  2. Machine Translation



    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  3. Translatress, Translator, Translation

    Margala, Miriam


    I still manage to surprise a few scholars from other fields when they hear that there is such a thing as research of gender issues within the field of translation studies. It may seem as such a narrow niche – but only deceivingly so. It is language, linguistics, pragmatics, culture, history, literature, anthropology, gender metaphorics, communication, interpreting, cultural politics, social studies and politics, psychology and I can go on and on. History seems to be a very appropriate startin...

  4. Opening address

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  5. Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator An Evaluation

    Carter, D; Rayner, M; Eklund, R; MacDermid, C; Wiren, M; Kirchmeier-Andersen, S; Philp, C; Carter, David; Becket, Ralph; Rayner, Manny; Dermid, Catriona Mac; Wiren, Mats; Philp, Christina


    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted for the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present the results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  6. Forms of creativity in translation

    Lucia V Aranda


    Full Text Available paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions translation as part of a greater creative project.

  7. A new multi-addressable molecular switch based on a photochromic diarylethene with a 6-aryl[1,2-c]quinazoline unit

    Jia, Hongjing; Pu, Shouzhi; Fan, Congbin; Liu, Gang


    A novel diarylethene with a 6-aryl[1,2-c]quinazoline unit has been synthesized via a nucleophilic reaction. Its photochromism and fluorescence exhibited multi-addressable behaviors by the stimulation of both light irradiation and acid/base. Addition of trifluoroacetic acid to the solution of the diarylethene resulted in notable absorption spectral change, and the protonated form also possessed excellent photochromic properties. Meanwhile, its emission intensity was enhanced remarkably and the emission peak redshifted with a notable color change from dark blue to bright green. The changes could be recovered to the initial state by neutralizing with triethylamine. Consequently, a logic circuit was constructed with the diarylethene by using the fluorescence intensity at 482 nm as output and acid/base as inputs.

  8. Opening address

    Full text: Honourable Representatives of His Majesty King Mohammed VI and of the Government of Morocco, representatives of sponsoring organizations, distinguished participants, on behalf of the Director General of the IAEA, it is my pleasure and privilege to welcome you to this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety: Towards Effective and Sustainable Systems. I would like to express my sincere appreciation to His Majesty King Mohammed VI for his patronage, to the Government of Morocco and the University Mohammed V, Agdal, for hosting this conference in the beautiful and historic city of Rabat, and to the local organizers for their diligent planning and gracious hospitality. I would also like to thank the four organizations that are co-operating with the IAEA in holding this conference: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the International Labour Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency. National infrastructure for radiation safety has emerged as an issue of international concern over the last two decades. Systematic and strategic consideration of infrastructure has become widely recognized as an essential prerequisite for safety. The first IAEA conference to address the topic was in Munich, Germany, in 1990. The 1996 edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (known as the Basic Safety Standards or BSS) highlighted the issue, and the IAEA's technical co-operation Model Project for Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure was introduced to help address it. The Model Project has helped, and continues to help, more than 85 IAEA Member States to work towards the goal of a radiation safety infrastructure in accordance with the Basic Safety Standards. A great deal has been achieved, but this work is not complete. Furthermore, not all States are members of the IAEA or the Model

  9. Translational Creativity

    Nielsen, Sandro


    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  10. Welcome Address

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Opening Address by A. Bychkov [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    The Fukushima incident, following the earthquake and tsunami in Japan, has shaken global public confidence in the safety of nuclear power. Still, nuclear power remains and will remain important for many countries. It is important to maintain plant safety, particularly as facilities age, and since 354 of the 436 nuclear power plants in the world are equal to or greater than 20 effective years of age. In this respect, PLiM becomes increasingly important and may very well become indispensable in the future. It is important that ageing management programmes be established in accordance with guidelines issued by government regulatory and industry agencies. For example, a PLiM programme could draw on United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rules, guidance and reports; on industry guidance such as provided by the Nuclear Engineering Institute (NEI), by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and by the IAEA through its safety standards. The ultimate goal of this conference is to do address these main themes through an open exchange of information, by means of the keynote speeches, the oral/poster presentations and the panel discussions. If these activities are approached in this spirit, the sharing of recent lessons learned will achieve the conference’s goals and play a critical role in the development of new and effective approaches to addressing issues relating to structure, systems and component (SSC) ageing and PLiM

  12. An innovative telemedicine knowledge translation program to improve quality of care in intensive care units: protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic trial

    Pinto Ruxandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are challenges to timely adoption of, and ongoing adherence to, evidence-based practices known to improve patient care in the intensive care unit (ICU. Quality improvement initiatives using a collaborative network approach may increase the use of such practices. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel knowledge translation program for increasing the proportion of patients who appropriately receive the following six evidence-based care practices: venous thromboembolism prophylaxis; ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention; spontaneous breathing trials; catheter-related bloodstream infection prevention; decubitus ulcer prevention; and early enteral nutrition. Methods and design We will conduct a pragmatic cluster randomized active control trial in 15 community ICUs and one academic ICU in Ontario, Canada. The intervention is a multifaceted videoconferenced educational and problem-solving forum to organize knowledge translation strategies, including comparative audit and feedback, educational sessions from content experts, and dissemination of algorithms. Fifteen individual ICUs (clusters will be randomized to receive quality improvement interventions targeting one of the best practices during each of six study phases. Each phase lasts four months during the first study year and three months during the second. At the end of each study phase, ICUs are assigned to an intervention for a best practice not yet received according to a random schedule. The primary analysis will use patient-level process-of-care data to measure the intervention's effect on rates of adoption and adherence of each best practice in the targeted ICU clusters versus controls. Discussion This study design evaluates a new system for knowledge translation and quality improvement across six common ICU problems. All participating ICUs receive quality improvement initiatives during every study phase, improving buy-in. This study design

  13. Translation Nation


    The International Federation of Translators will hold its largest ever world congress in China on the eve of 2008 Olympic Games china’ s position as a powerhouse of the translation industry is to be cemented,

  14. Translating Theory

    Jaques, Thomas


    Generative Linguistics can and should be engaged by those with an interest in Translation Studies while developing their own positions on literary theory in general, but translation theory in particular. Generative theory provides empirical evidence for a free, creative mind that can comprehend, read, speak and translate a language. What is being proposed here contrasts radically with the dominant position of this generation's Translation Studies specialists, who freely incorporate Post-struc...

  15. Address Points, Point locations for address sites, including residential, commercial, all units and suites, using Esri's Local Government Information Model schema., Published in 12/1/2014, Not Applicable scale, Gwinnett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 12/1/2014. It is described as...

  16. Semantics on Translation



    Semantics is the study of the meanings of words and sentences. While word is the most basic unit in every language and the understanding of the word meaning is the most important problem in translation. Therefore, the analysis of semantics just provides a very direct approach to doing translation. In this paper, I’d like to focus on the three kinds of word meaning in transla- tion, the ambiguities caused by the word meaning and how to deal with such ambiguities.


    Isabel Negro Alousque


    Much of the lexis of a language has a cultural referent and is thus specific to a speech community. The meaning of culturally marked words is often difficult to grasp without some cultural knowledge and poses translation problems, particularly when the words are associated with cultural domains (Nida, 2001). In the present paper we focus on the French cultural domain of cooking. After outlining the elements of the domain, we analyse the difficulties in translating the lexical units from the d...

  18. Opening Address by G. Apostolakis [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    Ageing management is not a simple process. The NRC has been involved with its ageing management and licence renewal programmes since 1982. At that time, the NRC began its Ageing Research Program. In 1991, it initiated a License Renewal Rule and Demonstration Program. In the course of these activities, it was discovered that the NRC was giving insufficient credit for the existing PLiM programme. In 1995, there was an Amended License Renewal rule, which focused on managing the adverse effects of ageing. In 1998, the NRC received its first licence renewal application to enable a plant to operate from 40 to 60 years. Presently (May 2012), the NRC has renewed licences for 71 plants at 42 sites. Ten units at nine sites have passed 40 years of licensed operation and entered the period of 40−60 year extended operation. There are applications under review for 15 units at 11 sites. The NRC expects applications for all remaining currently operating units. The NRC’s licence renewal guiding principles are that the ongoing regulatory process is adequate to ensure the safety of all currently operating US plants and that the same plant operating rules apply during the 20-year renewal term. In addition, the NRC applies supplementary conditions for ageing management through the licence renewal process and is fully aware that operating experience is very important in terms of lessons learned, which can then bring about further changes in the process and in practice. Recent additional NRC guidance addresses the need to manage buried piping and tanks, inaccessible non-environmentally qualified cables, spent fuel pool neutron absorbing materials other than Boraflex, and pressurized water reactor vessel internals. In summary, the NRC believes that: – Ageing management must be a living process that continuously incorporates operating experience. – Research is necessary to establish the technical basis for LTO of existing nuclear plants beyond 60 years. – The industry must have a

  19. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M


    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. PMID:25963556

  20. Forms of creativity in translation

    Lucia V Aranda

    2009-01-01 paper explores the creative constructs utilized by translators in the reformulation of texts. As translation studies realigns the definition of translation vis-à-vis the original, a number of factors inform translations: the agency and subjectivity of the translator, as well as questions of form, and the more obvious social factors. This discussion addresses the articulation of creativity as a response to specific cases and repositions tran...

  1. IP Addressing


    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  2. Inaugural Address

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani


    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  3. Translation as a critical practice:using retranslation when teaching translation

    Evans, Jonathan


    This article addresses the question of how to relate translation theory to translation practice when teaching translation. Retranslation is viewed as a critical practice (kydd 2011) that integrates critical engagement with existing translations and theory into practice. This critical reflexion is part of translation competence, both in Pym’s (2003) minimalist formulation and the European Master’s in Translation guidelines. Retranslation can therefore be seen to help students achieve the sort ...

  4. Keynote address

    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA)

  5. Keynote Address

    Griffin, Mike


    Biography: Nominated by President George W. Bush and confirmed by the United States Senate, Michael Griffin began his duties as the 11th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on April 14, 2005. As Administrator, he leads the NASA team and manages its resources to advance the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. Prior to being nominated as NASA Administrator, Griffin was serving as Space Department Head at Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laur...

  6. Toward a poetics of translation

    Janaina Rocha de Paula


    From the essay "Die Aufgabe des Übersetzers" by Walter Benjamin, and its connection with the book Des tours de Babel by Jacques Derrida, we seek to address translations done by Maria Gabriela Llansol from the concepts of resignation and free giving. Surrending to a translation method within the melancholic/maniac tradition, Llansol’s translation task approaches a poetic practice, having love as its opening element

  7. Welcome Address


    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  8. Keynote address

    March 10th is an anniversary date for Dick Cheney. Eight years ago today President Bush asked him to be his Secretary of Defense. He was his second choice. John Tower was his first. On March 17, 1989, Cheney was confirmed and sworn into the office of Secretary of Defense. He quickly began closing down his office on Capital Hill and he reported to work on March 18. Much changed for him that day, but not everything. He still had constituents. But instead of the residents of Wyoming, he represented the entire Armed forces of the United States of America. For this convention, he was asked to discuss the worldwide reserves and associated development risks, the risks and rewards in the US industry and 21st Century vision for energy within the US. He discusses the Halliburton view on the natural gas energy future, the US role, implications for a new business model, and political risk

  9. Opening Address [International Conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), 14-18 March 2010

    Full text: It is a pleasure for me to open this IAEA conference on Human Resource Development for Introducing and Expanding Nuclear Power Programmes. I am very grateful to the Government of the United Arab Emirates for hosting this important event. As you know, the world is witnessing a resurgence of interest in nuclear power. The IAEA has projects on introducing nuclear power with no fewer than 58 of our Member States. We expect between 10 and 25 new countries to bring their first nuclear power plants on line by 2030. These are momentous changes. However, some countries are concerned about a possible shortage of skilled professionals in the nuclear field in the coming decades. The generation of professionals who built and led the nuclear power industry for much of the past 50 years is approaching retirement and in some countries not enough students are coming up through the educational system to take their place. Naturally, we, at the IAEA, want to do all we can to help Member States address this issue. That is why we have organized this conference. The situation is different in each country. For countries with expanding nuclear power programmes, the challenge is to scale up their existing education and training in order to have the required qualified workforce on time. Countries planning to supply nuclear technology to others must not only meet their national human resource needs, but also be able to transfer education and training capacity together with the technology they provide. Finally, countries embarking on nuclear power cannot become too dependent on their technology supplier and need to develop their own home grown expertise and skills base. The IAEA would be happy to help interested States to formulate country specific policies on human resource development, education, training and knowledge management in support of nuclear power programmes. We could also help countries make better use of training facilities, research reactors and other educational

  10. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex


    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  11. Opening address

    Adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, Resolution 1540 (2004) - hereafter UNSCR 1540 - sets out several obligations and recommendations for United Nations Member States, including specific requirements regarding illicit trafficking in operational paragraph (OP) 3, where it decides that all States shall take and enforce measures to prevent WMD proliferation including: 'Develop and maintain appropriate effective border controls and law enforcement efforts to detect, deter, prevent and combat, including through international cooperation when necessary, the illicit trafficking and brokering in such items in accordance with their national legal authorities and legislation and consistent with international law'. UNSCR 1540 also created a committee to monitor and report on the measures taken by States to implement these obligations, known as the 1540 Committee. This paper discusses the gaps in national and international proliferation systems identified by the 1540 Committee. By creating obligations for States regarding non-State actors UNSCR 1540 supplements the existing NPT and other nuclear non-proliferation treaty regimes. The presentation looks more narrowly at eight questions of particular relevance to illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, which UNSCR 1540 broadly defines to include dual-use as well as special purpose items. The questions are whether a State has legislation specifically related to nuclear materials for border control, trading or brokering of nuclear items, and controls on transit, trans-shipment, re-export or import of nuclear items. The largest gaps exist in establishing legal frameworks for trans-shipments, trading or brokering of items and re-exports. The 1540 Committee recognizes the need to help the international community close these gaps. The 1540 Committee would like to work in even closer cooperation with the IAEA and other NGOs to develop mechanisms to share appropriate information and foster the global effort to

  12. Opening Address

    Yamada, T.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  13. Keynote address

    This keynote address describes the reasons why Ontario restructured its electricity sector to include open market competition. Much effort, time, money and expertise have been devoted to developing the Ontario competitive market. The 1997 White Paper issued by the Ontario Ministry of Energy, Science and Technology was the first paper to express the urgent need for change because the old system was failing. Prices increased by 60 per cent between 1986 and 1993. Although governments imposed a price freeze, it is recognized that such prices freezes cannot be sustained. Between 1980 and 1986, Ontario Hydro's debt rose from $12 billion to over $30 billion. The cause was attributed to poor business performance which was putting the taxpayers at risk. The author states that the potential and social benefits of competitive electricity markets are significant. Opening the power markets improves the efficiency of electricity systems and offers significant benefits. It is noted that restructuring does not mean deregulation. The Ontario Energy Board and the Independent Market Operator continue to regulate the market to ensure its proper operation and to protect consumers. In a properly functioning competitive market, prices change in response to market conditions. Electricity prices have generally declined where competitive markets have been introduced in other jurisdictions around the world. The author also cautions that it is easy to create unfounded fears about a competitive market and cited California as an example. California's problems arose from a lack of generating capacity, regulation which discouraged new power generation, inadequate transmission capacity, lack of snow in the northeast where hydropower is produced, and a consumer price cap that encouraged power consumption at a time when supply was short. The author notes that these factors do not exist in Ontario and that the competitive market should not be abandoned

  14. Presidential address.

    Vohra, U


    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  15. Revising Translations

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne


    survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not...... carried out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative...

  16. Ministerial Presentation: United Kingdom [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    I would firstly like to express gratitude to the Director General of the IAEA, Mohamed EIBaradei, for inviting Mike Q'Brien, the UK Minister of State for Energy, to address this conference. I know the Minister greatly respects the important work of the IAEA and would like to have been able to deliver this speech himself but, as I'm sure you can appreciate, there are many demands on his time with the fast moving developments in energy policy which is why he has asked me to make this speech on his behalf. Nuclear decision. As I'm sure you will be aware the UK government has taken the decision that it is in the public interest that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in our country's future energy mix, alongside other low-carbon sources. This decision was reached in the context of the challenges of climate change and energy security. These are challenges that delegates in this room will be well familiar with. Adding urgency to these challenges in the UK is that 15% of electricity currently comes from nuclear power stations and that all but one of our power stations will shut by 2025. Significantly, the government believes that it is for energy companies to fund, develop and build new nuclear power stations in the UK and to meet the full cost of decommissioning and their full share of waste management costs. Our job in government is to work hard to create the right conditions for this investment. Our White Paper published in January last year set out a clear work programme of the key steps both industry and Government need to take in the next ten years to enable new build to happen. This is a partnership and we are committed to working with industry to do everything we can to remove unnecessary regulatory burdens and increase investor certainty. Facilitative actions. This translates into a number of key actions Government is taking. Firstly, in the area of reactor licensing we have introduced a form of pre-licensing - the Generic Design Assessment


    T. Volkova


    The article addresses an existing paradigm shift in and approaches to translation modelling. Text, discourse, and communication are regarded as the basis for translation modelling. An original discourse and communication translation model described in the paper establishes a link between textual, discursive, and communicative parameters and decisions made by the translator that build up the translation strategy.

  18. Opening address

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  19. Opening address

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  20. Opening address

    Full text: The International Labour Organization (ILO), is very pleased to be associated with this International Conference on National Infrastructures for Radiation Safety. On behalf of the Director General, Mr. J. Somavia, I would like to congratulate the national organizer and host, the University Mohammed V, Agdal, and the Government of Morocco, the IAEA and the other co-operating organizations: the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the European Commission and the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency for taking this initiative. When flying here to Morocco yesterday, I read newspaper reports about the results of the investigations related to the disaster of the Columbia space shuttle. The findings were as follows: the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), must establish a safety culture within itself. NASA was well aware of the problem of falling insulation material but did not take it seriously before the disaster. The workers in the Chernobyl power plant knew the hazards and safety rules but did not take them seriously. Every day, more than 5000 people die from occupational accidents and work related diseases as the hazards are not taken seriously. Some of them are caused by ionizing radiation. We in the ILO expect enterprises and workplaces to follow proper occupational safety and health management systems so as to avoid accidents, diseases and other problems at work. Equally, we must expect national leadership, sound nationwide management, for radiation safety, which means: National policy setting, which usually results in national standards and laws; National structures and mechanisms, that is, who is in charge of what; Responsibilities and accountabilities set, and resources allocated; National action plans, a national programme;Implementation of these plans;Follow-up, monitoring, review, feedback to enhance the process using selected indicators; Continuous improvement in measurable steps at national level

  1. Opening address

    The dawn of the nuclear age brought with it a new power, terrifying in its ability to destroy, awesome in its potential for good: it is the same stark contrast that confronts us today. On the one hand, as the technological expertise in handling its by-products develops, and with the growing realization of humanity's impact on its surroundings, nuclear power represents an important, climate friendly supply of energy. Moreover, its applications stretch far beyond civil nuclear power - food preservation and disease prevention are being revolutionized by nuclear technology, and, indeed, nuclear power will almost certainly be necessary if we are to continue our adventure of exploration beyond our solar system. However, if we are to continue to reap the benefits of the atom, we must keep in check its associated dangers, and prevent a technology with the power for so much good from falling into the hands of those that would use it to harm and destroy. Nuclear security plays a vital role in this endeavour.The Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, or NPT, has been a significant and, to many, an unexpected success in restraining nuclear proliferation and providing a secure framework for the peaceful transfer of nuclear technology. The United Kingdom continues to believe in the central importance of all aspects of the NPT, and regards it as the cornerstone of the non-proliferation regime. Alongside the NPT, the IAEA has played a crucial role in promoting and aiding nuclear safety and security, championing the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology and encouraging and enforcing safeguards that protect nuclear material and prevent its diversion to harmful uses. Both the NPT and the operations of the IAEA face serious challenges. In our view, this is not a reason to be downhearted and to reject one of the best examples of effective multilateralism; rather, it amounts to a clear call for enhanced international efforts to strengthen the system and make it

  2. Translating Alcohol Research

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.


    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  3. Opening address

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  4. Opening address

    Recognizing the global danger of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material, governments have in recent years taken a number of steps which includes the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the 2005 Amendments to the CPPNM, the International Convention of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. Perhaps more important than formal legal measures alone are the actions governments have initiated to institute practical cooperation in this field. Of course, the IAEA has been a leader in this effort, as reflected in the Nuclear Security Plan. Of the many areas where the IAEA has contributed, let me cite three: the development of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, the numerous efforts through technical assistance programmes to assess physical protection needs and to build national capacity to implement physical protection systems, and the collection and dissemination of information through the Illicit Trafficking Database. States are acting together to develop training and communications channels to facilitate intervention in an ongoing illicit transfer or to build national capacity to protect nuclear materials and respond to security threats. 60 nations have joined the Russian Federation and the USA as partners in the global initiative to Combat nuclear Terrorism. These visible forms of international cooperation are backed up by numerous bilateral assistance and cooperation programmes directed at improving physical protection, including during transport, consolidating and eliminating unused nuclear materials and radioactive sources, bolstering nuclear detection at ports and borders, strengthening the ability of law enforcement agencies to identify and prosecute nuclear smuggling cases, developing procedures and protocols to intervene in emergency situations involving nuclear or radioactive materials, and exchanging information on nuclear terrorism

  5. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    Cho, KyungHyun; Esipova, Masha


    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  6. Translation model, translation analysis, translation strategy: an integrated methodology



    The paper revisits the concepts of translation model, translation analysis, and translation strategy from an integrated perspective: a translation strategy naturally follows translation analysis performed on a given set of textual, discursive and communicative parameters that form a valid translation model. Translation modeling is reconsidered in terms of a paradigm shift and a distinction between a process-oriented (descriptive) model and an action-oriented (prescriptive) model. Following th...

  7. Translating organizational change

    Scheuer, John Damm


    in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation......This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...

  8. Beyond Translation

    Olwig, Mette Fog


    discourse, policy and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate......This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation to...

  9. Translation Competence

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;


    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  10. Address Points, To show the address points in Frederick County. The address points carry detailed information such as street number, street type, zipcode, house suffix and units if available. They are also tied to various information including road centerlines and tax a, Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Frederick County, MD Enterprise GIS.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'To show the...

  11. Word translation entropy in translation

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard;


    particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...

  12. Preventing and Addressing Homophobic and Transphobic Bullying in Education: A Human Rights-Based Approach Using the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Cornu, Christophe


    Homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools can have a serious effect on children and young people subjected to it at a crucial moment in their lives. It is an obstacle to the right to education, which is one of the basic universal human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and various United Nations Conventions. This…

  13. Translational Geoscience: Converting Geoscience Innovation into Societal Impacts

    Schiffries, C. M.


    Translational geoscience — which involves the conversion of geoscience discovery into societal, economic, and environmental impacts — has significant potential to generate large benefits but has received little systematic attention or resources. In contrast, translational medicine — which focuses on the conversion of scientific discovery into health improvement — has grown enormously in the past decade and provides useful models for other fields. Elias Zerhouni [1] developed a "new vision" for translational science to "ensure that extraordinary scientific advances of the past decade will be rapidly captured, translated, and disseminated for the benefit of all Americans." According to Francis Collins, "Opportunities to advance the discipline of translational science have never been better. We must move forward now. Science and society cannot afford to do otherwise." On 9 July 2015, the White House issued a memorandum directing U.S. federal agencies to focus on translating research into broader impacts, including commercial products and decision-making frameworks [3]. Natural hazards mitigation is one of many geoscience topics that would benefit from advances in translational science. This paper demonstrates that natural hazards mitigation can benefit from advances in translational science that address such topics as improving emergency preparedness, communicating life-saving information to government officials and citizens, explaining false positives and false negatives, working with multiple stakeholders and organizations across all sectors of the economy and all levels of government, and collaborating across a broad range of disciplines. [1] Zerhouni, EA (2005) New England Journal of Medicine 353(15):1621-1623. [2] Collins, FS (2011) Science Translational Medicine 3(90):1-6. [3] Donovan, S and Holdren, JP (2015) Multi-agency science and technology priorities for the FY 2017 budget. Executive Office of the President of the United States, 5 pp.

  14. Translational genomics

    Martin Kussmann


    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  15. Geometric Reasoning About Translational Motions

    Schwarzer, Fabian


    This thesis addresses the problems of planning highly coordinated collision-free translational motions of multiple objects (general polygons or polyhedra) and finding sequences of translations that allow for the removal of one or more objects. These problems are known to be PSPACE-hard in general. Our main focus is therefore on the design and analysis of adaptive algorithms that can cope with practically relevant cases such as tightly interlaced placements. Exact and complete algorithms are i...

  16. Equivalence translation of phraseological synonyms.

    Yashchuk, Olena


    This article is devoted to phraseological English synonyms, interchangeability and translation equivalence. This paper examines the state of the phenomenon of synonymy in phraseology at present, classifies phraseological units and phraseological synonyms in particular, common translation techniques of idiomatic synonyms, according to different levels of equivalence. The scientific relevance of the work is a synthesis of the linguistic nature of phraseological synonyms, as well as organizing m...

  17. Opening Address by J.J. Grossenbacher [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of 10 large, multipurpose DOE owned laboratories in the USA. Our mission is to perform research, develop, demonstrate and deploy technologies that contribute to solutions to some of our nation’s and the world’s most challenging problems. At INL specifically, we use applied science and engineering to enable energy policy, regulation and economic priorities to be addressed with innovative technology choices. We do impactful work in industrial cyber security, grid reliability, wireless communications, nuclear non-proliferation, hybrid energy systems, electric and alternative vehicles, and biomass feedstock assembly. But our history and our purpose for being is nuclear energy. With our current capabilities, our charter on behalf of DOE and our history of over 50 different reactors built and operated at INL, we are the USA’s national nuclear laboratory. The 104 commercial power reactors in the USA are 10% of installed capacity and provide 20% of our electricity and over 70% of our carbon-free electricity. All of these reactors were initially licensed for 40 years and most will, in all likelihood, be extended to 60 years. Given the policies, regulation and the economics of nuclear energy in the USA, particularly in light of the accident at Fukushima and our current abundance of natural gas, the topic of this conference is most relevant to Americans. In the USA, we have two new plants under construction in the state of South Carolina, two in Georgia and efforts to complete two plants in Tennessee whose construction was halted some years ago. Under DOE leadership, we at INL seek to provide science and engineering capabilities that will enable the success of those new builds. We also seek to help define what is necessary to ensure the safe, reliable, economic performance of our current reactor fleet beyond 60 years of service

  18. Opening Address by C.L. Otter [3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management, Salt Lake City, UT (United States), 14-18 May 2012

    Today, the INL’s Advanced Test Reactor is the world’s premier nuclear test reactor. And, it’s a vital tool in developing the next generation of nuclear power plants. That continues a great tradition of work at the INL having a significant influence on every commercial reactor designed in the United States and in many of your countries. One of the key points I make when I meet with a business leader looking to expand or open up a new business in Idaho is our low cost, reliable energy. We have a competitive advantage that provides enormous benefits to Idaho’s industrial, commercial and residential customers. The average residential electric bill in Idaho is 30 per cent less than the national average. The downside is that Idaho only generates about half the electricity it uses; the rest is imported primarily from coal fired plants in neighbouring states. Now, we all know that demand for energy nationwide will grow significantly in the next few decades. For Idaho and many other areas of the western USA, that means we need to increase the supply of safe, reliable and affordable power. And that in turn will require us to be more efficient and more effective, more creative and more collaborative in the role we play as policy makers, industry leaders and regulators of commercial nuclear power

  19. Core Skills in the Development of English-Chinese Translation



    English to Chinese translation skill is a comprehensive skill that professionals work hard to develop. Most people know that every English learners have general skills on English-Chinese translation. The way we read, understand, absorb, ana-lyze, and transfer information is what makes each translation different. This dissertation addresses the question of what core skills a professional translator should have when performing English to Chinese translation in professional fields. Verbal English and translation are totally two different skill sets. However, in English-Chinese translation, it needs various kinds of skill sets in different aspects in order to achieve a seamless translation.

  20. Two genes become one: the genes encoding heterochromatin protein Su(var)3-9 and translation initiation factor subunit eIF-2gamma are joined to a dicistronic unit in holometabolic insects.

    Krauss, V; Reuter, G.


    The Drosophila suppressor of position-effect variegation Su(var)3-9 encodes a heterochromatin-associated protein that is evolutionarily conserved. In contrast to its yeast and mammalian orthologs, the Drosophila Su(var)3-9 gene is fused with the locus encoding the gamma subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2. Synthesis of the two unrelated proteins is resolved by alternative splicing. A similar dicistronic Su(var)3-9/eIF-2gamma transcription unit was found in Clytus arietis, Leptinotar...

  1. From Polarity to Plurality in Translation Scholarship

    Abdolla Karimzadeh


    Full Text Available Review of the literature in translation studies shows that translation scholarship can be discussed in 3 Macro-levels including 1 Corpus-based studies, 2 Protocol-based studies, and 3 Systems- based studies. Researchers in the corpus-based studies test the hypothesis about the universals of translation. They also try to identify translation norms and regular linguistic patterns. This scholarship aims at showing that the language of translation is different from that of non-translation. The other purpose is to identify the techniques and strategies adopted by the translators. In protocol –based studies, the researchers study the mental activities and the individual behaviors of the translators while translating. They aim to describe the behavior of professional translators (versus translator trainees during the process of translation in a bid to identify how they chunk the source text (unit of translation and to describe how the translation trainees develop their translation competence. These studies are longitudinal for the reason that they aim to investigate the change of intended behaviors in the subjects of the study. Like corpus-based studies, they are experimental and data for analysis are collected by various methods including the translators’ verbal report, keystroke logging, eye tracking, and so on. Recently, in a method called “triangulation”, they combine the above-mentioned methods of data collection to test their hypotheses on a stronger experimental basis. To collect the data, they also employ the methods used in neurology (for example the technology of Electroencephalogram in order to obtain information on the physiological processes in the brains of the translators while translating. And finally in the systems-based studies, the researchers analyze more extended systems of production, distribution, and consumption of translations and their impacts on the target culture in a specific socio-cultural context. Differentiating

  2. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  3. Memes of Translation Revisited: From Translating Poetry to 'Poeming' Translation

    Mounir Jilani Ben Zid


    Despite different approaches, mainstream translation theorists and practitioners have always grappled with some notion of formal cultural and linguistic equivalence to translate literary works. Taking up the question of whether a faithful translation should maintain cultural heterogeneity and linguistic differences, the primary intent of this paper is to destabilize "safe" conceptions associated with literary translation and deconstruct the "comfortable fallacy" of conventional iron-clad rule...

  4. Gazing and Typing Activities during Translation

    Carl, Michael; Kay, Martin


    translators’ eye movements and keystrokes. We describe methods to detect patterns of keystrokes (production units) and patterns of gaze fixations on the source text (fixation units) and compare translation performance of student and professional translators. Based on 24 translations from English into Danish...... of a 160 word text we find major differences between students and professionals: Experienced professional translators are better able to divide their attention in parallel on ST reading (comprehension) and TT production, while students operate more in an alternating mode where they either read the ST...

  5. Statistical Machine Translation for Biomedical Text: Are We There Yet?

    Wu, Cuijun; Xia, Fei; Deleger, Louise; Solti, Imre


    In our paper we addressed the research question: “Has machine translation achieved sufficiently high quality to translate PubMed titles for patients?”. We analyzed statistical machine translation output for six foreign language - English translation pairs (bi-directionally). We built a high performing in-house system and evaluated its output for each translation pair on large scale both with automated BLEU scores and human judgment. In addition to the in-house system, we also evaluated Google...

  6. On Translation of Ren in The Analects in Terms of Cultural Translation Theory

    LIU Qin


    In 1980’s, the famous translator and scholar Bassnett proposes a new translation theory, namely cultural translation the-ory, in which Bassnett insists that culture should be taken as the basic unit of translation, which attracts the attentions all over the world. In the thesis, the translation of Ren, one of the main ideas of Confucianism, will be discussed from the perspective of Bassnett’s cultural translation theory. Ren, the essence of The Analects, also the symbol of Chinese traditional culture, is endowed with profound connotation and important status. There are more and more translations of Ren in contemporary era. After com-paring different kinds of translation and cultural translation theory, the most proper way of doing it may be transliterating it to Ren.

  7. The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU): Translation and cognitive debriefing for the German-speaking area

    Clemens de Grahl; Alawi Luetz; Alexander Gratopp; Dennis Gensel; Judith Mueller; Heidi Smith; E Wesley Ely; Heiko Krude; Claudia Spies


    Purpose: To date there are only a few studies published, dealing with delirium in critically ill patients. The problem with these studies is that prevalence rates of delirium could only be estimated because of the lack of validated delirium assessment tools for the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The paediatric Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) was specifically developed and validated for the detection of delirium in PICU patients. The purpose of this s...

  8. Kinematical bound in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes

    Shiromizu, T; Tomizawa, S; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ida, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Shinya


    We present positive energy theorems in asymptotically translationally invariant spacetimes which can be applicable to black strings and charged branes. We also address the bound property of the tension and charge of branes.

  9. Deconstructive Reconsideration of Translation



    This paper is on the deconstructive reconsideration of the definition of translation, the relation of source text and translation, as well as the relation of translator and author. It also points out the differences between tranditioanal concepts of translation and deconstructive reconsideration of translation.

  10. Equivalence in Translation



    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  11. Speaking your Translation

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge


    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio...

  12. On Becoming a Translator



    Douglas Robinson’s Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  13. On Becoming a Translator



    Douglas Robinson's Becoming a Translator:An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Translation has been well received around the world.Fusing translation theory with advice and information about the practicalities of translating,it is an essential resource for novice and practicing translators.

  14. Translator Studies in Retrospect



    The concern about translator has run for thousands of years on which many translators and translation scholars have made comments.A rough examination of the translator within translation studies at home and abroad is expounded in a loosely chronological way as follows.

  15. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Grimshaw Jeremy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  16. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Guo, Qin


    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  17. Allegheny County Address Points

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  18. Translating Law into a Dictionary. A Terminographic Model

    Szemińska Weronika


    Firstly, the methodological approach which was adopted in order to create the model is delineated. It is based on the combined specialist knowledge of three disciplines, namely terminography, translation studies and law. Subsequently, the notion of the translation dictionary as a separate type of terminological dictionary is presented, with particular emphasis on the unit of translation and translation equivalence. The following part of the paper characterises translation of legal texts and i...

  19. Translation and relevance

    Gutt, E. A.


    In this study I argue that the phenomenon commonly referred to as "translation" can be accounted for naturally within the relevance theory of communication developed by Sperber and Wilson: there is no need for a distinct general theory of translation. Most kinds of translation can be analysed as varieties of Interpretive use. I distinguish direct from indirect translation, where direct translation corresponds to the idea that translation should convey the same meaning ...

  20. The Peculiar Art of Cultural Formations: Roberto Bolaño and the Translation of Latin American Literature in The United States

    Sarah Pollack


    Full Text Available Les Détectives sauvages de Roberto Bolaño, traduit en anglais en 2007, représente une rupture avec l’esthétique en pleine expansion du réalisme magique et l’appétit du lecteur états-unien pour ce genre. La décision du New York Times de décerner au roman de Bolaño sa plus grande distinction, ainsi que les comptes-rendus enthousiastes que le livre a reçus dans d’autres publications à travers le pays, interrogent inévitablement : comment l’ establishement littéraire des Etats-Unis reconfigure-t-il actuellement ce qu’il juge être « la littérature latino-américaine », et, par extension, comment cette région est-elle représentée à travers la traduction anglaise de ces romans ? Bien que Les Détectives sauvages réorganisent en apparence les coordonnées du roman latino-américain, l’image qui transparaît dans ses pages révèle certaines idées préconçues de l’altérité qui satisfont l’imaginaire des consommateurs de culture états-uniens.Roberto Bolaño’s The Savage Detectives, translated in 2007, represents a break with “boom” aesthetics and the U.S. reader’s appetite for magic realism. The New York Times’s decision to honor Bolaño’s 577-page-long novel with its highest accolade, and the rave reviews the novel received in other publications across the country, necessitate the pondering of how the U.S. literary establishment is presently reconfiguring what it deems “Latin American literature” to be, and, by extension, how it represents the region to itself through literature in English translation. I propose that although The Savage Detectives ostensibly realigns the coordinates of the Latin American novel, the image that is gleaned from its pages foments other (preconceptions of alterity that satisfy the fantasies and collective imagination of U.S. cultural consumers.Los detectives salvajes (1998 de Roberto Bolaño, traducido al inglés en 2007, representa una ruptura con las est

  1. Corpora and Translator



    @@ 1 Introduction Recent years have witnessed a significant growth of corpora heat. One of the many fields where corpora have a growing impact is translation, both at a descriptive and a practical level. Chesterman pointed out that the focus of Translation Studies shifted from translation itself to translators, from regulative to descriptive studies, from philosophical to empirical studies (Chesterman, 1998).

  2. Lost in Translation

    Ding Zhitao; Chen Wen


    IT is no surprise Jost Zetzsche,an English-to-German translator,raised the question of whether machine translation would ever replace the human variety in front of 700 interpreters and translators who gathered in San Francisco to discuss topical issues in the translation industry.

  3. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe


    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....




    Literal translation and liberal translation are two important methods and both play key roles in translation.However,some textbooks say that most translations are literal translations while others maintain most are liberal ones,besides,some others suggest a combination of the two.This paper focuses on the facts that regulate liberal translation.Because of the differences in culture,society,history,geography,and so on,there exists a great difference between Chinese language and English language,which does naturally lead to the liberal translation.

  5. LSP Translation and Creativity

    Rogers, MA


    Specialised or LSP translation is often compared unfavourably with literary translation in terms of the creative input required from the translator to produce a „good‟ translation. The supposed formulaic nature of LSP texts is contrasted with the creative nature of literary texts. The authors of LSP texts are often anonymous, possibly working in a team, and not necessarily native speakers of the language used. By contrast, literary translators − notably of the canon − derive their higher stat...

  6. Screen translations in Rango

    Jensen, Xenia Østerby


    This project investigates two Danish screen translations of the animated film “Rango” (2011) centrering on translational strategies. The focus of the project is to research to what extent the two translations, subtitles and dubbing, appear to have been produced with specific translational micro- and macrostrategies in mind, and whether the identified patterns can be said to reflect deliberate choices on the part of the translators, or if they rather seem to be influenced by media constraints....

  7. Cultural Context and Translation



    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  8. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo


    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  9. Translation Quality Assessment

    Malcolm Williams


    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  10. Methodological considerations when translating "burnout"

    Allison Squires; Catherine Finlayson; Lauren Gerchow; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Anne Matthews; Rene Schwendimann; Peter Griffiths; Reinhard Busse; Maude Heinen; Tomasz Brzostek; Maria Teresa Moreno-Casbas; Aiken, Linda H.; Walter Sermeus


    No study has systematically examined how researchers address cross-cultural adaptation of burnout. We conducted an integrative review to examine how researchers had adapted the instruments to the different contexts. We reviewed the Content Validity Indexing scores for the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey from the 12-country comparative nursing workforce study, RN4CAST. In the integrative review, multiple issues related to translation were found in existing studies. In the cross...

  11. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi


    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  12. Ministerial Presentation: United States of America. Ambassador Schulte's Remarks on Behalf of Energy Secretary Chu [International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21. Century: Addressing Energy Needs and Environmental Challenges, Beijing (China), 20-22 April 2009

    It is a pleasure to participate in this second Ministerial Conference convened by the IAEA here in Beijing. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has asked that I deliver this speech on his behalf. He sends his sincere regrets that he is unable to attend this event personally. As you know, this week is Earth Week, and the Secretary is very engaged promoting our energy and climate change agenda back in Washington. Let me assure you, however, that the United States views nuclear energy as an important part of our effort to put the world on the road to a low-carbon future. The global expansion of nuclear energy. It is now widely recognized that nuclear energy has the potential to curtail dependence on fossil fuels and greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions while promoting greater energy security. Yet, given the stakes associated with the use (and potential misuse) of nuclear energy around the world, it is imperative that all nations with existing or new nuclear power programs play an active role in global efforts to address the safety, security, and safeguards implications of nuclear power. As President Obama recently stated, it is time we consider a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, one that allows all interested countries to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy while limiting the associated risks of nuclear weapons proliferation. This new framework should include measures that improve energy security, including an international fuel bank and related fuel services arrangements. This conclusion reflects our recognition of the right of nations that comply with global nonproliferation norms to share in the benefits of peaceful nuclear uses. We also share a responsibility to maintain and strengthen global standards for safety, security and nonproliferation. Today, access to nuclear energy faces significant challenges-- the development of sound infrastructure, the reliable provision of nuclear fuel, and the safe and secure management of spent fuel and nuclear waste

  13. Translation-coupling systems

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel


    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  14. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Joel Scott


    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  15. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  16. Innovative teaching strategies for training graduates in medical translation

    Wermuth, Cornelia


    In view of the relevance of medical translations it seems obvious to reconsider the teaching strategies traditionally adopted in the training of medical translators. The present contribution addresses the innovative teaching strategies adopted in the workshop in Medical Translation which is part of the MA Translation program of the Department of Applied Language Studies (Sub-Faculty of Linguistics, Lessius/Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium). The main objective of our contribution is to s...

  17. Sound Effects in Translation

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;


    ), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or......On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program...

  18. Sound Effects in Translation

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge;


    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation, or...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop: Meeting Report.

    Miller, Mark Steven; Allen, Peter; Brentnall, Teresa A; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H; Petersen, Gloria M; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E; Chari, Suresh T; Klein, Alison P; Lubman, David M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Wolpin, Brian M; Umar, Asad; Srivastava, Sudhir; Steele, Vernon E; Rinaudo, Jo Ann S


    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute sponsored the Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop on September 10 to 11, 2015. The goal of the workshop was to obtain information regarding the current state of the science and future scientific areas that should be prioritized for pancreatic cancer prevention research, including early detection and intervention for high-risk precancerous lesions. The workshop addressed the molecular/genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions, high-risk populations and criteria to identify a high-risk population for potential chemoprevention trials, identification of chemopreventative/immunopreventative agents, and use of potential biomarkers and imaging for assessing short-term efficacy of a preventative agent. The field of chemoprevention for pancreatic cancer is emerging, and this workshop was organized to begin to address these important issues and promote multi-institutional efforts in this area. The meeting participants recommended the development of an National Cancer Institute working group to coordinate efforts, provide a framework, and identify opportunities for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27518363

  20. Translation, Quality and Growth

    Petersen, Margrethe

    applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth.......The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory, be...

  1. Film Name Translation



    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  2. On Advertisement Language Translation

    LI Ya-lu


    Advertisement language is a special practical writing with abundant imagination, great creativity and instigation. During translation the diversity in social culture, language and ethnic psychology, etc. will be directly reflected into its effect, presenting both the trouble in business of translators and also significant influences on the business brand. Starting from the features of adver⁃tisement language itself, this paper integrates translation situations and measures from several schools over the latest 20 years, gives typical examples in advertising translation and analyzes from varies perspectives and points out some problems in today ’s ad⁃vertisement translation,aiming to provide some constructive opinions for translation of advertisements.

  3. The Probe of Significance of Text Analysis in Translation



    This paper studies the significance of text analysis in translation in regard to the analysis both inside and outside the "text", discussing the weight of analyzing lexical units and stylistic scales in translation and examining the importance of analyzing the translator's intention, the author's intention and the target language (TL) readership.

  4. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    Valdeon, Roberto A.


    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  5. Translating the concepts behind gateways.

    Kabachinski, Jeff


    The intention of this installment of IT World is to bring the various aspects of gateways into view. You can see how loosely the gateway term is used and how the meaning of the term has changed over time. Keep concepts of gateways in order by considering their main function. The main function for gateways is to convert from one set of communication protocols to some other set of communication protocols-thus allowing access to otherwise incompatible networks. These functions include: Protocol Conversion--When a message is prepared for transmission, each layer adds control information unique to the protocol used at that layer (see Figure 1). The gateway must be able to convert control information to the format the receiving network expects. Services affected may include message segmentation and reassembly, data flow control, and error detection and recovery. Protocol converters connect networks that use different communication protocols. Address Translation--Different networks may employ different network addressing schemes, mechanisms, and network address structures. The gateway must be able to interpret network addresses in one network and convert them into appropriate network addresses for the other network while holding the validity of the address resolution. Examples that include both protocol conversion and address translation are when a gateway converts a TCP/IP packet to a NetWare IPX packet and vice versa or from AppleTalk to DECnet, and so on. Message Format Conversion--Different networks can employ different message formats, maximum message sizes, or character codes. The gateway must be able to convert messages to an appropriate format, size, and coding for the receiving network. Examples are CGI and an email gateway (which is a layer 7-application layer-gateway). Keep these main concepts in mind while surfing the web trying to find out more information about what your gateways are up to! PMID:16796324

  6. Nonhuman Primate Models in Translational Regenerative Medicine

    Daadi, Marcel M.; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E.


    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell–based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These ...

  7. Expanding vocabulary through translation

    Koletnik, Melita


    Owing mostly to the overwhelming tide of a communicative approach in foreign language teaching, translation was widely excluded from language classes for much of the 20th century. Nevertheless, translation never went away completely

  8. Translation in ESL Classes

    Nagy Imola Katalin


    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  9. Translation and Creation

    Paulo Bezerra


    The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theo...

  10. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Siamak Babaee; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya; Ruzbeh Babaee


    Some scholars (i.e. Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original textwhile some others (i.e. Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging issue. The present study examines the relationship between translation and culture. The purpose of this study is to consider translation as a...

  11. Machine Translation Systems

    Alrajeh, Abdullah


    Machine translation is one of the oldest and hardest problems in artificial intelligence. It is studied as a subfield of natural language processing or computational linguistics. Although machine translation has a long history, full automatic translation with high quality seems hard to achieve at least in the near future. Nowadays due to the increase in computing power and the accessibility of huge date in the Internet, the field has taken a new direction and started to grow rabidly. Translat...

  12. Algebraically periodic translation surfaces

    Calta, Kariane; Smillie, John


    Algebraically periodic directions on translation surfaces were introduced by Calta in her study of genus two translation surfaces. We say that a translation surface with three or more algebraically periodic directions is an algebraically periodic surface. We show that for an algebraically periodic surface the slopes of the algebraically periodic directions are given by a number field which we call the periodic direction field. We show that translation surfaces with pseudo-Anosov automorphisms...

  13. For "Translation and Theories"

    Ni, Lili


    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  14. Toward Balance in Translation.

    Costello, Nancy A.

    A study compared translations of biblical passages into different languages in Papua New Guinea. The study looked for evidence of balance between literal and free interpretation in translation style in the gospel of Mark, which is narrative and didactic material, in 12 languages, and the mainly hortatory genre in translations of 4 epistles:…


    María del Pilar Tudela Vázquez


    Full Text Available Women´s Human Rights are often conceived from global frameworks and, –in universalist terms- to be locally applied. This exercise of “translation” demands us to situate our analysis on those spaces where it is shaped, addressing those different discourses and social actors involved. We find a good example in the grassroots women movements, actively inserted in the political context to propose an intersectional analysis that allows us to contextualize and multiply gender experiences. This work is located in United States and carried out in spaces of creative tension, allowing us to address the dynamics that intervene in local translation of Women´s Human Rights. This study is focused on the work developed by the collective “Mujeres Unidas y Activas” through its campaign “Echoes of the Silence: Raising our Voices” as an example of local translation of Human Rights


    Dr. Yuslina Mohamed


    Full Text Available This research tries to contrive Jahiz's stands and ideas in translation which he has discussed in his two books named "Al-Bayan Wal-Tabyeen" and "Al-Haiwan". As it was known this issue of translation was emergence since long period of time, and there was no need toward translation, however, after Arabian and Persian assembled with Greek philosophers had increasingly the need and concerned on Religion Sciences and others, for instances: Mathematics, Medicine, Logic, Engineering, Business and others which were existed during that time. The translation movement had gone by several stages in the different periods and being developed during Abassid period for example, the works of "Hanen Ibn Ishaq" and his own school which the translators had faced difficulties and problems in their translation. To summarize, this research has found a number of results that the "Jahiz" was precedence than others who had stated the conditions of translation before 12th century ago. Besides, these conditions appropriate till nowadays, he had also pointed these conditions cannot be applied in translation of literature texts and holy texts because its might be obliterated the savoir faire. "Jahiz" had looked through this issue seriously, he tried to help translators in this area and he had stated in his famous books the conditions of translation and he had given his ideas toward translation benefited from his previous experience in translation the ancient philosopher's books from Persian to Arabic. Though, the readers could benefit his ideas in translation generally and for the translator specifically, also his books became as a heritage references and cannot be neglected at all in translation work.

  17. Lost in Translation

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior to the...... baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  18. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Roman Horak


    This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation') Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deal...

  19. Conference President's address

    The objective of the Conference is to promote the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation and to foster information exchange on this subject. The organizers, the IAEA in cooperation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), as well as the hosts of the conference, the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI), are pleased that so nearly 300 delegates from 53 countries have been nominated by their governments to attend this meeting. Another objective is to discuss the implications of the ICRP's proposal for a framework to assess radiation effects in the environment. A framework for radiological protection of the environment must be practical and simple, as should be international standards for discharges into the environment that take account of such an approach. This is a task for the IAEA, in cooperation with other international organizations. This conference therefore provides an opportunity for you to influence the development of both ICRP and IAEA policy in this area. The background session today will give information on the current situation as well as social and political drivers for change. A number of organizations will provide an insight to the present status of international policies on the radiological protection related to releases to the environment. During the course of the conference, there will be five topical sessions that will cover selected subjects related to protection of the environment, such as stakeholders' views, case studies, approaches for non-radioactive pollutants, the state of current scientific knowledge and, finally, the implications of ICRP proposals for international safety standards. Keynote speakers will address key issues within each topical session, and a rapporteur will summarize the

  20. Living in Translation

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how...... of Danish for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live.......Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of...

  1. Lost in translation?

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark


    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic...... differences and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller...

  2. When Translation Becomes a Sign of the Last Days

    Sabih, Joshua

    have introduced new religious Christian denominations into the Arab world. In these translations, the issue of the relationship between religion and eschatology is seen to be inscribed within the very conception of translation itself. This paper shall look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible...... Translation New World translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how this messianic evangelical Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and translation of the Bible as a sign of the last days in harmony...... to restore its would-be-original meaning that is consonant with Jehovah’s ultimate design with mankind. Before producing their own Arabic translation of the New World translation of the Holy Scriptures – the translation of the New Testament appeared in 1998 and that of the complete Bible in 2004 – Jehovah...

  3. Foreignizing Translation and Domesticating Translation of Hong Kong Movie Titles



    Generally,the movie title translation strategy would be divided into two:domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy.The movie title translation in Hong Kong is chosen to be the material for the analysis of the domesticating translation strategy and foreignizing translation strategy,compared with that of Mainland China.

  4. Automatic Detection of Omissions in Translations

    Melamed, I D


    ADOMIT is an algorithm for Automatic Detection of OMIssions in Translations. The algorithm relies solely on geometric analysis of bitext maps and uses no linguistic information. This property allows it to deal equally well with omissions that do not correspond to linguistic units, such as might result from word-processing mishaps. ADOMIT has proven itself by discovering many errors in a hand-constructed gold standard for evaluating bitext mapping algorithms. Quantitative evaluation on simulated omissions showed that, even with today's poor bitext mapping technology, ADOMIT is a valuable quality control tool for translators and translation bureaus.

  5. Teaching translation through phraseology

    Luciane Leipnitz


    Full Text Available In the teaching of translation realized that there are compounds formed by verbal phraseology and co-occurring verbs, eg. Herzinfarkt erleiden [suffering cardiac infarction]. I used corpora of newspaper articles for the recognition of such phraseology and tried to draw the attention of learners of German and translated into the languages syntagmatic operation. The study intended to assist in teaching translation, pointing to the need for a translation syntagmatic blocks for a quality final product in the target language - Brazilian Portuguese. There are generally in the classes of translation, lack of rapport with the object text in a foreign language. From the medical noun compounds, raised co-occurring verbs in Database Project Cosmas from the University of Mannheim. The extraction of combinatorial through corpora and presentation of text equivalents in both languages (German and Portuguese pointed out the complexity of the translation process and the need for recognition of the surrounding text of the texts of departure and arrival for producing translational. This “recognition” is fundamental to trigger mechanisms of association and reveal the particular way of saying each of the languages involved in the translation process. The phraseology correspond to a certain extent, the idiomatic expressions that must be translated into blocks to produce a quality text in the target language. This is a research that aims to qualify lexicographic teaching translation through recognition of phraseology in both the source language and in the target language.

  6. Text Type and Translation Strategy



    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  7. Compiling a Corpus for Teaching Medical Translation

    Elizabeth de la Teja Bosch


    Full Text Available Background: medical translation has countless documentary sources; the major difficulty lies in knowing how to assess them. The corpus is the ideal tool to perform this activity in a rapid and reliable way, and to define the learning objectives based on text typology and oriented towards professional practice.Objective: to compile an electronic corpus that meets the requirements of the professional practice to perform specialized medical translation. Methods: a pedagogical research was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. The units of analysis involved records from translators of the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center and specialized translators in this field, who completed a questionnaire to accurately determine their information needs, conditioning the corpus design criteria. The analysis of a set of texts extracted from highly reputable sources led to the text selection and final compilation. Subsequently, the validation of the corpus as a documentary tool for teaching specialized medical translation was performed. Results: there was a concentration of translation assignments in the topics: malignant tumors, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and pneumonias. The predominant text typologies were: evaluative and dissemination of current research, with plenty original articles and reviews. The text corpus design criteria were: unannotated, documented, specialized, monitor and comparable. Conclusions: the corpus is a useful tool to show the lexical, terminological, semantic, discursive and contextual particularities of biomedical communication. It allows defining learning objectives and translation problems. Key words: teaching; translating; medicine

  8. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  9. Current Trends in Translation

    Bruce Maylath


    Full Text Available Driven by the growth of a global economy and developments in high technology, the process of creating and translating technical documentation has been evolving rapidly. In particular, machine translation (MT has shown increasing capabilities of efficaciously accomplishing the early stages of the eight stages of translation identified years ago by Robert Bly. As a consequence, translators have learned to use MT as a tool to accelerate their work, but they have also grown wary of MT’s potential for replacing them. To ensure steady employment, some translators have begun cross-training as technical writers; correspondingly, a few technical writers have begun cross-training as translators, as the two professions appear to be undergoing a gradual trend of convergence. Academic programs are urged to respond to the evolving trends.

  10. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min


    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  11. Translation description and prescription

    van Doorslaer, Luc


    In many countries, the teaching of translation institutionally vacillates between an academically based education and a mainly practically oriented translator training. With the introduction of the new Bachelor-Master structures, the authorities in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium) have clearly opted for an academic Master that will be fully integrated in existing university structures. The development of Translation Studies in the last decades has offered many instruments and ...

  12. Translation and corpus design

    Zanettin, Federico


    In this article I discuss the role of translated texts in different types of corpora. I first consider the role of translations in corpus-based monolingual linguistics, arguing that while translated texts are often excluded from corpora on the basis of a more or less implicit assumption that they “corrupt” the reference norm for a language, this assumption does not seem to be justified on theoretical grounds. For the same reason, translated texts should also be included in bi- and multi-lingu...

  13. Trusted Translation Services

    Atif, Yacine; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Campbell, Piers; Mathew, Sujith Samuel

    Administering multilingual Web sites and applications reliably, involves interconnected and multipart tasks, where trust in the involved parties and content translation sources is paramount. Published Web sites may reflect content from databases, content management systems and other repositories to manage related Web content. But a Web site mirrored wholly or selectively onto a target language version requires streamlined trusted processes. Traditionally, files are translated and transferred via FTP, e-mail, or other communication means. Similarly, translation instructions are communicated between involved parties through verbal instruction, e-mail, and instruction files lead to a variety of inconsistencies and lack of trust in the translation process. This paper proposes a Web service approach to streamline the translation processes and an integration of trust properties in the proposed translation Web services. Web Services have been instrumental in handling problems inherent to systems integration, allowing web-based systems to converse and communicate data automatically. The OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee has released a standard way for Web Services to serve the translation and localization business. This article proposes a framework to centralize translation services at a reputable source providing a workflow and a mechanism to quantify service trust. An implementation of the framework is also described in the context of a localization case study.

  14. Translation and Political Discourse

    Bánhegyi Mátyás


    Full Text Available The paper describes the text linguistic research of political texts in the field of Translation Studies and presents an overview of critical discourse analysis-based studies. First, the relationship between text, power and ideology and its implications on the role of translation are explored. This is followed by a review of a number of studies on the translation of political texts and on the power relations involved. The paper classifies such studies into the following six categories representing distinct research fields: translators' professional roles and politics; translators acting as mediators in situations of political conflict; translators' professional responsibilities and the strategies they apply; the inference of translators' own historical, social and cultural backgrounds; manipulation in the translation of literary texts and other text types; and critical discourse awareness in Translation Studies. The most recent studies in the above research fields and their results are also presented. It is concluded that these approaches exhibit quite varied research methods and their results are almost impossible to compare. With a view to the future development of this research field, it seems expedient to introduce a unified research theory, method and tool.

  15. Feminist Translation in China



    Feminist translation studies have underg one rapid development in China in recent years.However,most of its research rema ins on the inquiry of the influence on the theoretical layer.In this thesis,I tr y to probe carefully into the translation of "Men and Women,Women and the City" done by Zhu Hong in an attempt to find out wh at is the difference that exits in the translation between the Chinese female tr anslators and the western feminist translators.

  16. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  17. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task of the industry is to change the perception by demonstrating that the industry provides solutions to problems, and is not a problem in itself. This paper, whilst primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of it, by influencing and working together with its stakeholders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  18. A Writer, a Translator and a Translator

    Katarina Marinčič


    Full Text Available The article deals with the French translation of the short story Amy by the Slovenian writer Mira Mihelič, made by Elza Jereb for the anthology Nouvelles slovènes (Paris, 1969. The original text, a classical narrative involving some modernist strategies, presents a syntactical feature rather unusual in Slovenian (although typical of the author Mira Mihelič: a very frequent use of participles and participial structures. Elza Jereb’s translation is accurate and precise, preserving not only the basic meaning but also the stylistic qualities, particularly the internal rhythm of the original. Some slight changes (such as for example a more consequent and logical use of italics render the text accessible to the French reader without undue simplifications. The only part of the original that seems to get lost in translation are some minor parts of the dialogue: the phonetically transcribed provincial German of the original, rich in social connotations, is translated into standard literary German, thereby losing some of its sociohistorical implications as well as some of its comical potential. 

  19. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.


    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  20. Idioms and Back Translation

    Griffin, Frank


    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  1. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    Lundberg, Pia

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  2. Culture Difference and Translation



    Culture difference is necessary to be paid attention to during the process of translating.Culture difference is caused by different history,regions,customs,religions and the modes of thinking.Having the awareness of the culture difference will make translation more accurate and successful.

  3. Stimulating translational research

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G


    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (, an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  4. Universal Semantics in Translation

    Wang, Zhenying


    What and how we translate are questions often argued about. No matter what kind of answers one may give, priority in translation should be granted to meaning, especially those meanings that exist in all concerned languages. In this paper the author defines them as universal sememes, and the study of them as universal semantics, of which…

  5. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh


    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  6. Text Coherence in Translation

    Zheng, Yanping


    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  7. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura


    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  8. Teaching Commercial French Translation.

    Relihan, Heather M.


    An introduction to commercial translation, a required course in the applied French track at the University of Iowa and geared to French majors with substantial background in composition, business French, and translation, is described. Texts and materials, course organization, discussion topics and lectures, and assignments are outlined. (MSE)

  9. Translation as Literary Criticism.

    di Stefano, B. Follkart


    It is proposed that literary translation is intrinsically an act of literary criticism. This theory is illustrated by discussion of specific problems in translating Sartre's "La Nausee" and Leonard Forest's "Le pays de la Sagouine," especially the use of verb tense. (MSE)

  10. Translating VDM to Alloy

    Lausdahl, Kenneth


    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  11. Medical translation in arabic

    Didouche - Zidi, Fayza


    The present thesis is based on the translation of International Union against Cancer’s report “Protection Against Cancer-causing Infections” in the framework of World Cancer Campaign 2010. It deals with the specificities of specialized language and difficulties of translation in specialized field of medical science from the Interpretative theory perspective.


    OĞUZ, Derya


    In this study, our aim was to emphasize the fact that the translation of medical texts represents a special area in translation, and that the most important aspect of medical text translation is being aware of the purpose and intent behind these translations. Medical text translation is not an area in which any person engaged in translation can work effectively. The translator first needs to have a considerable scientific background and experience. The translator’s task, in this context, is t...

  13. Influence of Cultural Differences on Advertisement Translation and Trademark Translation



    Advertisement translation and trademark translation are becoming more and more prevailing and influential under the increasing development of internationalization of business. This paper attempts to analyze the influence of cultural differences on advertisement translation and trademark translation. It finds that advertisement translation and trademark translation are under the impressive influence of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures. This paper aims to stress the cultural differences in advertisement translation and trademark translation and reminds translators of the importance of noticing cultural differences and finding a proper point between foreign cultures and native cultures.

  14. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian


    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  15. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha


    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  16. Translation and Quality Management

    Petersen, Margrethe


    of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...... theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  17. De-culturising the Bible: Translation as Truth-Transcribed

    Sabih, Joshua

    1865 have introduced new religious Christian denominations into the Arab world. In these translations, the issue of the relationship between culture and religion is seen to be inscribed within the very conception of translation itself. This paper shall look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible...... Translation New World translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an Originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms......-be-original meaning that is consonant with Jehovah’s ultimate design with mankind. Before producing their own Arabic translation of the Bible New World translation of the Holy Scriptures – the translation of the New Testament appeared in 1998 and of the complete Bible in 2004 – Jehovah’s Witnesses used to use...

  18. Appendix III: Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant: Phased implementation of similar units - Human resource management and training programmes (Romania) (Case study of human resource issues faced by NPP operating organizations, and how they were (or are being) addressed)

    Nuclear power generation is a reliable source of energy for Romania and an important contributor to the national electricity supply. Romania has one nuclear power plant, Cernavoda, which operates one CANDU 6 reactor, 707 MW(e), designed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL). Provides about 10 percent of the total country energy consumption. The state-owned company responsible for the production and supply of energy from Cernavoda NPP, as well as for its development, is Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica'. The plant was designed to have five similar units. The studies performed for the plant, prior to the construction's start, established feasible technical solutions for all problems related to a 5-unit site, including the environmental impact, which would be entirely acceptable. Construction of the first unit started in 1980 and of units 2-5 in 1982. The pressing problems encountered during construction of Unit 1 (import restrictions, delays etc.) restrained the progress at Unit 2. Starting with 1990, the work on Cernavoda site was focused on Unit 1 and the construction at the other units was suspended. Since then, only preservation activities have been carried-out. The re-start of work at Unit 2 took place in 1995, under the management of the AECLANSALDO Consortium. Some construction work was carried-out (e.g. installation of the fuel channels) and a thorough assessment was performed concerning the condition of the equipment procured for Unit 2 and stored on site, or already installed. The absence of a clear contractual framework and the lack of resources hindered significant advance in the construction of Unit 2. Since then, many economic estimates foresee that, starting with winter 2005 when Romanian electricity consumption is expected to increase with about 1000 MW(e), the annual electricity production will become insufficient and will be not covered unless Unit 2 of Cernavoda NPP is commissioned. In this environment and considering the relatively low cost


    T. Volkova


    The paper addresses issues of (consecutive) interpreter training and possible applications of the discourse and communication translation model in interpreter preparation. The model helps draw up “discursive profiles” and incorporate them into translation analysis, remaining open to additional textual, discursive and communicative parameters.

  20. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  1. Quantifying the Efficiency of a Translator: The Effect of Syntactical and Literal Written Translations on Language Comprehension Using the Machine Translation System FALCon

    McCulloh, Ian A.; Morton, Jillian; Jantzi, Jennifer K.; Rodriguez, Amy M.; Graham, John


    This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon (Forward Area Language Converter). The participants include 48 freshmen from the United States Military Academy enrolled in the General Psychology course, PL100. Results of this study…

  2. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    Gunasekaran. K


    Full Text Available The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the proposed system senses any sign language, it plays corresponding recorded voice. This reduces the communication gap between dumb and ordinary people. This proposed model consist of four modules, they are sensing unit, processing unit, voice storage unit and wireless communication unit. It is achieved by integrating flux sensor and APR9600 with PIC16F877A. The flux sensors are placed in gloves, which respond to gesture. By using suitable circuit response of the sensor is given to the microcontroller based on the response microcontroller plays the recorded voice using APR9600. A snapshot of the entire system, advantage over existing methods and simulation output of the process is discussed in this work. Thissystem offers high reliability and fast response. This method is more precise on hand movement and different languages can be installed without altering the code in PIC microcontroller.

  3. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.


    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  4. Holographic content addressable storage

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George


    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  5. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    Kotecha, Meena


    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  6. Translation: An Integration of Cultures.

    Mohanty, Niranjan


    Discusses translation in the Indian context. Posits that translation involves cultural transfer in addition to linguistic meaning. Shows that several established models of translation can accommodate the inclusion of cultural features. Illustrates this with two translations of Orissan poetry. Concludes that the translator is a creative agent in…

  7. Translation skills of Business English

    Hu Lu; He Yan-ni


    With the deepening of economic globalization, business English plays an increasingly vital role. In order to better translate business English, the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques. Thus, emphasis is placed on business English translation skills, such as omission, supplement and word conversion, etc, which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  8. Translation skills of Business English

    Hu; Lu; He; Yan-ni


    With the deepening of economic globalization,business English plays an increasingly vital role.In order to better translate business English,the translator has to adopt some important translation techniques.Thus,emphasis is placed on business English translation skills,such as omission,supplement and word conversion,etc,which provides some practical advice to the translation of business English.

  9. Translation in Global News Agencies

    Ben Othman, Zeineb


    The work is divided into two parts. The 1st part is the translation of Chapter One "Power language and translation" and the Chapter Four "Translation in Global News Agencies". The 2nd part is about the characteristics and theories of translation particularly in News Agencies and Institutions as well as the difficulties I found in the translation of a specialized book.

  10. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel


    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  11. Changes of Translation Definition and Turns of Translation Studies

    Jixing LONG


    Since the twentieth century, translation studies has made great progress. The study of translation ushers one turn after another. Throughout the recent history of translation studies, few scholars review the appearance of the turns from the perspective of translation definition. From the academic perspective and on the basis of Thomas Samuel Kuhn’s paradigm theory, this article discusses the relationships between the changing definitions of translation and the turns of translation st...

  12. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    Kastberg, Peter


    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human Tr...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  13. The integration of machine translation and translation memory

    He, Yifan


    We design and evaluate several models for integrating Machine Translation (MT) output into a Translation Memory (TM) environment to facilitate the adoption of MT technology in the localization industry. We begin with the integration on the segment level via translation recommendation and translation reranking. Given an input to be translated, our translation recommendation model compares the output from the MT and the TMsystems, and presents the better one to the post-editor. Our tra...

  14. Combining statistical machine translation and translation memories with domain adaptation

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Volk, Martin; Weibel, Manuela


    Since the emergence of translation memory software, translation companies and freelance translators have been accumulating translated text for various languages and domains. This data has the potential of being used for training domain-specific machine translation systems for corporate or even personal use. But while the resulting systems usually perform well in translating domain-specific language, their out-of-domain vocabulary coverage is often insufficient due to the limited size of the t...

  15. Translating concrete poetry Translating concrete poetry

    Kirsten Malmkjaer


    Full Text Available It is interesting to examine the art form known as concrete poetry with translation -- both practical and theoretical -- in mind, because it was, according to Kopfermann (1974:x1, considered international by its creators: the language-elements are not tied to the author's mother tongue, reduction and reproduction allow elements of different languages to be combined in the scone text. The basis for this is the materiality (mostly understood in an optical or acoustic sense of the vocable° and elementary structures which are the sane in all (or at least the Indo- -European languages. This theoretical stance might suggest that it is not necessary to translate concrete poetry from one Indo-European language to another. However, most anthologies of concrete poetry contain translations and/or word glosses (see, for instance, Bann (1967, Solt (1968 and Williams (1967, so there is obviously a perceived need to provide some assistance to speakers of languages other than that in which any particular poem is composed.

  16. Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English

    Roman Horak


    Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.

  17. Cultural Considerations in Translation



    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  18. Cultural Considerations in Translation



    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  19. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Narayan, Lalit


    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  20. On the Degree of Approximation by Spherical Translations

    Bao-huai Sheng


    The degree of approximation of spherical functions by the translations formed by a function defined on the unit sphere is dealt with. A kind of Jackson inequality is established under the condition that none of the L2(Sq) norms of the orthogonal projection operators of the translated function are zeros. In the present paper we show that the spherical translations share the same degree of approximation as that of spherical harmonics.

  1. A Coverage Embedding Model for Neural Machine Translation

    Mi, Haitao; Sankaran, Baskaran; Wang, Zhiguo; Ittycheriah, Abe


    In this paper, we enhance the attention-based neural machine translation by adding an explicit coverage embedding model to alleviate issues of repeating and dropping translations in NMT. For each source word, our model starts with a full coverage embedding vector, and then keeps updating it with a gated recurrent unit as the translation goes. All the initialized coverage embeddings and updating matrix are learned in the training procedure. Experiments on the large-scale Chinese-to-English tas...

  2. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.


    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation percepti

  3. Translation Strategies of English Metaphor



    Metaphor is one of the important and forceful figures of speech in English. In practice of translating English metaphors into Chinese, some approaches are available: literal translation, changing metaphor into sim/h, conversion, liberal translation and complement.


    Annemarie De Villiers


    Full Text Available A translation competition was initiated and sponsored by theClassical Association of South Africa in 2011. This translation wasjudged to be the best student translation submitted to CASA duringthis past year.

  5. Address delivered in Vilnius

    Piłsudski, Józef


    Title: Przemówienie w Wilnie 20 kwietnia 1922 roku (Address delivered in Vilnius, 20 April, 1922) Originally published: Pisma-mowy-rozkazy, vol. V, Warsaw, Instytut Józefa Piłsudskiego, 1933, pp. 255–260. Language: PolishThe excerpt used is from the original About the author Józef Piłsudski [1867, Zułów (in the district of Święciany, Lit. Zalave/Švenčionys, present-day Lithuania) – 1935, Warsaw]: politician. Piłsudski was born to a family belonging to the Polish-speaking gentry in the Lithuan...

  6. Translation and Creation

    Paulo Bezerra


    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  7. Translation for language purposes

    Schjoldager, Anne


    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  8. On Chinese Parody Translation



    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  9. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    Tarp, Sven; Dam, Helle Vrønning


    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective......Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension......, the three disciplines frequently come into touch with each other. This chapter discusses and explores some of the basic aspects of this interrelationship, focusing on the (potential) contribution of lexicography to translation and interpreting and on explaining the basic concepts and methods of the...

  10. Machine Translation of Public Health Materials From English to Chinese: A Feasibility Study

    Turner, Anne M.; Dew, Kristin N; Desai, Loma; Martin, Nathalie; Kirchhoff, Katrin


    Background Chinese is the second most common language spoken by limited English proficiency individuals in the United States, yet there are few public health materials available in Chinese. Previous studies have indicated that use of machine translation plus postediting by bilingual translators generated quality translations in a lower time and at a lower cost than human translations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using machine translation (MT) tool...